Complex biotechnological procedures have enabled scientists to successfully clone mice, sheep, cows and other mammals. The technology is still at early stages and currently, one in three cloned animals is born abnormally large or with other developmental problems. Scientists at the Monash Institute of Reproduction and Development in Melbourne believe these problems could be linked to a process called gene 'imprinting'. Embryos contain two copies of each gene – one from each parent. It is thought that about 60 genes are „imprinted' with instructions to switch one copy on or off to allow for normal growth and development. If this doesn‟t happen correctly and both copies are switched on, or both copies are switched off, it results in problems in growth and development, both prenatal and postnatal. We do not understand this imprinting process in cloned embryos. The closest scientists have come to cloning a non-human primate occurred in October 2004. Biologists successfully transferred cloned monkey embryos into monkey mothers. None of the resulting pregnancies lasted more than a month. Did you know ferrets are the most recent animals to be cloned? The researchers say that the domestic ferret is an ideal animal model to study human diseases such as influenza and cystic fibrosis. The ferrets were cloned in 2006.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
Roslin Institute, Edinburgh Dolly, the first animal to be cloned, was created using the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).
Try cloning your favourite dog . The egg cell‟s nucleus is removed and the nucleus from the donor cell is inserted in its place. try bringing the Tasmanian tiger back by cloning .
You can read more about cloning in the Human Uses chapter. It can be used as a source of stem cells. was cloned by South Korean researchers and was shown to the world in August 2005. This is called reproductive cloning. Becasue the nucleus contains all of the genetic material to make the animal. making it divide and grow. a cell was taken from normal body cells – somatic cells . cells are taken from the animal that is going to be cloned.interactive
. When Dolly was born.in her udder. Or. Egg cells are used for cloning because of their ability to grow rapidly. or it can be implanted into a uterus of a female to create a whole organism. In the case of Dolly the sheep. an Afghan hound called Snuppy. she was the only lamb born from 277 attempts.
The egg is then exposed to numerous stimulants which activate the reconstructed embryo. She was a clone of the sheep whose udder cell was used. it can follow two paths. The nucleus of these cells was removed.To do this. Once a cloned embryo reaches the blastomere stage of development. it is termed the donor cell. The division of the egg cell follows the same process that would occur if the egg was fertilised by sperm during natural reproduction. A blastomere is a ball of nearly 100 cells all with the same genetic material as the donor.interactive Did you know that dogs are particularly difficult to clone? The first cloned dog. The cell division continues for 5 days until a blastomere forms.
it no longer needs to produce the proteins.
. When the nucleus is transferred to a new egg cell.
There are a number of problems associated with nuclear transfer . Because it has come from an adult cell. This technique has been used to successfully clone embryos and animals. Genetically identical individuals develop from each portion in the same way that identical twins are formed in nature.Embryo splitting
© University of Idaho. Using microsurgery (surgery conducted under a microscope).the method used to clone Dolly. an embryo is split while it still consists of only a few cells. Phil Schofield 2003 Embryo splitting is another cloning technique.
© Victor Fisher. Genetic Savings and Clone Incomplete reprogramming of the donor cell is thought to be a leading factor in the low success rate of animal cloning. hormones and other molecules associated with it being an embryo and growing to produce all the different tissues in a whole body. the egg reprograms the incoming nucleus to allow it to go back to its undifferentiated state. and almost all other cloned animals since then.
Chromatin transfer is a new cloning technique aimed at reducing these problems. that cloned animals might be physiologically abnormal. One significant aspect of this list is documenting the transition from early concerns that animal cloning procedures might be limited to a few species. born April 8. It involves treating the cell of the animal to be cloned. More information on cloning is found in the Human Uses chapter. to remove molecules associated with cell differentiation before the nucleus is removed. a company in the USA that used to clone pets. 2009) is a female dromedary camel. This is method was created by Genetic Savings and Clone. meaning "achievement". credited with being the world's first cloned
1 Camel 2 Carp 3 Cat 4 Cattle 5 Deer 6 Dog 7 Ferret 8 Frog (tadpole) 9 Fruit Flies 10 Gaur 11 Goat 12 Mice 13 Mouflon 14 Mule 15 Pig 16 Pyrenean ibex 17 Rabbit 18 Rat 19 Rhesus Monkey 20 Sheep 21 Water Buffalo 22 Wolf 23 References
Injaz rabic .
This is a list of animals that have been cloned in alphabetical order. or cloning might lack utility for society.
United Arab Emirates. Isfahan.NisarAhmadWani. 2009 at NDRI. -. Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang using ear skin cells from a high-merit cow named Aspen at the University of Connecticut on June 10. 1997 on American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest. Ecem. Even though CC is an exact copy of his host. Cathy and Daisy by July 7. Little Nicky. Pampa the first animal cloned in Argentina by Biosidus (2002) Ten more Jersey cows were cloned at the University of Tennessee. Kiraz) by TUBITAK GARIMA. CC (CopyCat). Bull 86. They were the first cows to be produced using standard cell-culturing techniques. was created by Genetic Savings & Clone. 2002) Bonyana and Tamina cloned calf in Royan Research Institute.I world's first buffalo calf through the “Hand guided Cloning Technique” was born on February 6. scientists at Texas A&M University created the first cloned cat.
Chinese embryologist Tong Dizhou successfully inserted the DNA from a male Asian carp into the egg of a female Asian carp to create the first fish clone in 1963. followed by three additional clones.
First World cloned calf (Gene) was born on February 7. In 2004.Dr. Wisconsin. In 2010 the first Spanish Fighting Bull was cloned by Spanish scientists. In 1973 Dizhou inserted Asian carp DNA into a European crucian carp to create the first interspecies clone. Karnal(India). 2009.e. 1999 at Texas A&M University. A Holstein heifer named Amy was cloned by Dr. a beloved celebrity bull. Both bulls exhibit a natural resistance to Brucellosis. they have different personalities. a Brahman bull was cloned from Chance. announced on April 14.camel. Anatolian Grey bull (Efe) was cloned in Turkey in 2009 and cattle from the same breed no(Ece. CC is shy and timid. 1999. Texas A&M University cloned a Black Angus bull named 86 Squared in 2000. 1999. Later it was transferred and kept to Minnesota Zoo Education Center. Nilufer. after cells from his donor. Second Chance. his host on the other hand is playful and curious. i. Tuberculosis and other diseases which can be transferred in meat.
In December 2001. Iran in summer of 2009. Second Chance was born August 9.
. Betty. Millie and Emma were two female Jersey cows cloned at the University of Tennessee in 2001. the first commercially cloned cat. had been frozen for 15 years. that the cloned camel was born after an "uncomplicated" gestation of 378 days.whoheaded the research team in Dubai. (females.see also Got (bull) (2009).
II: NDRI. 2010 atNational Dairy Research Institute. USA. The winner was Trakr.
GARIMA. then at Oxford University. including Snuppy. a team from SNU confirmed that Snuppy was a true clone of Tei. This was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells
A species of wild cattle. In 2001 at the Trans Ova Genetics in Sioux Center. John Gurdon. which glowed in ultraviolet light
Clones Libby and Lilly were produced via nuclear transfer by cell fusion in 2004. Iowa. He did this by using intact nuclei from somatic cells from a Xenopus tadpole. Later in 2005 Hwang Woo-Suk was found to have fabricated evidence in stem cell research projects. Cloned male buffalo calf Shresth born on August 26. a K-9 police dog who was a 9/11 hero. Karnal(India). 2003 at Texas A&M University. Karnal. a cloned Gaur was born from a surrogate domestic cow mother. the calf died within 48 hours. South Korean scientists recently cloned 'sniffer' dogs. This caused some to question the veracity of his other experiments. the DNA donor dog. explained that he had successfully cloned a frog. BioArts International held a dog cloning contest where people would send in submissions about which dog was the most suited to be cloned. India-132001
Dewey was born on May 23. however.
South Korean scientist Hwang Woo-Suk cloned the first dog.
In 1958. In their investigation of Hwang Woo-Suk's publication. the first endangered species to be cloned. However. South Korean researchers cloned a beagle dog named Tegon.
. In summer 2011. an afghan hound named Snuppy.
The clone has come as good news for fine fiber-producing pashmina goats. Cumulina.com/India-news/Srinagar/Nooriis-world-s-first-pashmina-goat-clone/Article1-826440. The Middle East's first and the world's fifth cloned goat. besides natural beauty. was born in 1997 at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa in the laboratory of Ryuzo Yanagimachi using the Honolulu technique. In spring. Iran
The world's first pashmina goat clone. the cloning was done from an embryo cell. The cloned goat was developed in the surrogate uterus of a black Bakhtiari goat for 147 days and was born. scarves. in Kashmir. was born September 30. The first mouse from adult cells. The fiber is used to spun famous kashmiri shawls. to famed fine wool of pashmina. However. 2001 at Plainwell. India. The valley owes its fame. Iran's first cloned lamb. Iranian researchers are looking to use cloned goats to produce the genetically modified animals required for manufacturing new recombinant medications.m. Cloned 2001
Idaho Gem (male.Goat
Downen TX 63 684 (nicknamed Megan) was cloned from a top producing Boer goat born on March 29. also known as R-CAP-C1. It has been named Noori. Hanna. which are only spotted at an altitude of 14. May 2003)
.000 feet. and stoles. Iran.hindustantimes. Funded by World Bank.(April 2009) Isfahan. at 1:30 a. 'Hanna'. the Mouflon was the first to live past infancy. Royana. six times finer than human hair. She is reported to be in a good health. Wednesday. in the Soviet Union.aspx
Possibly the first cloned mammal was a mouse (named "Masha") in 1986. through a cesarean section. the animal sheds its fiber.000 feet in Ladakh. an Arabic word referring to light. the coldest region of the state. Over a dozen clones as of 2002. 2006 in Royan institute and was able to survive the post-natal complications common in cloned animals. has been successfully born at Royan institute in Isfahan. called soft pashm. produced at Centre of Animal Biotechnology at Sher-iKashmir Agriculture University for Science and technology (SKAUST). while the sheep Dolly in 1996 was cloned from an adult cell.
An endangered species. gathered from mountainous of Ladakh after the goat sheds its wool as a natural process. MI. the clone project was a jointly worked by SKAUST and Karnal-based National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI).http://www. is completely distinguished from other goats because of its white and hennalike color.The goat survives minus 40 degree Celsius temperature at an altitude of 14.
. August 2000)
In 2009. Iran.
Utah Pioneer (male. Megan and Morag cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995. 2003)
Tetra (female. January 2000) by embryo splitting. 2003)
Ralph (male. June 2003) Idaho Star (male.
From early embryonic cells by Steen Willadsen (1986). India in 2009 "Samrupa". Oyalı   and Zarife were cloned in November 2007 in Istanbul University in Istanbul. July 2003)
5 Scottish PPL piglets (Millie.
The world's first water buffalo was cloned either in Beijing China in 2005 or New Delhi. first cloned mammal from somatic cells Polly and Molly (July 1997). Dotcom. first transgenic cloned mammal Royana (2006) cloned in Royan Research institute in Isfahan. Carrel. 2000) Xena (female. Cloned embryos (November 2007) by transfer of DNA from adult cells . and Christa) (March 5. for a period of seven minutes in January 2009. due to physical defects in the lungs. one clone was alive. The Pyrenean Ibex became the first taxon ever to come back from extinction. but died seven minutes later. which died a week later from a lung infection. Dolly (1996–2003).
In France (March–April. Turkey. the world's first cloned buffalo calf.
This type of cloning is also called gene cloning.
Molecular cloning focuses on making identical copies of DNA molecules.
Therapeutic cloning involves the cloning of human embryos for the production of stem cells. tissues or entire organisms. The embryos are eventually destroyed in this process. cells. This may include genes. but there are actually three different types of cloning.
Reproductive Cloning Techniques
. Seoul National University. they are called Snuwolf and Snuwolffy which are names taken from the university in South Korea. we typically think of organism cloning.Wolf
An endangered species of wolf cloned by South Korean scientists including the controversial scientist Hwang Woo-Suk There are two cloned wolves in a zoo in South Korea for public view. This type of cloning is also called reproductive cloning.
What Is Cloning?
Cloning is the process of creating genetically identical copies of biological matter.
Types of Cloning
When we speak of cloning.
Organism cloning involves making an identical copy of an entire organism.
Another concern is that the cloned animals that do survive tend to have various health problems and shorter life spans. Cells
10 Facts About Cells Cell Structure Cellular Respiration
Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Fertilization
What are the risks of cloning? One of the main concerns as it relates to human cloning is that the current processes used in animal cloning are only successful a very small percentage of the time.net Information from the American Journal of Bioethics on the ethical issues of cloning.Cloning techniques are laboratory processes used to produce offspring that are genetically identical to the donor parent.
Scientists have been successful in cloning a number of different animals. Scientist have not yet figured out why these problems occur and there is no reason to think that these same problems wouldn't happen in human cloning. Clones of adult animals are created by a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. Bioethics.
Cloning and Ethics
Should humans be cloned? A major objection to cloning for research is that cloned embryos are produced and ultimately destroyed. For more information on cloning and ethics. see: Biological Ethics: Cloning Revisited Cloning still raises very serious ethical issues.
animal models are genetically engineered to carry disease-causing mutations in their genes.. Creating these transgenic animals is a time-intensive process that requires trial-and-error and several generations of breeding.The Debate Over Whether Human Cloning Sho..
Research advances over the past decade have told us that. and the result would be a population of genetically identical animals for study.The Current Controversy Surrounding Human Cloning Bush Backs Total Ban on Human Cloning Bush Blasts Cloning of Human Cells How do you spell breakthrough? D-O-L-L-Y! Should Human Cloning Be Banned? .
1. we can clone things. Cloning for medical purposes
Of all the reasons. we humans can clone just about anything we want. cloning for medical purposes has the most potential to benefit large numbers of people. Cloning technologies might reduce the time needed to make a transgenic animal model.
. with a little work.Genes and Chromosomes
Chromosomes and Sex Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Mendelian Genetics
Cloning . How might cloning be used in medicine?
Cloning animal models of disease Much of what researchers learn about human disease comes from studying animal models such as mice. from frogs to monkeys and probably even ourselves! So. Often. but why would we want to? Let's look at some of the reasons people give to justify cloning.
"Pharming" for drug production Farm animals such as cows. cloning might be a faster way to produce large herds of genetically engineered animals. responsible for developing. Reproducing a Deceased Pet
. Find out more about this research in the feature article Pharming for Farmaceuticals. Reviving Endangered or Extinct Species
Have you seen Jurassic Park? In this feature film. that could serve as a surrogate mother
In reality? Probably not. a component of the Stem Cells in the Spotlight module. They find trouble. and A closely related species. scientists have tried to clone species that became extinct more recently. however. see Creating Stem Cells for Research. Researchers are currently looking toward cloning as a way to create genetically defined human stem cells for research and medical purposes. It's not likely that dinosaur DNA could survive undamaged for such a long time. maintaining and repairing the body throughout life. they might be used to repair damaged or diseased organs and tissues. To see how this is done. As a result. For an example. scientists use DNA preserved for tens of millions of years to clone dinosaurs.
Cloning stem cells for research Stem cells are the body's building blocks. Could we really clone dinosaurs? In theory? Yes. Just like creating animal models of disease.
2. What would you need to do this?
A well-preserved source of DNA from the extinct dinosaur. sheep and goats are currently being genetically engineered to produce drugs or proteins that are useful in medicine. using DNA from well-preserved tissue samples.
3. currently living. when they realize that the cloned creatures are smarter and fiercer than expected. However. see "Can we really clone endangered or extinct animals?" on the right side of this page.
before humans are cloned. see Risks of Cloning. legal and social challenges that need to be considered. we need to have a good idea of the risks involved. Why not? See Cloning Myths. you could clone your beloved family cat.No joke! If you really wanted to.cloning in human beings?
To clone or not to clone: that is the question. and if you had enough money. and they are now working to clone dogs. To explore some of these.
4. But don't assume that your cloned kitty will be exactly the same as the one you know and love. How sure can we be that a cloned baby will be healthy? What might go wrong? To evaluate the technical challenges to cloning. see What are Some Issues in Cloning? Why would anyone want to clone humans? Some reasons include:
To help infertile couples have children To replace a deceased child
From a technical standpoint. At least one biotechnology company in the United States offers cat cloning services for the privileged and bereaved.
. The prospect of cloning humans is highly controversial and raises a number of ethical.