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BOLTON INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTING AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY BSc (HONS) COMPUTING SEMESTER 2 EXAMINATION 2002/2003 ADVANCED DATABASE SYSTEMS MODULE NO: CST3003
Date: Friday 6 June 2003 Time: 9.30 am – 11.40 am (includes 10 minutes reading time)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:

There are SIX questions Answer FOUR questions

[9 marks] (b) In a replication system. [8 marks] Question 2. Explain by examples what is meant by each of these two types of fragmentation. aggregate navigator.Page 2 of 8 Computing & Electronic Technology BSc (Hons) Computing Semester 2 Examinations 2002/2003 Advanced Database Systems Module No: CSt3003 Question 1 (a) Two of the models for the distribution of data are : a distributed database. each of the above models. and the purpose of each component of your models. [7 marks] (c ) Distinguish between the two ways of approaching the elicitation of knowledge in data: ‘hypothesis verification’ and ‘knowledge discovery’. (a) Outline the four characteristics of decision support systems [4 marks] (b) The data warehouse model has four software components: extract. integrate. [3marks] Question 2 continued over page . by means of a diagram. (ii) (c) Describe what is meant by these terms with a simple example of each. and when each type is appropriate. [4 marks] In a distributed database the data may be fragmented horizontally or vertically. (i) What are the two main roles of the replication server? [4 marks] Replication involves eIther consolidation or dissemination. Explain. and a client multiserver system. a replication service is appended to each local database. and presentation tools Describe the function of each component and give a diagram showing their relationships to each other and the data warehouse.

Relate your answer to an application such as introducing a new product line for sale by a commercial organisation. [6 marks] 2 Square A Square B T1 T2 1 0 (iii) 1 2 3 4 5 Evaluate the two approaches in (c) in terms of storage space. and ease of displaying a drawing of polygons [4 marks] Question 3 continued over page . and give an example of each relating to the operation of a supermarket. with an identifier for the shape it belongs to separate tables for each type of polygon in the drawing For the example below involving a few different shapes show how the two representations would work. Explain what each of these is. and ‘sequence discovery’. [7 marks] (e) Two data mining operations are ‘classification’. where each point is represented as a row in the table. lines and triangles etc. using either (i) (ii) a single table. [4 marks] Question 3 (a) Representing geometric figures such as triangles or rectangles in a database is an example of complex data. There are two ways of representing drawings consisting of points.Page 3 of 8 Computing & Electronic Technology BSc (Hons) Computing Semester 2 Examinations 2002/2003 Advanced Database Systems Module No: CSt3003 Question 2 continued (d) Give an outline of the processes involved in Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD).

Personal details and assignment and examination marks are held for each student at the regional office where they are registered. ‘Multi-table Insert’ and ‘’Upsert’. (a) A university specialising in distance learning has regional offices that deal with the students from that region. the SQL statements that are needed for such an application process in each of the two ways A and B given above You may assume that a single query statement would retrieve the data if there were only one database [8 marks] Question 4 continued over page . Describe. namely ‘External Tables’. (i) (ii) Explain by means of diagrams what these two earlier models were. B. The following two alternative ways of enabling the use of the data are to be considered: A. and give reasons for. people across the organisation need to be able to use data from many regional sites. Each site has an autonomous database server.Page 4 of 8 Computing & Electronic Technology BSc (Hons) Computing Semester 2 Examinations 2002/2003 Advanced Database Systems Module No: CSt3003 Question 3 continued (c) Oracle’s Extract Transform and Load (ETL) process changes the process flow for these common data warehousing operations. However. and discuss the reasons for each of these new concepts. Each site has a replication server that transfers to other sites a copy of whatever data is required by users of the local database at those sites Give an answer to each of the following questions for each of the two ways above of sharing data (i) An application process requires the average marks for a module which requires data originating from all the regions. namely ‘transform then load’ and ‘load then transform’. [9 marks] Question 4. Explain what each means. from earlier models. [6 marks] The ETL Toolkit introduces three new concepts to help the integrated approach to these operations. to which client systems at other sites connect when access to the data is required.

LOOP FETCH instructor_cursor INTO instructor_record. can make the required transfer of student data to the database of the new region. Explain whether a manager’s application process. and give reasons for. END. instructor_record instructor_cursor%ROWTYPE. (ANSWERS WITHOUT REASONS SCORE ZERO) 1) The two-phase commit protocol usually takes twice as many control signals as a simple commit and acknowledge protocol. A and B.Page 5 of 8 Computing & Electronic Technology BSc (Hons) Computing Semester 2 Examinations 2002/2003 Advanced Database Systems Module No: CSt3003 Question 4 continued (ii) A manager needs to record that a student has changed registration from one region to another. the SQL statements that are needed for such an application process. and give a reason for your answer. given above. END LOOP. Describe. [8 marks] Question 5 (a) (b) Explain the advantages of using packages in PL/SQL For the following example of a using a cursor [4 marks] DECLARE CURSOR instructor_cursor (in_date_hired DATE) IS SELECT instructor_id FROM instructor WHERE date_hired < in_date_hired FOR UPDATE. . BEGIN OPEN instructor_cursor(v_date). Question 5 continued over page . v_date DATE := '01-JAN-86'. 2) A replication system for distributing data requires a global schema 3) Distribution optimisation includes choosing how to execute each local retrieval operation most efficiently 4) In a data warehouse time is always a dimension of analysis. CLOSE instructor_cursor. UPDATE instructor SET salary = new_salary WHERE CURRENT OF instructor_cursor. new_salary NUMBER := 2000. EXIT WHEN instructor_cursor%NOTFOUND. [9 marks] (b) State whether each of the following five statements is true or false. for each of the two ways.

a row recording the change is inserted into AuditPrice. price. with no record of the old value. and whenever the column. ‘cursor%NOTFOUND’ . AuditPrice has columns such as product_id.Page 6 of 8 Computing & Electronic Technology BSc (Hons) Computing Semester 2 Examinations 2002/2003 Advanced Database Systems Module No: CSt3003 Question 5 continued (i) (ii) Explain the purpose of the cursor. product_name. price. stock_level. etc Suppose a table called AuditPrice is created . in Product changes. [3 marks] Explain the purpose of the block of code between BEGIN and END [3 marks] Explain the meaning of each of the four keywords that have been emboldened: ‘FOR UPDATE’. old-price. 2) Create a trigger on Price for the event UPDATE OF price. The Product has columns such as product_id. newprice. it is simply replaced by a new value. It would be useful to have an audit trail of such price changes. ‘WHERE CURRENT OF’ [4 marks] (iii) (c) When a value for the price column in a Product table is updated. which when triggered inserts the change into AuditPrice (i) (ii) Outline the PLSQL for the trigger and the procedure (exact SQL syntax not required) [7 marks] Explain the difference in the privileges required for the invocation of the trigger and of the procedure [4 marks] Please turn the page . ‘ instructor_cursor(v_date)’. date_changed There are two ways of doing this: 1) Create a procedure that both updates price in Product and inserts the change into AuditPrice.

(i) For Open Telecom’s data warehouse for network usage.Page 7 of 8 Computing & Electronic Technology BSc (Hons) Computing Semester 2 Examinations 2002/2003 Advanced Database Systems Module No: CSt3003 Question 6. [6 marks] (b) (c) Question 6 continued over page . Give a simple example with which you are familiar. Draw up a star schema for the warehouse. such as Sales. [4 marks] Explain what is meant by the ‘dimensional analysis’ approach to data warehouse design. [4 marks] (iii) Give three examples of typical questions that the directors could get answers to from the warehouse. and explain why it usually leads to a ‘star schema’ [4 marks] The Open Tele Case Study referred to in the course has an E-R diagram as shown on the next page: The directors wish to trace the customers’ usage of the network. its facts and dimensions. (a) Explain the reasons for the differences between the data held in a data warehouse and the data held in an 'operational' database. and then on a day-to-day basis. [7 marks] (ii) Explain briefly how records could be written to the data warehouse for setting up initially. identify with reasons.

PostCode) ConnectionPoint (NodeNumber. StopTime.RentalAmount) ChargeBand (BandCode. RatePerSecond) Call ( TelNumber. StartDate. ClassOfSwitch) Rate (RateCode. CallCost) LineRental (RentalClass. BandDescription. StartTime. NumberCalled. Category. InvoiceAmount. Name. Date. BillFrequency.Page 8 of 8 Computing & Electronic Technology BSc (Hons) Computing Semester 2 Examinations 2002/2003 Advanced Database Systems Module No: CSt3003 Question 6 continued Connection Point Rate Customer Telephone Number Call Invoice ChargeBand The entity types in the E-R model are as follows:Customer (AccountNumber. StartTime. VAT) END OF QUESTIONS . Address. ChargeFactor) Invoice (TelNumber. CallDuration.