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Unit IV

Collision warning system:

Forward collision warning systems with adaptive cruise control warn drivers of a potential collision risk and assist in maintaining a safe following distance between their vehicle and the vehicle directly ahead of them. Collision Warning Systems (CWS) are in-vehicle electronic systems that monitor the roadway in front of the vehicle and warn a driver when a potential collision risk exists if another vehicle or object is in its lane. The forward looking, radar-based or monocular vision-based CWS systems use algorithms to interpret transmitted and received radar signals in order to determine distance, azimuth location, and relative speed between the host vehicle equipped with the CWS and the vehicle or object in its projected path. CWS do not take any automatic action to avoid a collision or to control the vehicle; therefore, drivers remain responsible for driving safely. CWS are in-vehicle electronic systems that monitor the roadway in front of the host vehicle and warn the driver when a potential collision risk exists. For example, currently available radar-based CWS use algorithms to interpret transmitted and received radar signals to determine distance, azimuth, and relative speed between the host vehicle with the CWS and the vehicle or object ahead of it in the lane. When the host vehicle is traveling along the roadway, the CWS can warn the driver when a vehicle or object is in its lane within a predefined closing time threshold. Currently, CWS do not take any automatic action to avoid a collision or to control the vehicle; therefore, drivers remain responsible for the safe operation of their vehicles using both steering and braking, if safe to do so, to avoid a crash. As the time interval to the vehicle ahead decreases, CWS issue a progressively more urgent warning. The systems beam width/field of view forms an isosceles triangle with its apex at the front center of the vehicle. As an object gets closer to the front of the vehicle, a different range or time interval is reached, and the system issues a different type of alarm. The system manufacturers set these warning thresholds. Figure 1 illustrates these progressive thresholds. CWS also warn the driver if the system malfunctions. CWS may be integrated with ACC systems.

Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC):

ACC systems are in-vehicle electronic systems that automatically maintain a minimum following interval to a lead vehicle in the same lane. The ACC system utilizes components of the collision warning system and a conventional cruise control system. When the host vehicle with the ACC system is traveling above a minimum speed threshold, the ACC system controls the engine throttle, and if available, engine brake and automatic transmission to maintain the following interval. The driver can set and adjust his following interval. In the absence of a vehicle ahead, the ACC system operates like a conventional cruise control by maintaining the speed set by the driver. The ACC system will notify the driver if the system detects a malfunction. Figure 2 illustrates the general thresholds used by an ACC system. The system's beam width/field of view forms an isosceles triangle with its apex at the front center of the vehicle. It graphically displays minimum and maximum following distance or time intervals in which the system operates. Although ACC systems automatically take action to control the vehicles speed, they may not sufficiently decelerate the vehicle in all circumstances to avoid a crash. Depending on the vehicle load, road grade, and vehicle performance parameters, the level of deceleration control typically used by the system is limited to a range between 0.1 and 0.2 g, where g is a unit of force equal to the force exerted by gravity. As a result, drivers remain responsible for the safe

operation of their vehicles, and they should use steering and apply the service brakes, if safe to do so, to avoid a crash.

Crash Prevention CWS and ACC systems can help reduce crashes when vehicles are equipped with these systems. In particular, these systems may prevent rear-end crashes and forward impact crashes with objects in the travel lane. These systems may also reduce the impact speed and the crash severity. This section describes these crash types. Rear-end Crash Rear-end crashes occur when the front of a following vehicle strikes the rear of a lead vehicle. Data derived from the 2003 General Estimates System[1](GES) indicates that 42,800 rear-end crashes involving large trucks occurred in 2003, resulting in 290 fatalities. In 18 percent of all rear-end crashes where the truck was the striking vehicle, there were three or more vehicles involved in the crash. The difference is even greater in fatal rear-end crashes. Almost 46 percent of fatal rear-end truck-striking crashes involved three or more vehicles, while only 16 percent of fatal truck-struck rear-end crashes involved three or more vehicles. The large difference between the mass of trucks and the mass of other vehicles may explain this phenomenon. A typical loaded tractor semi-trailer has a gross weight of 80,000 pounds, while most cars weigh less than 4,000 pounds. Striking a passenger vehicle in the rear will not bring a heavy truck to a stop or even slow it appreciably. Thus, the impact itself does

relatively little to keep the truck from continuing on and involving other vehicles.[2]CWS can reduce the risk of these rear-end crashes by identifying fast closing situations and providing the driver with additional time to react. ACC systems function to maintain a driver-set following interval behind another vehicle, thereby providing more time to resolve driving conflicts to reduce the probability of a rear-end collision. Forward Impact with Objects in Travel Lanes These crashes occur when a vehicle strikes an object that is in the vehicles travel lane. Data from the 2003 GES indicates that large trucks were involved in 18,000 crashes of this type in 2003, resulting in 160 fatalities. CWS can reduce the risk of these crashes by warning the driver of the presence of these objects, thereby allowing them additional time to take the appropriate avoidance maneuvers.

Hardware and Software Requirements

Hardware and software requirements deal directly with the detailed functionality of the hardware, environmental and electrical concerns, mounting/installation issues, and software design. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the major functional components and interfaces of CWS and ACC systems as described in the following sections, respectively. Figure 3 shows the interrelationship of the CWS components. The electronic control unit (ECU) accepts data from the forward-looking sensor. Through the vehicle network (J1708 or J1939), the ECU monitors the brake activation status and engine power. The output of the system is a status indicator and, when necessary, a warning, which appear on the driver-vehicle interface. Figure 4 shows the inter-relationship of the ACC system components. The ECU has the same input and outputs as in a CWS, but it has the additional capability to control the engine speed or to shift the automatic transmission. Both figures show that the CWS and ACC are often integrated into a single system.

Typical System Hardware This section describes the functionality of the primary physical components of CWS and ACC systems. They refer to the functional blocks shown in Figures 3 and 4. R3-1 Forward-looking Sensor or Detector CWS and ACC systems should have a sensor or apparatus that detects vehicles in the front of the host vehicle. This sensor or apparatus should be capable of determining the distance and location of moving or stationary vehicles in the travel lane of the host vehicle. CWS and ACC systems should be capable of detecting moving or stationary vehicles to at least 100 meters (328 feet) ahead of the vehicle.

R3-4 Electronic Control Unit (ECU) The CWS and ACC systems ECU should be used to gather data for calculating key parameters to provide warnings. For the ACC system, the ECU should be capable of controlling the engine speed or shifting the automatic transmission. R3-2 Driver Vehicle Interface CWS and ACC systems should provide a driver vehicle interface (DVI) to permit the driver to interact with the systems. A DVI consists of controls and indicators for CWS and ACC systems related to the system operation. The DVI includes progressive audible and visual warnings of a potential collision threat to the host vehicle. CWS and ACC systems should provide a visual indication of the status of the systems. System status includes operational/non-operational, tracking/not-tracking, and system fault conditions. See Section 3.4 for complete DVI requirements. T3-1 OPTIONAL Adaptive Cruise Control CWS may interact with an ACC system to maintain a safe following interval between the host vehicle and the vehicle in front of it. T3-2 OPTIONAL Vehicle Network CWS and ACC systems may use the in-vehicle data network (SAE J1708 or J1939) for data communication to data recording or diagnostic devices.

The CWS uses two systems which are starting to become standard features in some new cars-GPS and Vehicle2Vehicle (V2V). Vehicle to Vehicle is a car vehicle communication system that can tell the driver the position and movement of cars around him, warn of slow traveling vehicles or even if a vehicle ahead has braked hard. Using the information from these two systems, the CWS determines the position of cars around and ahead of the vehicle. It calculates where they will be in a few seconds time and then warns the driver if a collision is imminent. The deposit team has been using a fully-functioning prototype in a laboratory simulator and has had some success so far, managing warning times of between 1 to 3 seconds ahead of a collision. High-quality GPS systems work better than cheaper versions but the team has achieved a 1.5 second warning time using a cheaper GPS and believe that they can improve this time with further developments using the cars sensors.

So far, weve got predictions about 1 to 3 seconds ahead of a collision but anything from 2 seconds up gives drivers time to react. It works better at medium-to-high speeds, above 50km/h, reveals Jose Ignacio Herrero Zarzosa, coordinator of the Reposit relative position for collision avoidance systems project. The CWS software program is cheap but unfortunately there is no standard for integrating new functions into an existing car system and car manufacturers use different system integration methods. However, General Motors are already using V2V so its only a matter of time until we see GPS and V2V as standard in new cars. That may mean that the CWS will one day help to save lives and take us one step further to connected cars.

Causes of Rear End Collision:

A rear-end collision, where the front of the striking vehicle hits the rear of the vehicle in front of it. Causes: 1. Speed. Driving too fast to be able to stop in time. 2. Tailgating. Failing to keep a safe distance between the driver's car and the car in front of it. 3. Inattention. Distracted by eating, looking away from the road, talking on the phone, texting, etc. 4. Driving Under the Influence. Of course, driving while impaired by alcohol or drugs can lead to rear-end collisions. 5. Unsafe lane change. Changing lanes and cutting off another vehicle. 6. Weather conditions. Rain, snow, ice, fog and dust can make the roadway slippery and can limit visibility. 7. Road conditions. Wet, snowy and icy roadways can contribute to rear-end collisions. 8. Defective vehicles. Vehicles with defective brakes or bald tires can cause a vehicle to slide into a rear-ender. Tailgating One of the main things drivers can do to avoid rear-end collisions is to maintain a safe following distance. A two-second following rule is recommended for passenger vehicles. When the vehicle ahead passes a marker, such as a lamppost, the driver of the car that is following should count "One thousand one, one thousand two." Reaching the lamppost after counting "one thousand two" means that the following car is a safe distance from the lead car. Truck drivers should use a four-second following rule, because heavier weight necessitates a longer stopping distance.

Negligence An increasing element of driver negligence involved in rear-end accidents involves the use of cell phones while on the road. The website Science Daily says that drivers who are talking on cell phones have double the odds of a fender bender. It notes that cell phone use while driving leads to mistakes such as tailgating, running red lights, speeding and failure to yield to other vehicles. Other examples of negligence leading to accidents include preoccupation with the car's radio or navigation system, or driving while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Not Being Alert Daydreaming is a prime ingredient in rear-end accidents. Being alert means forcing oneself to stay aware of potential hazards in front, behind and all around one's vehicle so that it is possible to avoid accidents. Some people call this "defensive driving." The official Honolulu website refers to it as "planning ahead" and suggests a pattern of roadway scanning that involves regular checks of all three rear-view mirrors as well as quick peeks at gauges and the speedometer. Furthermore, it says to be prepared for potential problems at intersections and for traffic-signal changes.

Rear End Accident Safety

Following Distance According to, in order to avoid being the cause of a rear-end accident, you should allow a 3-second following distance between your vehicle and the one in front of you. This gives you enough time to brake safely or change lanes in the event the other driver stops suddenly. Stop Lights According to the New Mexico Drivers Manual, when stopping at a traffic light, you should be about 2 seconds behind the other driver. This not only allows for safer acceleration when the light turns green, but also can prevent you from hitting the other car, should you be rear-ended while waiting for the light to change. Cell Phones If you are talking on a cell phone while behind the wheel, you can lose your driving concentration, which can result in either a minor or serious accident, including rear-end collision.

Child Safety Seats In the event of a rear-end collision, a child who is allowed to stand or sit without a safety harness is more likely to be seriously injured. According to, more children die in auto accidents than by any other unintentional means. Thus, it is vital to have young children fastened in durable child-safety seats while you are driving. Rear-View Mirrors When driving, you should occasionally check your rear-view mirror for drivers who are following you too closely, or at a higher rate of speed than normal. Should you see a car that is about to collide with yours, you will have time to prepare and brace yourself.

Object Detection Systems:

Rear Object Detection Systems Rear object detection systems monitor a specific area behind a commercial motor vehicle, detect objects, and provide warnings to drivers when they are approaching an object behind the vehicle while in reverse. These systems assist the driver in avoiding collisions during backing or parking maneuvers. Description Rear object detection systems detect moving and stationary objects located within a specific area behind a commercial motor vehicle while it is backing up. Currently available systems can detect objects within a range of approximately 10 to 20 feet behind a vehicle. They can be integrated with other sensors, such as side object detection sensors to cover other blind spot areas around a vehicle. Audible and/or visual distance-based alerts that vary depending upon the closeness of the vehicle to an obstacle are the types of warnings that can be provided to a driver through a processing and/or display unit in the cab. The sensor units located on the back of the vehicle can consist of different types of detection technology, such as radar or sonar. Radar Back-up Aid Ultrasonic technology or sonar (Sound Navigation And Ranging) determines the range of objects by emitting a transmitter pulse of ultrasonic energy. The resultant echo is detected by a receiver as it is reflected from the detected object. The emitter is a membrane that transforms mechanical energy into a chirp (inaudible sound wave) and sends this sound out toward the target area. When the sound encounters an object, it is reflected back to the receiver circuit that is tuned to the frequency of the emitter, which then transfers the data to a driver display unit.

Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging) technology is also used for rear object detection systems. Radar typically operates in the ultra-high-frequency or microwave range of the radio-frequency spectrum. These radio frequency waves are transmitted from the vehicle at defined intervals within a specific coverage area. The sensor collects echoes from electromagnetic waves that bounce off objects behind the vehicle. These echoes are sent to a signal processing unit and communicated to a driver interface. Some processing units utilize algorithms for object detection, object tracking, and angle measurement to provide specific distance information. Rear object detection systems provide audible and/or visual alerts to warn drivers when objects are detected. Some systems indicate the vehicle's distance from a detected object. For example, the driver interface may consist of a graphical or digital visual display that shows the distance from the vehicle to a specific object. Other visual alerts could consist of a series of lights which change color or light up as objects are detected. These visual alerts can be used in combination with audible alerts that vary in tone and frequency as the vehicle moves closer to an object. Rear object detection systems can be activated manually when needed or automatically for continuous operation. Some rear object detection systems are connected directly to the vehicle's backup lights, which activate automatically when the vehicle is shifted into reverse. Other systems are activated when the key is put into the ignition or the vehicle is put into operation. When the systems are activated, their operation is "hands-free," and the driver can focus on safely operating the vehicle. One limitation of current rear object detection systems for tractor trailers is that they are dependent upon specific tractor-trailer combinations. The processing and/or display unit located in the tractor can only process or display information transmitted from its matching sensor unit which is located in the trailer. Neither the processing and/or display unit nor the sensor unit is interchangeable with other units. This principle would also apply to a rear object detection system that had dual sensor units. Application Rear object detection systems provide an added measure of safety during backing and parking maneuvers. Many collisions that occur while backing and parking are caused when the driver cannot see what is behind the vehicle. If objects come into the path of the vehicle after the driver has checked mirrors and begun the backing and/or parking maneuver, then the driver may not be aware of the potential hazard. These systems can provide an advance warning so that the driver has additional time to stop and avoid a collision with objects behind his vehicle. These systems are intended to augment driver awareness, but they do not replace the critical importance of visual observations or mirrors.

Operations and Benefits Commercial motor vehicle drivers operate their tractor trailers in a wide variety of environmental conditions including rain, snow, ice, and fog. Rear object detection systems can provide an advanced warning of obstacles in their path as they are backing up or parking in low visibility situations. These advanced warnings benefit drivers by alerting them about the existence of the obstacle and giving them more time to stop or respond appropriately to them. Rear object detection systems can specifically aid in reducing commercial motor vehicle crashes associated with blind spots behind the vehicle and situations where drivers must back into unfamiliar loading docks and limited parking spaces. Additional benefits of these systems include reducing injuries, fatalities, repair costs, and vehicle downtime by preventing crashes related to backing up.

Automatic warning and brake support

Volvo Car Corporation has focused its system development on detecting potential safety risks at an earlier stage. This means to help preventing accidents from occurring, or reducing their effects, simply by reducing speed and shortening the stopping distance. First out was the Collision Warning with Brake Support, recently launched in the new Volvo S80. It allows a 15 field of view, is equipped with a long range radar and registers moving and stopping vehicles. A radar sensor is designed to monitor the area in front of the car. If the driver does not react when the car approaches another vehicle from behind, a red light is reflected on the windscreen and a buzzer sounds, says Ingrid Skogsmo, Safety Director at Volvo Car Corporation. To increase the margins even more, the brake pads are automatically placed against the discs. When the driver brakes, the system monitors the pedal pressure. If the pressure is assessed as being too light, the braking power is amplified by the system. Full automatic brake power Volvo Car Corporation is now working on a whole new generation of the Collision Warning System. It will be equipped with full automatic brake power and a considerably wider field of view. The new generation of Collision Warning is designed to be activated at a very early stage and if the driver does not hit the brakes when needed, the system brakes automatically to slow the vehicle down. To our knowledge, Volvo Car Corporation is the only car manufacturer to have a system this advanced on the drawing table, says Ingrid Skogsmo. We have come very far in developing the system, and preview it now to show what we have in pipeline.

Another benefit with the new generation of the system is that it offers increased safety not only for the driver, but also for common good. By avoiding rear-end collisions, the people in the car that would have been hit will not have to suffer material damage or personal injuries such as whip-lash. Integrating the system into forthcoming Volvo models would mean a winning situation for all road-users.