1 What is lexicology Lexicology may be defined as the study of lexis understood as the stock of the words in a given language

. The notion of words is central in the study of lexicology. Lexicology deals not only with simple words in all their aspects but also with complex and compound words. Morphology Is the study of morphemes and their arrangements in forming words. Morphemes are the smallest meaningful unit which may constitute words or parts of words. They cannot be broken down further on the basis of meaning. For ex. Cat cannot be analysed further into meaningful units but sleeping can sleep – ing. Cat and ing are morphemes but cat is a simple word while ing is only part of the word. Morphemes that can occur as individual words are free morphemes and those who cannot are called bound morphemes. Any concrete realization in a given utterance is called a morph. There is difference between morphs and syllables. Morphs are manifestations of morphemes and represent a specific meaning; syllables are parts of words which are isolated only on the basis of pronunciation. Complex words –are formed are formed from the simpler words by adding affixes or some other kind of morphological modification: spoonful Compound words are form are formed by combining two or more words: cheeseburger

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Semantics Study of meaning

According to Jackson we should identify these kinds of semantics: Pragmatic s. Studies the meaning of utterances in context Sentence s. Handles the meaning of sentences and meaning relations between sentences Lexical s. Deals with the meaning of words Sem. Is considered as part of the lexicology but also phonology, syntax, pragmatics.

There is a difference between acceptability and meaningfulness for example. That woman is a man. Can be considered meaningless but with a bit of imagination in some context it can be acceptable for example in a play.

Etymology Study of the whole history of words not just their origin Some words are not etymologically related to ancient words so it is difficult to establish their origins It is difficult to say what was the original meaning of the words since human language stretches too far back in history 1

Lexicography Special technique, the writing and compilation dictionaries

Lexicology and phonology In many cases the difference between otherwise identical items can be reduced to a difference at the level of phonology: sheep vs. Ship differ only on one sound unit, sometimes only the stress cause the phonological difference Also compounds words can show good example for example blackboard and black board

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Lexicology and syntax We use term syntax to refer to the particular knowledge which enables us to assemble words when we construct sentences, we can know all the words in the dictionary and still be not able to speak English we have to acquire a set of rules how to form sentences. Sentences can be built according to the rules of syntax but be unacceptable on lexical grounds: Colourless green ideas sleep furiously. The essential difference between syntax and lexicology is that the former deals with the general facts of the language and the latter with special aspects

The word and its associative field According to this approach every word is involved in a network of associations which connect it with other terms in the language. Some of these association are based on similarity of meaning others are formal while others involve both form and meaning Lecturer – lectured, lecturing – connects it based on common stem lecture Lecturer – teacher, tutor etc – semantic similarity Lecturer – clever, quicker etc – accidental similarity in their ending Lecturer- gardener, labourer etc –suffix - er Any word chosen form a given context will suggest other words to us Paradigmatic and synatagmatic rel

Syntagmatic ( sequence ) rovně p The first question was difficult. 2

For example KINSHIP comprises lexemes father. According to lexical field theory the vocabulary of a language is a dynamic and wellintegrated system of lexemes structured by relationship of meaning. Indo-European has branches : 3 . 2. Quirk distinguish the following: Closed classes: preposition. easy funny Etc. skilful. adjective. daughter. skilfully – derivations Word classes The notion of word class may also be used to account for the structure of the vocabulary as a whole. The words on. its possible inflectional forms and words derived from it by prefixation and suffixation skill. adverb Lesser cat. verb. A family consists of a base form . mother. Some words may be signed to more fields for example orange can be assigned to that of colour or to that of fruit. interjection A small number of words of unique function: the particle not and the infinitive marker to. in and under have the same function and express some kind of locational relationship. Where do English words come from? 5000 languages = 300 language families: one of them. son. problem word Etc. narrowing or broadening of some lexemes. Lexical fields Defines a semantic or lexical field as a named area of meaning in which lexemes interrelate and define each other in specific ways. All words that function in the same way are deemed to belong to the same word class for example: The book was on/in/under the cupboard. : numeral. skills – infl. conjunction. The system is changing continuously by the interaction of various forces such as the disappearance of previously existing items. - Word families Words are group into families on the basis of their morphology both their inflections and derivations. pronoun. auxiliary verb Open classes’: noun. cousin etc.a radigmatic dolů Third Last Etc. determiner.

strata (street Picts and Scots from the north Germanic tribes – Angles. the country was called Angli/Anglia. the language was called Englisc (sc spelling for sh sound) Old English period (450 – 1066) • • • • • 1st OE manuscripts were written in the runic alphabet brought by Anglo-Saxons (5.) had many latin works translated Features of OE • • • • • • • • OE alphabet was similar to the modern one no capital letters some letters had differetn shapes some letters were missing (j.Germanic = North G. (modern Scandianvian l. English) • • • • • 1st inhabitants . in Old English Engle.. banhus = bone-house = person´s body). x. frisians = Anglo-saxon society the end of 6th century – influence of Latin. ea – meat) the same word could be spelled differently on the same page – lots of variations difference between words in prose and poetry (prose words are similar to modern E. 6th cent.) (modern German. Dutch. z) numbers were written in Roman symbols some letters were used in combination for a single sound (th – truth. Saxons. v. + East G.000 BC) Romans (43 – 410 AD) – Latin words castra (Gloucester. Jutes. poetic words are different) frequent use of coinages (kennings) = referring to vivid figurative descripitons often involving compounds (hronrad = whale-road = sea.) the literary age began after arrival of Roamn missionaries (597) OE manuscripts from 7thcent.Celts (5. Kennings are 4 • . q. + West G. Are glossaries of Latin words translated into OE Beowulf – the most important literary work (around 1000) King Alfred (9th cent. Lancaster). f.Italic (Latin) .

. mainly in Latin and French material in English . 14th cent.) OE corpus had 24. Increased word-formation. the change came in 11 and 12th cent. ner. 85% are not in use today. As the period progressed.a lot of translating from Latin and French into English poetry influenced by French. • Kennings were used to achieve alliteration in a line Differences between OE and modern E. Period it was 75% loanwords were the only way in which the vocabulary of Middle E. Geoffrey Cahucer.sometimes hard to interpret because of the use of synonyms = in Beowulf there 20 words for a man.13th cent. • • • • OE uses more synonyms use of word-formation processes in OE based on native elements loan translations (calques) = lexical items translated part-by-part into another language use of inflectional endings to express grammatical relationships (rather than word order as it is today. the spelling changed and was more similar to ME intensive borrowing from other languages (French) in early stages of Middle E. 3% of the OE words are loanwords comapred to 70% in ME • Middle-English period (1066 – 1500) • • • • • increase in the number of private and public documents. neure = neuer. never. such as compounding was used as it was in OE Early Modern English (1500 – 1800) • 1476 – William caxton set up his press in Westminster = the beginnig point of Early ME 5 . John Wycliff Features of Middle English • • • • • • • great diversity in spelling (naure. over 90% of lexicon was of native English (Anglo-Saxon) origin by the end of Middle E. noeure.000 lexical items.

name) – they are now common words of the language the words are generally short and concrete (parts of the body: arm. Africa and Asia = imapct on English language. bone. provided more opportunities for people to write. good. hedge. This period covers Renaissance = interest in the clasical languages and literature. This meant that more books were published. while. vocabulary. exploration of America.. borrowing from Latin and Greek. not to form it • • • • • • • Modern English period (1800 – present) 3 main fetaures of ME: • growth of scientific vocabulary. Scholars began to talk seriously about their language. African Es) – associated with a geographical area • • NATIVE ENGLISH VOCABULARY Anglo-Saxon words • words which are still used in ME (grammatical words: be. but more at the lexical level (consequence of Industrial revolution. that. think) • Influence of Celtic on English 6 . emergence of other varieties known as ´New Englishes´ (Indian E. making observations on grammar. the natural landscape: field. dog. the writing systém and style. common verbs: kiss. especially vocabulary.. fish. chest. animals: cow. especially in medicine and theology Example of the development in the language is Shakespeare´s work (King Jmaes Bible) fast lexical growth also semantic changes. Nowadays the differences are getting smaller because of mass media. scientific discoveries. old words got new meanings 1755 – Samuel Johnson published Dictionary of English Language – the aim was to register the language.moon. month.. live.• printing played a major role in fostering the norms of spelling and pronunciation. and enabled published works to circulate. the calendar: day. love. wide. Philippine E. in terms of pronunciation and grammar. rise in education) assertion of American English as a dominant variety of the language (leading economic power). openness to American culture . common adjectives: black. In 16th cent. hill. lexical words: father. in.

or to name a new phenomenon or concept. Sc. together with Latin expressions. faux pas. sk-: score. Thames. English is fromed from about 120 languages. them. only few words can be found in ME (ususally in regional dialect use: crag = deep valley. (shamrock) Scottish Gaelic ( loch. word for farm or town: Derby. York. skill. At the same time words from French were borrowed. general words: they. agriculture Germanic people acquired words relating to clothing (belt.in Yorkshire. ending -by. sky. = highly distinctive feature of modern E.• not very big. skirt. g. Henderson. The borrowed word is called a loanword or borrowing. words from branches in which Romans excelled (ancor = anchor. usually to fill a lexical gap. sc-. g. buildings and settlements (weal = wall). e. their. karaoke. cemes = shirt). literature. law. Greek loanwords • technical terms in all branches of human knowledge 7 . lough) some Celtic words derive from Latin (place names: Avon. Latin words in English • • • the major influence on English early words were connected with military. Vocabulary • • • Scandinavian loanwords in English • • • • as a result of Viking raids on Britain (8-10th cent. piper = pepper) in the Middle English period it was professional and technical terms. Kent) Irish Gaelic in 17th cent. ending -son: Jackson. whisky) • • • THE PROCESS OF BORROWING • the term for a process by which a word from one language is takne over into another language. luh = loch. Personal singular ending in present tense: -s. e. Rugby) personal names – in thenorth and east. carr = rock.) settlements . • Althought other languages try to protect from accepting foreign words.

-tion. the courts and the new upper social classes. pre.• some greek words wre borrowed from Latin (allegory. duke. sciences (gown. champion. potato) = words from the New World Italian – music (violin.ment) some French words: government. telegram). gorilla) 8 . cranberry. rabbi) Indian words (avatar. tragedy) • • • • German and Dutch loans • • • due to commercial relationships from Middle Ages on (dollar. piano). karma. luxury. food: (pasta. carriage... Portuguese.. saffron. Afixes (con. even Modern Englishborrowed words from French: gentle. clergyarmy. some were derived from Greek and Latin elements (lexis. jungle) Loanwords from other sources • west African languages (banana. skipper) many loanwords came into English through contact between Americans and Dutch settlers.. opera. arts. drama. assassin) Hebrew words (amen. harmony) . only in speacialists fields (geology: cobalt) • Romance loans other than from French • Spanish. mutton. • French loanwords • After William the Conqueror became the King of England in 1066. Norman French became the language of government.. chocolate.. character. zenith. Santa Claus) German impact on English was low. The influence was most noticeable in 15th cent. guilder) seafaring activities (deck. hallelujah. prince. lexical). especially in NY area (cookie. lasagne) • Loans from the East • • • Arabic words (admiral. (alligator. beef. village. autocracy. canoe. safari. waffle. lexeme. -ance. while others were taken directly from Greek (acronym. cruise. . trans. metaphor )and French (centre. prestige later borrowings from French also reflect french dominance in the spheres of fashion. from the 16th cent.

phew) Word formation • uses existing language material – words and morphesmes – to create new lexical items major process are compounding and affixation 9 . • • e. kleenex (clean+curtx) Echoic words • echoic / onomatopoeic words find their origin in the specific sound that they are meant to represent. tinkle two types: imitative and symbolic imitative – intends to imitate the sound that it represents (meow. vroom) symbolic – has a less direct association with the sound (bump. cuckoo. tomahawk.goulash – from Hungarian) native American languages (moccassin. peewee) Ejaculations • words that attempt to imiate instinctive vocal responses to emotional situations (ha-ha. CREATING NEW ENGLISH WORDS Root creation • refers to the building of a word that has no relationship whatsoever with any previous existing word. moo. e. bang. but considerably less. Kodak – purely arbitrary combination of letters. sometimes with a little variation (bow-wow. hump) or alliterate (flick. g.often come in sets which either rhyme (bump. glasnost. lump. French is the largest supplier of words to English nowadays in UK. flip. in the USA it is from Spanish. choo-choo. g. flop) • • • • both imitative and symbolic words may be the subject to doubling. vodka – from Russian. not derived from any existing word (1888) vasseline (wasser+oil). flick) . skunk) English still borrows words from other languages.• • Slavic languages (polka – from Czech. splash. flash.

food. pre-figure CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN ENGLISH VOCABULARY The size • 750. suffixes):celebration. newborn. craftsman. afterwards) affixation (use of prefixes.000 entries in Oxford English Dictionary and Websters Third International together. banana-flavoured. each of them concentrating eithet on British or American dialect terms • • no New Englishes areincluded in these dictionaries Crystal concludes it is about 1.• • compounding: birthday. they are considered more human and emotional (when choosing between nourishment. have English pronunciation and spelling and are no longer foreign words grammatical structures have remained almost the same throughout the centuries • 3 The Word Difficulties in the definition of the word 10 . Frequency of occurence an use of Anglo-Saxon words • words from Anglo-Saxon are the most frequent in the language the most frequent 200 words consist of one syllable • native English words tend to be preferred in everyday speech.000 lexemes. download. the most common are native English words many foreign words have assimilated.000 words in Oxford English dictionary. forgetful.000. there most foerign words on the other hand. napkin. nutrition. in writing and speech. the last is chosen) English vocabulary • • • out of 617.

Adjectives: tall. The words usually denote not single items but classes of things or events bound together by some common element. the are not. The word mammal is more generic and more abstract than cow in the same way animal is more abstract than mammal. lexical. a. Generic terms apply to a wide range of items but tell us a little about them. this is the most common case. A further difficulty in the use of formal criteria is that word may be defined from the phonological. Word may be defined differently depending on whether we focus on thought which it expresses or purely formal criteria or on its representation. Characteristic of words 1)word is an uninterruptible unit 2) word may consists of more than one morpheme. The words we use never completely homogenous in their meaning all of them have number of aspects depending on the context and situation in which they are used. spoonful. 11 . spoke etc. verbs. short. adjectives. grammatical points. speaks. the word is only element of the real unity: all of the sudden. when it consists of one morpheme only it cannot be broken down into smaller units 3) word occurs typically in the structure or phrases 4) each word should belong to a specific word classr part of speech. The word defined Word is uninterruptible unit of structure consisting of one or more morphemes and typically occurs in the structure or phrases. is more schematic. Verbs: eat. The psychological unit spreads over several words. Words speak.The term word is used to designate an intermediate structure smaller than a whole phrase and larger than a single sound segment. The word as represented in writing represents a thought unit or psychological unit. Names of the objects: table. Lexical words are nouns. sleep The word forms one block but includes two units of thought: farmer. house. Are separate grammatically . poorere than particular word in its ability to distinguish specific features. Abstractions: faith. intelligence. its meaning a semen. Lexis which consists of an infinite number of elements excludes relational words or grammatical morphemes.e. A form which occur alone is free and which may not is bound. Word table: table in a restaurant. adverbs can be meaningful even in isolation while for example with. According to Bloomfield a minimal form is morpheme. The same form appears in more than one class for example smoke verb or noun Ambiguity in the notion of word Word can be regarded as generic when it has abstract reference i. table of contents in a book.

write Because of the sameness of shape there is a danger of homonymous conflict in the sense that two homonyms with totally different meanings may both make sense in the same utterance: The route was very long. According to Lyons some words may have no specific denotation and still have sense. 12 . As opposed to denotation. but occasionally ambiguity may also arise: Look at that bat under the tree. Thus the relation of denotation holds between a lexeme and a whole class of extra linguistic objects. In most cases only one of the meanings of a polysemous word will fit into a given context. There is no such animal as a unicorn. vs There is no such book as a unicorn. we cannot determine exactly how many meanings polysemous word has. Homograph has the same spelling: lead Homophone has the same sound: right. It is not easy to say whether two meanings are the same or different. mainly because they have unrelated meanings and different etymologies. Homonymy Refers to a situation where we have two or more words with the same shape but they yare considered distinct lexemes. Each word formation process will result in the production of a specific type of word. Consequently. While the first is perfectly acceptable the second is semantically odd. Polysemy Refers to the situation where the same word has two or more different meanings.Word meaning Denotation and reference We need the concept of lexeme to clarify the distinction between denotation and reference this concept which was coined by Lyons is considered an abstract linguistic unit. A comparison between denotation and sense shows that the two relations are dependent on each other. Or The root was very long 4 WORD FORMATION By word formation processes we mean the different devices which are used in English to built new words from existing ones. Denotation and sense Lyons defined the sense of a word as its place in a system of relationship which it contracts with other words in the vocabulary. Lyons further points out that reference depends on concrete utterances. Words are not normally used in isolation. but combined with other words to form larger units expressing various relationships. the relationship of reference holds between an expression and what the expression stands for on particular occasions of its utterance. not on abstract sentences.

Der. However to belong to a class a word need not take every inflectional suffix in the paradigm. called verbalizers: fright –e. If derivation and inflection co occur then derivations are inner. Der. Class maintaining change the meaning of the derivative: child – hood gives childhood still noun but rather abstract than a concrete noun.frighten.aff adverbializers: slow-ly-slowly Class changing derivations are mainly suffiexes but class maintaining derivations are mainly prefixes. closer to the stem and inflections are outer. The paradigm of a major word class consists of a single stem of that class with the inflectional suffixes which the stem may take. adjectivizers: season –al. once the inflection is added to a stem that stem does not change classes but its distribution is then limited in the syntactic structure. Nouns and inflectional contrast: boy. argue – argument Verb der. When the plural inflection is added to dog----dogs both are nouns and plural inflection does not change the class of the word. etc.boys-boy´s –boys´ Adjectives: cold – colder – coldest Verbs: eat – eats – ate – eaten – eating . Derivational affixes English has over sixty common derivational affixes. verb –con ´tract. Derivation is a lexical process which actually forms a new word out of an existing one by adding a derivational affix for example ation---resign----resignation Distinction between inflection and derivation is mainly morphological.´contract. Called nominalizers: leak –leakage. af. Sometimes a shift in class is not always signalled by overt marker: star or to star. Inflectional affixes may be described as a relational markers. Noun derivational af.Inflection and derivation Inflection is a general grammatical process which combines words and affixes to produce alternative grammatical forms of words. Class changing change the word class resign---resignation. Frightened – fright ---en is derivation and ed is inflection.af.af. Sometimes words with two or more syllables may undergo a change of class by a change in stress pattern: noun . Inflectional suffixes tend to lend themselves to paradigms which apply to the language as a whole. For example the plural morpheme is an inflectional morpheme. af. Can change the word class of the item. Distinction between two types of affixes is not always clear for example past participle suffix ed is used to form adjectives of the red-haired type. glory-fy-gloryfy Adjectives der. Noun patterns: malaria-antimalaria.seasonal Adverbs der. Derivational affixes are class changing and class maintaining. Derivations tend not to be paradigms which apply to set of words as a whole. priest – expriest Verb patterns: join-adjoin 13 . Do not always change the word class: reconsider –consider both are verbs.

Verb compounds: any root plus verb. Endocentric: one or both roots is the head of the compound Exocentric: neither root is the head Conversion – process of changing grammatical class of a word without changing its form. adverb. adv. syntactic. guesstimate Clipping – cutting off the ending or beginning of a word o o back-clipping = bra (brassiere). Classification of compounds Noun compounds: any root plus noun. and semantic grounds. For example the compound dare-devil cannot be used as dare the devil which is a phrase. first root is noun. more obvious word which.. motel. Some are written as one word while others are written as two or more words. swindler => swindle. adj. ´black-board. gym (gymnasium) front-clipping = copter (helicopter) Backformation – removing affix to create a new. second root verb. to dirty. each noun can be verbed. Reference is an external meaning relation. common in English. noun Adverb compounds: adverb plus adverb Special noun compounds: verb plus adverb is noun compound. Adjectives compounds: first root may be adj. Compounds may be modified by other words for example air-sick John was seriously air sick. car-wash etc. to butter. does not exist yet o editor => edit.adv. babysitter => babysit. the second root must be a noun while the first root may be noun. verb. Seriously modifies the whole compound. smog. to paper the walls. donation =>donate.may be defined as stems consisting of more than one root: bedside. In English words are characterized by single primary stress. 14 . adj. o to Google. a printout Blending – putting the beginning of one word and ending of another together netiquette.Adjectives patterns: social-antisocial Compounds . it is the relationship between a word and the entity that it refers to. In English compounds may be distinguished from phrases on phonological. For example ´black ´board vs. brunch. to Skype. however. All compounds are non-interruptible. verb. Compounds are often recognised by stress pattern and lack of juncture. barbecue => Barbie 5 Mening relations Discussion often begins by drawing a distinction between the reference of a word and the sense of a word.

Other sense rel. A semantic filed contains words that belong to a defined area of meaning.Sense relations It is an internal meaning relation. Loose synonymy – in some context they cannot substitute for each other. are those of oppositeness and sameness called synonymy and antonymy. One of a pair of synonyms may be used in a more formal context than the other. 15 . The two most obvious sense rel. They are about the choice between words. For example find and discover both can be in sentence Linda discovered/find the ball behind the garden shed but not in Marie Curie discovered radium in 1898. Strict synonyms – two words have to be interchangeable in all their possible context of their use. while other is in more general use: die – decease. Collocation Sense rel are pragmatic. Semantic field The vocabulary is organised into a number of partially overlapping semantic fields. show ( hyponym. Strict synonyms create unnecessary redundancy in language. Synonymy Synonymy is the relation of sameness of meaning. Only words belonging to one and the same word class/grammatical category can be antonyms. the substitution of one word for another in a particular contextual slot in a sentence. Antonymy is based on oppositeness of meaning. or one of the pair may belong to slang or colloquial English. meronymy) how words with general meaning includes the meaning of other words with more specific meanings. English language is rich in pairs of synonyms the primary reason is the borrowing from other languages. A second general way in which synonyms may be distinguished relates to the style of formality. Words from Old English are generally shorter than French or Latin synonyms. Antonyms occur together either within the same sentence or in the adjacent sentence. Some synonym pairs differ in that they belong to different dialects of English: pavement – sidewalk. One or more words may share one or more features of meanings. hold between words within the vocabulary.

blue. hot and cold (gradable antonyms). For instance: HOUSE : bedroom. shrub etc are hyponyms. bathroom. green Hyponymy and meronymy Sense relations that relate words hierarchically. dining room Analysing meaning 16 . shoemaker. The term plant can be at the top of hierarchy and it is superordinate those immediately below it: lichen. e.g. Hyponymy – the kind of relations is the paradigmatic relation in the system of vocabulary based on inclusion of a specific meaning in a more general meaning. Some words have a more generally meaning while others have a more specific meaning while referring to the same entity. Tree is hyponym to plant but it is in turn superordinate to its hyponyms conifer. The lexical units which share the same level of generality and have the same superordinate unit are called co-hyponyms. up and down (complementary antonyms).g. or the words form a mutually exclusive set like red.g. c) the meanings of the words are in converse relationship with one another and the relation is symmetrical. Thus some hyponyms do not have a hyperonym – for instance: colours (coloured excludes black and white). buy and sell (relational antonyms).There are different types of incompatibility relations: a) the meanings of the words are opposites and within the relevant domain of meaning it has to be either one or the other. e. Tree and oak may be used to refer the same object but oak is more specific. The lexical unit which due to its general meaning is on a higher level than some other lexical units is called hyperonym. b) the meanings of the words are opposites and within the relevant domain of meaning there is an indefinitely large number of gradations between one pole and the other. professions: craftsman includes carpenter. flute player. kitchen. clergymanel Dalmatian Alsatian Meronymy – the part of relation is the paradigmatic relation in the system of vocabulary based on the relation part – whole. e. animal (hyperonym) mammal cat dog bird robin eagle cod fish trout ant insect butterfly (co-hyponyms) All the members of a hyponym tree should belong to the same word-class. but excludes doctor.

And it is unlikely that very many components will turn out to be universal. promise) 6. Scientific and foreign words enter the common language mainly through literature. Such as field might comprise words referring to verbs of communication (speak. even in English. Such as approach is called componential analyses. -male The meanings of many lexemes. +animate. cannot be exhaustively described by means of semantic components. warn. Perhaps componential analysis has limited but powerful application to certain area of semantic description Semantic fields In semantic fields analysis the words are grouped together into fields on the basis of an element of shared meaning. Componential analysis of the meaning of vixen +mammal. slang words ascend through colloquial use the technical terms and the dialect words blend with the common language. Words in use Core and specialist vocabulary The vocabulary of English according to the OED (Oxford English Dictionary): the centre is occupied by the common words in which literary and colloquial usage meet. Dimension of variation 17 . order. and from which meanings of all wods can be composed by new unique combinations. and from which are universal to all languages. +animal.Some lexicologists suggested that that meaning of words can be analysed into a finite number of features or components which are universal to all languages.

scientific etc. Dimension of social and cultural groups vocabulary peculiar to youth culture or the criminal underworld Dimension related to the formality of the context National and regional vocabularies British and American E The British and American varieties of Engish account for around 70 percent of mother-tongue English speakers. Some words are specific to either the American or the British variety and not used in World English. Crossover potential of equivalent words between the AmE and BrE varieties No crossover potential from either side Candy Freeway Zip code sweets motorway post code Crossover potential from AmE to BrE but not from BrE to AmE so the AmE word is in World English Can tin Crepe pancake French fries chips Crossover potential from BrE to AmE but not from AmE to BrE sdo the BrE word is in World English Ash can Bathtubbath Fall autumn dustbin Crossover potential both from AmE to BrE and form BrE to AmE so both words are in World English Mail Sweater post jumper 18 . Geographical dimension encompasses regional dialects of a single country and the varieties of English as spoken and written in the USA. Canada and so on. Dimension of occupation which develops its own specialized vocabulary such as legal.- The ways in which language varies according to context and how this leads to development of specialist vocabulary One dimension is historical one charting the birth and death of words. with Americans outnumbering British by four to one.

Sports jargon. people who regularly associated with each other because they have some characteristic or interest in common may form a sub-culture that gives rise to its own vocabulary. It develops as a kind of shorthand. Underworld slang – special vocabulary used by the criminal sub-culture Rastafarian culture – are group among the African Caribbean community 19 . In New Zealand words are borrowed from native Maori dialects and other comes from the adaptation of BrE words.The vocabulary of Canadian English is not the same as that of American English because Canada has experienced a continuous flow of immigration from Britain and bilingual influence of French in Quebec and contact with the Native American languages. or group. to express ideas that are frequently discussed between members of a group. that relates to a specific activity. Green jargon – ecology. African English South African English is a distinct regional variety with a distinctive vocabulary drawn in part form African vocabulary and BrE vocabulary. Antipodean English Australian English ahs some ten thousand distinctive words. Jargon is terminology. Some compounds are composed of English origin and one element from a local language policewella – policeman. much like slang. Sub –cultures Within a society or culture. Occupational jargons Medicine and allied professions have created a jargon that is based on Latin and Greek. drawn from a variety of sources. Indian English A sizeable number of words has been borrowed into Indian English from local languages as well as from Portuguese. Such a subculture may be found among young people. Religious language. profession. and also to distinguish those belonging to a group from those who are not.

people from minority ethnic communities.CB talk – CB is an abbreviation for Citizen Band Radio used initially by truckers to communicate with each other to inform each other of potential difficulties on the road Formal words A large number of words that we associate with legal texts are marked in dictionaries as formal. 20 . Political correctness This term reflects the sensitiveness that has developed in the use of words that refer to women. knitting etc. Three sources of linguistic data: introspection. They may be interested in the new words and or at the expression that are being coined. A formal word may be a means of speaking appropriately about bodily functions and other matters that are not normally mentioned in public. 7 Investigating vocabulary Lexicologists are interested in chat the extent of current vocabulary is or what constituted the vocabulary of the language at the same point in the past. Restricted languages Texts which require some knowledge in order to understand them can be found in recipes. Taboo words Words that would be extremely offensive if spoken in most contexts. elicitation and corpora. disabled people and so on.

MRD – machine readable dictionaries. in the sense that it contains all the words in the language. problem is that some information about words are missing completely or not entered in a structured and consistent manner. but also for arranging the descriptions of vocabulary. 8 Words in dictionaries No dictionary is totally comprehensive. the lexical description needs to be more explicit. The first corpus was recognised in 1960s at Brown University in the USA Corpora contains one million words of text. an advanced learner´s dictionary based entirely on evidence from text corpus Tools analysis Concordance is the essential tool for the lexicological investigation in the form of computer program. Lexicologists type the word and see them with the sentences using this word and it helps them to understand how the word is used. It consists of dictionary or more likely the collection of dictionaries Electronic resources Electronic dictionaries and computer corpora Electronic dictionaries A number of monolingual or bilingual dictionaries are available in the CD ROOM format. LDBs. COBUILD – project. LKBs The electronic medium opens up a number of possibilities not only for exploring vocabulary. their interrelationship.Introspection – when lexicologists use their own knowledge of a language as the data for describing words. The number of words in the dictionaries will depend on its size and purpose. Elicitation – when linguists have quite specific data to collect about some aspect of language Corpora – is a body of material from which linguists can extract the data they require. MRDs. Three major categories of English dictionaries according to purpose: 21 . systematic and structured with appropriate links marked between words the construction of LBDs has been proposed. since for computational purposes. Text corpora Source of data for the lexicologists. One of the advantages is that it allows more sophisticated searching. LBD – lexical database. Each new edition of a dictionary has to make a selection from the words of current English and decide which to include and which to leave out. LKB – term lexical knowledge base has been used to refer to the computational capture of the knowledge about the meaning of lexical items. and their interpretation in context.

First of all lexicographers have to decide how many word has. which they usually do on the evidence of examples of the word in use. The most common type of definition is the analytical definition. We associate dictionaries with an alphabetical arrangement of words. whereas others e.g LDEL have three headwords. and including an accentual pattern of polysyllabic items. and encyclopaedic entries i. where the derived word does not need separate definition. Most dictionaries will nest fixed phrases and idioms usually under the headword of the first main word in the phrase. Dictionaries vary in nesting policies. as spoken in isolation. and combining forms. a verb and some dictionaries e. difference of vocabulary selection and information about words. Derivational – relates to the morphemic composition whether the word is a simple root or derived or a compound Syntax – general rules of sentence structure. open compounds. The genus word in the 22 . prefixes.g. but more importantly from a lexical perspective.1 general purpose dictionaries 2 children´s dictionaries 3 learner´s dictionaries General purpose dictionaries 1 desk size 2 concise size 3 pocket size Difference in size is reflected partly in difference of format and page size. suffixes. the most basic item od syntactic information is the word class or part of speech to which a lexeme belongs. names of places and people. inflections of words are mostly regular and thus derivable from general rules of grammar. The alternative to an alphabetical dictionary is one arranged thematically or by lexical field Kinds of information that dictionaries provide about words: Phonology – a general purpose dictionaries give a transcription of the pronunciation of words. a noun . The headwords may include the following in modern dictionaries: abbreviations (MP). New Oxford Dictionary of English include all three word classes under a single headword. Most dictionaries will nest words derived from a headword by suffixation. they need not to be stated in the dictionary. by providing definitions.e. Dictionary has to state inflections which are irregular. Dictionaries differ in their policy on multiple entries where a word belongs to more than one word class for example middle may be used as an adjective. Semantics – this is what we think dictionaries are primarily about: giving us the meaning of words. based on classical schema of genus and differentiae. Morphology – inflectional and derivational.

Adding a suffix to a root may change spelling and number of words in English has alternative spelling. Definitions are an attempt to characterize the meaning of a lexeme or sense of a lexeme and to distinguish the meaning of the lexeme concerned from the meanings of other lexemes in the same semantic field. Selection of vocabulary Dictionaries are selective but dictionaries are also comprehensive in the sense that they aim to include words from across the range of different types of vocabulary. go beyond a simple explanation and tend towards the encyclopaedic. Spelling A dictionary is inevitably based on spelling. colloquial or slang and specialist subject domains that words may be restricted to. More usual is the decision to have an entry for each spelling that can be shown to have a unique etymology. Etymology history and origin of the words. or historically from the earliest to the latest. This mean that if the word to be defined is a noun the definition will be a noun phrase with the as the head central element. so that information about spelling is a given. 23 . one entry per spelling. Dictionaries vary in the amount of detail that provide for etymologies. Context Some words are restricted as to the types of text or discourse in which they may occur or as to the appropriate social context and occasions in which they may be used. Such information includes both the level of formality for words that are marked as either formal or informal. Definition A definition usually consists of a single phrase. Dictionaries order senses either on the basis of supposed frequency or commonness of use. which is substitutable for the word being defined in a given context. Some definitions especially of natural phenomena e. Homographs Dictionary could decide to base its arrangement on a single-entry for each different orthographic word i. All give the immediate origin of each word some trace the origin of the word further back. flora and fauna. Contextual information is systematically recorded in dictionaries. Polysemy Some dictionaries have a tendency to overdifferentiate senses. and the differentiae distinguish the meaning of this particular word from those of others in the class.g.definition assigns the word to a class of items.e.

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