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lo
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PROCESS CHROMATOGRAPHY // NUVI a Q aND S MEDI a
Separation of proteins with similar isoelecric points by Nuvia Q media.
A 7 x 27 mm column packed with Nuvia Q was loaded with 8 mg of crude
whey. Fractions of 2 ml were collected; flow rate: 60 CV/hr; buffer: 0.02 M Na
phosphate, pH 6.0; segmented gradient: 0–0.1 M NaCl, 0.1–0.3 M NaCl, and
0.3–0.9 M NaCl. Pool 1, a-lactalbumin pI 4.7–5.1; Pool 2, b-lactoglobulin, pI 5.2.
C
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140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 1,000 2,000 3,000
Time, sec
— a
280
— Conductivity, mS/cm
Pool 1
Pool 2
Dynamic binding capacity vs. flow velocity of Nuvia Q media. Each
1.1 cm column was packed to a 10.6 cm bed height with Nuvia Q, agarose Q,
or polymeric Q media. Five mg/ml BSa in 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.5, was loaded
onto each column until 10% breakthrough was observed. DBC BSa, dynamic
binding capacity bovine serum albumin; BT, breakthrough.
D
B
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B
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,

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Linear velocity, cm/hr
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BioPharm
The Science & Business of Biopharmaceuticals
www.biopharminternational.com
INTERNATI ONAL
January 2012
Volume 25 Number 1
THERAPEUTIC
VACCINES
THE CONCEPTION AND
PRODUCTION OF CONJUGATE
VACCINES USING RECOMBINANT
TECHNOLOGY
PLUS: A LOOK AT EMERGING
NICHE TARGETS
PEER-REVIEWED:
ICE FOG AS A MEANS
TO INDUCE UNIFORM ICE
NUCLEATION
TUTORIAL: RISK-ASSESSMENT 
STRATEGIES FOR
EXTRACTABLES AND
LEACHABLES
BURRILL: THE ECONOMY’S EFFECT
ON BIOTECH ADVANCES
COMPLIANCE: HOW TO
MANAGE AUDIT OVERLOAD
2012 CONTRACT SERVICE OUTLOOK
For more information on these and other upcoming PDA TRI
courses please visit www.pda.org/courses
Parenteral Drug Association
Training and Research Institute (PDA TRI)
Upcoming Laboratory and Classroom Training for
Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Professionals
March 2012
Lyophilization Week
April 12-15, 2012 | Bethesda, Maryland | www.pda.org/lyoweek
• Fundamentals of Lyophilization | March 12-13
• Validation of Lyophilization | March 14-15
April 2012
An Introduction to Visual Inspection – Session 2
April 3-4, 2012 | Bethesda, Maryland | www.pda.org/visualsession2
The 2012 PDA Annual Meeting Course Series
April 19-20, 2012 | Phoenix, Arizona | www.pdaannualmeeting.org/courses
• Reprocessing of Biopharmaceutical Products – New Course | April 19
• Recommended Practices for Manual Aseptic Processes – New Course | April 19
• Biotechnology: Overview of Principles, Tools, Processes and Products | April 19-20
• Sterile Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms | April 19-20
• Implementation of Quality Risk Management for Commercial Pharmaceutical
and Biotech Manufacturing Operations – New Course | April 19-20
• Process Validation and Verification: A Lifecycle Approach – New Course | April 19-20
• Process Simulation Testing for Aseptically Filled Products – New Course | April 20
• Investigating Microbial Data Deviations – New Course | April 20
May 2012
Environmental Mycology Identification Workshop
May 2-4, 2012 | Bethesda, Maryland | www.pda.org/mycology2012
2012 Aseptic Processing Training Program
Bethesda, Maryland | www.pda.org/2012aseptic
• Session 1: January 9-13 and February 6-10, 2012 – SOLD OUT
• Session 2: March 5-9 and March 26-30, 2012 – SOLD OUT
• Session 3: May 14-18 and June 4-8, 2012
• Session 4: August 20-24 and September 10-14, 2012
• Session 5: October 15-19 and November 5-9, 2012
Laboratory Courses
The PDA Training and Research Institute is accredited by the Accreditation Council
for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.
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EMD Millipore is a division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany
I NTERNATI ONAL
BioPharm
The Science & Business of Biopharmaceuticals
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EDITORIAL
Editorial Director Angie Drakulich adrakulich@advanstar.com
Managing Editor Susan Haigney shaigney@advanstar.com
Editor (Europe) Rich Whitworth rwhitworth@advanstar.com
Scientific Editor Amy Ritter aritter@advanstar.com
Associate Editors Erik Greb, Stephanie Sutton, and Christopher Allen
egreb@advanstar.com, ssutton@advanstar.com,
and callen@advanstar.com
Art Director Dan Ward dward@media.advanstar.com
Washington Editor Jill Wechsler; Contributing Editor Jim Miller
Correspondents Hellen Berger (Latin & South America, hellen.
berger@terra.com.br), Jane Wan (Asia, wanjane@live.com.sg),
Sean Milmo (Europe, smilmo@btconnect.com)
ADVERTISING
Publisher Allen Basis abasis@advanstar.com
Sales Manager John Currid jcurrid@advanstar.com
European Sales Manager James Gray jgray@advanstar.com
Market Development, Classifieds, and
Recruitment Tod McCloskey tmccloskey@advanstar.com
Direct List Rentals Tamara Phillips tphillips@advanstar.com
Reprints The YGS Group AdvanstarReprints@theYGSgroup.com,
800.290.5460 ext 100 or +1.717.505.9701 ext 100
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PRODUCTION, MARKETING, CIRCULATION
Production Manager Dave Erickson derickson@media.advanstar.com
Audience Development Manager Nidia Augustin
naugustin@advanstar.com
President, Chief Executive Officer Joe Loggia; Vice-President, Finance &
Chief Financial Officer Ted Alpert; Executive Vice-President, Corporate
Development Eric I. Lisman; Chief Administrative Officer Tom Ehardt;
Executive Vice-President, Pharma/Science Group Ron Wall; Vice-
President and General Manager, Pharma/Science Group Dave Esola;
Vice-President, Information Technology J. Vaughn; Vice-President,
Media Operations Francis Heid; Vice-President, Human Resources Nancy
Nugent; Vice-President, General Counsel Ward D. Hewins;
Director of Content Peter Houston
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
BioPharm International’s Editorial Advisory Board comprises distinguished
specialists involved in the biologic manufacture of therapeutic drugs,
diagnostics, and vaccines. Members serve as a sounding board for the editors
and advise them on biotechnology trends, identify potential authors, and
review manuscripts submitted for publication.
K. A. Ajit-Simh
President, Shiba Associates
Fredric G. Bader
Vice President, Process Sciences
Centocor, Inc.
Rory Budihandojo
Manager, Computer Validation
Boehringer-Ingelheim
Edward G. Calamai
Managing Partner
Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
and Compliance Associates, LLC
John Carpenter
Professor, School of Pharmacy
University of Colorado Health
Sciences Center
Suggy S. Chrai
President and CEO
The Chrai Associates
Janet Rose Rea
Vice President,
Regulatory Affairs and Quality
Poniard Pharmaceuticals
John Curling
President,
John Curling Consulting AB
Rebecca Devine
Biotechnology Consultant
Leonard J. Goren
Global Leader, Human Identity
Division, GE Healthcare
Uwe Gottschalk
Vice President, Purification
Technologies
Sartorius Stedim Biotech GmbH
Rajesh K. Gupta
Laboratory Chief,
Division of Product Quality
Office of Vaccines Research and Review
CBER, FDA
Chris Holloway
Group Director of Regulatory Affairs
ERA Consulting Group
Ajaz S. Hussain
VP, Biological Systems, R&D
Philip Morris International
Jean F. Huxsoll
Senior Director, QA Compliance
Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals
Barbara K. Immel
President, Immel Resources, LLC
Denny Kraichely
Principal Research Scientist
Centocor R&D, Inc.
Stephan O. Krause
Principal Scientist, Analytical
Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc.
Steven S. Kuwahara
Principal Consultant
GXP BioTechnology LLC
Eric S. Langer
President and Managing Partner
BioPlan Associates, Inc.
Howard L. Levine
President
BioProcess Technology Consultants
Herb Lutz
Senior Consulting Engineer
Millipore Corporation
Hans-Peter Meyer
VP, Innovation for Future Technologies
Lonza, Ltd.
K. John Morrow
President, Newport Biotech
Barbara Potts
Director of QC Biology, Genentech
Tom Ransohoff
Senior Consultant
BioProcess Technology Consultants
Anurag Rathore
Biotech CMC Consultant
Faculty Member, Indian Institute of
Technology
Tim Schofield
Director, North American Regulatory
Affairs, GlaxoSmithKline
Paula Shadle
Principal Consultant,
Shadle Consulting
Alexander F. Sito
President,
BioValidation
Gail Sofer
Consultant,
Sofeware Associates
S. Joseph Tarnowski
Senior Vice President, Biologics
Manufacturing & Process
Development
Bristol-Myers Squibb
William R. Tolbert
President,
WR Tolbert & Associates
Michiel E. Ultee
Vice President of Process Sciences
Laureate Pharma
Thomas J. Vanden Boom
Vice President, Global Biologics R&D
Hospira, Inc.
Krish Venkat
Principal
AnVen Research
Steven Walfish
President,
Statistical Outsourcing Services
Gary Walsh
Associate Professor
Department of Chemical and
Environmental Sciences and Materials
and Surface Science Institute
University of Limerick, Ireland
Lloyd Wolfinbarger
President and Managing Partner
BioScience Consultants, LLC
presents
ProcessDevelopmentForum.com
Insights, Solutions and Shortcuts in Bioprocessing
Practical “How To’s”
to develop your
expertise
Video interviews,
GE Healthcare
product demos
& educational
webcasts

Go to www. Process Development Forum.com
Latest peer
reviewed articles
and GE Healthcare
application notes
Web links to
key industry,
government,
academic &
media sites
Access to
GE Healthcare
posters
NEW!
In Association with
6 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Contents
BioPharm
I NTERNATI ONAL
BioPharm International integrates
the science and business of
biopharmaceutical research, development,
and manufacturing. We provide practical,
peer-reviewed technical solutions
to enable biopharmaceutical professionals
to perform their jobs more effectively.
COLUMNS AND DEPARTMENTS
www.biopharminternational.com
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• Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI/Thomson Scientific) • Web of Science (ISI/Thomson Scientific)
7 From the Editor
The importance of
compromise in the new year.
Angie Drakulich
8 Global News

11 Regulatory Beat
Budget and politics shape
agenda for the year ahead.
Jill Wechsler
18 Perspectives on Outsourcing
Contract Services in 2012
Jim Milller
20 Burrill on Biotech
Global economic woes
overshadow advances of 2011.
G.Steven Burrill
22 Compliance Notes
How to manage numerous audits.
Susan J. Schniepp
45 Ad Index
46 New Technology Showcase
47 Product Spotlight
50 Final Word
USAID leader discusses global
healthcare initiatives.
Interview by Angie Drakulich
Special RepoRt: theRapeutic
VaccineS
Therapeutic Vaccine Outlook
Rich Whitworth
Has an approval in oncology reignited interest
in the recruitment of the immune system in
the fight against disease? 25
The Conception and Production
of Conjugate Vaccines Using
Recombinant DNA Technology
Veronica Gambillara
Using recombinant technology to produce
conjugate vaccines in a bacterial expression
system. 28

peeR-ReViewed:
lyophilization
Ice Fog as a Means to Induce
Uniform Ice Nucleation
Prerona Chakravarty, Ron Lee,
Frank DeMarco, and Ernesto Renzi
The authors describe a novel means to
control ice nucleation at the laboratory-,
pilot-, and production-scale. 33
tutoRial: RiSk aSSeSSment
Part I: An Overview of Risk
Assessment Strategies for
Extractables and Leachables
Thomas E. Stone
The author describes several approaches for risk
assessment of extractables and leachables. 39
Cover: Tetra Images/Getty Images
Volume 25 Number 1 January 2012
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From the Editor
Angie Drakulich is the
editorial director of
BioPharm International.
Editor’s Note: Michelle
Hoffman, previous editorial
director, has moved on to
pursue new scientific oppor-
tunities. We have the high-
est regard for her and wish
her all the best. As the new
Editorial Director, I have many
hopes and goals for BioPharm
International in the year ahead.
Our team will be working to
improve the types of articles
and resources we bring to
you in print and online. I am
also happy to announce that
2012 is the 25th anniversary
of BioPharm International. We
will be celebrating the occasion
with retrospective and for-
ward-looking articles through-
out the year. We welcome your
ideas and feedback.
Email adrakulich@advanstar.com
From the Editor
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 7
Here’s to a Year of Compromise
I
t is in the New Year that we often set goals to improve ourselves, whether it’s trying
to get fit, move up the career ladder, spend more time helping others in need, or any
other number of personal quests. But individuals aren’t the only ones who make
long-term goals—so do governments, organizations, and for our purposes, this industry.
Harmonization of drug development and manufacturing approaches comes to mind.
I’m a big supporter and follower of harmonization initiatives, but I get the feeling
that not everyone in industry is as gung-ho about the idea. At several industry meetings
during the past year, I’ve asked people what they think of harmonization and whether
they believe certain aspects of pharma manufacturing will ever be harmonized. I’ve
asked conference participants, for example, about the necessity of each nation having
its own pharmacopeial guide and of the existence of an international pharmacopeial
guide. For biologic-license-applicants working to bring a product to the global market, is
there a way to avoid filling out the same information on 20 different forms? Inspections
are another area lacking harmonization. We all know how many audit or inspection
teams that companies must accommodate in a given year. Most of the answers I’ve
received are along the lines of, “ I don’t know,” “They would never agree to compro-
mise on that,” or, “There’s too much national pride for one country to change its
standards to match another’s.”
I get that compromise is difficult. In fact, I spent several years working for a non-
profit focused on the work of the United Nations, so I understand all too well how
much effort is required to engage productive dialogue and garner compromise among
a diverse and global audience. I also get that the biopharmaceutical industry is highly
protective of its information and practices—it is a competitive, patent-based, trillion-
dollar industry after all. But I also think that some of the key elements of harmoniza-
tion are getting lost in translation.
Industry seems to want globally standardized approaches to their processes and
quality systems as well as minimal routes for filing marketing applications and
other required documents. Reaching these goals would make life easier for all parties
involved. Having an agreed-upon, worldwide approach to quality and supply-
management, for example, could literally solve many of the drug-product contamina-
tion and adulteration issues that have plagued the industry in recent years. And yet,
many companies and national regulatory or standard-setting bodies seem unwilling to
give up their current practices or accept that another company, organization, or nation
for that matter, may have a better way of doing things.
Perhaps my vision of global harmonization is too lofty or naïve. But there is reason
to hope. The International Conference on Harmonization was established in 1990 with
the aim of increasing “international harmonization of technical requirements to ensure
that safe, effective, and high quality medicines are developed and registered in the most
efficient and cost-effective manner.” In its 20-plus years, ICH has managed to gain con-
sensus across North America, the European Union, and Japan, on 16 Efficacy guidelines,
10 Quality guidelines, 9 Safety guidelines, and has several multidisciplinary guidelines
in the pipeline. The members of ICH’s Global Cooperation Group extend the reach of
these guidelines to eight additional countries, including the leading markets in Asia.
Other global standard-setting bodies are working to shape global industry practice.
And new industry groups working to share best practices throughout the world seem to
be popping up every month. I hope you will take time to learn more about global har-
monization efforts and talk with your colleagues about how your organization might
become involved. In the meantime, BioPharm International will do its best to keep you
apprised of happenings tied to harmonization and what it means for your day-to-day
operations—and that’s just one of many resolutions we intend to keep this year. ◆
Stem Cells Create Diseases-in-a-Dish
Two recent articles highlight the utility of
induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to
create cellular models of disease that
can be used to identify the mechanisms
underlying disease-related pathology.
In the first article, published online in
Nature on Nov. 23, 2011, skin cells
were collected from patients with a rare
inherited neurodegenerative disorder
called spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. The
skin cells were used to create iPSCs that
were, in turn, differentiated into neurons
(1). The authors showed that calcium-
dependant activation of the enzyme
calpain resulted in insoluble aggregates
of fragments of the protein ATXN3 in
neurons derived from patients, but not
from control individuals. They also
demonstrated that the aggregates formed
in neurons, but not in patient-derived
fibroblasts or glial cells, suggesting a
possible mechanism for the neuronal
damage that occurs in patients.
In the second article, published in the
December 2011 issue of Nature Medicine,
researchers created iPSCs from fibroblasts
collected from patients with Timothys
Syndrome, a form of autism (2). The iPSCs
were differentiated into neurons to examine
potential abnormalities underlying the
disorder. The researchers identified a host of
abnormalities in the patient-derived neurons,
including defects in calcium signaling,
known to be associated with this syndrome,
abnormal neurotransmitter production
and defects in activity-dependent gene
expression. Often, the genetic abnormality
underlying a disease is known, but the
details of how that abnormality translates
into pathology are difficult to decipher. The
ability to create cell culture-based models
that reproduce the abnormalities found in
human patients provides a powerful tool for
understanding the mechanisms of disease.
Sources: 1. Koch et al., Nature online
doi:10.1038/nature10671, Nov. 23,
2011. 2. Pasca et al., Nat. Med. 17 (12),
1657–1662 (2011).
—Amy Ritter
Discovery Pipeline
Brazil’s Development Bank Leader
Discusses the Country’s Pharma Future
As part of the BRIC bloc with Russia, India, and China, Brazil is one of the world’s
leading emerging economies and is also considered by IMS Health to be one of
seven pharmerging nations, which also include Mexico, Turkey, and South Korea.
With expectations to achieve significant pharmaceutical market gains in the coming
years, BioPharm International spoke with Pedro Palmeira, head of the Pharmaceutical
Department at the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) in Rio de Janiero. The bank
is the country’s primary financing agent for development.
BioPharm: It has been noted that Brazil’s northern region is growing at the same
pace as most of China and that Brazil expects to continue to grow its economy. Are
there key goals for the biopharmaceutical sector?
Palmeria: Brazil should continue growing at a rate of 5% per year in the next
few years, largely driven by its internal market. In the case of the pharmaceutical
market, the past few years have been prosperous, due to the increased income in
the lowest levels of the population that began to acquire more health products,
and to the increased public spending to attend the new public health needs of
the population. This positive environment of the past 10 years has allowed for
the modernization of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry and its increased
production capacity. The main challenge in the next few years will be to uphold
the supply of health products for the increasing demand, while at the same time
consolidating research, development, and innovation efforts within the country,
especially in the area of biotechnology products.
BioPharm: The Brazilian government plans to move 16 million people out of poverty
and into the healthcare system during the next 10 years. Is this part of a larger
government initiative? What progress been made to date?
Palmeria: The recent economic boom in Brazil…, together with the
government policies for income transfer, have taken more than 36 million
Brazilians out of poverty, which increased the middle class by more than 50%
of population. This result is extremely relevant for a country that still has a very
high rate of income inequality. Even so, it is estimated that there are around 16
million Brazilians with a family income of less than US $45 per month, which are
families that are difficult to reach by the traditional measures of the state.
It was for these reasons that the Brazilian government created the Programa
Brasil Sem Miséria (Brazil without Poverty) in 2011 to take this underprivileged
group of Brazilians out of poverty and give them access to the country’s main
social services. Within the scope of the program, healthcare is included as a
fundamental right and an important pillar in the public policy to include this
part of the population.
BioPharm: Moving so many people into the healthcare system will provide great
business opportunity—as well as challenges—for the healthcare and drug sectors.
What steps is the government taking to address these? What advantages may exist
for biopharmaceutical companies outside of Brazil?
Palmeria: The key word to healthcare in Brazil is access. The government
has been working hard to increase the supply of medicines to the populace.
On the side of development and production in the country, this effort involves
several fronts: technology transfer agreements via public-private partnerships;
finance for the development and production of strategic products for the
Brazilian health system; continued improvement of the regulatory regime;
and centralized purveying and negotiating directly with producers. The
opportunities for companies arise inasmuch as the government is able to
acquire more products and sustain the adoption of new protocols in the
Brazilian Universal Health System.
8 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Global News
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2012 EMD Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA. All rights reserved.
EMD Millipore is a division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
BioPharm: What is the country’s short-
and long-term perspective on the
manufacture of biopharmaceuticals,
including biosimilars?
Palmeria: The Brazilian government
is working to construct an industrial
platform for biotechnology within the
country that, in the short-term, produces
biological products that are not new
(biosimilars). This industrial structure
should, however, include the possibility to
innovate and develop new biotechnolgy
products in the long-term.
BioPharm: GE Healthcare and Amgen
have recently made bold moves to
acquire facilities and companies in São
Paulo. Have you seen increased action
along these lines from multinational
biopharmaceutical firms? Do you
expect more?
Palmeria: In the past two years,
BNDES has received a growing number
of consultations, both formal and
prospective, from foreign companies in
the health industry that are interested in
the Brazilian market. Yes, we do expect
more—and that these activities come to
be real investments in the Brazilian health
industry. Investments that contribute to
the established industrial technology
and that contribute to the challenge of
increasing the access of the Brazilian
public to health products and services will
be very welcome.
BioPharm: Brazil’s regulatory system
and healthcare policies seem to be
stable and well-respected on a global
scale, which have contributed to its
role as a pharmerging nation. What
components of this governance
structure hold advantages for outside
biopharmaceutical companies wanting to
do business in Brazil?
Palmeria: Companies that wish to
invest in the Brazilian health industry
will encounter an extremely favorable
environment.... Brazil has a regulatory
regime and intellectual property
environment that are in compliance with
global standards, as well as a scientific and
technological base that is consolidated
and expanding. Finally, regarding long-
term credit, BNDES and other government
agencies offer favorable conditions
to support industrial investments in
production facilities as well in research,
development, and innovation activities.
BioPharm: Brazil is known as a
“pharmerging” market by the
biopharmaceutical industries in North
America and Europe. How do you view
this label? How do you see your country
in the global marketplace in terms of the
biopharmaceutical space?
Palmeria: Today, Brazil is among the
10 largest economies in the world. With a
population of 180 million, a vast territory
and immense mineral wealth, the country
is positioned as a promising economy.
With a robust middle class, a diversified
industrial base, a sustainable energy
matrix, and a stable democracy that is
anchored in solid institutions, the country
is clearly on a path for growth—led not
only by internal consumption, but also
by a significant volume of exports. In this
scenario, Brazil can legitimately aspire
to be one of the world’s five foremost
economies.
As far as the health industry is
concerned, the scenario is even more
promising as it is challenging. As
mentioned, the income-transfer programs,
together with economic growth, have
brought 36 million Brazilian out of poverty
to become real citizens able to consume
goods and services. The improvements
in quality of life of Brazilians have made
demographic changes that will give Brazil,
in just a few decades, a demographic
pyramid similar to that of Europe. Life
expectancy in Brazil is currently 73 years
old. The change in the epidemiological
profile of the populace is also impressive:
today, the average Brazilian has more
chronic-degenerative diseases than
infecto-contagious illnesses. At the same
time, it is important to point out the
ambitious public health system which
covers more than 100 million people.
According to the Constitution of Brazil,
health is the right of everyone and it is an
obligation of the State to provide it.
Our pharmaceutical industry, which
today holds the seventh rank in the
world, grows by double digits, without
indications of slowing down. Projections
indicate that Brazil will occupy the
sixth position by 2015. The Brazilian
government has been stimulating the
industry by supporting and financing
projects that contribute to reducing the
vulnerabilities of our health system—a
fact that, together with a continually
improving regulatory regime, has
shown signs of the strategic nature of
our health industry. Therefore, in this
promising scenario, it is indeed possible
to affirm that, more than having a label
of ‘pharmerging market,’ Brazil has all
the conditions to become a solid and
developed pharmaceutical market in the
short run, and it has huge opportunities
for those that wish to take part.
BioPharm: The growing occurrence
of South–South trade is leading to
some multinational companies (as well
as nations) to question their current
market-growth strategies. How does
your organization view South–South
trade in terms of benefits, and perhaps
disadvantages?
Palmeria: From our viewpoint, the
increased volume of South–South trade
reflects the search for opportunities and
exchange among commercial partners
with complementary interests. Specifically
regarding Brazilian interest in developing a
strong biotechnology industry in line with
national interests, our country is obviously
seeking partnerships with enterprises and
governments where this technological
wave has been consolidated, regardless of
the regions or geographic location.
—Angie Drakulich
Follow us on online @ Twitter/BioPharmIntl or join us on LinkedIn: BioPharmInternational for the
latest news updates, conference reports, event listings, and more.
10 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Global News
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 11
Regulatory Beat
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lection-year politics will play a role in a
range of legislative and policy developments
affecting drug development, manufacturing,
and reimbursement in the coming year. Efforts to
reduce government spending on healthcare are
prompting all parties to search for opportunities
to do more with less. Although FDA received a
slight increase in its 2012 budget, limited resources
throughout the public and private sectors are likely
to undercut efforts to advance biomedical research
and expand public health programs. These devel-
opments will drive manufacturers to look overseas
for less costly and more efficient opportunities to
expand R&D, production, and sales. As the cam-
paign for the White House and control of Congress
heats up, pharmaceutical and biotech companies
will need to keep a sharp eye on how new policy
proposals may affect product development, drug
regulation, and the debate over reauthorization of
the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA).
Whither reform?
Manufacturers backed Obamacare two years ago
as a way to expand the market for prescription
drugs, including a growing number of pricey
biotech therapies. In return, industry agreed to
pay hefty new fees as well as higher rebates on
Medicaid drugs, and to subsidize the cost of drugs
sold to seniors caught in the “doughnut
hole” of the Medicare prescription drug
program. The worst-case scenario for
manufacturers now would be to elimi-
nate the market reforms and insurance
exchanges designed to expand enroll-
ment in health plans, while retaining
provisions that cut revenues and raise
costs for industry.
The 800-pound gorilla in the room
is the looming Supreme Court decision
on the constitutionality of the Obama
healthcare reform legislation. While the
Justices ponder the weighty legal issues,
the US Department of Health and Human Services
(HHS) will continue to implement the multitude
of policies and programs established by that law.
The administration’s working assumption is that
the Affordable Care Act (ACA)—or much of it—will
remain in place. Many states are moving ahead
with efforts to expand health IT systems and to
establish processes for determining insurance eli-
gibility and coverage. But a Republican takeover of
the White House in November 2012 would bring
considerable changes in health-related programs.
Whatever the legal and political outcome,
policymakers on all sides will be looking to cut
payments to providers, to increase cost-sharing
by patients, and to reduce benefits and services.
Increased reliance on managed care plans and
coordinated care programs, initiatives to reduce
fraud and abuse, perennial proposals to reform
the nation’s medical liability system, and efforts to
curb pharmacy expenditures will emerge as ways
to save money without compromising care.
Pricing Pressures
The drive for healthcare savings will continue to
shine the spotlight on pharmaceutical pricing,
reimbursement, and access. Policymakers increas-
ingly will be looking for more convincing evidence
of the value of new medicines and for new ways
to reduce risk in determining coverage of new
therapies. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
Services (CMS), pharmacy benefits managers
(PBMs), and other payers and insurers will ques-
Budget Crunch, Political Battles
Shape Policy Agenda for Year
Pressure to approve new user fees opens the door
to action on drug shortages, prices, and regulation.
Jill Wechsler is BioPharm
International’s Washington editor,
chevy chase, mD, 301.656.4634,
jwechsler@advanstar.com.
the drive for healthcare savings
will continue to shine a spotlight
on pharmaceutical pricing,
reimbursement, and access.
Advertorial
Product & Service Innovations
Company Description
Rentschler Biotechnologie GmbH is a full-service contract
manufacturer with over 35 years of experience in the devel-
opment, production, and approval of biopharmaceuticals
in compliance with international GMP standards with a
highly skilled staff of 650. As part of the Rentschler Group
and headquartered in Laupheim, Germany, Rentschler is
one of three leading European CMOs operating globally.
Dedicated to delivering high-quality biopharmaceuticals
produced in mammalian cell culture, Rentschler has nine
stand-alone GMP suites with 30-, 250-, 500-, 1,000-, and
2,500-L volumes, allowing material production for clinical
trials and market supply. Rentschler Biotechnologie is a pio-
neer in the development and production of biopharmaceu-
ticals—it was the first company in the world to gain market
authorization for an interferon-containing drug.
Biopharmaceutical
Services and Capabilities
Rentschler provides customized, integrated biopharmaceuti-
cal services from the cell line to the development and produc-
tion of the active ingredient, and from marketing authorization
to fill-and-finish. The long-standing experience of Rentschler
Biotechnologie combined with its range of comprehensive
services reduces time delays and ensures the success of any
project by rapid and reliable execution. Rentschler develops
tailored solutions for each customer through all phases of de-
velopment and production, whether for low-dose cytokines or
high-dose antibodies and biosimilars.
Rentschler Biotechnologie is an experienced partner for
implementing project goals, coordinating operations, and
communicating progress updates for high customer satisfac-
tion. Capacities up to 2,500 L and a trusted preferred partner-
ship agreement with Boehringer Ingelheim for a seamless
project transfer to large-scale manufacturing of up to 12,500
L ensure development and planning security throughout
the whole development process—from clinical phases up to
market production. As a cost-efficient and fast manufactur-
ing alternative to the stainless-steel fermenters, two 1,000-L
single-use bioreactor lines are available. The first 1,000 L
single-use bioreactor has been in operation since mid 2010 and
the second line went into operation in October 2011.
At present, there are nine state-of-the-art suites for GMP
production and three GMP filling lines. Rentschler Biotech-
nologie will continue expanding its capacities in the future to
be able to take on new and challenging tasks.
GMP Certified Services
Cell Line and Process Development
Production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
• Stainless-steel bioreactors: 30 to 2,500 L
• Single-use bioreactors: 250 to 1,000 L
• Cultivation methods: batch, repeated batch,
fed batch, continuous (e.g., perfusion)
Fill and Finish
Aseptic filling of vials
• With and without lyophilization
• Volumes: 0.25 to 50 mL
• Batch size: 100 to 70,000 vials
• Filling line for small batch sizes and
development work
Aseptic filling of pre-filled syringes
• Volumes: 0.5 to 20 mL
• Batch size: 100 to 15,000 syringes
Analytics and Quality Control
Marketing Authorization Application
and Consulting
Quality Assurance
Corporate Project Management
Rentschler
Biotechnologie
12 BioPharm International January 2012
Rentschler
Biotechnologie GmbH
Erwin-Rentschler-Straße 21
Laupheim Germany
Phone: +49 7392.701.555 Fax: +49 7392.701.400
Email: info@rentschler.de Website: www.rentschler.de
We take you further.
Unique competence in biopharmaceuticals
Cell Line
Development
Process
Development
API Production
(GMP)
Fill & Finish (GMP)
Regulatory Affairs
Advanced Service
From Cell line to Registration.
Competence
Over 35 years of experience.
Time-to-market
Successful products - fast and reliable.
Let us A.C.T. together for your success!
Germany
Phone: +49 7392 701-555
E-mail: info@rentschler.de
USA
Phone: +1 631 656-7137
E-mail: info.us@rentschler.de
www.rentschler.de
14 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
regulatory Beat regulatory Beat
tion the value of high-cost therapies
that appear to offer limited benefit.
Payers and policymakers will face
difficult questions about cost versus
safety and efficacy, as seen in the
debate over treatment of age-related
macular degeneration with off-label
use of the cancer drug Avastin (beva-
cizumab), instead of with its more
costly formulation Lucentis (ranibi-
zumab). Similarly, the controversy
over the sharp price hike for preterm-
birth treatment Makena (caproate)
after it gained market control under
FDA’s policy for halting sales of unap-
proved drugs, indicates that prices
perceived as excessive can override
some drug-safety issues.
Payers will continue to look for
more drug discounts and rebates,
threatening to relegate pricey prod-
ucts to unfavorable positions on
health plan formularies. Although
the Medicare Part D drug benefit
has provided seniors with access to
affordable medicines, benefits may
suffer as many plans boost co-pays
and limit coverage for costly thera-
pies. In Europe, government agen-
cies such as the United Kingdom’s
National Institute for Health and
Clinical Excellence (NICE) are oppos-
ing coverage of expensive products
that lack sufficient added benefits.
Manufacturers are respond-
ing with risk-sharing programs
that skew prices based on patient
response to a new therapy. The
claim by biopharmaceutical com-
panies that effective treatment
with expensive therapies can
reduce overall healthcare costs will
remain a hard-sell to the number-
crunchers that regard pharmacy out-
lays as a discrete expenditure, rather
than a way to save money.
Pressure to cut costs will drive
support for the ACA provision that
establishes a pathway for bringing
biosimilars to market. FDA guid-
ance on the scope of preclinical and
clinical testing needed to document
product comparability, if not inter-
changeability, will spur manufactur-
ers of all stripes to move aggressively
into the follow-on biologics field. For
the program to be effective, policy-
makers will have to decide a number
of thorny issues, including policies
for names to identify these products,
coding requirements for reimburse-
ment, and rules governing patent
challenges and protection.
Biosimilars are a big issue because
payers anticipate hefty savings from
these look-alike therapies, as has been
the case with small molecules during
the past 25 years. Generic drugs now
account for about 80% of prescrip-
tions in the US, and the proportion
will rise further as more blockbuster
brands such Pfizer’s Lipitor (atorv-
astatin) go off patent. The wave of
new generic drugs puts more pres-
sure on FDA to speed up its process
for approving new generic drugs for
market. New user fees paid by generic
drugmakers will help fund such
efforts.
Efforts by Pfizer to retain a good
portion of the Lipitor market by cut-
ting its price and negotiating long-
term deals with payers and PBMs
have roiled the drug industry and
pharmacy programs. These actions
further spur industry critics to harp
about brand-generic patent settle-
ments that can delay when a generic
comes to market and propose policies
to curb those practices.
securing suPPlies;
AvoiDing shortAges
The search by pharmaceutical com-
panies for new products and new
markets will further expand global
pharmaceutical production, with the
relevant opportunities and perils.
Rising international sourcing of APIs
and excipients will put more pressure
on industry to manage production
processes to ensure the quality and
safety of their products.
A sharp rise in supply problems for
vital drugs has led to a focus on drug
quality and supply chain problems.
The White House unveiled a drug-
shortages initiative in October 2011,
which supports proposals before
Congress to broaden requirements
for manufacturers to report to FDA
production issues that could lead to
supply problems. Policymakers also
seek tighter controls on drug imports,
better track-and-trace systems, and
stiffer penalties for counterfeiting
and drug adulteration. FDA officials
are instructing pharma companies
to police suppliers and distributors
more effectively for early detection
of quality problems. The regulators
also want manufacturers to estab-
lish backup plans for dealing with
supplier and production snafus that
could halt production.
This increased focus on systems for
ensuring reliable drug supplies will
further intensify efforts by industry,
FDA, and other regulatory bodies to
promote continuous quality improve-
ment strategies, including adoption
of quality standards established by
the International Conference on
Harmonization (ICH). Regulators are
looking to extend these quality assur-
ance policies to include generic drugs
and ingredients from other regions.
Efforts to manage manufacturing
changes more efficiently will con-
tinue, as FDA officials promote more
effective product testing and moni-
toring to reduce variability in drugs
and biologics and to prevent “process
drift” in manufacturing operations.
FDA has proposed modified report-
ing requirements for certain postap-
proval manufacturing changes, with
an eye to curbing unnecessary over-
sight. So far, however, manufacturers
are disappointed by the limited scope
of the regulatory changes.
Drug quality issues will keep up
the pressure on FDA to conduct more
frequent inspections of manufactur-
ing facilities and to crack down on
noncompliant firms, particularly for-
eign operators exporting products
to the US. FDA is looking to expand
partnerships and cooperative pro-
grams with regulatory counterparts
in Europe and other regions as a way
to combine inspection resources and
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 15
regulatory Beat
avoid redundant oversight. The reg-
ulators also are looking to tap into
manufacturing data compiled by
third parties to free up resources and
focus on the most critical compliance
issues. Agency officials hope to final-
ize a number of manufacturing and
production policies in the coming
year, but recognize that such efforts
can be sidelined by new crises and
changing priorities.
Manufacturers who experience
serious quality control problems face
increased attention from federal and
state prosecutors, who are looking
more at violations of GMPs—in addi-
tion to off-label marketing and ille-
gal pricing—as evidence of corporate
malfeasance. Pharmaceutical com-
panies have been hit with huge fines
and onerous consent decrees for vio-
lation of GMPs and other regulations,
but the situation may get worse.
Government officials are raising
the stakes by threatening to impose
penalties on individual corporate
executives who fail to take action to
prevent such violations, and some of
the saber-rattling could escalate into
real blows.
filling the PiPeline
The loss of patent protection for a
wave of blockbuster medicines is
driving pharmaceutial companies
to search for new models for drug
development to fill an admittedly
dry drug pipeline. Public and private
backers of biomedical research talk
more about “game-changing, trans-
formational leaps” in discovery, as
opposed to the incremental gains
that traditionally lead to important
scientific advances. There is grow-
ing enthusiasm for developing per-
sonalized medicines that provide
more effective treatment based on
individual genomic and metabolic
characteristics. This will require the
development of more diagnostics to
identify key response factors.
Expanded international research
efforts are tapping into public–private
partnerships for developing impor-
tant therapies for malaria, tuberculo-
sis, and other diseases most prevalent
in tropical climates. Health authori-
ties are pressing for more research
on new antibiotics, along with treat-
ments for rare conditions and killer
diseases such as cancer and AIDS.
There is growing excitement about
new vaccines, which are attracting
more industry investment as markets
mature around the world.
FDA can help the process, accord-
ing to Commissioner Margaret
Hamburg, who has been promoting
the campaign to bolster FDA involve-
ment in regulatory science initiatives
to provide new tools and methods to
accelerate the R&D process. Several
programs are underway to validate
biomarkers that can identify poten-
tial safety problems early on and
improve the efficiency of clinical
studies. Other coalitions are look-
ing to streamline the long and costly
R&D process by developing research
protocols for “adaptive” clinical trials
and promoting electronic methods
for recruiting patients and collecting
research data.
Yet, manufacturers complain that
a risk-averse tendency at FDA and
demands for more, larger studies
keep many promising medicines off
the market and raise R&D costs. The
recent FDA decision to revoke the
metastatic breast cancer indication
for Avastin has generated questions
about the future of FDA’s acceler-
ated approval process and the
threshold for bringing new cancer
therapies to market.
FDA officials point to last year’s
jump in approvals for new molecular
entities (NMEs) as evidence that the
agency is not keeping important new
medicines from patients. A number
of the approvals involve treatments
for rare conditions and serious can-
cers that carry less risk for patients
and lend themselves to speedy FDA
evaluation.
The rise in overseas clinical
research activity, as pharmaceuti-
cal companies seek more efficient
drug development operations and
data to support global marketing
efforts, continues to focus attention
on research ethics and policies to
ensure compliance with good clinical
practices. Several federal agencies are
examining past unsafe research prac-
tices and weighing changes in poli-
cies and standards for clinical studies
sponsored by the federal government
or regulated by FDA.
Clinical research activities also
face more scrutiny at home under
transparency requirements that
expand disclosure of active clini-
cal trials and study results on the
clinicaltrials.gov website. Health
reform “sunshine” provisions
require pharma companies to dis-
close payments to physicians and
other health professionals, a process
that involves major revisions in cor-
porate policies and information sys-
tems. The transparency campaign,
moreover, may result in broader FDA
disclosure of information on drug
safety and effectiveness, possibly
even proprietary data that manufac-
turers might prefer to keep confiden-
tial. The assurance that US-supported
investigators fully protect research
participants and ensure the validity
of clinical data is critical to improv-
ing public confidence in the pharma-
ceutical R&D process.
“Patient centeredness” will con-
tinue to shape regulatory and
research initiatives. FDA is encourag-
ing sponsors to incorporate patient
needs and opinions into clinical-trial
protocol design, patient recruitment,
drug delivery, and safety evalua-
tion. This approach will be sup-
ported by research sponsored by the
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Institute (PCORI), which is slated to
have a $500 million annual budget
by 2014 to study effective treatments
for important conditions. PCORI
plans to finalize priorities for its
research agenda by March 2012, and
its Methodologies Committee aims
to report in May on research meth-
ods and standards for this field. ◆
Advertorial
Product & Service Innovations
Biomonitoring at EMD Millipore
We make the world a safer place
A top player in the industrial microbiology
market
EMD Millipore BioMonitoring combines the experience
and expertise of two historically strong players in the field of
industrial microbiology and product process monitoring. The
merger of EMD and Millipore in 2010 enabled this business
field to become a leader in providing state-of-the-art testing
methods, regulatory expertise and outstanding service.
The acquisition of Biotest AG’s microbiology
Business
has recently been completed. It consists of the product port-
folio of Hycon (hygiene monitoring) and the product portfolio
of heipha Dr. Müller GmbH (microbiological culture media
and microbiological test systems). It will complement EMD
Millipore’s existing dehydrated cell culture media and testing
systems with the so called “ready-to-use” culture media and
instruments. It will also add particle counting and strengthen
air monitoring in our hygiene monitoring portfolio.
This acquisition does not only allow us to strengthen our
product portfolio in the growth segment industrial microbiol-
ogy for contamination detection, it also allows us to capitalize
on a motivated, customer focused workforce, unique knowl-
edge and state-of-the-art production.
BioMonitoring’s mission statement
Across the globe, our microbiological Products and Services
assure that food, water and pharmaceuticals are safe from
biocontamination and our materials and components help to
diagnose and treat patients worldwide.
What supports our mission statement?
We are a top-player in the Industrial Microbiology
market.
We have developed intimacy with regulatory requirements
in the food & beverage, pharmaceutical and diagnostics
markets
We offer a comprehensive service and support for prod-
ucts, applications and process development
We have a strong commitment and significant R&D
investment towards innovation, with full understanding of
customers’ evolving needs
We have a decade-long track-record of standard setting
leadership in core areas (Dehydrated Culture Media, Sterility
testing, Blood-typing antibodies)
Our customers can count on state-of-the-art production
facilities. (ISO 9001-13485-14001; FDA–EMEA).
Our market segments
Focused markets include Pharmaceutical, BioPharma, Food,
Beverage, Environmental (Municipal water), and Cosmetics.
A new awareness campaign for
BioMonitoring
“There is more to safety, than meets the eye” is the key mes-
sage of the new awareness campaign recently launched to
promote our offering in the growing microbiological moni-
toring market. This claim translates that safety goes beyond
what is visible at first glance : the BioMonitoring offer goes
beyond state of the art testing methods. We support micro-
biological monitoring through our expertise of local markets
regulations and outstanding service. EMD Millipore pro-
vides that one invaluable result: maintaining the safety of
your products and manufacturing processes.
About EMD Millipore division
EMD Millipore is the Life Science division of Merck KGaA,
Darmstadt, Germany and offers a broad range of innovative,
performance products, services and business relationships
that enable our customers’ success in research, develop-
ment and production of biotech and pharmaceutical drug
therapies. Through dedicated collaboration on new scientific
and engineering insights, and as one of the top three R&D
investors in the Life Science Tools industry, EMD Millipore
serves as a strategic partner to customers and helps advance
the promise of life science. Headquartered in Billerica, Mas-
sachusetts, the division has around 10,000 employees, opera-
tions in 67 countries and 2010 revenues of $2.2 billion. EMD
Millipore is known as Merck Millipore outside of the U.S.
and Canada.
EMD Millipore
16 BioPharm International January 2012
EMD Millipore
www.emdmillipore.com/BioMonitoring
www.emdmillipore.com/offices
There is more to safety
than meets the eye.
BioMonitoring by
EMD Millipore.
EMD Millipore is a division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany
BioMonitoring is about more than high quality microbiology
testing solutions. It’s a comprehensive approach providing
regulatory expertise, substantial service, and trust.
These are vital components for the highly regulated
pharmaceutical industry to produce that one
invaluable result: safe products.
Our broader portfolio including
Biotest Microbiology (heipha/Hycon) products:
• Microbiological membrane filtration
• Sterility testing
• Traditional and rapid
microbial detection & identification
• Ready-to-use and dehydrated culture media
• Viable and non-viable air monitoring
• Surface monitoring
• Pyrogen testing
www.emdmillipore.com/biomonitoring
NOW
: Including
Biotest M
icrobiology
Portfolio (heipha/Hycon)
18 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Perspectives on Outsourcing
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he year 2011 ended with the buyout
of the contract research organi za-
tion (CRO) Pharmaceutical Product
Development (PPD) by two private-equity firms,
the Carlyle Group and Hellman & Friedman.
They paid $3.9 billion, a 30% premium over
the company’s value shortly before the deal was
announced, making it the largest private-equity
deal for a publicly traded CRO.
Clinical CROs such as PPD have proven to
be popular takeover targets for private-equity
firms: PharmSource counts at least eight pub-
licly owned CROs that have been taken private
by private-equity firms since 2003 (see Table I).
One CRO, PRA International, had a roundtrip. It
was founded as a private company, taken public
by its private-equity investor, Genstar Capital,
in an initial public offering (IPO) in 2005, and
then taken private again by Genstar in 2007.
ManageMent incentives
Private-equity buyouts are usually quite attrac-
tive to the current shareholders of the company
because they offer a significant premium over
what the company’s stock was selling for shortly
before the deal was announced. These deals
are usually even more enticing to
the senior executives who run the
acquired company for two big rea-
sons. Going private allows execu-
tives to pursue long-term growth
strategies away from the oversight
of public shareholders and Wall
Street analysts, both of which may
be more interested in short-term
results than initiatives that prom-
ise longer-term, but more uncer-
tain, payoffs. As importantly, the
private-equity buyers usually offer
the senior executives increased
equity stakes in the company that
can deliver great riches if those executives are
successful in substantially increasing the value
of the company through the successful imple-
mentation of those long-term strategies.
The PPD deal illustrates how senior manage-
ment’s frustrations with the public market can
drive a company’s board to pursue a private-
equity buyout. In the past decade, the company
had pursued a strategy it called “compound
partnering” under which it would acquire or
invest in promising early-stage drug candidates.
PPD would undertake the early-development
efforts to establish proof-of-concept, then out-
license or sell the candidate to a drug company
for late development and commercialization.
Despite some early successes, the stock mar-
ket and analysts following the company were
uncomfortable with this strategy because it
introduced a level of risk and uncertainty into
a valuation model that expected steady finan-
cial performance that was easy to forecast. As a
result of the uncertainty, the market discounted
the value of the company’s stock. A similar
problem had been a major reason for another
CRO, Quintiles, to undertake a management-led
buyout in 2003.
PPD’s board tried to improve its stock’s per-
formance by making its compound-partnering
the PPD deal illustrates how
senior management’s frustrations
with the public market can drive
a company’s board to pursue a
private-equity buyout.
Contract Services in 2012
Some recent private-equity buyouts of contract research
organizations show both the upside and downside for investors.
Jim Miller is president of Pharmsource
information services inc., and
publisher of Bio/Pharmaceutical
Outsourcing Report, tel. 703.383.4903,
fax 703.383.4905, info@pharmsource.
com, www.pharmsource.com
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 19
Perspectives on Outsourcing
business into a separate company,
which it spun off to shareholders
in 2010. That move, however, did
not help the stock’s valuation as
much as had been hoped. Part of
the problem had been the under-
performance of PPD’s laboratory
services business, whose disap-
pointing profitability in recent
years has been blamed for depress-
ing the company’s stock price.
Private ownership may enable
PPD management to address the
laboratory businesses’ problems
wit h a long-ter m view whi le
shielding it from second-guessing
by public investors. That was the
story at PharmaNet Development,
which was bought by a private-
equity firm after it was cited for
noncompliant behavior in running
some of its clinical trials.
HOw PRivate equity wins
The aim of private-equity investors
is simple: make a large cash return
on the cash invested. This goal
is accomplished in two ways: by
taking advantage of the acquired
company’s cash-generating capa-
bility and by making the company
worth more when it is sold than
when it was bought.
Most private-equity deals take
advantage of the acquired compa-
ny’s ability to support a significant
debt burden. By using the target’s
debt capacity, the private firm is
able to borrow much of the pur-
chase price and limit the amount
of cash it must put up to make
the acquisition in the first place.
Current interest rates make bor-
rowing especially attractive.
Clinical CROs are an attrac-
tive vehicle for leveraged buy-
outs. Thei r capital-i nvestment
requirements are usually small
in comparison with manufactur-
ing businesses, so they can throw
off a lot of cash. Further, those
cashflows are highly predictable
because clinical CROs tend to
have highly diversified multiyear
project backlogs. A growing CRO
is likely to be able to pay out sub-
stantial dividends to its owners
as well as carry a substantial debt
burden.
Enhancing the value of the
acquired company may just be a
matter of timing, such as by buy-
ing the company at a low point in
the market cycle and going public
when market multiples are high
again. The private-equity firm also
can improve the value of its tar-
get through further acquisitions,
expansions of offerings, or restruc-
turing to improve profits. Stock
analysts who were following PPD
before the acquisition speculated
that PPD’s laboratory businesses
might be in for restructuring.
Risky PROPOsitiOns
Buyouts by private-equity com-
panies are not without risk, as
such moves are subject to not
f ul ly understandi ng the pros-
pects of the business or changing
market conditions. Both of these
things appeared to happen to
the buyers of the European CMO
Nextpharma, whose Belgian inject-
ables manufacturing business was
recently forced to file for bank-
ruptcy protection, as well as to the
French CMO Osny Pharma, which
filed for bankruptcy protection in
early 2011 and was absorbed by
another CMO, Cenexi.
Whi le PPD’s track record of
profitability and market position
(it is thought to be the second
largest for Phase I –I V cl i nical
research after Quintiles) would
seem to guarantee a strong per-
formance over the typical pri-
vate- equit y holdi ng period of
f ive years, the changi ng CRO
and bio/pharmaceutical research
environment could present chal-
lenges. As global bio/pharma-
ceutical companies reduce their
CRO relationships to a few pre-
ferred providers, competition for
those relationships has become
i ntense. There repor tedly has
been aggressive price cutting in
the industry to get those deals,
thereby leaving “winners” sad-
dled with lower profit margins
but losers shut out altogether.
Investors have been attracted
to the CRO industry because the
ongoing reinvention of the bio/
pharma business model has out-
sourcing as a core strategy. The
ultimate form of that business
model is still evolving and being
tested, and there is no guaran-
tee that it will ultimately look
l i ke what it looks l i ke today.
Buyers of PPD bought one of the
crown jewels of the industry. The
greater risk is probably faced not
by them, but the private-equity
firms that bought PPD’s small
and mid-size competitors. ◆
Company Year acquired Acquirer
PPD 2011 Carlyle Group; Hellman & Friedman
Kendle 2011 INC Research *
Theorem Clinical
(former Omnicare CRO)
2011 Nautic
inVentiv Clinical 2010 Thomas H. Lee Partners
Averion 2009 Comvest
PharmaNet Development 2009 JLL Partners
PRA International 2007 Genstar Capital
Quintiles 2003 Senior management
* CRO owned by private-equity firm Avista Capital Partners.
inVentiv was sold as part of a larger entity. Theorem was a unit of Omnicare.
Source: Company information and publicly available information.
Table I: Publicly traded contract research organizations acquired via private-
equity deals.
20 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Burrill on Biotech
D
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T
he biotech industry in 2011 scored victo-
ries with major drug approvals, deals, and
advancements. But, while the industry was
on pace for one of the biggest years of fundraising
in the first half of the year, global economic wor-
ries and political fights over government debt in
Europe and the US weighed heavily on financial
markets and overshadowed the industry’s success.
These pressures not only hampered companies’
ability to raise capital in the second half of the
year, but also raised the specter of cuts to govern-
ments’ expenditures on healthcare and biomedical
research. With capital scarce and expensive, com-
panies will need to focus their investments on clear
paths to revenues. They will also have to develop
products that push beyond incremental improve-
ments, and concentrate on disruptive solutions
that make healthcare costs more sustainable.
A total of 16 life-sciences companies managed to
go public in the US through the end of November,
2011, raising a total of $1.4 billion, compared with
with 18 initial public offerings (IPOs) in the first 11
months of 2010 that raised a total of nearly $1.3
billion. As a group, the life sciences IPOs of 2011
fell 14.2% from their initial offering prices as of the
end of November. Ten of these companies went
public below their target prices and, as a group,
these companies sold nearly 28% more shares
than they set out to sell while raising
about 14% fewer shares than they
had hoped.
Therapeutics developer Endocyte,
which went public at less than half
its target price, was the biggest gainer
through the end of November,
closing up 71.3% to $10.30*. The
medical-device company Kips Bay
Medical was the steepest decliner,
falling 80.1% to finish in November
at $1.60. Public-market volatility
weighed on public financings over-
all. US follow-ons fell 20.4% and pri-
vate investment in public equity offerings dropped
33.1% from year-ago levels through the first 11
months of 2011.
The nearly $7 billion invested in the sector
through venture capital reflected a 13.5% increase
over last year through the first 11 months. But
there are growing concerns about the future role
traditional venture investors will play in funding
biotech. Scale Venture Partners will exit the life sci-
ences altogether, while the life-sciences practices at
Morgenthaler and Advanced Technology Ventures
are breaking off from their information technol-
ogy counterparts to form a new firm. Meanwhile,
Prospect Ventures said in October 2011 it would
not raise a fourth healthcare fund and will return
committed capital to limited partners.
In fact, a survey from the National Venture
Capital Association has found that nearly 40% of
life-sciences venture-capital firms plan to invest
less in the sector during the next three years. That
reduction reflects both frustration with regulatory
barriers and the weak market for IPOs that have
made it difficult for venture investors to cash out
of their investments. These are troubling devel-
opments that could constrain the availability of
capital to promising young companies in the years
ahead. It is vital that regulatory barriers and capital
market constraints be addressed that ultimately
may be choking off important sources of innova-
tive medicines and new jobs.
On the mergers and acquistions front, 2011
saw a conclusion to the long negotiation between
Sanofi and Genzyme. Divergent views on the value
of the pioneering rare-disease biotech were closed
with the use of contingent-value rights. Those
rights could add as much to $3.8 billion to the
agreed on $20.1 billion deal. Other notable deals
included generic-drug giant Teva buying the bio-
tech Cephalon for $13 billion; Japanese drug giant
Takeda buying Switzerland’s Nycomed for $13.7
billion to broaden its access to Europe and emerg-
ing markets; and Gilead’s planned $11 billion pur-
Global Economic Woes Overshadow
Biotech Industry Advances in 2011
Greater emphasis on focus and efficiency
for companies as market demands value in 2012.
G. Steven Burrill is chief executive
officer at Burrill & Company, San
Francisco, CA, 415.591.5400,
publications@b-c.com.
January 2012 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com 21
Burrill on Biotech
chase of hepatitis C drug-developer
Pharmasset*.
Through the end of November
2011, FDA approved 30 new drugs,
more than the 21 it approved in
2010. Among the notable drugs
that won approval were Vertex
Pharmaceutical’s oral hepatitis C
drug Incivek, Bristol-Myers Squibb’s
melanoma drug Yervoy; the first new
melanoma drug in 13 years and the
first to extend the lives of patients
with late-stage disease; and Human
Genome Sciences’ Benlysta, the first
new lupus drug in 50 years.
Personalized medicine also
emerged as a bright spot for the sector
with FDA’s approval of Roche’s mela-
noma drug Zelboraf and Pfizer’s non-
small-cell lung cancer drug Xalkori.
Both drugs were approved with com-
panion diagnostics to determine
which patients would benefit from
their use. FDA also approved Seattle
Genetics’ lymphoma drug Adcetris,
a drug that marries an antibody to a
toxic chemotherapeutic payload to
deliver a targeted therapy to a certain
subgroup of lymphoma patients.
While the industry continues to
raise a substantial amount of capi-
tal, much of it is going to fund large,
well-established companies. The
numbers don’t tell the full story.
Smart companies will raise money
when they can, rather than wait-
ing until they need to raise money.
Nevertheless, the pace of life-sciences
IPOs is likely to accelerate in 2012.
Despite the increase in FDA
approvals of new drugs in 2011,
regulatory uncertainty continues to
plague the industry. Increasingly we
will see FDA move away from being
a gold standard for the world to see-
ing it be a late adopter as companies
move to win approval for innovative
therapies in other countries first.
Though the US Supreme Court has
said it will rule on the constitution-
ality of the Patient Protection and
Affordable Care Act, the healthcare
reform legislation passed in 2010
has already set in motion significant
change. Regardless of the court’s rul-
ing, meaningful reform will be driven
by payers, physicians, patients and
technology. The pace of that reform
will only accelerate.
The end of 2011 also saw the expi-
ration of Pfizer’s patent on its statin
Lipitor, the best-selling drug of all
time. In many ways the expiration
of the patent marks an end to the
blockbuster era of drugs. The future
will be defined by targeted therapies
informed by an understanding of a
patient’s individual genetics. It’s a
future in which we’ll be able to deter-
mine whether and for whom drugs
such as Lipitor will provide any ben-
efit. That is what patients and payers
will both demand going forward.
* Burrill & Company is an investor in
Endocyte and Pharmasset ◆
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22 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Compliance Notes
P
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I
n the pharmaceutical industry, the most
frequently audited facilities are without
a doubt contract organi zations. These
organizations are constantly being audited
by prospective clients, existing clients, global
and domestic regulatory authorities, and
their own staffs. They deal with due dili-
gence, regulatory quality systems, routine
GMP inspections, preapproval inspections,
and i nternal audits on a monthly, i f not
weekly basis.
Audits can last anywhere from 1 day to 3
weeks depending on the type of audit being
performed. In addition to typical audits, such
as yearly GMP assessments by clients and
regulatory authorities, contract organizations
can also be tasked with “for-cause” audits
by inspectors due to customer complaints or
product recalls. Clients might also decide to
perform a “for-cause” audit if the contract
organization manufactured a number of lots
with associated investigations for deviations
during the manufacturing process.
To stay ahead of the audit game, contract
organizations must have a system for han-
dling audits that is efficient, consistent, and
flexible.  A great deal of experience among
the audit team is necessary because the team
must be audit ready all the time while also
assuring that the company’s other
depar t ments mai ntai n an audit-
ready post ure.   The group must
have the ability to host more than
one audit at a time and be able to
address questions and provide doc-
uments—in a timely manner—for
as many as three auditors per group.
The team must also be prepared to
provide some of the same informa-
tion to more than one group at the
same time.
Admittedly, handling two separate audit
groups with two to three auditors each is
an unusual situation.  However, let’s say that
a contract organization has 14 clients and
each client requires an annual GMP audit. 
To maximize audit time, each client brings
t wo auditors and plans for a 3- day visit.
Considering that each audit requires one
day of preparation and one day of follow-up
activities for the contract organization, each
audit ultimately takes up one week of the
organization’s time.
Let’s also assume that the contract orga-
nization is trying to attract new business. It
has five potential new clients that wish to
perform a quality audit before entering into
a contractual agreement. In addition, let’s
assume that the organization provides sterile
injectable products (or a similar product) to
the global market, placing it in the high-
risk category of manufacturing. This classi-
fication would result in annual GMP audits
from, at a minimum, the regulatory agencies
of the US, Europe, and Japan. Agencies typi-
cally spend 1 to 2 weeks conducting cGMP
audits.
Because contract organizations also must per-
form internal audits, which typically last one
Organizations must
be aware that the time
commitment entails more
than preparing and hosting
audit groups.
Susan J. Schniepp is vice-president
of quality at OSO Biopharmaceuticals,
susan.schniepp@osobio.com.
Auditing by the Numbers
Contract organizations must have highly organized
teams and plans to accommodate today’s audits.
Compliance Notes
week and occur once a quarter, the
numbers above equate to approxi-
mately 26 weeks or half of a year
devoted to handling and conduct-
ing audits. This amount of time
does not take into account prepa-
ration of responses to any poten-
tial audit observations or necessary
follow-up activities.
To s ucces sf ul l y accommo-
date all of these audits, a con-
t r a c t o r g a n i z a t i o n mu s t
maintain a full-time contingent.
Organizations must be aware that
the ti me commitment entai l s
more than preparing and host-
i ng audit groups. Each audit
could easily take  4 to 5 weeks
when considering preparation,
hosting functions (both escort-
ing and staging room activities),
responses, and followup.
I n addit i on, t he organi za-
tion must have a unique layer
of resources to manage internal
cGMP audit programs, which
are requi red by regul ators to
ensure that each facility has a
process for meet i ng compl i -
ance. Typically, these resources
are passed on to customers as
part of the cost for a contracted
operation.
Gi ven t hes e expect at i ons,
there seems to be an opportu-
nity for industry to work with
consortiums such as Rx–360 or
the International Pharmaceutical
Excipients Auditing (IPEA) pro-
gram to share audits and thereby
eas e over al l cost s and t i me
tied to the audits.  Moving in
the direction of shared audits,
however, requires more consis-
tent interpretations and expec-
tations, general acceptance of
responses, and perhaps a certifi-
cation process. 
Companies using contract ser-
vices must be willing to share
their audit programs and com-
promise on what should be the
ideal approach to assessing GMP
compliance of contract organiza-
tions. They must agree to a set
of criterion to be consistently
appl ied for auditi ng and they
must be somewhat consistent in
their interpretation of the regula-
tions. This would allow contract
organizations to be able to main-
tain a robust quality system that
is suitable for multiple clients.
The use of shared audits has been
discussed for quite a while and it
seems that Rx–360 and IPEA have
started down the road of solv-
ing the problem for raw-material
suppliers. Let’s hope they agree
to continue with the process and
help out contract organizations
in the same manner. ◆
Key speakers include:
t7BTDP.BSDBM(SJMP
Vice-President Global Pharma R&D Sourcing,
Johnson & Johnson
t3PHFS(POPVSJF
Director Global Sourcing,
Novartis
t/JDL8FMCZ
Procurement Director,
Astrazeneca
For any enquiries please contact Michaela Melcher
Michaela.melcher@wtgevents.com or call +44(0)20 7202 7690.
*This offer is only open to Global heads Directors and Heads of strategic sourcing, procurement and R&D sourcing.
If you are a consultant or solution provider get in touch with Michaela Melcher, Michaela.melcher@wtgevents.com to find out how you can participate.
The top 100 pharma outsourcing professionals will be there to
discuss and network about exclusive insights into the market:
t “Creating A Water Tight Risk Protection System - Setting Up
A Damage Control System With The Stakeholders”
t “Overcoming challenges concerning product quality”
t “Creating An Efficient Pharma Audit Strategy - Overcoming
Regulatory Challenges By Using Auditing Process”
5BLFBMPPLBUUIFQSPHSBNNF
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3rd - 4th May 2012,
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Researched and Produced by:
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24 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Retrospective
Throughout BioPharm International ’s 25th
anniversary year, we’ll be looking back
at articles published in the first volume
of the journal. This month, we rewind to
“Separations Technology Outlook, Part II:
Improved Recovery and Greater Purity.”
T
his article identified the major challenges
with membrane technology as “consider-
able fouling from solids in the solution that
clog the membrane, molecular weight and pore
size specifications that often are inaccurate because
of the inexact process of membrane fabrication,
and vulnerability of membranes to degradation
after repeated sanitization steps” (1). BioPharm
International talked to Michiel E. Ultee, chief
scientific officer at Laureate Biopharmaceutical
Services and a member of Biopharm International’s
Editorial Advisory Board, about what’s changed
since the article’s publication.
BioPharm: Have the problems with membrane
technology that the authors cited been resolved?
Ultee: Yes. Combination or layered membranes
now incorporate prefilter layers to prevent clog-
ging of the molecular-filter layers. Pore size, in
terms of molecular weight, is still not precise,
but most users have methods that take this into
account by applying size-separation membranes
only where significant size differences appear,
such as concentration of proteins. Better materi-
als are now available that resist degradation by
sodium-hydroxide sanitization.
BioPharm: Have affinity membranes led to
dramatic gains in purification efficiency and
begun “to encroach on chromatography’s turf?”
Ultee: No. Affinity membranes have not really
been accepted. The low capacity of membranes
plus the high cost of affinity supports have pre-
vented their acceptance.
BioPharm: Duri ng electrophoresis, can
researchers now read gels in real time without
staining them beforehand? Has electrophoresis
become faster and more automated?
Ultee: Real-time staining is not yet possible
with gels, but can be done with capillary elec-
trophoresis, a technique that has evolved after
a shaky start. Gel staining and destaining has
become much faster and more sensitive.
BioPharm: Where will separation technology
be in another 25 years?
Ultee: As the need for
larger quantities of pro-
teins emerges, processes
will be developed that
take advantage of tech-
nology available in the
food and beverage indus-
try. They will include
techniques, such as pre-
cipitation, filtration, and
resolubilization.
REFERENCE
1. N.E. Pfund and K.G.
Charles, BioPharm Intl. 1
(1), 29–33 (1988). ◆
View “Separations Technology
Outlook, Part II: Improved
Recovery and Greater
Purity” by Nancy E. Pfund
and Kathleen G. Charles at
BioPharmInternational.com/
Retrospectives.
A 25-Year Retrospective
on Separations Technology
The low capacity of [affinity]
membranes plus the high cost
of affinity supports have
prevented their acceptance.
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 25
Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines
T
herapeutic vaccines work on the
premise that the immune sys-
tem can be trained or optimized
to take action against elements
of a diseased state or condition already
present in an individual. However, per-
haps because of the immune system’s com-
plexity and incomplete knowledge of its
pathways of action, only a few therapeutic
vaccines have been approved to date.
Disease areas most commonly targeted
by this immunotherapeutic approach are
unsurprisingly those that have proven
difficult to treat or cure through other
means: AIDS, hepatitis B, and various
autoimmune diseases are good examples.
However, the use of therapeutic vaccines
in oncological indications appears to have
garnered the most interest. Researchers
in this area found great promise in
April 2010, when Dendreon’s Provenge
(Sipuleucel-T) became the first thera-
peutic cancer vaccine to be approved by
FDA. Provenge is an autologous cellular
immunotherapeutic for the treatment of
asymptomatic or minimally symptom-
atic metastatic hormone refractory prostate
cancer. Looking ahead, the market for can-
cer vaccines certainly has the potential for
huge growth, with some reports indicat-
ing compound annual growths rates over
100% in the next few years (1).
CanCeR VaCCineS
Most cancer cells express tumor-associated
antigens (TAAs) that can be recognized
by the immune system as “foreign” and
thus serve as potential targets for cancer
vaccines. MART-1, MAGE-3, NY-ESO-1,
prostate specific antigen, and prostatic
acid phosphatase (PAP) are all examples
of TAAs. Cancer vaccines seek to trigger
a strong immune response to tumors by
introducing TAAs into the patient possi-
bly alongside adjuvants or immunostimu-
lators and tend to fall into two camps.
Tumor antigen-based vaccines can use pep-
tides, recombinant proteins, tumor lysates,
or killed tumor cells as TAAs. Cell-based
vaccines, on the other hand, use ex vivo–
prepared TAA-loaded antigen presenting
cells (APCs) as the vaccine. In fact, it is the
patient’s own APCs that are isolated from
peripheral blood cells and loaded with
TAAs in cell culture. Often, the precursor
monocytes are cultured with cytokines
to create dendritic cells (DCs), which are
particularly potent APCs. Provenge is an
example of this kind of cell-based vaccine;
a recombinant antigen—a fusion protein
consisting of PAP and the cytokine gran-
ulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating
factor (GM–CSF)—is cultured with the
patient’s APCs in Dendreon’s manufactur-
ing facility. Once the APCs have matured,
they are infused back into the patient.
Looking at a few cancer vaccines in
development pipeline, the picture looks
quite bright, with tumor-antigen vac-
cines dominating over cell-based vac-
cines. Galena Biopharma’s NeuVax (E75)
for breast cancer falls into the peptide-
based category and has successfully com-
pleted a Phase II trial. The E75 peptide is
derived from human epidermal growth
factor receptor 2 (HER2) and also uses
GM–CSF; together they stimulate cyto-
toxic T cells to target cells expressing any
level of HER2. FDA has granted NeuVax
a Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) for
its Phase III Prevention of Recurrence in
Early-Stage, Node-Positive Breast Cancer
with Low to Intermediate HER2 Expression
with NeuVax Treatment (PRESENT)
study, which the company indicates will
begin in the first half of 2012. Galena
also announced in November 2011, the
establishment of a clinical development
collaboration with Genentech (a membr
of the Roche group) and The Henry M.
Jackson Foundation for the Advancement
of Military Medicine in which the two
companies will sponsor a Phase II clini-
cal study using NeuVax in combination
with Genentech/Roche’s Herceptin (trastu-
zumab). Herceptin, a monoclonal antibody
therapy, is currently available for patients
with higher levels of HER2 expression.
Therapeutic Vaccine Outlook
Rich Whitworth
Has an
approval in
oncology
reignited
interest in the
recruitment of
the immune
system in the
fight against
disease?
26 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines
Antigen Express, a subsidiary of
Generex, has a similar product in
development for breast cancer that
is also a peptide fragment of the
HER2 receptor called AE37. This
is the company’s first candidate to
take advantage of its Ii-Key Hybrid
technology platform, which modi-
fies fragments of antigens with
the intention of increasing their
potency in eliciting an immune
response. Antigen Express is con-
ducting a controlled, randomized,
and single-blinded Phase II clinical
study in HER2 expressing patients
with either node positive or high-risk
node-negative breast cancer. As with
NeuVax, AE37 is administered with
GM-CSF. The company released posi-
tive interim results for the study in
August 2011. As HER2 is expressed in
numerous cancer types, it has possi-
bilities beyond breast cancer. Antigen
Express has also completed a Phase I
trial for prostate cancer.
Big Pharma is also trying to
move forward with therapeutic
vaccines. MAGE-A3 is currently in
Phase III trials for the treatment of
melanoma and non-small cell lung
cancer (NSCLC) and forms part of
GlaxoSmithKline’s antigen-specific
cancer immunotherapeutic (ASCI)
pipeline. The compound combines
purified MAGE-A3 tumor antigen—a
protein expressed in a large num-
ber of cancers in-licensed from
the Ludwig Institute for Cancer
Research—with a combination of
immunostimulating compounds
called AS15. The GSK ASCI pipeline
also includes a treatment for acute
myelogenous leukaemia at Phase II
called WT1 and two other candidates
at Phase I, NY-ESO-1 and PRAME.
Beyond vaccine development,
GSK has also been working with
Abbott Molecular on automated
companion diagnostic tests for
MAGE-A3 expression since 2009,
and in November 2011, expanded
the agreement to include the
PRAME antigen. The polymerase
chain reaction-based tests identify
specific DNA sequences to help
determine those patients most likely
to benefit from the therapy.
Merck Serono is also in the NSCLC
space with Stimuvax (BLP25 lipo-
some vaccine), currently in Phase III,
which it obtained with worldwide
rights for development and com-
mercialization from Oncothyreon.
Stimuvax is designed to stimulate
the immune system into targeting
cells expressing glycoprotein MUC1,
which is over-expressed or aberrantly
expressed in many types of cancer.
NovaRX is another company target-
ing NSCLC with its lead candidate
Lucanix, which is also in Phase III
trials that began in 2008. Unlike
Stimuvax and MAGE-A3, however,
Lucanix is a cell-based therapy that
treats patients with four NSCLC cell
lines that have been genetically mod-
ified to block transforming growth
factor-beta. TGF-beta is produced by
cancer cells and is thought to exert
an immunosuppressive effect thus
protecting them from an antitumor
response.
A quick search of the National
Cancer Institute’s clinical-trial data-
base reveals a large number of poten-
tial cancer vaccines currently under
development, more than a handful
in Phase III. If they follow Provenge’s
lead, the market growth predicted
could become a reality.
niChe TheRapieS
Although there is much R&D and,
more recently, excitement in cancer
vaccines, there are many other areas
that could potentially benefit from
therapeutic vaccines. ImmusanT
(Cambridge, MA), for example, has
zeroed in on celiac disease and is
developing technology based on
research performed at The Walter
and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical
Research in Melbourne, Australia,
and at the University of Oxford, UK.
NexVax2 is a combination of three
short peptides from gluten protein
that have been shown to cause an
immune reaction in the 90% of
sufferers with the HLA DQ2 gene,
according to company information.
NexVax2 is a peptide-based vaccine,
but the aim, rather than increasing
the immune response, is to desensi-
tize its reaction to gluten. NexVax2
is progressing through to Phase II
clinical trials.
The development of therapeu-
tic vaccines as a new approach to
combat substance abuse is another
potential area for growth. Nicotine
and cocaine are both examples of
drug targets under development.
The concept of long-lasting single
injections, for example, removes the
hurdle of the reliance on behavioral
modification to control the intake
of substances with the potential for
addiction. Nicotine vaccines are
designed to induce production of
antibodies that bind to nicotine in
the blood creating a molecule that is
too large to cross the blood-brain bar-
rier and thus cause pleasurable effect.
However, Nabi Biopharmaceuticals
announced on Nov. 7, 2011, results
from its second Phase III trial
for NicVax (Nicotine Conjugate
Immunotherapeutic) and, unfortu-
nately, preliminary assessment of
the data showed that the primary
endpoint was not met and there was
no statistical difference between the
NicVAX and placebo groups—these
results are similar to the first Phase
III study. Cytos Biotechnology and
Novartis’ collaboration on NIC002,
another compound designed to
induce nicotine antibodies, also
failed to demonstrate efficacy in
Phase II trials after interim analysis.
Despite these failures, the market
for antismoking products will no
doubt continue to drive research into
vaccines against nicotine addiction.
As with other therapeutic vaccines
under development, proving efficacy
will remain a key challenge. ◆
RefeRenCe
1. BCC Research, “Therapeutic Vaccines:
The Global Market,” Report BIO052B
(2010), www.bccresearch.com, accessed
Dec. 15, 2011.
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28 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines
I
n recent years, the vaccine market
has experienced significant growth
following the introduction of several
novel bacterial vaccines—more spe-
cifically conjugate vaccines—addressing
unmet medical needs. These conjugate
vaccines are safe and effective against
bacterial diseases and have been used in
humans for many years. Although sev-
eral serious bacterial infections, such
as Streptococcus pneumoniae and some
Meningococcal strains, are prevented
using conjugate vaccines, the underlying
process of development and manufac-
ture has limited their scope. The method
used for developing and manufacturing
conjugate bacterial vaccines is based on
chemical conjugation technology. It is a
complex chemistry-based process that,
depending on the pathogen or serotype,
is time-consuming and expensive. A new
approach has been developed to con-
ceive and produce conjugate vaccines by
employing recombinant DNA technology.
This technology enables the development
and manufacture of conjugate vaccines,
called bioconjugates, and addresses the
limitations of the current chemical conju-
gation process.
BacTeRial conjugaTe VaccineS:
an impoRTanT maRkeT in
BacTeRial infecTiouS diSeaSe
The vaccine market experienced signifi-
cant growth over the past decade, with
global revenues forecast to exceed USD
$24 billion in 2010 (1). Within the grow-
ing market, conjugate vaccines for the
prevention of bacterial infections today
account for over 25% of the total mar-
ket. In 2009, two of the four leading vac-
cines by sales were the bacterial conjugate
vac cines Prevnar (Pfizer) for pneumococ-
cal dis ease and Menactra (Sanofi Pasteur)
for men ingitis serogroups A, C, W-135,
and Y. Together, these two products alone
accounted for 12% of global vaccine sales.
Despite the success of glycoconjugate
vaccines, several important bacterial infec-
tions lack a vaccine. These pathogens
are responsible for significant morbidity,
mortality, and cost to healthcare systems.
Key pathogens that lack vaccines include
Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, both causing nosocomial infec-
tions; Neisseria meningitides type B; and
many diarrheal pathogens such as Shigella
sp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC),
and Salmonella sp.
The limiTaTionS of cuRRenT
conjugaTe Vaccine Technology
The conjugate is a large glycoprotein
molecule consisting of a protein linked
or conjugated to a polysaccharide. The
sugars are surface-exposed bacterial anti-
gens to which the body will develop an
immune response. The protein carrier
is responsible for eliciting a long-lasting
immune response against the polysac-
charide, leading to better protection
against the target disease, especially in
young children (2). In chemical conjuga-
tion, the bacteria producing the polysac-
charide and the protein carrier are grown
separately, then purified through mul-
tiple steps. The polysaccharide is then
chemically bound to the protein carrier
(see Figure 1). This method faces the fol-
lowing challenges and limitations:
The conception and production
of conjugate Vaccines using
Recombinant dna Technology
Veronica Gambillara
Using
recombinant
technology
to produce
conjugate
vaccines in
a bacterial
expression
system.
Veronica Gambillara PhD
is director of clinical and regulatory affairs
at glycoVacyn, Schlieren
Switzerland, Veronica.gambillara@
glycovaxyn.com
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 29
Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines
A
L
L

F
I
G
U
R
E
S

A
R
E

C
O
U
R
T
E
S
Y

O
F

T
H
E

A
U
T
H
O
R
• Because the polysaccharide is
produced by toxic bacteria, spe-
cialized and costly containment
facilities are required. Moreover,
several purification steps are
necessary to obtain an accept-
able purit y of the product,
thus resulting in loss of mate-
rial throughout the process and
decreased yields.
• Chemical coupling between the
polysaccharide and the protein
carrier results in a heteroge-
neous product which may still
contain some free polysaccha-
ride that may interfere with the
immune response to the conju-
gates. Any small change in the
mixture affects the characteris-
tics of the vaccine, so the same
mixture must be maintained
throughout scale up and pro-
duction—a manufacturing and
regulatory challenge.
• Chemi cal conj ugat i on can
change the structure of both the
polysaccharide and the carrier
protein, thus making them less
immunogenic, or in some cases,
not immunogenic. Toxic poly-
saccharides must be chemically
detoxified, often leading to fur-
ther loss of immunogenicity or
increased safety concerns.
The net result is that chemical
conjugate vaccines are restricted
to certain targets, may induce
suboptimal efficacy, are difficult
to develop, and are costly to pro-
duce. In addition, the growing
resistance to antibiotics, the ever-
increasing standard of safety, and
high development costs required
to bri ng a product to market
emphasize the need for new tech-
nologies to address these chal-
lenges and fulfill the worldwide
need for new vaccines.
new pRoceSS foR deVeloping
and manufacTuRing
conjugaTe VaccineS
A new technol ogy has been
developed for the production of
conjugate vaccines by an in vivo
conjugation process. Instead of
chemically conjugating polysac-
charides to proteins, the conju-
gate is directly synthesi zed in
appropriately engineered E. coli
cells. Because E. coli is one of the
fastest, least expensive, and high-
est product-to-volume systems
available for the production of
large molecules, the use of E. coli
is appealing for the production of
vaccines. However, until recently,
it has not been possible to manu-
facture glycoprotein conjugates
using bacterial cells.
Despite the ubiquitous presence
of polysaccharides at the surface
of bacterial cells, bacteria were
thought to be unable to synthesize
glycoproteins, and N-linked protein
glycosylation was believed to be
restricted to eukaryotes. The find-
ing of N-linked glycoproteins in
the human pathogen Campylobacter
jejuni disproved this theory.
Various proteins of C. jejuni
have been shown to be glycosyl-
ated by a heptasaccharide. This
heptasaccharide is assembled on
undecaprenyl pyrophosphate
(UPP), the carrier lipid, at the
cytoplasmic side of the i nner
membrane by the stepwise addi-
t i on of nucl eot i de- act i vated
monosaccharides catalyzed by
speci f i c gl ycosylt ransferases.
The l ipid-l i nked ol i gosaccha-
ride then flip-flops (i.e., diffuses
transversely) into the periplas-
mic space by the flippase PglK.
In the final step of N-linked pro-
tein glycosylation, the oligosac-
charyltransferase PglB catalyzes
the transfer of the oligosaccha-
ride from the carrier lipid to Asn
residues withi n the consensus
sequence Asp/Glu-Xaa-Asn-Xaa-
Ser/Thr, where Xaa can be any
amino acid except Pro (3).
The ge ne c l us t e r e nc od-
ing this glycosylation machin-
ery was functionally expressed
in E. coli, allowing the heterolo-
gous production of Campylobacter
glycoproteins in E. coli (4) and
providing the first opportunity
to produce N-linked glycoproteins
in E. coli. In addition, the con-
sensus amino acid sequence was
introduced into different proteins
that are not glycosylated in their
original organism (see Figure 2).
The N-linked protein glycosyl-
ation biosynthetic pathway of
Campylobacter has signi f icant
similarities to the polysaccharide
biosynthesis pathway in bacteria
(5). Because antigenic polysac-
charides of bacteria and the oli-
gosaccharides of Campylobacter
are bot h synt hesi zed on t he
c a r r i er l i pi d, undec apr enyl
pyrophosphate (UPP), the t wo
pathways were combined in E.
coli . The polysacchar ide- syn-
Lipopolysaccharide at
surface of Gram-negative
bacterium
Antigenic polysaccharide
Protein carrier
Endotoxin
Extraction and
purification
Chemical
cleavage and
removal of
endotoxin
Purification
Expression of protein
carrier in bacterium
Activation of
polysaccharide and
protein carrier and
chemical
crosslinking;
removal of unconjugated
components
Figure 1: Chemical method currently used for production of conjugate vaccines.
30 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines
thesizing enzymes of different
pathogens were expressed in the
presence of the oligosaccharyl-
transferase PglB and a protein
carrier (6, 7). The antigenic poly-
saccharides assembled on UPP
are captured by PglB in the peri-
plasm and transferred to a pro-
tein carrier. After fermentation
of E. coli, the glycoconjugate is
ext racted f rom t he per iplasm
and purified using simple and
well-known manufacturing steps
similar to those used for produc-
tion and purification of recombi-
nant proteins (see Figure 3).
adVanTageS of in vivo
RecomBinanT Technology
This in vivo technology to design
a nd pr oduc e bi oconj ugat es
offers improved versatility, effi-
cacy, safety, speed, and cost of
development, partly resolvi ng
the challenges that the vaccine
i ndust r y i s cur rent l y f aci ng.
Some of the specific advantages
of the technology are as follows:
• Bioconjugat ion i s versat i le,
enabl i ng the attachment of
virtually any polysaccharide
to virtually any protein. This
versatility permits the develop-
ment of novel conjugates that
cannot be addressed with exist-
ing chemistry-based processes.
• Bioconjugates are engineered
t o have a s pec i f i c s t r uc-
t ure opti mi zed for ef f icacy.
Bioconjugate vaccines can be
designed to not only generate
an i mmune response to the
polysaccharide, but also to the
protein from the target organ-
ism, thereby enhancing effi-
cacy. No free polysaccharide
is present during bioconjugate
production that can i nhibit
the immune response.
• Bioconjugates are produced
in a standard, nontoxic bacte-
rial production system, with
no risk of contamination by
mammalian infectious organ-
isms. Moreover, bioconjugates
are engineered to a reproduc-
ible structure and final prod-
uct, thus minimizing potential
safety concerns. This design
will lower the regulatory bar-
riers and potentially accelerate
clinical development.
• Bioconjugate process devel-
opment and production are
rapi d and st rai ght for ward.
Producing vaccine by recom-
binant methods in a standard
E. coli expression system and
usi ng a conser ved bi osyn-
thetic pathway that may differ
sl ightly dependi ng on sero-
types is a well-understood and
commonly used manufactur-
ing method.
From a technical perspective,
the in vivo technology has the
potent i al to provide uni for m
product, easily reproducible in a
low-cost expression system, with
an opti mi zed safet y and ef f i-
cacy profile. These factors may
decrease the regulatory barrier
and the time to market and result
i n reduced development and
manufacturing cost.
challengeS of in vivo
RecomBinanT Technology
The in vivo technology has the
potent i al to overcome many
issues that the chemical conjuga-
tion currently face in designing
and produci ng conjugate vac-
cines. However, the following
challenges are still unresolved.
• Because of the complexity of
several bacterial pathogens,
some vaccine candidates are
sti l l di f f icult to design and
produce using in vivo recom-
binant technology. Bacterial
pathogens such as N. menin-
gitis B or Moraxella are chal-
lengi ng targets because t he
mechanism by which the anti-
genic sugar is assembled and
expressed on the surface is less
suitable for the in vivo glyco-
conjugation technology.
• The bioconjugate process is still
early in development and its
ultimate potential and limita-
tions are not fully delineated.
At this point, only data from
preclinical and early clinical
studies on a restricted num-
ber of pathogens are available.
Additional work is requi red
regardi ng process and assay
development (i.e., scalability).
Contiinued on page 32
Polymerase
Antigen repeating unit
Glycosyltransferases
Protein carrier
Oligosaccharyltransferase
Polysaccharide antigen
Figure 2: Details of an engineered glycosylation pathway in Escherichia coli.
Bacterial polysaccharide antigens are synthesized by stepwise action of gly-
cosyltransferases at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and polymerized
after flipping. The oligosaccharyltransferase PglB is able to transfer a different
polysaccharide from the carrier lipid to Asn within the consensus sequence
because of its relaxed specificity.
Techniques & Tools for Improving Productivity by
AUTOMATING CONTROL of BIOSEPARATIONS
ON-DEMAND WEBCAST

Register free at http://biopharminternational.com/tools
EVENT OVERVIEW:
Across the pharmaceutical industry, there is growing emphasis on
the development of biopharmaceuticals as the next wave of thera-
peutic drugs and yet, there are many common analytical problems
throughout the sector. Proteins, which must be analyzed using a
variety of orthogonal techniques, including reversed-phase (RP),
ion-exchange (IEX), and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), pres-
ent particular challenges for analytical chemists.

Bioseparations are dicult because large molecules carry so many
functional groups. Charge is particularly important because it can
form the basis of the analysis using ion exchange. Most often, ion-
exchange separations are optimized by adjusting a gradient of
increasing ionic strength, but it is generally recognized that the best
selectivity is obtained by manipulating the charge of the molecule.
Because the protein surface is covered with both weakly acidic and
weakly basic functionalities, both the net charge and the three-
dimensional charge distribution can be controlled with the buer
pH. Using this parameter to develop a separation can be tedious,
requiring careful adjustment of pH of multiple buers.

In this educational webinar, speakers will consider the challenges
faced by biopharmaceutical laboratories today. We’ll discuss tech-
niques to improve analytical methods for bioseparations by auto-
mating control of pH. Tools that can increase productivity and
improve the robustness and reproducibility will be discussed,
including how they can be used when paired with UPLC.
For questions contact Jamie Carpenter at jcarpenter@advanstar.com
PRESENTERS
Thomas E. Wheat, Ph.D.
Principal Scientist
Systems Laboratory
Waters Corporation
John MacKay, Ph.D.
Senior Director of Marketing
Americas Business Operations
Waters Corporation

MODERATOR
Amy Ritter
Associate Editor
BioPharm International
Researchers who will
benet from attending
this webinar will include:

Biochemists who need to
perform HPLC and UPLC of
biomolecules

Biopharmaceutical laboratory
managers who want to improve
productivity and minimize
errors

Scientists looking to simplify
protein separation method
development and routine
execution of methods

Analysts who needs to test
more intermediate separation
parameters with accuracy
and ease
Presented by Sponsored by
32 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines
pRoofofconcepT STudieS uSing
The BioconjugaTe plaTfoRm
The process to create new and effi-
cacious bioconjugate vaccines in a
cost-effective and efficient manner
has potential, but what is required
is proof that such vaccines can
be manufactured in commercial
quantities, and that the vaccines
produced are safe and effective.
The following are examples that
demonstrate the potential of in vivo
bioconjugate technology:
A bioconjugate against Shigella sp.
was produced under GMP condi-
tions and tested for the first time
in humans. Shigella is an important
pathogen responsible for serious
diarrhea and dysentery, so a vac-
cine to prevent infection in the
emerging nations where it is pres-
ent, as well as a vaccine for travel-
lers, would provide a significant
public health benefit. No vaccine
exists for Shigella, despite ongoing
research in many laboratories for
several years. Attempts at vaccine
development, both conjugate and
live-attenuated bacteria, showed
modest immunogenicity (8–11).
Moreover, the technical hurdles
to producing a conjugate vaccine
with chemistry-based methods
are very high. The bioconjugate
produced against the serotype,
Shigella dysenteriae, was tested in
40 healthy volunteers and found to
be well tolerated. Importantly, the
vaccine demonstrated a significant
immunogenic response, and these
immunogenicity data compare
favorably to previous candidate
vaccines tested against this patho-
gen. This promising Phase I data pro-
vide clinical proof-of-concept that
the bioconjugate produced under
GMP conditions by an recom-
binant DNA technology is safe
and i nduces an i mmunogenic
response in human.
The t echnol og y has been
al so appl ied for t he develop-
ment of a bioconjugate against
Staphylococcus aureus. Nosocomial
S. aureus i nfections represent
up to 50% of all hospital infec-
t ions. Moreover, met hici l l i n-
resistant S. aureus (MRSA) rates
conti nue to i ncrease dramati-
cally. Despite significant research
efforts undertaken by academic
and phar maceut ical laborato-
ries to develop a successful vac-
cine, there has been no recorded
sustained effectiveness against
S. aureus has been generated by
the experimental vaccines tested
(12, 13). More recently, the DNA
recombinant in vivo technology
was able to conjugate, for the first
time, the main polysaccharides
of S. aureus to a selected protein
carrier of the same pathogen (i.e,
antigen protein of S. aureus). This
bioconjugate vaccine has been
tested in animals and produced
functional antibodies inducing
protection in mice bacteremia
and lethal pneumonia models
(14). Although early, these results
are promising considering recent
clinical trial failures of S. Aureus
candidate vaccines. The combina-
tion of polysaccharide and pro-
tein antigen against the pathogen
will increase the immunogenicity
of the vaccine at various stages
and pathways of the infection,
thus enhancing the possibility of
protection.
These data demonstrate that
this in vivo technology is a feasible
approach for developing vaccines
against challenging pathogens and
offers the promise of improved
efficiency in general.
SummaRy
Antibacterial conjugate vaccines
have become important tools for
the public-health community to
prevent serious bacterial infec-
t ions. However, t he complex
development and manufacturing
process has limited the potential
of this important class of vac-
cine. This article describes a new
in vivo process that incorporates
a well-understood recombinant
DNA technology i n E. coli to
manufacture bioconjugate vac-
cines. The process has demon-
strated proof-of-concept in more
t han one bacter ial pat hogen,
including a first-in-man study.
Research is currently in progress
to develop additional vacci ne
candidates and advance them
into late-stage clinical trials.
RefeRenceS
1. Datamonitor, Pneumococcal and
Meningococcal Vaccines: Market Forecast
(Datamonitor, 2010).
2. O.T. Avery and W. F. Goebel, J. Exp. Med.
50 (4), 521–533 (1929).
3. M. Kowarik et al., EMBO J. 25 (9), 1957–
1966 (2006).
4. M. Wacker et. al., Science 298 (5599),
1790–1793 (2002).
5. T.D. Bugg and P. E. Brandish, FEMS
Microbiol. Lett. 119 (3), 255–262 (1994).
6. M.F. Feldman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
102 (8), 3016–3021 (2005).
7. M. Wacker et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
103 (18), 7088–7093 (2006).
8. J.B. Robbins, C. Chu, and R. Schneerson,
Clin. Infect. Dis. 15 (2), 346–361 (1992).
9. J.B. Robbins et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
106 (19), 7974–7978 (2009).
10. M.M. Levine et al., J. Infect. Dis. 127 (3),
261–270 (1973).
11. M.M. Levine et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 288
(22), 1169–1171 (1973).
12. J.C. Lee, Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 3 (6),
517–524 (2001).
13. G.L. Archer, Clin Infect Dis 26, 1179–
1181 (1998).
14. J.C. Lee et al., presentation at the 51st
Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial
Agents and Chemotherapy (Chicago, IL,
2011). ◆
Contiinued from page 30
Fermentation Purification
Bioconjugate
Figure 3: In vivo glycosylation system for production of bioconjugates in
Escherichia coli system. The bioconjugate is extracted from the periplasm and
puried by column chromatography to high purity.
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 33
Lyophilization
L
yophilization or freeze dry-
ing is an important down-
stream process for stabilizing
pharmaceutical compounds.
It involves removing water and sol-
vents from a product by sublimation
and desorption to levels that will
not support biological or chemical
reaction. It is an excellent method to
extend the shelf life of sensitive com-
pounds for storage and transportation
without subjecting them to detrimen-
tal high temperatures, and the only
method available for a majority of
biological compounds. Consequently,
lyophilization continues to be indis-
pensible to the pharmaceutical industry,
despite its high cost and complexity.
Lyophilization consists of two major
steps: freezing solutions, and drying
the frozen solid under vacuum through
sublimation and desorption. The dry-
ing step is divided into two phases:
primary drying (i.e., ice sublimation)
and secondary drying (i.e., liquid
desorption). A successful lyophilization
cycle can be defined by dried prod-
uct that is visually and functionally
acceptable with a short reconstitution
time, potent active ingredients, and
increased shelf life. The control and
repeatability of the cycle are crucial
for achieving consistently good prod-
uct quality. Demand for lyophiliza-
tion technology is growing because
of the high value of the drugs being
lyophilized as well as FDA initiatives
such as quality by design (QbD) and
process analytical technolgoy (PAT).
Consequently, the industry has been
quick to develop and adopt technolo-
gies that facilitate improved control of
key process parameters. Controlling ice
nucleation during the freezing cycle of
lyophilization is one such tactic that
is currently under investigation as a
means to achieve more robust and scal-
able lyophilization cycles.
The importance of ice
nucleation temperature
The onset of freezing, or ice nucle-
abstract
Lyophilization or freeze drying is an important downstream process for stabilizing pharmaceutical
compounds. the control and repeatability of lyophilization cycles are crucial for achieving consistently high
product quality. although the obvious parameters of shelf temperature and chamber pressure
may be well controlled, the lack of control of the ice nucleation temperature (the temperature at which the
product freezes) can adversely affect product uniformity and lead to suboptimal freeze-drying cycles.
this study describes a novel means to control ice nucleation using a sterile cryogenic ice fog
that is applicable to laboratory-, pilot-, and production-scale lyophilizers. test results
demonstrate the scalability and robustness of this technique.
Ice Fog as a Means to
Induce Uniform Ice Nucleation
During Lyophilization
Prerona Chakravarty, Ron Lee, Frank DeMarco, and Ernesto Renzi
Prerona Chakravarty, PhD*, is a project
manager, and Ron Lee, PhD, is a research
fellow, both in Pharmacueticals, Fine and
Specialty Chemicals in Linde Gases Division,
Murray Hill, NJ. Frank DeMarco is freeze
drying development manger, and Ernesto
Renzi is president of sales, both at IMA LIFE
North America, Tonawanda, NY. *To whom
correspondence should be addressed, prerona.
chakravarty@linde.com.
PEER REviEwED
Article submitted: Aug. 16, 2011.
Article accepted: Oct. 18, 2011.
34 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Lyophilization
ation, is one of the most important steps
in the lyophilization cycle. For nonasep-
tic systems a particle or impurity often
serves as the nucleation point that allows
ice crystals to grow and the product to
f reeze. However, i n aseptic systems of
high purity the product sometimes cools
below its freezing temperature without
ice crystal formation because no particu-
lates are available for ice nucleation, a pro-
cess known as supercooling. Substances
that cool below the freezing temperature
without becoming solid are referred to as
supercooled. The degree of supercooling
determines the ice crystal structure, which
in turn characterizes product resistance to
water vapor flow during the drying cycle.
Increased supercooling has been shown to
form smaller, more numerous ice crystals,
thus resulting in higher product resistance
and increased drying times. Studies have
shown a 1–3% increase in primary drying
time for every 1 ∘C decrease in ice nucleation
temperature (1, 2). Supercooling of vials dur-
ing freezing can thus increase cycle times and
operating costs.
Lack of uniformity in ice nucleation tem-
perature caused by vial supercooling can
lead to vial-to-vial variability in ice crystal
structure. Vials that freeze at high tempera-
tures dry faster than those that freeze at low
temperatures, making it difficult to have
a drying cycle that is optimal for all vials.
This variability causes problems such as vial
breakage and melt-back, and decreases over-
all yield and product uniformity.
In addition, variability in ice nucleation
increases the uncertainty in scaling up a
cycle from laboratory (nonaseptic) to pro-
duction scale (aseptic). A cycle optimized
at lab scale may have entirely different
drying time requirements at production
scale due to the higher degree of supercool-
ing expected in particulate-free, produc-
tion-grade environments. Variability in ice
nucleation is compounded by vial-to-vial
variations in drying behavior due to vari-
able ice structure.
Methods to address issues
related to nonuniform ice nucleation
Although ice nucleation is an important
parameter for achievi ng robust cycles,
there have been ver y few attempts to
achieve it at commerci al scale unt i l
recently. The standard practice has been
to use an annealing cycle, which involves
raising the product temperature after freez-
ing to a temperature above glass transition,
and then holding. This method results
in the formation of larger ice crystals at
the expense of smaller ones, and helps
minimize the variability in drying behav-
ior. However, annealing may not be well
tolerated by protein systems that are sus-
ceptible to denaturation. In addition, the
benefits of shorter drying times may be off-
set by the additional time required for the
annealing cycle. Lastly, annealing fails to
address the root cause of variable ice struc-
ture, which is the lack of a uniform ice
nucleation temperature, and can only help
to repair the damage already caused.
Other methods that have been tried at
laboratory scale include using nucleating
agents such as silver iodide and bacteria,
ultrasonic vibration of the product, etched
A
L
L

F
I
G
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R
E
S

A
R
E

C
O
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R
T
E
S
Y

O
F

T
H
E

A
U
T
H
O
R
S
Shelves cooled at 0.5oC/min until desired
nucleation tempeature is attained
Cyrogenic Ice fog introduced for
less than a minute
Viral nucleation detected
(temperature probe + visual)
Figure 2: Illustration of the two-step approach for ice-fog
introduction.
Water Vapor
Ejector
Liquid Nitrogen
Figure 1: Illustration of a typical lyophilization system employing the
scalable cryogenic ice-fog technique.
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 35
Lyophilization
vials, sudden depressuri zation,
and ice fog. This study will focus
on the last method, ice fog, and
show its successf ul t ransit ion
from a laboratory concept to a
commercially viable technique.
Ice fog as a means to induce
uniform vial-to-vial ice nucleation
As discussed above, one approach
for reduci ng supercool i ng and
controlling ice-nucleation tem-
perature is to introduce nucleat-
ing particles into the supercooled
solution. A particularly advan-
tageous nucleat i ng par t icle i s
mi cr os copi c i ce (i . e. , f r ozen
water) crystals in the form of a
fog i ntroduced i nto the f reez-
ing chamber (3). The concept of
temperature-controlled ice nucle-
ation was suggested by T.W. Rowe
in 1990 (4). A cryogenically cre-
ated fog containing microscopic
ice crystals is i ntroduced i nto
the lyophilization chamber after
the vials have reached the tem-
perature at which nucleation is
desired. The ice crystals subse-
quently make their way into the
vials and induce nucleation inside
the vial. Although this technique
has found success on a laboratory
scale, it has proven difficult to
scale up to commercial lyophi-
lizers. The difficulty is not only
forming the ice fog and ensur-
ing it is sterile, but also uniformly
distributing the ice fog rapidly
throughout the freezing chamber
so that all vials are properly seeded
with nucleating ice particles.
Thi s ar t icle wi l l descr ibe a
means to produce and distribute
an aseptic ice fog that nucleates
all vials in a short time. This work
has resulted in a novel means to
produce and distribute a sterile
ice fog that is applicable to labora-
tory-, pilot-, and production-scale
lyophilizers. This scalable cryo-
genic ice fog technology could
provide a much-needed degree of
control during lyophilization and
thus facilitate application of QbD
principles in this crucial down-
stream operation.
METHODS
Figure 1 is a schematic illustra-
tion of a typical lyophilization
system employi ng the scalable
cr yogeni c i ce- fog techni que.
Creating a uniform dispersion of
ice fog, distributing it into the
f reezi ng chamber and seedi ng
vials with ice crystals for nucle-
ation are achieved by a patent-
pendi ng technique i nvol vi ng
contact between liquid nitrogen
and water i n a mi xi ng device
such as an ejector, outside the
l yophi l i zat i on chamber (s ee
Figure 1). The ejector circuit is
composed of a port for i ntro-
ducing ice fog into the freezing
chamber and another port for
recycling fog out of the chamber.
Ice-fog introduction followed
t he t wo- step approach shown
in Figure 2. The vials contain-
i ng t he product to be f reeze
dried were placed on the cold
plates inside the freezing cham-
ber. In the initial phase of the
freezing process, the vials were
cooled to a suitable temperature
at or below their freezing point.
When the suitable vial tempera-
ture was achieved, a cryogenic
ice fog was introduced into the
chamber f or about 30 –50 s.
Detection of ice nucleation in the
vials was assessed by a combina-
tion of di rect observation and
temperat ure measurements on
the outside of select vials. The
metal door of t he lyophi l i zer
was replaced wit h a Plexiglas
construction to facilitate visual
observation and video recording.
In control experi ments, the
normal freezing cycle was run
with no ice fog introduction. The
goal was to determine the shelf
temperature at which the first
vials nucleate and freeze. This
shelf temperature in subsequent
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36 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Lyophilization
trials helped determine the trigger tem-
perature (tg) that indicated when the ice
fog should be introduced into the chamber.
The experiment also showed the extent
of subcooling and vial-to-vial variability
in freezing temperature by recording the
range of temperature and time over which
all vials nucleated.
Two sets of tests were performed using
two lyophili zers. The first set was per-
formed in a MINIFAST 1.0 (IMA Life) with
1.1 m
2
of shelf area and represented a lab-
oratory-scale lyophilizer. The second set
was performed in a LYOMAX 2.5 (IMA
Life), with 2.5 m
2
of shelf area and repre-
sented a pilot or commercial-scale lyophi-
lizer. Prefilled sterile vials were obtained
for the testing, with between 10–20 vials
arranged to be visible from the front of
the chamber. Some vials were also strategi-
cally placed inside the lyophilizer on areas
of the shelves where distribution of ice fog
was expected to be most challenging. One
of these vials was designated as the trigger
vial (see Figure 3, Note 1). The tempera-
ture of this vial was monitored to deter-
mine when ice fog should be introduced
into the chamber.
Of the total vials, ni ne were i nstru-
mented using K-type thermocouples. Vials
without temperature probes were observed
visually (see Figure 3, Note 4). All instru-
mented vials, with the exception of the
trigger vial, had thermal probes mounted
on the outside of the vials and touching
the vial wall. The trigger vial contained
the temperature probe inside the solution,
but not touching the walls or bottom of
the vial. Thus, it gave a truer indication of
the solution temperature compared with
the other instrumented vials where the
temperature probe was mounted on the
outside. However, it was also the vial most
likely to freeze first because the probe
itself served as a point of nucleation. tg
was set at the temperature at which the
trigger vial froze.
Two populations of vials were used in
the same test. One population was filled
with pure water only (see Figure 3, Note
2), and the other was filled with a solution
comprising 5% glycine and 1% NaCl (see
Figure 3, Note 3). All solutions were filter
sterilized through standard 0.22-∘m fil-
ters before use. A modular cleanroom was
constructed around the front side of each
lyophilizer to replicate the particulate-free
condition of production-grade environ-
ments. A laser counter was used to mea-
sure the particle concentration inside the
clean room, and it measured particulate
(i.e., > 5 ∘m) impurity concentration to
be under 15 particles/ft
3
.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Creating and uniformly
distributing cryogenic ice fog
A key challenge for the commercial imple-
mentation of the ice-fog technique has
been the creation of an ice fog that is
sufficiently dense and that can be effi-
ciently distributed to reach all vials in a
large-scale lyophilizer. Because of this low
density, not enough fog was available for
all vials. Also absent in previous tests was
an efficient system to distribute the ice
fog within the freezing chamber and drive
it into the vials. The system used in the
present study produced a very dense fog
and also distributed the fog throughout
the freezing chamber within a short time
(i.e., less than a minute). It is also possible,
through this design, to control the density
of the ice fog.
Fog creat ion and di st r ibut ion were
aided by the ejector assembly. The ejector
serves two purposes. First, it provides an
extremely efficient means for quickly form-
ing the ice fog. Second, the suitably sized
ejector provides enough pumping capac-
ity to circulate the ice fog throughout the
5 Note 1 Note 2
Note 3
Note 4
Time
10:40
Shelf Temperature
Note 1: Control vial containing water, temperature probe inside vial solution
Note 2: Vials containing water, temperature probe outside vials
Note 3: Vials containing 5% glycine solution, temperature probe outside vials|
Note 4: Vertical lines show non-instrumented vials whose nucleation was noted visually
9:43
-25
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Figure 3: Temperature measurements obtained in control experiments as
a function of time.
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 37
Lyophilization
freezing chamber rapidly. It is a significant
advantage that the ejector can accomplish
both of these functions without introduc-
ing any moving parts or other complicated
mechanisms that would be difficult to
steam or otherwise sterilize.
Achieving ice nucleation in
all vials at desired temperature
Figures 3 and 4 show the temperature mea-
surements obtained in control and ice fog
experiments, respectively, as a function
of time. Ice nucleation was indicated at
the point when the temperature of a vial
increased sharply. This result is due to
release of the latent heat of fusion of the
solution upon freezing.
For the control experiment, the first vial
nucleated at a temperature of around −9
∘C and the last vial nucleated at around
−18 ∘C (see Figure 3). About 20 minutes
separated these two occurrences, and the
remainder of the vials nucleated at vari-
ous times inbetween. This variation in ice
nucleation time could increase in produc-
tion-grade environments, where solutions
may be supercooled f urther due to the
absence of any particulates or impurities
in the atmosphere.
Based on the data from control experi-
ments, a trigger vial temperature of −6 ∘C
was selected as tg. The choice of this tg was
conservative so that all vials were cooled
below their freezing point. This choice
was to ensure that absence of freezing
was a result of supercooling only, and not
because a vial was at a temperature above
the freezing point. Sometimes uneven vial
temperatures may occur in laboratory-
scale lyophilizers because of nonuniform
shelf cooling. In addition, the temperature
probes, except the trigger vial probe, mea-
sured the outside vial temperatures which
might not reflect the solution temperature
inside the vial at all times. If all vials are
cooled below their freezing point, ice fog
can be introduced at a much higher tem-
perature below 0 ∘C.
Shelves were allowed to cool at a ramp
rate of 0.5 ∘C/min, and the temperature
of the trigger vial was constantly moni-
tored. When trigger vial temperature hit
−6 ∘C, the ice fog was introduced. As seen
in Figure 4, all vials nucleated at the same
instant following the introduction of ice
fog. Both vial populations, pure water and
glycine solution, nucleated at about the
same time on ice-fog introduction, indicat-
ing the general applicability of this tech-
nique for all supercooled solutions.
From a regulatory standpoint, creation
of the ice fog at production scale does not
introduce anything fundamentally new to
the system. The ice fog is produced inside
the ejector using steam and sterile-filtered
nitrogen gas, both of which are already
used in lyophilizers today (e.g., steam for
sterilization and nitrogen for inerting or
backfilling). All components downstream
of the sterile nitrogen gas filter and up
to the output of the ejector that releases
the ice fog into the lyophilizing cham-
ber have been designed to be sterilized in
place. Hence, all the surfaces the ice fog
touches before being introduced into the
lyophilizer are sterile. All surfaces within
the lyophilizer itself, including the vials,
are sterilized, and the ice fog does not
touch anything that is nonsterile, even
5
12:07
-25
Ice fog introduction
Vials containing water
Time
12:43
Vials containing 5% glycine
All vials nucleate after ice fog introduction
Both vial populations, water & 5% glycine solution, nucleated at the same time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Figure 4: Temperature measurements obtained in ice-fog experiments as
a function of time.
Figure 5: Sequence of still frames from a 7-second video in increasing
order of time from left to right. The rst image shows the chamber before
the introduction of the ice fog. The last image shows the chamber 7
seconds after the introduction of the ice fog.
38 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Lyophilization
after being introduced into the freezing
chamber. In summary, the introduction
of a sterile ice fog is no different from
the introduction of any inert gas, such as
nitrogen, that is used today for backfill-
ing vials. No additional sterility concerns
should arise regarding the surfaces the ice
fog touches inside the lyophilizer.
Introducing water in the form of ice crys-
tals into a finished formulation may raise
concerns initially. However preliminary
tests have shown that ice-fog derived water
is a small fraction of the total water already
present in the formulation, and comparable
with the prevalent chamber moisture con-
tent that formulations routinely encounter
when loaded into lyophilizers.
Ice nucleation in all vials was further
conf i rmed visual ly and through video
recording. Figure 5 depicts a 7-s video as a
sequence of still frames separated by 0.4 s
in real time. It shows the lyophilizer being
filmed from outside the plexiglass door
during the introduction of the ice fog.
The first image in the sequence shows the
chamber before the introduction of the ice
fog, and the last image shows it 7 s after
the introduction of the ice fog. The images
clearly show a dense ice fog distributed
throughout the chamber within this time.
Ice nucleation inside the vials can be
visualized in Figure 6, which shows a 4-s
video as a sequence of still frames sepa-
rated by 0.3 s in real time. It shows the
close-up of three consecutive vials placed
in the center of the middle shelf of the
lyophilizer, where ice fog reach is expected
to be the most challenging. The first image
shows the close-up of one vial just as it
begins to nucleate after the introduction
of the ice fog. Within 4 s, vials adjacent
to it also nucleate and at the end of 4 s,
all three vials have completely nucleated.
On a macro scale, this phenomenon is
seen in all vials inside the chamber, and
all vials nucleate within 4–10 s following
the introduction of ice fog. This result is a
significant improvement over the 20-min
vial-to-vial nucleation variability seen in
the absence of ice fog.
Scale-up considerations
and potential regulatory concerns
The scalability of the technique has been
verified by replicating it on a lab-scale
(MINIFAST) and a pilot-scale (LYOMAX)
lyophilizer. It is expected to be easily scal-
able to larger sizes. The water-vapor source
for ice-fog generation can be chosen based
on ease of use and infrastructure availabil-
ity. For instance, in nonindustrial, nonas-
eptic laboratories, a humidified gas stream
may be the preferred source, whereas on
the aseptic production floor, steam would
be the preferred fluid.
CONCLUSION
Ice nucleation duri ng vial f reezi ng i n
lyophi l i zation is an i mportant process
parameter that needs to be controlled.
The scalable cryogenic ice-fog technol-
ogy can be used in laboratory-, pilot-, and
production-scale lyophilizers to induce
uniform ice nucleation and eliminate vial-
to-vial variability. Eliminating variability,
in turn, can help mitigate a host of related
issues and lead to improved process and
product quality.
REFERENCES
1. M.L. Roy and M.J. Pikal, J. Parenter. Sci. Technol.
43, 60–66 (1989).
2. J.A. Searles, J. F. Carpenter, and T.W. Randolph, J.
Pharm. Sci. 90, 860–871 (2001).
3. S. Rambhatla et al., AAPS PharmSciTech 5 (4),
54–62 (2004).
4. T. D. Rowe, presentation at International
Symposium on Biological Product Freeze-Drying and
Formulation (Geneva, 1990). ◆
Figure 6: Sequence of still frames from a 4-second video in increasing
order of time from left to right. The rst image shows three consecutive
vials placed in the center of the middle shelf in the lyophilizer before
introduction of the ice fog. The last image shows the same vials 4 seconds
after the introduction of the ice fog.
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 39
Tutorial
S
everal scientific, quality con-
trol, and regulatory approaches
are used to control and assess
the risk of foreign substances
that are inadvertently added to prod-
ucts that humans consume. The term
extractables describes substances that
might leach from a material’s surface
into a solution while the term leach-
ables describes substances that migrate
from the material surface into the solu-
tion under the actual conditions of use.
In general, the following three pos-
sible negative effects result from the
introduction of leachables into a phar-
maceutical product stream.
• The leachable is toxic and poses a
health risk to the consumer
• The leachable interacts with the drug
product formulation so as to alter its
stability and potency
• The leachable interferes with an assay
that is crucial to measuring an impor-
tant property of the drug product.
The Threshold of
Toxicological concern
The threshold of toxicological concern
( TTC) def i nes a gener ic exposure
threshold value for groups of chemi-
cals below which no appreciable risk
to human health exists. The TTC
approach i s based on t he anal y-
sis of the toxicological or structural
data of a broad range of chemicals
and was developed as a substitute for
substance-specific information. The
concept proposes that such a value
can be identified for many chemicals,
including those of unknown toxic-
ity, when considering their chemical
structures. Several excellent reviews
have been recently publ ished that
summarize both the history and the
scientific approach that TTC brings to
risk assessment of chemicals (1–3).
In 1978, Cramer proposed that many
chemicals, excluding polymers, could
be categorized into three classes of com-
pounds with three different potentials
for toxicological risk (4). The catego-
rization was based on a series of yes
or no questions pertaining to struc-
t ural-activit y relationships (SARs),
met abol ic mechani sms, chemical
reactivity, and other relevant infor-
mation. Cramer class I substances
have simple chemical structures and
predictable and efficient modes of
metabolism that suggest a low order
of toxicity. Cramer class III substances
permit no strong initial presumptions
of safety, and may suggest signifi-
cant toxicity, because their chemical
structure has similarities to those of
known toxins. Cramer class II sub-
stances cannot be placed in class I or
class III and are therefore intermediate
in expected toxicology. Cramer did
not identify safe daily intakes for the
Cramer classes but rather calculated a
protection index that could be used to
establish priorities and the extent of
appropriate toxicity testing.
Table I presents a summary of the
permitted daily exposures for the var-
ious classes of chemicals using the
TTC approach.
The European Medici nes Agency
(EMA) has used the TTC approach to
develop guidelines for genotoxic impu-
rities (5). The Pharmaceutical Research
an overview of risk-assessment
strategies for extractables
and leachables
Thomas E. Stone
This article
is part I in
a two-part
series on
extractables
and leachables.
Thomas E. Stone, PhD, is a principal
scientist in the analytical technologies
group at eMd Millipore,
thomas.stone@merckgroup.com.
40 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Tutorial
and Manufacturers of America
(PhRMA) has also detailed a ratio-
nale for dealing with potentially
genotoxic i mpurities i n phar-
maceuticals employing the TTC
approach (6).
Perhaps the most notable use of
TTC was in the 1996 report issued
by the Pharmaceutical Quality
Research Institute (PQRI) working
group on leachables and extract-
ables in orally inhaled and nasal
drug products (OINDPs) (7). The
PQRI working group concluded
that the TTC level for carcino-
gens of 0.15 µg/person-day would
be t he safet y t hreshold con-
cern (STC) level for leachables
i n OI NDPs. The qual i f ication
threshold for noncarcinogenic or
nongenotoxic impurities was rec-
ommended to be 5 µg/person-day,
rather than the 18 µg derived
i n t he above t abl e for food,
based on an analysis of data of
respiratory toxicities from three
toxicological databases. The rec-
ommended threshold reflects the
commonly observed trend that
respiratory toxicities are gener-
ally greater than systemic, such
as oral, toxicities.
The r e have be e n s eve r a l
compel l i ng drivi ng forces for
approachi ng toxicological risk
assessments from the TTC per-
spective. The first were regulatory
requirements for public safety,
such as the Delaney Clause. The
Delaney Clause is a 1958 amend-
ment to the Food, Dr ug, and
Cosmetic Act of 1938 that states
the following:
The Secretary of the Food and Drug
Administration shall not approve for
use in food any chemical additive
found to induce cancer in man, or,
after tests, found to induce cancer in
animals.
This requi rement ulti mately
led to the Rawley proposal of
the FDA Center for Food Safety
and Applied Nutrition’s (CFSAN)
Threshold of Regulation (TOR)
approach. This approach deter-
mined the upper limit of con-
centration of a substance so that
levels below that limit raised no
concern that it might cause can-
cer at a statistically minimal (i.e.,
one i n 10
6
) rate (8). Although
proposed i n 1986, a series of
legal challenges prevented the
codi f ication of the TOR unti l
1995 (9).
The risk of i nduci ng cancer
in man or animals is not zero
unless t he i mpur it y bel ieved
to induce cancer is also at zero
concentration. The development
of t he TOR pol icy ef fect ively
resolves the issue that concen-
t rat ions of i mpur it ies cannot
be proven to be zero. Rather,
i mpur it y concent rat i ons can
only be shown to be less than
the detection limit. According to
data from the National Cancer
I ns t i t ut e col l ec t ed bet ween
2002–2004, the lifetime risk of
developing any form of cancer
in the US is approximately one
in three. Given this statistic, a
risk of less than one in a mil-
lion additional cancer cases for
i mpurities below the TOR was
as close to zero as the Delaney
Clause could have intended. For
example, an American’s current
probability of getting cancer is
1 i n 3, or 0. 333333. Addi ng a
1 in 10
6
additional risk would
i ncrease the probabi l it y of an
i ndi vi dual get t i ng cancer to
0.333334, clearly an immeasur-
able increase.
A second dr i vi ng force for
approachi ng toxicological risk
assessments from the TTC per-
spective has been the increas-
i ng sensit i vit y of anal yt i cal
met hods used to detect and
measure i mpurities, as wel l as
ever more powerful techniques
to obtai n st r uct ural i nfor ma-
tion on unknown compounds.
While routine analytical meth-
ods in the 1950s measured most
i mpurities i n the f ractions of
percents, by the end of the cen-
tury many analytical methods
could often measure impurities
i n the parts-per-bi l l ion range,
and much lower in certain cases.
The commerci al development
of mass spectrometers ( MS) of
numerous types, but especially
those attached as detectors to
gas chromatography (GC–MS)
and hi gh- per for mance l iquid
chr omat ogr aphy ( HPLC–MS)
instruments, makes possible the
identification, or partial or ten-
tative identi f ication, of many
of these trace impurities. Once
such trace-level impurities can
be detected and identi f ied, it
becomes f easi bl e to anal yze
the risk that they might pose.
However, t he ef for t and cost
Unknown compound type
TTC for PDE
(µg/person-day)
Structural alerts for carcinogency (but not in cohort of
concern group)
0.15
Noncarcinogenic, possibly genotoxic 1.5
Nongenotoxic or carcinogenic grouped by structure-activity relationships
(SAR) using modifications of the Cramer decision tree analysis
Organophosphate neurotoxin structure 18.0
Cramer class III (high complexity by SARs) 90.0
Cramer class II (moderate complexity by SARs) 540.0
Cramer class I (low complexity by SARs) 1800.0
Table I: Threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) summary. PDE is permitted
daily exposure.
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 41
Tutorial
required to perform a risk assess-
ment on one or two impurities
are dramat ical ly i ncreased as
the list of impurities for a risk
assessment i ncreases, even i f
the concentrations of the addi-
tionally detected impurities are
extremely low.
The f i nal dr ivi ng force for
approachi ng toxicological risk
assessments from the TTC per-
spective has been recent con-
cer ns sur roundi ng bot h t he
financial cost and ethics of ani-
mal testing (10). The European
Union Registration, Evaluation,
Authorization and restriction of
CHemicals (REACH) program has
been estimated to cost €1–2 billion
( USD $1. 56–3.13 bi l l ion) and
would require more than a mil-
lion animals if testing were done
using current best practices (11).
Despite a large effort to further
develop in vit ro tests to mi ni-
mize the number of in vivo ani-
mal tests, to date, only animal
testing data can be reasonably
extrapolated into humans. But
a TTC approach to risk assess-
ment may make some ani mal
testing unnecessary. Some have
proposed a combination of the
TTC approach with intelligent
testing strategies (ITS), which is
premised on the idea that sig-
nificant benefits will result from
consideri ng the methods used
for hazard assessment in a holis-
tic manner, rather than examin-
ing each method separately (12).
The most rel i abl e dat a on
human toxicological response
are unquestionably from human
epidemiology studies of histori-
cal chemical exposures, particu-
larly when the dose can be reliably
estimated. However, such data are
only rarely available. Currently,
animal testing is the next-most-
reliable indicator of human toxi-
cological response, and using SARs
to predict toxicity, as is used in
the total TTC approach, is cur-
rently the least reliable approach
of the three. As more and more
structures and toxicological infor-
mation are entered into toxicology
databases and as the algorithms
using SARs improve, TTC will
offer greater value. Furthermore,
while in vitro and cell-based test-
ing can be the “canary in the coal
mine,” their ability to predict a
safe human dose is currently
extremely limited. A
L
L

F
I
G
U
R
E
S

A
R
E

C
O
U
R
T
E
S
Y

O
F

T
H
E

A
U
T
H
O
R
Figure 1: Strategies for mimimizing the risks of leachables.
SECOND
INTERNATIONAL
CONFERENCE
AVIGNON, FRANCE, 4–7 JUNE, 2012
www.htpdmeetings.com
íor íu|| progrom ond reg|strot|on deto||s
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Plenary lecture
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42 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Tutorial
regulaTory guidance in
PharMaceuTical aPPlicaTions
General guidance from FDA on
i mpurities i n pharmaceuticals
can primarily be found in ICH
guidelines Q3A, Q3B, and Q3C
(13–15). The guidance in these
documents focuses primarily on
impurities caused by the synthe-
sis of the drug, degradation of
the drug, or residual solvents in
the drug from the manufactur-
ing process. These guidance doc-
uments do not directly address
impurities from in-process leach-
ables, but merely refer to “extra-
neous contamination that should
not be present” that should be
controlled by current good man-
uf act ur i ng pract ices (cGMP).
General guidance on equipment
and materials used in manufac-
t uri ng pharmaceutical can be
found in 21 CFR 221.65 which
states the following:
Equipment shall be constructed so
that surfaces that contact compo-
nents, in-process materials, or drug
products shall not be reactive, addi-
tive, or absorptive so as to alter the
safety, identity, strength, quality, or
purity of the drug product beyond the
official or other established require-
ments. (16)
Perhaps the most specific FDA
guidance in the area of leach-
ables pertains to the final con-
tai ner closure (17). Focus on
c ont a i ne r c l os ur e i s nat u-
ral because the exposure ti me
can be extensive—mont hs to
years—and there are no further
purification steps to lessen any
concerns about leachables. Table
II is drawn from the FDA guid-
ance for final container-closure
systems and clearly delineates
the importance of the route of
administration of the drug.
The guidance on upstream, in-
process leachables is appropri-
ately less detailed because the
risk is lower. A biopharmaceuti-
cal process extractables team rec-
ommended that the relative risk
of various product-contact mate-
rials be evaluated with a risk-
evaluation worksheet so that the
highest priority will be given to
materials known to potentially
pose the highest risk. Among the
variables in the worksheet are
proximity to the API; extraction
capability of the solution relative
to the material and its potential
extractables, time, temperature,
and area or volume of contact;
and cytotoxicity of extractables
from the materials in tests such
as USP <87> (18).
One of t he common di f f i -
culties in the use of polymeric
materials i n a regulated envi-
ronment such as pharmaceuti-
cal manufact uri ng is that the
commercial lifetime of any poly-
meric material, or one of its com-
ponents, is likely to be shorter
than the commercial l i feti me
of a successf ul pharmaceutical
drug. Most polymers are com-
modities subject to intense cost
pressures over time, including
newer manufacturing processes
and lower- cost manufact uri ng
sites. In the European Union,
the Polymerfor um Group was
formed to foster better commu-
nication and strategies between
pol y me r a nd pha r mac e ut i -
cal manufact urers around the
issue (19).
The literature contains an illus-
trative example of a comprehen-
sive analytical leachables study
conducted after a film used as
container closure was changed,
although the risk-assessment por-
tion of the study that presumably
justified the change of materials
was not included (20). The impor-
tance of change controls and
supply-chain management when
using commodity products such
as plastics was recently empha-
si zed (21). A comprehensi ve
review of safety considerations
related to leachables when using
polymeric materials in pharma-
ceutical applications was recently
published (22).
Route of administration or dosage form Safety guidance
 Inhalation aerosols, solutions, and nasal sprays
Case 1s: Typically provided are US Pharmacopeia (USP) biological reactivity test
data, extraction-toxicological evaluation, limits on extractables, and batch-to-batch
monitoring of extractables.
 Injections and injectable suspensions
 Sterile powders and powders for injection
 Ophthalmic solutions and suspensions
Case 2s: Typically provided are USP biological reactivity test data and possibly
extraction–toxicological evaluation.
 Topical delivery systems
 Topical solutions and suspensions, and topical and
lingual aerosols
 Oral solutions and suspensions
 Oral powders
Case 3s: Typically, an appropriate reference to the indirect food additive
regulations is sufficient for drug products with aqueous based solvents. Drug
products with nonaqueous-based solvent systems or aqueous-based systems
containing cosolvents generally require additional suitability information.
 Oral tablets and oral (i.e., hard and soft gelatin) capsules
 Topical powders
Case 4s: Typically, an appropriate reference to the indirect food additive
regulations is sufficient.
Table II: Safety guidance for drug containers from FDA Guidance for Industry: Container Closure Systems for Packaging
Human Drugs and Biologics (17).
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 43
Tutorial
QualiTy by design
I n a qual it y- by- design (QbD)
approach to manufacturing, the
goal is to design in the quality
of the final product by under-
standing all critical parameters
and implementing robust man-
ufacturing processes to control
those parameters, as opposed to
attempting to test in the quality
from an unstable, poorly under-
stood manufacturing process. The
importance of QbD in extractables
and leachables risk assessments,
particularly in the OINDP applica-
tion, was recently discussed (23).
In the risk assessment of leach-
ables, the critical QbD goal is to
understand and control the safety
of the tool in the application.
The author’s preferred process for
achieving this safety is shown in
Figure 1. The base of the pyramid
is the responsibility of the tool
manufacturer and is where most
of the safety is built in, as indi-
cated by its size. Knowledge of
the technical literature could, for
example, be used to understand
and predict the impact of gamma
sterilization on physical proper-
ties and the amount and type of
gamma-induced leachables.
The green levels in the figure
represent steps only the user of
the tool can perform because
they are highly application spe-
cific. The brown level represents
steps that both the manufacturer
and user of the tool can perform.
The manufact urer of the tool
tends to perform generic analyti-
cal testing, whereas the end user
is more likely to perform analyti-
cal testing closely aligned with
the application of the tool. The
si ze of each level ref lects the
degree to which it helps lower
the risk of leachables that affect
safet y. The key poi nt i n t he
graphic is to not be overly reli-
ant on analytical chemistry and
subsequent toxicological assess-
ment of the analytical data, but
to understand, robustly design in,
and control the safety of leach-
ables, rather than to test in the
quality in the final application.
risk assessMenT
When Fawl ey publ i shed hi s
milestone paper on the thresh-
old approach to toxicology, the
phrase “common sense” was
promi nent i n t he t it l e (24).
While it took many years to gain
legal acceptance, the threshold
strategy is now well entrenched
and i s bei ng expanded on a
gl obal basi s to a mul t i l evel
threshold strategy using the TTC
approach. The FDA CFSAN still
has only the single-level TOR,
whi ch i ndi vi dua l s c i ent i s t s
at FDA have described as too
inflexible (25).
The phar maceut i cal ar ena
ha s s e e n s ome we l l - publ i -
Device and risk levels
Risk variable Disposable bag (50-L bag)
Disposable assembly (50-L bag,
tubing set, filter)
OINDP in MDI
Proximity to API
1
Low Medium High
Contact area/volume
2
Low Medium Medium
Contact time
3
Low Low High
Contact temperature
4
Low Low Low
Difference of Hildebrand solubility
parameter of extraction solution
to material
5

Low Low High
Material susceptibility to extraction
6
Medium Medium High
Subtotal concentration assessment
7
Low Low–Medium High
Exclusive use of 21 CFR cleared
materials
8

Low Low High
Cytotoxicity of leachables (USP <87>)
9
Low Low High
Subtotal toxicology assessment Low Low High
Overall toxicological risk assessment Very low Low Very high
Table III: Toxicological risk assessment of leachables for three devices/applications. OINDP is orally inhaled and nasal drug product.
1
High risk = final formulation; medium risk = downstream purification; low risk = upstream fermentation.
2
High risk = > 1 cm
2
/mL; medium risk = 0.1-1.0 cm
2
/mL; low risk < 0.1 cm
2
/mL.
3
High risk > 30 days; medium risk = 24 hours to 30 days; low risk < 24 hours.
4
High risk > 70 ∘C; medium risk = 37 ºC-70 ∘C; low risk = 2∘C-36∘C.
5
High risk < 3 MPa
½
; medium risk = 3 to X MPa
½
; low risk < X MPa
½.
6
High risk = elastomers or plasticized polymers; medium risk are thermoplastic polymers; low risk are metals or glass.
7
TOC or NVR measurements from model streams can be used to estimate total concentration of leachables
8
High risk = not 21 CFR cleared; medium risk =21 CFR cleared but significant; low risk = 21 CFR cleared under comparable conditions of use application differences.
9
High risk = 100% cell death; medium risk = > 50% cell death; low risk = 0% cell death.
44 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Tutorial
ci zed examples of leachables
t hat potent i al ly mi ght af fect
pat i ent heal t h; vi r t ual l y al l
were f rom contai ner closures.
Examples in the past few decades
have i ncluded polycycl ic aro-
matic hydrocarbons f rom car-
bon black fillers in elastomers,
N-nitrosoami nes or mercapto-
thiazole in rubbers, and diethyl-
hexylphthalates from plasticized
polyvinyl chloride blood and intra-
venous bags and tubing (26, 27).
Even permeation of leachables
from labels and their adhesives
through a low-density polyethyl-
ene film into a drug-containing
vial has been observed (28).
I n t he bi opha r maceut i ca l
i ndustry, the publ ished leach-
able examples are fewer due to
the relatively short time that bio-
logics have been manufactured.
The issues i n biopharmaceuti-
cals seem more centered on API
interactions with leachables and
less about potential direct toxi-
cological i ssues, undoubtedly
due to the greater inherent insta-
bility of biologicals relative to
traditional small-molecule phar-
maceuticals (29). Nevertheless, a
rubber leachable after a formula-
tion change apparently caused
an increased risk of red-cell apla-
sia in European patients receiv-
ing EPO therapy (30).
Case histories of leachable prob-
lems present several clear trends
in risks due to leachables. Because
of their complex formulations and
manufacturing processes, cured
elastomers often have a much
greater chance of having leach-
ables with direct health risks than
thermoplastics, and drug-leachable
instability interactions are much
more prevalent problems than
direct leachable toxicity concerns.
The higher risk of cured elasto-
mer issues should be addressed by
minimizing contact area and time,
or selecting noncured (i.e., TPE)
elastomers or over-molded elasto-
mers (31). Drug-stability studies
should be performed early in the
material evaluation process, and
analytical-leachables studies done
to characterize the performance of
acceptable materials or establish
root cause for materials that reduce
drug stability.
The knowledge aPProach
in risk assessMenT
The goal of any risk assessment
should be to promote a rational
resource al location to address
potential problems, with the high-
est risk areas receiving the highest
scrutiny. To assess the toxicologi-
cal risk of leachables from prod-
uct-contact surfaces, one must
understand material science, solu-
bility parameters, the effects of
sterilization procedures such as
gamma irradiation, application-
specific parameters (i.e., contact
time, temperature, surface area
and volume, solution properties,
and proximity to the final formu-
lation), and relevant toxicology
to assess the value of extractables
and leachables testing.
Thi s s ci ent i f i c as s es sment
must be combi ned with i nfor-
mation from the material sup-
pl i er. Suppl i er i nf or mat i on
should substantiate that the raw
materials have appropriate 21
CFR clearance for the appl ica-
tion, the proper controls are in
place for cGMP manufacturing,
and whether avai lable generic
extractables or leachables data
can help in the risk assessment.
Often the risk assessment using
the combination of the manu-
facturer’s generic leachables data
with the end-use appl ication-
specific parameters and a TTC
approach will conclude that fur-
ther leachables studies are not
necessary to establish the safety
of t he leachables i n ter ms of
direct toxicity.
Table III shows the analysis of
the toxicology risk using a series
of potential ly i mportant vari-
ables when using three devices
i n three appl ications, roughly
bas ed on t he pr ot ocol s ug-
gested by the Biopharmaceutical
Process Extractables Core Team
(17). Other possible risks from
leachables, such as product for-
mul at ion i nstabi l it y or assay
interferences, would be assessed
separately.
The first section of the table
contains estimations of six vari-
ables that could affect the con-
centration of observed leachables.
The second section contains esti-
mations of two variables related
to the potential toxicological risk
of the leachables. Rather than
assign numerical values to each
risk level, such as the 1–10 scale
previously suggested, the over-
all risk is estimated with high,
medium, or low categories. Rather
than sum up the numerical risk
levels to achieve an overall risk
assessment, the relative risk of
toxicology of the leachables and
the relative risk of the amount
of leachables are evaluated sepa-
rately. The two risks are viewed
as multiplicative, in line with the
normal definition of risk as equal
to the degree of the hazard times
the level of the exposure. This
separate evaluation allows for the
possibility that if the toxicology
is estimated to be low risk, then
the concentrations of the leach-
able are not as important, much
as in the TTC approach.
suMMary
As scientific progress continues
to be made, methodologies are
advanced, sources are better con-
trolled, materials improve, and
processes are upgraded and better
measured and controlled, the best
practice to assess the risk of leach-
ables will further evolve. Science
and understanding are not static.
However, the fundamental under-
standing of all the technical issues
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 45
Tutorial
regarding leachables and toxico-
logical safety will continue to be
applied to achieve a knowledge-
based risk assessment.
references
1. R. Kroes, J. Kleiner, and A. Renwick,
Toxicol. Sci. 86 (2), 226–230 (2005).
2. Nordic Council of Ministers, Threshold
of Toxicological Concern (TTC):
Literature Review and Applicability,
TemaNord 559:2005 (Nordic Council
of Ministers, 2005).
3. S. Barlow, Threshold of Toxicological
Concern (TTC) – A Tool for Assessing
Substances of Unknown Toxicity
Present at Low Levels in the Diet.
(ILSI Europe Concise Monograph
Series, Brussels, 2005), pp. 1–32.
4. G.M. Cramer et al., Food Cosmet. Tox.
16 (3), 255–276 (1976).
5. EMA, Guidelines on the Limits of
Genotoxic Impurities (London, 2006).
6. L. Müller et al, Regul. Toxicol.
Pharmacol. 44 (3) 198–211 (2006).
7. Product Quality Research Institute,
Safety Thresholds and Best Practices
for Extractables and Leachables
in Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug
Products (Arlington, VA, 2006).
8. A.M. Rulis, “De Minimis and the
Threshold of Regulation,” in Food
Protection Technology, C.W. Felix, Ed.
(Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 1st
ed., 1986), pp. 29–37.
9. A.P. Shanklin and S. Cahill, Food
Safety Magazine, 14, 12 (2008).
10. W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch, The
Principles of Humane Experimental
Technique (Methuen & Co., London,
1959).
11. K. Van der Jagt et al, “Alternative
Approaches Can Reduce the Use
of Test Animals under REACH.”
Addendum to Report EUR 21405.
(European Commission, Joint
Research Centre Ispra, Italy) 2004.
12. G. Schaafsma et al, Regul. Toxicol.
Pharmacol. 53 (1), 70–80 (2009).
13. ICH, Q3A(R2), Impurities in New Drug
Substances, Current Step 4 version
25 (2006).
14. ICH, Q3B(R2), Impurities in New Drug
Products, Step 4 version 2 (2006).
15. ICH, Q3C(R5), Impurities: Guideline
for Residual Solvents, Step 4 version
(2003).
16. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21
Food and Drugs (Government Printing
Office, Washington DC) Part 221.65.
17. FDA, Guidance for Industry: Container
Closure Systems for Packaging Human
Drugs and Biologics (Rockville, MD,
May 1999).
18. J. Bennan et al., BioPharm. Int. 15,
23–24 (2002).
19. Extractables and Leachables
Information Exchange. http://www.
elsiedata.org/
20. D. Jenke and S. Swanson, PDA J.
Pharm. Sci. Technol. 59 (6), 360–380
(2005).
21. C. Stults, et al., (IPAC- RS OINDP
Materials Working Group), poster
presentation, IPAC- RS Conference
(North Bethesda, MD, 2008).
22. D. Jenke, J. Pharm. Sci. 96 (10),
2566–2581 (2007).
23. D.L. Norwood, Am. Pharm. Rev. 10,
32–39 (2007).
24. J.P. Frawley, Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 5
(3), 293–308 (1967).
25. A.M. Rulis, presentation at
International Life Sciences Institute
Annual Meeting, (San Juan, PR
2006).
26. A.C. Schroeder, presentation at
Pharmaceutical Quality Research
Institue L/E Workshop, (Bethesda,
MD, 2005).
27. FDA Workshop on Plasticizers:
Scientific Issues in Blood Collection,
Storage and Transfusion (Plasticizers
in Blood Bags). (Bethesda, MD,
1999).
28. S.O. Akapo and C.M. McCrea, J.
Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 47 (3), 526–
534 (2008).
29. I. Markovic, Am. Pharm. Rev. 9,
20–27 (2006).
30. K. Boven, et al., Neph. Dial.
Transplant, 20 (suppl. 3), iii33–40
(2005).
31. P. Kushwaha and A.K. Madan, Pharm.
Technol. 32 (2008). ◆
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als, cover protein characterization, biopharmaceutical manufacturing
trends, vaccines, outsourcing, expression systems, and single-use tech-
nologies and facilities.
Please visit our website, www.BiopharmInternational.com, to view our
full Author Guidelines. Manuscripts may be sent to Editorial Director
Angie Drakulich at adrakulich@advanstar.com.
call for PaPers * call for PaPers * call for PaPers
46 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
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New Brunswick Scientific, tel. 800.645.3050, www.nbsc.com
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 47
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allows the development commu-
nity to capitalize on opportuni-
ties to extend the reach and depth
of our programs. USAID’s Global
Development Alliance (GDA) is
a premiere model for public–pri-
vate partnerships, helping to sig-
nificantly expand and deepen the
impact of development assistance
by linking US foreign assistance
with the resources, expertise,
and creativity of private sector
partners. Since 2001, USAID has
formed more than 900 alliances
with over 1,700 distinct partners
to leverage more than $9 billion
in combined public and private
resources. Across industry and sec-
tor, USAID is working in partner-
ship with both global and local
corporations to increase our reach
and the effectiveness of develop-
ment projects.
BioPharm: Some goals of the
admi ni st rat ion and of USAI D
are to increase access to health-
care and treatment in develop-
ing nations, shorten the time of
getting new vaccines to market
(moving a 15–20 year timeframe
closer to 1–5 years), and accel-
erating scale up of drug devel-
opment. In what ways is USAID
working to achieve these goals?
Are there other important goals
on USAID’s agenda in terms of
global health efforts?
Batson: One of t he maj or
obstacles to providi ng t i mely
and qual it y t reat ment i n t he
developing world is the inabil-
it y to access health faci l ities.
The reasons for this are many.
Often times the nearest clinic is
simply too far from the commu-
nity where an individual lives.
Other times the costs of services
are too high or social nor ms
pr ohi bi t women f r om s eek-
ing the care they so desperately
need.
Through the Global Health
Initiative, we are working to inte-
grate healthcare services, so that
when a woman travels to a clinic
to receive treatment for HIV, she
doesn’t have to travel to another
clinic for pediatric services for her
child. We are also working to train
and empower community health
workers who bring critical health ser-
vices directly to the communities.
The idea of offering health services
at the community levels is critically
important when you consider that
80% of people in the developing
world will likely never set foot in a
health facility.
The most transformative technol-
ogy at our disposal, vaccines, ensures
protection against killer diseases,
whether children are immunized by
pediatricians in the US or by health
workers in rural clinics in Africa. By
making quality vaccines available
at affordable and sustainable prices,
manufacturers are contributing to
Final Word
– Continued from p.50 Final Word
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O
ptimizing the cul- t ur e me di um i s an integral part of upst ream process development, and is
essential for efficient biopharma-
ceutical manufacturing. The aim
is to design a robust, economi-
cal, and reproducible system that
enhances the overall performance
of the specific cell line. Typically,
cell culture performance is assessed
using a number of parameters,
including cell density and viability.
However, the defining parameter of
any successful production system is
increased protein expression. Traditionally, optimal mamma-
lian cell growth was achieved by
adding animal sera, such as fetal
bovine serum (FBS) at a concen-
tration of 5–20% to defined basal
media. Although sera may provide
important growth and regulatory
factors, their composition is com-
plex and undefined, which can
lead to batch-to-batch variability
and downstream processing chal-
lenges. Furthermore, the potential
for contamination by adventitious
agents, such as viruses, prions,
and bacteria, poses serious bio-
safety risks. This has led regula-
tory authorities such as the US
Food and Drug Admi nistration
and European Medicines Agency
(EMEA) to issue guidelines that
urge biomanufacturers to avoid
i ngredient s of ani mal or i gi n.
Regulatory pressures related to
safety concerns are therefore driv-
ing the biopharmaceutical industry
away from the dominance of serum
as a media supplement, and toward
the use of serum-free, animal-com-
ponent free, or even chemically
defined media (CDM) for both new
and older manufacturing processes. Serum-Free Media Plant-derived hydrolysates have
been routinely used to reduce or
eliminate serum from traditional
basal media formulations, often
in combination with a variety of
additional supplements. These
hydrolysates are composed of a
mixture of peptides, amino acids,
carbohydrates, and lipids, and as a
multitude of unidentified compo-
nents with indeterminate biologi-
cal activity. They are produced by
the enzymatic or acidic digestion
of a given raw material from var-
ious plant sources including, but
not limited to soy, wheat, and cot-
ton. Some process scientists have
been reluctant to use plant-derived
protein hydrolysates as medium
supplements because of their lack
of definition, which impairs their
ability to assess the root causes
of variability in their production
processes. Recent improvements,
including novel enzyme digestion
techniques, refined processing tech-
niques, automation, and formal
cleaning validations have resulted
in more consistent hydrolysates sold
under the trade name of HyPep and
UltraPep.1 These improved plant
protein hydrolysates are widely
accepted as performance-enhanc-
ing substitutes for animal-derived
media components for a variety of
cell lines (e.g., hybridoma, BHK,
CHO, Vero, MDCK). 2–4 Several
biopharmaceuticals produced using
plant-derived protein hydrolysates
have reached the market and many
more are in various stages of devel-
opment. As an alternative solution to
traditional basal media supple-
mented wi t h ani mal - der i ved
serum, high-performi ng, richly
f or mul at ed CDM have been
developed for biopharmaceuti-
cal product ion as stand- alone
substrates. The opti mized mi x-
t ures of biochemical constit u-
ents in CDM have been carefully
designed to stimulate cell growth,
maintain good cell viability, and
promote hi gh protei n yi elds.
Although CDM have been used
Figure 1. Cell viability of Chinese hamster ovary cells cultured in chemically
dened medium with and without supplementation with HyPep. The plant-derived
hydrolysate extended cell viability. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Viable cells (%)
0 2 4 6 8 10
Day
100% CDM-C 80% CDM-C 100% CDM-C + 8 g/L HyPep 80% CDM-C + 8 g/L HyPep
CDM-C: single chemically dened media
Hydrolysate supplements may provide constituents that are beneficial for performance.
O
ptimizing the cul- t ur e me di um i s an integral part of upst ream process development, and is
essential for efficient biopharma-
ceutical manufacturing. The aim
is to design a robust, economi-
cal, and reproducible system that
enhances the overall performance
of the specific cell line. Typically,
cell culture performance is assessed using a number of parameters,
including cell density and viability.
However, the defining parameter of
any successful production system is
increased protein expression. Traditionally, optimal mamma-
lian cell growth was achieved by
adding animal sera, such as fetal
bovine serum (FBS) at a concen-
tration of 5–20% to defined basal
media. Although sera may provide
important growth and regulatory factors, their composition is com-
plex and undefined, which can lead to batch-to-batch variability
and downstream processing chal-
lenges. Furthermore, the potential
for contamination by adventitious
agents, such as viruses, prions,
and bacteria, poses serious bio-
safety risks. This has led regula-
tory authorities such as the US
Food and Drug Admi nistration and European Medicines Agency
(EMEA) to issue guidelines that
urge biomanufacturers to avoid
i ngredients of ani mal or i gi n.
Regulatory pressures related to
safety concerns are therefore driv-
ing the biopharmaceutical industry
away from the dominance of serum as a media supplement, and toward the use of serum-free, animal-com-
ponent free, or even chemically defined media (CDM) for both new
and older manufacturing processes. Serum-Free Media Plant-derived hydrolysates have
been routinely used to reduce or
eliminate serum from traditional
basal media formulations, often in combination with a variety of
additional supplements. These
hydrolysates are composed of a
mixture of peptides, amino acids,
carbohydrates, and lipids, and as a
multitude of unidentified compo-
nents with indeterminate biologi-
cal activity. They are produced by
the enzymatic or acidic digestion of a given raw material from var-
ious plant sources including, but
not limited to soy, wheat, and cot-
ton. Some process scientists have
been reluctant to use plant-derived
protein hydrolysates as medium supplements because of their lack
of definition, which impairs their
ability to assess the root causes
of variability in their production
processes. Recent improvements,
including novel enzyme digestion techniques, refined processing tech-
niques, automation, and formal
cleaning validations have resulted in more consistent hydrolysates sold under the trade name of HyPep and
UltraPep.1 These improved plant
protein hydrolysates are widely
accepted as performance-enhanc-
ing substitutes for animal-derived
media components for a variety of
cell lines (e.g., hybridoma, BHK,
CHO, Vero, biopharmaceu plant-derived have reached th more are in var opment. As an altern traditional basa mented wi t h
serum, high-performi f or mul at ed CDM ha developed for biophar cal product ion as stan substrates. The opti miz t ures of biochemical co ents in CDM have been c designed to stimulate cell g maintain good cell viabilit promote hi gh protei n y Although CDM have been
Figure 1. Cell viability of Chinese hamster ova
dened medium with and without supplementati
hydrolysate extended cell viability. 0 100 0 90 0 80 0 70 0 60 0 50 0 40 0 30 0 20 0 10 00
Viable cells (%)
0 2 4 6 Day
100% CDM-C 80% CDM-C 100% CDM-C + 8 g/L HyPep 80% CDM-C + 8 g/L HyPep
CDM-C: single chemically dened media
Hydddr ro te olysate dr ro
supp pple lem ements ple pl
provide de de ee const dde
that are ree bbenefi e b e
performa maannncce. an an
Partial Replacement of Chemically
Defined Media with Plant-Derived
Protein Hydrolysates
Plant-derived hydrolysates can be used as valuable and
practical tools to improve cell culture performance.
JAMES BABCOCK, CHRISTOPHER WILCOX, HANS HUTTINGA
ABSTRACT
Protein hydrolysates are routinely used as cell culture sup-
plements to enhance the overall performance of many
biopharmaceutical production systems. This enhance-
ment is subject to the additive effect of the native hydro-
lysate components and the supplemented growth or
production medium. Therefore, it is necessary to experi-
mentally determine the proper hydrolysate dosage for a
given hydrolysate medium combination that provides the
desired optimization effect such as better growth pro-
motion, enhanced cell viability, increased target protein
production, or a combination of all three. In mammalian
systems, hydrolysates have been used in combination
with a variety of other supplements to help reduce or
eliminate serum requirements in systems using traditional
basal media. Today, many high-performing, richly formu-
lated chemically defined media have become available as
stand-alone substrates for biopharmaceutical production.
This article shows that these chemically defined media
can benefit from the addition of hydrolysates and other
supplements. It also demonstrates that in other cases, plant-
derived hydrolysates can partially replace a significant por-
tion of the active ingredients in these rich media.
S h e f e l d B i o - S c i e n c e C e n t e r f o r C e l l C u l t u r e T e c h n o l o g y
JAMES BABCOCK, PHD, is the global applications manager of cell culture at
the Sheffield Bio-Science Center for Cell Culture Technology. CHRISTOPHER
WILCOX, PHD, is the global market segment manager of cell culture and
HANS HUTTINGA is the global business development director of cell
nutrition, both at Sheffield Bio-Science, a Kerry Group Business, Beloit, WI,
800.833.8308, christopher.wilcox@kerry.com.
June 2010
Volume 23 Number 6
The Science & Business of Biopharmaceuticals
January 2012 www.biopharminternational.com BioPharm International 49
Final Word
an international commitment to
protect more children. If we expand
the coverage of existing vaccines
and introduce new vaccines against
pneumonia and diarrhea, we can
save the lives of 4 million children
over the next five years.
BioPharm: How can new drug
products, including vaccines, be bet-
ter introduced to developing popula-
tions? What are the key priorities in
terms of advancing technology (e.g.,
meeting transportation or distribu-
tion challenges)?
Batson: Countries need to know
how best to use data to find their
greatest numbers of missed children
and target those children with opti-
mal approaches whether that means
outreach, quarterly child health
days, school-based approaches or tar-
geting indigenous populations.
Distribution and cold-chain chal-
lenges vary from country to country
and in some larger countries, state to
state. Clearly countries have identi-
fied cold chain as a rate-limiting step
with regard to new vaccine introduc-
tion. The supply chain has largely
been undervalued and many coun-
tries do not have an adequate record
of the status of cold chain equip-
ment, maintenance requirements,
and trained logisticians.
BioPharm:What can i ndustry
expect going forward in terms of
working with USAID to get its new
products or vaccines to developing
nations? What type of assistance
may be provided and what are the
timeframes?
Batson: USAID is going to con-
tinue to focus on what we do best.
That is we will continue to work
with our partners at global, regional
and country levels to provide vary-
ing support. We work with WHO
and UNICEF, as well as our other
donor partners, GAVI, the Gates
Foundation, and most importantly,
countries themselves. USAID is not
the only partner to industry with
regard to getting programmatically
suitable vaccines developed and used
in developing countries. Together,
the US government makes tremen-
dous investments in vaccines from
basic research and development to
field level strengthening of immuni-
zation programs.
BioPharm: Can you talk about the
large commitment the US recently
made to GAVI and what this will
achieve? Does USAID have any other
financing programs in the pipeline?
Batson: To reiterate, one of the
most transformative technologies
at our disposal is vaccines. The
United States’ coordinated sup-
port for GAVI complements the
efforts of the National Institutes
of Health, the Centers for Disease
Cont rol and Prevent ion, and
USAID in the research, develop-
ment and sustained use of vaccines
in robust, country owned immuni-
zation programs.
The US commitment leverages
the billions of dollars that other
donors have committed to GAVI,
multiplying the impact of our
funding more than eight-fold, and
allowed GAVI to negotiate a price
reduction of 67% on rotavirus vac-
cines so more of the world’s most
vulnerable people will be protected
against preventable diseases.
Combined with other donors,
our f undi ng wi l l enable t he
Alliance to provide countries with
sufficient amounts of programmat-
ically suitable vaccines to immu-
nize an additional 243 million
children in the poorest countries
with vaccines against pneumococ-
cal disease, rotavirus, Haemophilus
influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis
B, meningitis A, and yellow fever,
and ensure the complete roll-out
of pentavalent vaccine. Experience
delivering vaccines to expanded
target populations could also
serve to strengthen immuniza-
tion programs to put the world in
a position to save more lives with
potential future vaccines against
malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV.
BioPharm: Once a new drug or
vaccine is introduced a developing-
nation market, what are USAID’s goals
for ensuring that the country can
sustain the administration, purchase,
and distribution of that product?
Batson: We strongly support the
GAVI co-financing strategy that
requires all countries to make a co-
payment for every dose of vaccine
provided to that country through
GAVI procurement. The relatively
recent revisions to the GAVI’s co-
financing policy requires a larger
payment for countries closer to
‘graduation.’ We want countries to
be mindful of their financial obli-
gations but we want to continue
working with our partners on the
expansion of the evidence base for
decision making so that when coun-
tries have to make hard decisions
about how to spend their money,
they will realize the tremendous
health impact vaccines have.
BioPharm: Many individuals seem
to be opposed to global health efforts
compared with say, focusing on the
US healthcare system at home. What
can be done to overcome this per-
spective?
Batson: We recognize that global
health is vital to our national secu-
rity. Improving the health of peo-
ple in the developing world drives
economic growth, fights poverty,
and strengthens families, communi-
ties and countries. Investing in the
health of people in developing coun-
tries reduces the instability that fuels
war and conflict. Fighting global dis-
ease directly protects our health in
the United States because infectious
diseases know no borders.
A continued effort to communi-
cate the value and incredible return
on investment from our global
health efforts will be key to main-
taining this support through the
uncertain economic times ahead. ◆
50 BioPharm International www.biopharminternational.com January 2012
Final Word
Continued on p. 48
President Obama launched the Global Health Initiative
in May 2009 to introduce an integrated approach
to the government’s investments in global health.
The initiative involves programs of the US Agency for
International Development (USAID), the Department
of Health and Human Services (HHS), PEPFAR, and
the Peace Corps, among other agencies. Innovation and
development are key components of the initiative’s and
the administration’s goals. BioPharm International
spoke with Amie Batson, appointed by Obama to lead
USAID’s role in the initiative, about progress thus far
and plans forward.
BioPharm: Why are innovation and development
such a big push now compared with past years?
Batson: At USAID, we realize the benefits of
investing in innovation for global health go well
beyond improvements in health. Some of the
greatest advances in development have come from
extending the reach of innovative breakthroughs
to those who lack access health facilities. We are
looking to build stronger partnerships with the
development and scientific communities to sup-
port the creative thinkers who are developing the
next generation of health technologies capable of
reaching more people at reduced costs to maximize
impact.
USAID Administrator Dr. Rajiv Shah has stated
on several occasions that the largest opportunities
to improve human health and the human condi-
tion do not lie in optimizing services to the 10–20
% of people in the developing world who have
access to world-class health facilities. They lie in
extending our reach to the 80–90% of people who
do not.
BioPharm: What are some examples that have
come about from the initiative to date?
Batson: [In 2011], at the Bill and Melinda Gates
Malaria Forum in Seattle, USAID welcomed the
initial news of the Phase 3 efficacy trial that
confirmed the RTS,S malaria vaccine is safe and
effective, and could eventually add to our present
package of malaria control interventions saving
more lives among young children in Africa.
In 2010, USAID proudly announced the first-
ever proof of concept that a microbicide gel can
effectively and safely reduce the transmission of
HIV from men to vulnerable women, placing the
power of HIV prevention in the hands of women.
The Global Alliance for TB Drug development
is bringing a new drug combination to Phase III
trials that could cut the duration of treatment by
half and help overcome MDR-TB.
With each advancement, we come closer to
delivering more effective aid at a lower cost. In
tough economic climates like this one, the ques-
tion we should all be asking is what tangible ben-
efits we will see for each dollar spent. There is no
question that investing in the health technologies
of tomorrow will reap incredible returns on our
original investment, and in lives and money saved.
BioPharm: USAID Administrator Shah has spo-
ken about how the agency is trying to improve
its relationship with the private industry to make
communication easier and less bureaucratic. What
is USAID looking to do in this regard? What types
of new partnerships is the agency forming?
Batson: Cultivating a productive investment
environment will require partnerships with a
range of stakeholders in donor and host coun-
tries, including the private sector, civil society
organizations, research institutions, foundations,
and emerging and traditional donors. Our
partnerships should reflect new models such
as South–South and trilateral cooperation, and
include meaningful roles for civil society and the
private sector.
Leveraging the collective resources of part-
ners through public–private partnerships M
.

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s
USAID Moves Global
Healthcare Initiatives Forward
Government plans require investment,
partnership, and industry collaboration.
Interview by
Angie Drakulich
April 16-18, 2012
JW MARRIOTT DESERT RIDGE RESORT • PHOENIX, ARIZONA
The 2012 PDA Annual Meeting is the meeting place this April. The distinguished Program Planning Committee,
made up of your peers, is hard at work to bring you the best content in the industry. They know what you are
concerned about, what you want to hear and who you want to hear it from.
The Best Content in the Industry
Conference Highlights Include:
• Two Great Opening Plenary Topics:
• Future Benefits for Patients: From Discovery
to Commercial Products, Cellular and Gene
Therapies, David Shanahan, President,
Mary Crowley Research Center and President,
CEO and Founder, Gradalis
• The Future of Personalized Medicine –
Challenges Ahead, Ted Love, MD, Executive
Vice President, R&D and Technical Operations,
Onyx Pharmaceuticals
• Plenary Session Two:
• The Future of the Biopharmaceutical Industry,
David Urdal, Chief Scientific Officer, Dendreon
• Financial Analyst Perspective on the
Pharmaceutical Industry, Barbara A. Ryan,
Managing Director, Research Analyst,
Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. (invited)
• Student Call for Posters – Abstracts Due
February 6, 2012

• Closing Plenary Topics:
• Manufacturing
Opportunities and
Challenges in the Next
10-20 Years, Matt Croughan,
Professor, Keck Graduate
Institute of Applied Life Sciences
• Emerging Regulatory Expectations,
Emily Shacter, PhD, Chief, Laboratory
of Biochemistry, CDER, FDA
• New this Year: A breakfast Session on Career
Development Strategies
• Networking Receptions & Events like the 6th
Annual PDA Golf Tournament at the Wildfire Golf
Club & the PDA 6th Annual Walk/Run (benefiting
the Phoenix Children’s Hospital)
• Post-Conference Workshop: PDA Single Use Systems
Workshop on April 18-19
• PDA’s Training and Research Institute (PDA TRI)
will be offering eight courses on April 19-20
• Hotel activities for the entire family!
www.pda.org/annual2012
EXHIBITION: April 16-17 | CAREER FAIR: April 16-17
POST-CONFERENCE WORKSHOP: April 18-19 | COURSES: April 19-20
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BioPharm
Volume 25 Number 1

INTERNATIONAL

January 2012

The Science & Business of Biopharmaceuticals

www.biopharminternational.com

THERAPEUTIC VACCINES
THE CONCEPTION AND PRODUCTION OF CONJUGATE VACCINES USING RECOMBINANT TECHNOLOGY PLUS: A LOOK AT EMERGING NICHE TARGETS

PEER-REVIEWED: ICE FOG AS A MEANS TO INDUCE UNIFORM ICE NUCLEATION

TUTORIAL: RISK-ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES FOR EXTRACTABLES AND LEACHABLES

BURRILL: THE ECONOMY’S EFFECT ON BIOTECH ADVANCES COMPLIANCE: HOW TO MANAGE AUDIT OVERLOAD 2012 CONTRACT SERVICE OUTLOOK

Parenteral Drug Association Training and Research Institute (PDA TRI)
Upcoming Laboratory and Classroom Training for Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Professionals March 2012
Lyophilization Week
April 12-15, 2012 | Bethesda, Maryland | www.pda.org/lyoweek • Fundamentals of Lyophilization | March 12-13 • Validation of Lyophilization | March 14-15

April 2012
An Introduction to Visual Inspection – Session 2
April 3-4, 2012 | Bethesda, Maryland | www.pda.org/visualsession2

The 2012 PDA Annual Meeting Course Series
April 19-20, 2012 | Phoenix, Arizona | www.pdaannualmeeting.org/courses • Reprocessing of Biopharmaceutical Products – New Course | April 19 • Recommended Practices for Manual Aseptic Processes – New Course | April 19 • Biotechnology: Overview of Principles, Tools, Processes and Products | April 19-20 • Sterile Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms | April 19-20 • Implementation of Quality Risk Management for Commercial Pharmaceutical and Biotech Manufacturing Operations – New Course | April 19-20 • Process Validation and Verification: A Lifecycle Approach – New Course | April 19-20 • Process Simulation Testing for Aseptically Filled Products – New Course | April 20 • Investigating Microbial Data Deviations – New Course | April 20

May 2012
Environmental Mycology Identification Workshop
May 2-4, 2012 | Bethesda, Maryland | www.pda.org/mycology2012

2012 Aseptic Processing Training Program
Bethesda, Maryland | www.pda.org/2012aseptic • Session 1: January 9-13 and February 6-10, 2012 – SOLD OUT • Session 2: March 5-9 and March 26-30, 2012 – SOLD OUT • Session 3: May 14-18 and June 4-8, 2012 • Session 4: August 20-24 and September 10-14, 2012 • Session 5: October 15-19 and November 5-9, 2012 Laboratory Courses
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com online. LLC .S. CST and a customer service representative will assist you in removing your name from Advanstar’s lists. smilmo@btconnect. Inc. Huxsoll Senior Director. Laboratory Chief. Hewins.com Reprints The YGS Group AdvanstarReprints@theYGSgroup. Genentech PRODUCTION.com Direct List Rentals Tamara Phillips tphillips@advanstar. berger@terra. 222 Rosewood Dr. BioPharm International does not verify any claims or other information appearing in any of the advertisements contained in the publication. Joseph Tarnowski Senior Vice President.com Audience Development Manager Nidia Augustin naugustin@advanstar. Gary Walsh Associate Professor Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences and Materials and Surface Science Institute University of Limerick. fax 440-756-5255 or email: mcannon@advanstar. Calamai Managing Partner Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Compliance Associates. 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Susan J. 131 W. We provide practical.biopharminternational. Inc. ISSN 1939-1862 (digital) is published monthly by Advanstar Communications. tutoRial: RiSk aSSeSSment Part I: An Overview of Risk Assessment Strategies for Extractables and Leachables Thomas E. 28 Interact with us on the BioPharm International page of Facebook. pilot-. 40612608.com BioPharm Bulletin Subscribe to the one industry newsletter focused on the development and manufacturing of biotech drugs and vaccines. industry deals & more. O. CANADA. P. featuring tutorial articles and podcasts on how to take a drug from discovery to development. 39 COLUMNS AND DEPARTMENTS 7 From the Editor The importance of compromise in the new year. Canadian GST number: R-124213133RT001. Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: Pitney Bowes. PO Box 6128. Stone 33 Join our BioPharmInternational Group Using recombinant technology to produce conjugate vaccines in a bacterial expression system. Catch up on regulatory actions.A. $10 all other countries. Ron Lee. and production-scale. new technologies. and Ernesto Renzi ON THE WEB Social Media www. if available: $21 in the United States.S. Duluth. Angie Drakulich 8 Global News 22 Compliance Notes How to manage numerous audits. Single copies (prepaid only): $8 in the United States. and additional mailing offices. Jill Wechsler 45 Ad Index 46 New Technology Showcase 47 Product Spotlight 50 Final Word USAID leader discusses global healthcare initiatives. Duluth.Contents Volume 25 Number 1 BioPharm I N T E R N AT I O N A L January 2012 BioPharm International integrates the science and business of biopharmaceutical research. development. $103 for one year in Canada and Mexico. FEATURES Special RepoRt: theRapeutic VaccineS Therapeutic Vaccine Outlook Rich Whitworth peeR-ReViewed: lyophilization Ice Fog as a Means to Induce Uniform Ice Nucleation Prerona Chakravarty. and manufacturing.com January 2012 . USA. 6 BioPharm International www. London. MN 55806-6128. Add $6. Back issues.biopharminternational. MN 55806.com/subscribe The author describes several approaches for risk assessment of extractables and leachables. G. PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. Subscription rates: $76 for one year in the United States and Possessions. all other countries $146 for one year. Box 25542. Schniepp 11 Regulatory Beat Budget and politics shape agenda for the year ahead. $26 all other countries. ON N6C 6B2. biopharminternational. MN 55802-2065. Interview by Angie Drakulich Cover: Tetra Images/Getty Images 18 Perspectives on Outsourcing Contract Services in 2012 Jim Milller BioPharm International is selectively abstracted or indexed in: • Biological Sciences Database (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts) • Biotechnology and Bioengineering Database (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts) • Biotechnology Citation Index (ISI/Thomson Scientific) • Chemical Abstracts (CAS) • Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI/Thomson Scientific) • Web of Science (ISI/Thomson Scientific) BioPharm International ISSN 1542-166X (print). peer-reviewed technical solutions to enable biopharmaceutical professionals to perform their jobs more effectively.Steven Burrill NEW: Basic Training Be sure to check out our new online business and technical guides to business development. Postmaster Please send address changes to BioPharm International.. Printed in U. Frank DeMarco. First Street.75 per order for shipping and handling. Periodicals postage paid at Duluth. 20 Burrill on Biotech Global economic woes overshadow advances of 2011.com Has an approval in oncology reignited interest in the recruitment of the immune system in the fight against disease? 25 The Conception and Production of Conjugate Vaccines Using Recombinant DNA Technology Veronica Gambillara Follow us on Twitter@BioPharmIntl The authors describe a novel means to control ice nucleation at the laboratory-.

” In its 20-plus years.com January 2012 www. I’ve asked conference participants. Other global standard-setting bodies are working to shape global industry practice.” or. But individuals aren’t the only ones who make long-term goals—so do governments. about the necessity of each nation having its own pharmacopeial guide and of the existence of an international pharmacopeial guide. In fact. I’ve asked people what they think of harmonization and whether they believe certain aspects of pharma manufacturing will ever be harmonized. may have a better way of doing things. And new industry groups working to share best practices throughout the world seem to be popping up every month. including the leading markets in Asia. At several industry meetings during the past year.” “They would never agree to compromise on that. As the new Editorial Director. 10 Quality guidelines. We welcome your ideas and feedback. patent-based. Perhaps my vision of global harmonization is too lofty or naïve. this industry. I am also happy to announce that 2012 is the 25th anniversary of BioPharm International. organizations. In the meantime. Reaching these goals would make life easier for all parties involved. We have the highest regard for her and wish her all the best. could literally solve many of the drug-product contamination and adulteration issues that have plagued the industry in recent years. and high quality medicines are developed and registered in the most efficient and cost-effective manner. many companies and national regulatory or standard-setting bodies seem unwilling to give up their current practices or accept that another company. worldwide approach to quality and supplymanagement. We will be celebrating the occasion with retrospective and forward-looking articles throughout the year. And yet. move up the career ladder. previous editorial director.biopharminternational. 9 Safety guidelines. Email adrakulich@advanstar. trilliondollar industry after all. for example. effective. I have many hopes and goals for BioPharm International in the year ahead. Editor’s Note: Michelle Hoffman. spend more time helping others in need. but I get the feeling that not everyone in industry is as gung-ho about the idea. and has several multidisciplinary guidelines in the pipeline. I also get that the biopharmaceutical industry is highly protective of its information and practices—it is a competitive. The International Conference on Harmonization was established in 1990 with the aim of increasing “international harmonization of technical requirements to ensure that safe. ICH has managed to gain consensus across North America. The members of ICH’s Global Cooperation Group extend the reach of these guidelines to eight additional countries. I spent several years working for a nonprofit focused on the work of the United Nations. or any other number of personal quests. or nation for that matter.” I get that compromise is difficult. For biologic-license-applicants working to bring a product to the global market. I hope you will take time to learn more about global harmonization efforts and talk with your colleagues about how your organization might become involved. so I understand all too well how much effort is required to engage productive dialogue and garner compromise among a diverse and global audience. “There’s too much national pride for one country to change its standards to match another’s. whether it’s trying to get fit. Harmonization of drug development and manufacturing approaches comes to mind. organization. But I also think that some of the key elements of harmonization are getting lost in translation. and for our purposes. is there a way to avoid filling out the same information on 20 different forms? Inspections are another area lacking harmonization. Industry seems to want globally standardized approaches to their processes and quality systems as well as minimal routes for filing marketing applications and other required documents.From the Editor I Angie Drakulich is the editorial director of BioPharm International. has moved on to pursue new scientific opportunities. for example. on 16 Efficacy guidelines. and Japan. We all know how many audit or inspection teams that companies must accommodate in a given year. BioPharm International will do its best to keep you apprised of happenings tied to harmonization and what it means for your day-to-day operations—and that’s just one of many resolutions we intend to keep this year.com BioPharm International 7 . But there is reason to hope. the European Union. Here’s to a Year of Compromise t is in the New Year that we often set goals to improve ourselves. Most of the answers I’ve received are along the lines of. “ I don’t know. I’m a big supporter and follower of harmonization initiatives. Our team will be working to improve the types of articles and resources we bring to you in print and online. Having an agreed-upon.

This result is extremely relevant for a country that still has a very high rate of income inequality. known to be associated with this syndrome. have taken more than 36 million Brazilians out of poverty. The government has been working hard to increase the supply of medicines to the populace. BioPharm: Moving so many people into the healthcare system will provide great business opportunity—as well as challenges—for the healthcare and drug sectors. In the first article. Nat. especially in the area of biotechnology products. What steps is the government taking to address these? What advantages may exist for biopharmaceutical companies outside of Brazil? Palmeria: The key word to healthcare in Brazil is access. This positive environment of the past 10 years has allowed for the modernization of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry and its increased production capacity. The authors showed that calciumdependant activation of the enzyme calpain resulted in insoluble aggregates of fragments of the protein ATXN3 in neurons derived from patients. Brazil is one of the world’s leading emerging economies and is also considered by IMS Health to be one of seven pharmerging nations. On the side of development and production in the country. 1657–1662 (2011). BioPharm International spoke with Pedro Palmeira. Sources: 1. and China. and South Korea. skin cells were collected from patients with a rare inherited neurodegenerative disorder called spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. the genetic abnormality underlying a disease is known. including defects in calcium signaling.Global News Discovery Pipeline Stem Cells Create Diseases-in-a-Dish Two recent articles highlight the utility of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to create cellular models of disease that can be used to identify the mechanisms underlying disease-related pathology. Are there key goals for the biopharmaceutical sector? Palmeria: Brazil should continue growing at a rate of 5% per year in the next few years. 2011. Within the scope of the program.. —Amy Ritter 8 BioPharm International Brazil’s Development Bank Leader Discusses the Country’s Pharma Future As part of the BRIC bloc with Russia.. abnormal neurotransmitter production and defects in activity-dependent gene expression. which increased the middle class by more than 50% of population. suggesting a possible mechanism for the neuronal damage that occurs in patients. BioPharm: The Brazilian government plans to move 16 million people out of poverty and into the healthcare system during the next 10 years. BioPharm: It has been noted that Brazil’s northern region is growing at the same pace as most of China and that Brazil expects to continue to grow its economy. India. The bank is the country’s primary financing agent for development. Turkey. Koch et al. the past few years have been prosperous. Even so. healthcare is included as a fundamental right and an important pillar in the public policy to include this part of the population. published online in Nature on Nov. development. a form of autism (2). Nature online doi:10.com . published in the December 2011 issue of Nature Medicine. and to the increased public spending to attend the new public health needs of the population. head of the Pharmaceutical Department at the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) in Rio de Janiero. The ability to create cell culture-based models that reproduce the abnormalities found in human patients provides a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of disease. researchers created iPSCs from fibroblasts collected from patients with Timothys Syndrome. The researchers identified a host of abnormalities in the patient-derived neurons. in turn. differentiated into neurons (1). The skin cells were used to create iPSCs that were. finance for the development and production of strategic products for the Brazilian health system. With expectations to achieve significant pharmaceutical market gains in the coming years. 2011. while at the same time consolidating research. but the details of how that abnormality translates into pathology are difficult to decipher. In the case of the pharmaceutical market. Nov. In the second article. Pasca et al. and innovation efforts within the country. 23.1038/nature10671. The iPSCs were differentiated into neurons to examine potential abnormalities underlying the disorder.biopharminternational. 2. continued improvement of the regulatory regime. 17 (12). It was for these reasons that the Brazilian government created the Programa Brasil Sem Miséria (Brazil without Poverty) in 2011 to take this underprivileged group of Brazilians out of poverty and give them access to the country’s main social services. Often. it is estimated that there are around 16 million Brazilians with a family income of less than US $45 per month. 23. together with the government policies for income transfer. They also demonstrated that the aggregates formed in neurons. which are families that are difficult to reach by the traditional measures of the state. Is this part of a larger government initiative? What progress been made to date? Palmeria: The recent economic boom in Brazil…. but not in patient-derived fibroblasts or glial cells. but not from control individuals. January 2012 www. The opportunities for companies arise inasmuch as the government is able to acquire more products and sustain the adoption of new protocols in the Brazilian Universal Health System. and centralized purveying and negotiating directly with producers. which also include Mexico. The main challenge in the next few years will be to uphold the supply of health products for the increasing demand. this effort involves several fronts: technology transfer agreements via public-private partnerships. largely driven by its internal market. Med. due to the increased income in the lowest levels of the population that began to acquire more health products.

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in just a few decades.biopharminternational. the income-transfer programs. event listings. Projections indicate that Brazil will occupy the sixth position by 2015. has shown signs of the strategic nature of our health industry. but also by a significant volume of exports. a vast territory and immense mineral wealth. 10 BioPharm International www. which have contributed to its role as a pharmerging nation. regardless of the regions or geographic location. BioPharm: Brazil is known as a have recently made bold moves to acquire facilities and companies in São Paulo. The change in the epidemiological profile of the populace is also impressive: today. including biosimilars? Palmeria: The Brazilian government is working to construct an industrial platform for biotechnology within the country that. As far as the health industry is concerned. together with a continually improving regulatory regime. Brazil can legitimately aspire to be one of the world’s five foremost economies. Specifically regarding Brazilian interest in developing a strong biotechnology industry in line with national interests. Yes. and more. a sustainable energy matrix. Have you seen increased action along these lines from multinational biopharmaceutical firms? Do you expect more? Palmeria: In the past two years. and a stable democracy that is anchored in solid institutions. which today holds the seventh rank in the world. it is important to point out the ambitious public health system which covers more than 100 million people. the average Brazilian has more chronic-degenerative diseases than infecto-contagious illnesses. At the same time. however. How do you view this label? How do you see your country in the global marketplace in terms of the biopharmaceutical space? Palmeria: Today.. the increased volume of South–South trade reflects the search for opportunities and exchange among commercial partners with complementary interests.com January 2012 . BioPharm: GE Healthcare and Amgen environment that are in compliance with global standards. have brought 36 million Brazilian out of poverty to become real citizens able to consume goods and services. This industrial structure should. in this promising scenario. Investments that contribute to the established industrial technology and that contribute to the challenge of increasing the access of the Brazilian public to health products and services will be very welcome. more than having a label of ‘pharmerging market. and it has huge opportunities for those that wish to take part. BioPharm: Brazil’s regulatory system and healthcare policies seem to be stable and well-respected on a global scale. include the possibility to innovate and develop new biotechnolgy products in the long-term. a demographic pyramid similar to that of Europe. Brazil has a regulatory regime and intellectual property “pharmerging” market by the biopharmaceutical industries in North America and Europe. grows by double digits. in the short-term. BNDES has received a growing number of consultations. without indications of slowing down.. and innovation activities. The improvements in quality of life of Brazilians have made demographic changes that will give Brazil. health is the right of everyone and it is an obligation of the State to provide it. we do expect more—and that these activities come to be real investments in the Brazilian health industry. development. produces biological products that are not new (biosimilars). With a robust middle class. Finally. According to the Constitution of Brazil. —Angie Drakulich  Follow us on online @ Twitter/BioPharmIntl or join us on LinkedIn: BioPharmInternational for the latest news updates.. What components of this governance structure hold advantages for outside biopharmaceutical companies wanting to do business in Brazil? Palmeria: Companies that wish to invest in the Brazilian health industry will encounter an extremely favorable environment. In this scenario. a diversified industrial base. it is indeed possible to affirm that.’ Brazil has all the conditions to become a solid and developed pharmaceutical market in the short run. BNDES and other government agencies offer favorable conditions to support industrial investments in production facilities as well in research. Our pharmaceutical industry. together with economic growth. Brazil is among the 10 largest economies in the world. With a population of 180 million. from foreign companies in the health industry that are interested in the Brazilian market. our country is obviously seeking partnerships with enterprises and governments where this technological wave has been consolidated. The Brazilian government has been stimulating the industry by supporting and financing projects that contribute to reducing the vulnerabilities of our health system—a fact that.Global News BioPharm: What is the country’s short- and long-term perspective on the manufacture of biopharmaceuticals. and perhaps disadvantages? Palmeria: From our viewpoint. the scenario is even more promising as it is challenging. the country is clearly on a path for growth—led not only by internal consumption. BioPharm: The growing occurrence of South–South trade is leading to some multinational companies (as well as nations) to question their current market-growth strategies. the country is positioned as a promising economy. As mentioned. both formal and prospective. regarding longterm credit. as well as a scientific and technological base that is consolidated and expanding. Therefore. conference reports. Life expectancy in Brazil is currently 73 years old. How does your organization view South–South trade in terms of benefits.

the drive for healthcare savings will continue to shine a spotlight on pharmaceutical pricing. manufacturing. drug regulation. the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) will continue to implement the multitude of policies and programs established by that law. As the campaign for the White House and control of Congress heats up. and to reduce benefits and services. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). while retaining provisions that cut revenues and raise costs for industry.com. and access. reimbursement. and access. While the jwechsler@advanstar. and sales.4634. initiatives to reduce fraud and abuse. The 800-pound gorilla in the room is the looming Supreme Court decision Jill Wechsler is BioPharm International’s Washington editor. In return. mD. limited resources throughout the public and private sectors are likely to undercut efforts to advance biomedical research and expand public health programs. and efforts to curb pharmacy expenditures will emerge as ways to save money without compromising care. Justices ponder the weighty legal issues. Whither reform? Manufacturers backed Obamacare two years ago as a way to expand the market for prescription drugs.656. Pricing Pressures The drive for healthcare savings will continue to shine the spotlight on pharmaceutical pricing. healthcare reform legislation. These developments will drive manufacturers to look overseas for less costly and more efficient opportunities to expand R&D. The administration’s working assumption is that the Affordable Care Act (ACA)—or much of it—will remain in place. Policymakers increasingly will be looking for more convincing evidence of the value of new medicines and for new ways to reduce risk in determining coverage of new therapies. and regulation. The worst-case scenario for manufacturers now would be to eliminate the market reforms and insurance exchanges designed to expand enrollment in health plans. on the constitutionality of the Obama chevy chase. pharmaceutical and biotech companies will need to keep a sharp eye on how new policy proposals may affect product development. to increase cost-sharing by patients. prices. and reimbursement in the coming year. and other payers and insurers will ques- January 2012 www. including a growing number of pricey biotech therapies.Regulatory Beat Budget Crunch. pharmacy benefits managers (PBMs). 301.com BioPharm International 11 Digital Vision/Getty Images . Many states are moving ahead with efforts to expand health IT systems and to establish processes for determining insurance eligibility and coverage. Political Battles Shape Policy Agenda for Year Pressure to approve new user fees opens the door to action on drug shortages. E lection-year politics will play a role in a range of legislative and policy developments affecting drug development. Efforts to reduce government spending on healthcare are prompting all parties to search for opportunities to do more with less. But a Republican takeover of the White House in November 2012 would bring considerable changes in health-related programs. Although FDA received a slight increase in its 2012 budget.biopharminternational. Whatever the legal and political outcome. industry agreed to pay hefty new fees as well as higher rebates on Medicaid drugs. and to subsidize the cost of drugs sold to seniors caught in the “doughnut hole” of the Medicare prescription drug program. perennial proposals to reform the nation’s medical liability system. policymakers on all sides will be looking to cut payments to providers. reimbursement. and the debate over reauthorization of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). Increased reliance on managed care plans and coordinated care programs. production.

Dedicated to delivering high-quality biopharmaceuticals produced in mammalian cell culture.000 syringes Analytics and Quality Control Marketing Authorization Application and Consulting Quality Assurance Corporate Project Management Biopharmaceutical Services and Capabilities Rentschler provides customized.de Website: www. Rentschler has nine stand-alone GMP suites with 30-. 250-. The first 1. Rentschler Biotechnologie GmbH Erwin-Rentschler-Straße 21 Laupheim Germany Phone: +49 7392.g.rentschler.5 to 20 mL • Batch size: 100 to 15. Germany.Product & Service Innovations Advertorial Rentschler Biotechnologie Company Description Rentschler Biotechnologie GmbH is a full-service contract manufacturer with over 35 years of experience in the development. Rentschler develops tailored solutions for each customer through all phases of development and production.000-. integrated biopharmaceutical services from the cell line to the development and production of the active ingredient.701. 500-.de 12 BioPharm International January 2012 . Rentschler Biotechnologie will continue expanding its capacities in the future to be able to take on new and challenging tasks.400 Email: info@rentschler. production.000-L single-use bioreactor lines are available.25 to 50 mL • Batch size: 100 to 70. As part of the Rentschler Group and headquartered in Laupheim.500 L and a trusted preferred partnership agreement with Boehringer Ingelheim for a seamless project transfer to large-scale manufacturing of up to 12.555 Fax: +49 7392. repeated batch. At present.500 L ensure development and planning security throughout the whole development process—from clinical phases up to market production.. Capacities up to 2. two 1. continuous (e. Rentschler is one of three leading European CMOs operating globally. fed batch.000 L single-use bioreactor has been in operation since mid 2010 and the second line went into operation in October 2011. perfusion) Fill and Finish Aseptic filling of vials • With and without lyophilization • Volumes: 0.500 L • Single-use bioreactors: 250 to 1. Rentschler Biotechnologie is a pioneer in the development and production of biopharmaceuticals—it was the first company in the world to gain market authorization for an interferon-containing drug.000 vials • Filling line for small batch sizes and development work Aseptic filling of pre-filled syringes • Volumes: 0. coordinating operations. and from marketing authorization to fill-and-finish. there are nine state-of-the-art suites for GMP production and three GMP filling lines. 1. whether for low-dose cytokines or high-dose antibodies and biosimilars. As a cost-efficient and fast manufacturing alternative to the stainless-steel fermenters. allowing material production for clinical trials and market supply. and 2. and approval of biopharmaceuticals in compliance with international GMP standards with a highly skilled staff of 650. and communicating progress updates for high customer satisfaction.000 L • Cultivation methods: batch. Rentschler Biotechnologie is an experienced partner for implementing project goals. The long-standing experience of Rentschler Biotechnologie combined with its range of comprehensive services reduces time delays and ensures the success of any project by rapid and reliable execution.500-L volumes.701. GMP Certified Services Cell Line and Process Development Production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients • Stainless-steel bioreactors: 30 to 2.

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FDA guidance on the scope of preclinical and clinical testing needed to document product comparability. Payers and policymakers will face difficult questions about cost versus safety and efficacy. coding requirements for reimbursement. FDA officials are instructing pharma companies to police suppliers and distributors more effectively for early detection of quality problems. manufacturers are disappointed by the limited scope of the regulatory changes. Regulators are looking to extend these quality assurance policies to include generic drugs and ingredients from other regions. Although the Medicare Part D drug benefit has provided seniors with access to affordable medicines. as has been the case with small molecules during the past 25 years. AvoiDing shortAges The search by pharmaceutical companies for new products and new markets will further expand global pharmaceutical production. better track-and-trace systems. The claim by biopharmaceutical companies that effective treatment w ith expensive therapies can reduce overall healthcare costs will remain a hard-sell to the numbercrunchers that regard pharmacy outlays as a discrete expenditure. Similarly. as FDA officials promote more effective product testing and monitoring to reduce variability in drugs and biologics and to prevent “process drift” in manufacturing operations. In Europe. and the proportion will rise further as more blockbuster brands such Pfizer’s Lipitor (atorvastatin) go off patent. A sharp rise in supply problems for vital drugs has led to a focus on drug quality and supply chain problems. So far. This increased focus on systems for ensuring reliable drug supplies will further intensify efforts by industry. Efforts to manage manufacturing changes more efficiently will continue. Drug quality issues will keep up the pressure on FDA to conduct more frequent inspections of manufacturing facilities and to crack down on noncompliant firms. Manufac t urers are responding with risk-sharing programs that skew prices based on patient response to a new therapy. particularly foreign operators exporting products to the US. threatening to relegate pricey products to unfavorable positions on health plan formularies. rather than a way to save money. For the program to be effective. The regulators also want manufacturers to establish backup plans for dealing with supplier and production snafus that could halt production. instead of with its more costly formulation Lucentis (ranibizumab). as seen in the debate over treatment of age-related macular degeneration with off-label use of the cancer drug Avastin (bevacizumab). Rising international sourcing of APIs and excipients will put more pressure on industry to manage production processes to ensure the quality and safety of their products. Pressure to cut costs will drive support for the ACA provision that establishes a pathway for bringing biosimilars to market. with an eye to curbing unnecessary oversight. with the relevant opportunities and perils. if not interchangeability. The wave of new generic drugs puts more pressure on FDA to speed up its process for approving new generic drugs for market. and other regulatory bodies to promote continuous quality improvement strategies. FDA has proposed modified reporting requirements for certain postapproval manufacturing changes. and stiffer penalties for counterfeiting and drug adulteration. Payers will continue to look for more drug discounts and rebates. indicates that prices perceived as excessive can override some drug-safety issues. FDA.biopharminternational. which supports proposals before Congress to broaden requirements for manufacturers to report to FDA production issues that could lead to supply problems.com January 2012 . government agencies such as the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) are opposing coverage of expensive products that lack sufficient added benefits. Efforts by Pfizer to retain a good portion of the Lipitor market by cutting its price and negotiating longterm deals with payers and PBMs have roiled the drug industry and pharmacy programs. including policies for names to identify these products. FDA is looking to expand partnerships and cooperative programs with regulatory counterparts in Europe and other regions as a way to combine inspection resources and 14 BioPharm International www. Generic drugs now account for about 80% of prescriptions in the US. policymakers will have to decide a number of thorny issues. Policymakers also seek tighter controls on drug imports. and rules governing patent challenges and protection. New user fees paid by generic drugmakers will help fund such efforts. The White House unveiled a drugshortages initiative in October 2011. securing suPPlies. including adoption of quality standards established by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). Biosimilars are a big issue because payers anticipate hefty savings from these look-alike therapies. benefits may suffer as many plans boost co-pays and limit coverage for costly therapies. will spur manufactur- ers of all stripes to move aggressively into the follow-on biologics field. however.regulatory Beat tion the value of high-cost therapies that appear to offer limited benefit. the controversy over the sharp price hike for pretermbirth treatment Makena (caproate) after it gained market control under FDA’s policy for halting sales of unapproved drugs. These actions further spur industry critics to harp about brand-generic patent settlements that can delay when a generic comes to market and propose policies to curb those practices.

There is growing excitement about new vaccines. larger studies keep many promising medicines off the market and raise R&D costs. moreover. Several federal agencies are examining past unsafe research practices and weighing changes in policies and standards for clinical studies sponsored by the federal government or regulated by FDA. according to Commissioner Margaret Hamburg. which is slated to have a $500 million annual budget by 2014 to study effective treatments for important conditions. The assurance that US-supported investigators fully protect research participants and ensure the validity of clinical data is critical to improving public confidence in the pharmaceutical R&D process. Other coalitions are looking to streamline the long and costly R&D process by developing research protocols for “adaptive” clinical trials and promoting electronic methods for recruiting patients and collecting research data. which are attracting more industry investment as markets mature around the world.regulatory Beat avoid redundant oversight. may result in broader FDA disclosure of information on drug safety and effectiveness.com BioPharm International 15 . Agency officials hope to finalize a number of manufacturing and production policies in the coming year. and some of the saber-rattling could escalate into real blows. Yet. This approach will be supported by research sponsored by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). FDA officials point to last year’s jump in approvals for new molecular entities (NMEs) as evidence that the agency is not keeping important new medicines from patients. ◆ January 2012 www. The rise in overseas clinical research activity. and its Methodologies Committee aims to report in May on research methods and standards for this field. Health authorities are pressing for more research on new antibiotics. The transparency campaign. This will require the development of more diagnostics to identify key response factors. transformational leaps” in discovery. Pharmaceutical companies have been hit with huge fines and onerous consent decrees for violation of GMPs and other regulations. Clinical research activities also face more scrutiny at home under transparency requirements that expand disclosure of active clinical trials and study results on the clinicaltrials. patient recruitment. possibly even proprietary data that manufacturers might prefer to keep confidential. manufacturers complain that a risk-averse tendency at FDA and demands for more. Health reform “sunshine” provisions require pharma companies to disclose payments to physicians and other health professionals. There is growing enthusiasm for developing personalized medicines that provide more effective treatment based on individual genomic and metabolic characteristics. The recent FDA decision to revoke the metastatic breast cancer indication for Avastin has generated questions about the future of FDA’s accelerated approval process and the threshold for bringing new cancer therapies to market. along with treatments for rare conditions and killer diseases such as cancer and AIDS. Manufacturers who experience serious quality control problems face increased attention from federal and state prosecutors. and safety evaluation. “Patient centeredness” will continue to shape regulatory and research initiatives. continues to focus attention on research ethics and policies to ensure compliance with good clinical practices. who are looking more at violations of GMPs—in addition to off-label marketing and illegal pricing—as evidence of corporate malfeasance. PCORI plans to finalize priorities for its research agenda by March 2012. filling the PiPeline The loss of patent protection for a wave of blockbuster medicines is driving pharmaceutial companies to search for new models for drug development to fill an admittedly dry drug pipeline. FDA can help the process. Government officials are raising the stakes by threatening to impose penalties on individual corporate executives who fail to take action to prevent such violations. a process that involves major revisions in corporate policies and information systems. tuberculosis.biopharminternational. FDA is encouraging sponsors to incorporate patient needs and opinions into clinical-trial protocol design. Several programs are underway to validate biomarkers that can identify potential safety problems early on and improve the efficiency of clinical studies. Expanded international research efforts are tapping into public–private partnerships for developing impor- tant therapies for malaria. as opposed to the incremental gains that traditionally lead to important scientific advances. Public and private backers of biomedical research talk more about “game-changing. who has been promoting the campaign to bolster FDA involvement in regulatory science initiatives to provide new tools and methods to accelerate the R&D process. as pharmaceutical companies seek more efficient drug development operations and data to support global marketing efforts. A number of the approvals involve treatments for rare conditions and serious cancers that carry less risk for patients and lend themselves to speedy FDA evaluation. The regulators also are looking to tap into manufacturing data compiled by third parties to free up resources and focus on the most critical compliance issues. but recognize that such efforts can be sidelined by new crises and changing priorities. and other diseases most prevalent in tropical climates. drug delivery.gov website. but the situation may get worse.

Müller GmbH (microbiological culture media and microbiological test systems). it also allows us to capitalize on a motivated. Headquartered in Billerica. This acquisition does not only allow us to strengthen our product portfolio in the growth segment industrial microbiology for contamination detection. EMD Millipore serves as a strategic partner to customers and helps advance the promise of life science. Beverage. Through dedicated collaboration on new scientific and engineering insights.emdmillipore. unique knowledge and state-of-the-art production. EMD Millipore is known as Merck Millipore outside of the U. our microbiological Products and Services assure that food. It consists of the product portfolio of Hycon (hygiene monitoring) and the product portfolio of heipha Dr. BioMonitoring’s mission statement Across the globe. development and production of biotech and pharmaceutical drug therapies. the division has around 10.Product & Service Innovations Advertorial EMD Millipore Biomonitoring at EMD Millipore We make the world a safer place A top player in the industrial microbiology market EMD Millipore BioMonitoring combines the experience and expertise of two historically strong players in the field of industrial microbiology and product process monitoring. What supports our mission statement? We are a top-player in the Industrial Microbiology market. applications and process development We have a strong commitment and significant R&D investment towards innovation. About EMD Millipore division EMD Millipore is the Life Science division of Merck KGaA. Blood-typing antibodies) Our customers can count on state-of-the-art production facilities.2 billion.emdmillipore. and as one of the top three R&D investors in the Life Science Tools industry. services and business relationships that enable our customers’ success in research. with full understanding of customers’ evolving needs We have a decade-long track-record of standard setting leadership in core areas (Dehydrated Culture Media. Massachusetts. We support microbiological monitoring through our expertise of local markets regulations and outstanding service. This claim translates that safety goes beyond what is visible at first glance : the BioMonitoring offer goes beyond state of the art testing methods. It will complement EMD Millipore’s existing dehydrated cell culture media and testing systems with the so called “ready-to-use” culture media and instruments. Darmstadt.com/offices 16 BioPharm International January 2012 . than meets the eye” is the key message of the new awareness campaign recently launched to promote our offering in the growing microbiological monitoring market. customer focused workforce. EMD Millipore www. regulatory expertise and outstanding service. and Canada. Sterility testing. and Cosmetics. FDA–EMEA). (ISO 9001-13485-14001. The acquisition of Biotest AG’s microbiology Business has recently been completed.S. Our market segments Focused markets include Pharmaceutical. We have developed intimacy with regulatory requirements in the food & beverage. BioPharma. It will also add particle counting and strengthen air monitoring in our hygiene monitoring portfolio. EMD Millipore provides that one invaluable result: maintaining the safety of your products and manufacturing processes. performance products. Environmental (Municipal water). Food. operations in 67 countries and 2010 revenues of $2. A new awareness campaign for BioMonitoring “There is more to safety. pharmaceutical and diagnostics markets We offer a comprehensive service and support for products. water and pharmaceuticals are safe from biocontamination and our materials and components help to diagnose and treat patients worldwide. Germany and offers a broad range of innovative.000 employees. The merger of EMD and Millipore in 2010 enabled this business field to become a leader in providing state-of-the-art testing methods.com/BioMonitoring www.

It’s a comprehensive approach providing regulatory expertise.There is more to safety than meets the eye. BioMonitoring is about more than high quality microbiology testing solutions. Our broader portfolio including Biotest Microbiology (heipha/Hycon) products: • Microbiological membrane filtration • Sterility testing • Traditional and rapid microbial detection & identification • Ready-to-use and dehydrated culture media • Viable and non-viable air monitoring • Surface monitoring • Pyrogen testing www. Germany . These are vital components for the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry to produce that one invaluable result: safe products.emdmillipore. Darmstadt. substantial service.com/biomonitoring ding NOW: Inclu robiology Biotest Mic ) eipha/Hycon Portfolio (h EMD Millipore is a division of Merck KGaA. BioMonitoring by EMD Millipore. and trust.

a 30% premium over the company’s value shortly before the deal was announced. In the past decade. making it the largest private-equity deal for a publicly traded CRO. can deliver great riches if those executives are successful in substantially increasing the value of the company through the successful implementation of those long-term strategies. PPD’s board tried to improve its stock’s performance by making its compound-partnering ManageMent incentives Private-equity buyouts are usually quite attractive to the current shareholders of the company because they offer a significant premium over what the company’s stock was selling for shortly before the deal was announced. but more uncerpublisher of Bio/Pharmaceutical tain. Despite some early successes.. in an initial public offering (IPO) in 2005. Genstar Capital. A similar problem had been a major reason for another CRO. to undertake a management-led buyout in 2003. PRA International.Perspectives on Outsourcing Contract Services in 2012 Some recent private-equity buyouts of contract research organizations show both the upside and downside for investors. One CRO. the Carlyle Group and Hellman & Friedman. payoffs.4903. The PPD deal illustrates how senior management’s frustrations with the public market can drive a company’s board to pursue a privateequity buyout. the market discounted the value of the company’s stock. Quintiles.383. Going private allows executives to pursue long-term growth strategies away from the oversight of public shareholders and Wall Street analysts. Clinical CROs such as PPD have proven to be popular takeover targets for private-equity firms: PharmSource counts at least eight publicly owned CROs that have been taken private by private-equity firms since 2003 (see Table I). private-equity buyers usually offer fax 703. 703.9 billion. the company had pursued a strategy it called “compound partnering” under which it would acquire or invest in promising early-stage drug candidates.4905. These deals are usually even more enticing to the senior executives who run the acquired company for two big reasons.com equity stakes in the company that 18 BioPharm International www. then outlicense or sell the candidate to a drug company for late development and commercialization. info@pharmsource. As a result of the uncertainty.com January 2012 Don Farrall/Getty Images . www. and ise longer-term. the senior executives increased com. They paid $3. tel. As importantly. had a roundtrip. the stock market and analysts following the company were uncomfortable with this strategy because it introduced a level of risk and uncertainty into a valuation model that expected steady financial performance that was easy to forecast. T he year 2011 ended with the buyout of t he cont rac t resea rch organization (CRO) Pharmaceutical Product Development (PPD) by two private-equity firms. the Outsourcing Report. both of which may be more interested in short-term Jim Miller is president of Pharmsource results than initiatives that prominformation services inc.pharmsource. taken public by its private-equity investor. the PPD deal illustrates how senior management’s frustrations with the public market can drive a company’s board to pursue a private-equity buyout.biopharminternational. PPD would undertake the early-development efforts to establish proof-of-concept. and then taken private again by Genstar in 2007. It was founded as a private company.383.

t he cha ng i ng CRO and bio/pharmaceutical research environment could present challenges.biopharminternational. A s globa l bio/pha r maceutical companies reduce their CRO relationships to a few preferred providers. Current interest rates make borrowing especially attractive. Part of the problem had been the underperformance of PPD’s laboratory services business. or restructuring to improve profits. but the private-equity f ir ms that bought PPD’s small and mid-size competitors. Private ownership may enable PPD management to address the laboratory businesses’ problems w it h a long-ter m v iew wh i le shielding it from second-guessing by public investors. and there is no guarantee that it will ultimately look l i ke what it look s l i ke tod ay. This goal is accomplished in two ways: by taking advantage of the acquired company’s cash-generating capability and by making the company worth more when it is sold than when it was bought. ◆ January 2012 www. Stock analysts who were following PPD before the acquisition speculated that PPD’s laboratory businesses might be in for restructuring.com BioPharm International 19 . Lee Partners Comvest JLL Partners Genstar Capital Senior management * CRO owned by private-equity firm Avista Capital Partners. Table I: Publicly traded contract research organizations acquired via privateequity deals. Further. whose disappointing profitability in recent years has been blamed for depressing the company’s stock price. which filed for bankruptcy protection in early 2011 and was absorbed by another CMO. Cenexi. Source: Company information and publicly available information. did not help the stock’s valuation as much as had been hoped. such as by buying the company at a low point in the market cycle and going public when market multiples are high again. which it spun off to shareholders in 2010. however. Most private-equity deals take advantage of the acquired company’s ability to support a significant debt burden. That was the story at PharmaNet Development. Clinical CROs are an attractive vehicle for leveraged buyouts. Both of these things appeared to happen to the buyers of the European CMO Nextpharma. The private-equity firm also can improve the value of its target through further acquisitions. thereby leaving “winners” saddled with lower profit margins but losers shut out altogether. the private firm is able to borrow much of the purchase price and limit the amount of cash it must put up to make the acquisition in the first place. competition for those relationships has become i ntense.equ it y hold i ng per iod of f ive yea rs. T heir capital-investment requirements are usually small in comparison with manufacturing businesses. HOw PRivate equity wins The aim of private-equity investors is simple: make a large cash return on the cash invested. Hellman & Friedman INC Research * Nautic Thomas H. The ultimate form of that business model is still evolving and being tested. Enhancing the value of the acquired company may just be a matter of timing. W hile PPD’s t rack record of profitability and market position (it is thought to be the second la rgest for Phase I – I V clinica l research after Quintiles) would seem to guarantee a strong performance over the typical private . whose Belgian injectables manufacturing business was recently forced to file for bankruptcy protection. T here repor ted ly has been aggressive price cutting in the industry to get those deals. those cashflows are highly predictable because clinical CROs tend to have highly diversified multiyear project backlogs. inVentiv was sold as part of a larger entity.Perspectives on Outsourcing business into a separate company. Risky PROPOsitiOns Buyouts by private-equity companies are not without risk. which was bought by a privateequity firm after it was cited for noncompliant behavior in running some of its clinical trials. Investors have been attracted to the CRO industry because the ongoing reinvention of the bio/ pharma business model has outsourcing as a core strategy. as well as to the French CMO Osny Pharma. expansions of offerings. Buyers of PPD bought one of the crown jewels of the industry. so they can throw off a lot of cash. That move. A growing CRO is likely to be able to pay out substantial dividends to its owners as well as carry a substantial debt burden. Company PPD Kendle Theorem Clinical (former Omnicare CRO) inVentiv Clinical Averion PharmaNet Development PRA International Quintiles Year acquired 2011 2011 2011 2010 2009 2009 2007 2003 Acquirer Carlyle Group. The greater risk is probably faced not by them. By using the target’s debt capacity. Theorem was a unit of Omnicare. as such moves are subject to not f ully understanding the prospects of the business or changing market conditions.

global economic worries and political fights over government debt in Europe and the US weighed heavily on financial markets and overshadowed the industry’s success.3 billion. while the life-sciences practices at Morgenthaler and Advanced Technology Ventures are breaking off from their information technology counterparts to form a new firm. As a group. and advancements. But there are growing concerns about the future role traditional venture investors will play in funding biotech. but also raised the specter of cuts to governments’ expenditures on healthcare and biomedical research. these companies sold nearly 28% more shares than they set out to sell while raising about 14% fewer shares than they had hoped. the life sciences IPOs of 2011 fell 14. These are troubling developments that could constrain the availability of capital to promising young companies in the years ahead. 415. Divergent views on the value of the pioneering rare-disease biotech were closed with the use of contingent-value rights. 2011 saw a conclusion to the long negotiation between Sanofi and Genzyme. while the industry was on pace for one of the biggest years of fundraising in the first half of the year.5400. Steven Burrill is chief executive falling 80. which went public at less than half its target price.30*.2% from their initial offering prices as of the end of November. They will also have to develop products that push beyond incremental improvements.com January 2012 Digital Vision/Getty Images . as a group.1% from year-ago levels through the first 11 months of 2011. all. These pressures not only hampered companies’ ability to raise capital in the second half of the year.5% increase over last year through the first 11 months.60. weighed on public financings overpublications@b-c. Therapeutics developer Endocyte. he biotech industry in 2011 scored victories with major drug approvals. On the mergers and acquistions front. and Gilead’s planned $11 billion pur- 20 BioPharm International www. Public-market volatility Francisco. was the biggest gainer through the end of November. Japanese drug giant Takeda buying Switzerland’s Nycomed for $13. and concentrate on disruptive solutions that make healthcare costs more sustainable. Meanwhile. The medical-device company Kips Bay Medical was the steepest decliner.1 billion deal. A total of 16 life-sciences companies managed to go public in the US through the end of November. Ten of these companies went public below their target prices and.Burrill on Biotech Global Economic Woes Overshadow Biotech Industry Advances in 2011 Greater emphasis on focus and efficiency for companies as market demands value in 2012.com.8 billion to the agreed on $20. G.3% to $10. The nearly $7 billion invested in the sector through venture capital reflected a 13.4 billion. San at $1. closing up 71. But. Those rights could add as much to $3. a survey from the National Venture Capital Association has found that nearly 40% of life-sciences venture-capital firms plan to invest less in the sector during the next three years. US follow-ons fell 20.1% to finish in November officer at Burrill & Company. raising a total of $1. compared with with 18 initial public offerings (IPOs) in the first 11 months of 2010 that raised a total of nearly $1. Prospect Ventures said in October 2011 it would not raise a fourth healthcare fund and will return committed capital to limited partners. Scale Venture Partners will exit the life sciences altogether. companies will need to focus their investments on clear paths to revenues.591. deals. It is vital that regulatory barriers and capital market constraints be addressed that ultimately may be choking off important sources of innovative medicines and new jobs.biopharminternational. In fact. CA. With capital scarce and expensive.4% and pri- T vate investment in public equity offerings dropped 33. Other notable deals included generic-drug giant Teva buying the biotech Cephalon for $13 billion.7 billion to broaden its access to Europe and emerging markets. That reduction reflects both frustration with regulatory barriers and the weak market for IPOs that have made it difficult for venture investors to cash out of their investments. 2011.

well-established companies. Bristol-Myers Squibb’s melanoma drug Yervoy. Increasingly we will see FDA move away from being a gold standard for the world to seeing it be a late adopter as companies move to win approval for innovative therapies in other countries first. the best-selling drug of all time.com 21 . That is what patients and payers will both demand going forward. In many ways the expiration of the patent marks an end to the blockbuster era of drugs. Through the end of November 2011. Smart companies will raise money when they can. the first new melanoma drug in 13 years and the first to extend the lives of patients with late-stage disease. a drug that marries an antibody to a toxic chemotherapeutic payload to deliver a targeted therapy to a certain subgroup of lymphoma patients. FDA approved 30 new drugs. and Human Genome Sciences’ Benlysta. more than the 21 it approved in 2010. The end of 2011 also saw the expiration of Pfizer’s patent on its statin Lipitor.praxair. the pace of life-sciences IPOs is likely to accelerate in 2012. It’s a future in which we’ll be able to determine whether and for whom drugs such as Lipitor will provide any benefit.I\RXUFXUUHQW SURFHVVLVQ·W\LHOGLQJSUHGLFWDEOHUHVXOWV 3UD[DLU·V&RQWUR/\RWHFKQRORJ\PD\EHWKH DQVZHU/HDUQDERXWWKHWHFKQRORJ\DQG SRWHQWLDOEHQHÀWVÀQGWHFKQLFDOSDSHUVDQG PRUHE\YLVLWLQJZZZIDVWSUHFLVHFROGFRP RUE\FDOOLQJ35$. patients and technology. Regardless of the court’s ruling. the first new lupus drug in 50 years. rather than waiting until they need to raise money.com January 2012 BioPharm International www. Nevertheless. The pace of that reform will only accelerate. While the industry continues to raise a substantial amount of capital. Both drugs were approved with companion diagnostics to determine which patients would benefit from their use. meaningful reform will be driven by payers.biopharminternational.$. The future will be defined by targeted therapies informed by an understanding of a patient’s individual genetics.5 www. the healthcare reform legislation passed in 2010 has already set in motion significant change. * Burrill & Company is an investor in Endocyte and Pharmasset &RQWURO(YHU\VWHSRIWKHZD\ 3UD[DLU·V&RQWUR/\RŒQXFOHDWLRQRQ GHPDQGWHFKQRORJ\FDQGHOLYHULPSURYHG SURFHVVFRQWUROXQLIRUPLW\TXDOLW\DQG \LHOG+HOSLQJ\RXUHSURGXFHUHVXOWVIURP WKHODEWRPDQXIDFWXULQJZKLOHUHGXFLQJ O\RSKLOL]DWLRQF\FOHWLPHV. Personalized medicine also emerged as a bright spot for the sector with FDA’s approval of Roche’s melanoma drug Zelboraf and Pfizer’s nonsmall-cell lung cancer drug Xalkori. Despite the increase in FDA approvals of new drugs in 2011. physicians. regulatory uncertainty continues to plague the industry.Burrill on Biotech chase of hepatitis C drug-developer Pharmasset*. FDA also approved Seattle Genetics’ lymphoma drug Adcetris. The numbers don’t tell the full story. Among the notable drugs that won approval were Vertex Pharmaceutical’s oral hepatitis C drug Incivek. Though the US Supreme Court has said it will rule on the constitution- ality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. much of it is going to fund large.

  T he g r oup mu st have the ability to host more than one audit at a time and be able to address questions and provide documents—in a timely manner—for as many as three auditors per group. a nd their own staffs. placing it in the highrisk category of manufacturing. let’s say that a contract organization has 14 clients and each client requires an annual GMP audit.com. same time. Schniepp is vice-president provide some of the same informaof quality at OSO Biopharmaceuticals. the regulatory agencies of the US. They deal with due diligence. let’s assume that the organization provides sterile injectable products (or a similar product) to the global market. which typically last one 22 BioPharm International www. contract organizations must have a system for handling audits that is efficient. routine GMP inspections. reg ulatory qualit y systems. such as yearly GMP assessments by clients and regulatory authorities. preapproval inspections. Consider ing that each audit requires one day of preparation and one day of follow-up activities for the contract organization. Because contract organizations also must perform internal audits.biopharminternational. at a minimum. The team must also be prepared to Susan J. contract organizations can also be tasked with “for-cause” audits by inspectors due to customer complaints or product recalls. In addition. To stay ahead of the audit game. consistent. I Organizations must be aware that the time commitment entails more than preparing and hosting audit groups. handling two separate audit groups with two to three auditors each is an unusual situation. Admittedly. Agencies typically spend 1 to 2 weeks conducting cGMP audits. This classification would result in annual GMP audits from. Audits can last anywhere from 1 day to 3 weeks depending on the type of audit being performed. and flexible.day v isit. and inter nal audits on a monthly. and Japan. global a nd domest ic reg ulator y aut hor it ies.  However. the most frequently audited facilities are without a doubt contrac t organizations.Compliance Notes Auditing by the Numbers Contract organizations must have highly organized teams and plans to accommodate today’s audits.com January 2012 Photodisc/Getty Images . existing clients. each audit ultimately takes up one week of the organization’s time.  A great deal of experience among the audit team is necessary because the team must be audit ready all the time while also assuring that the company’s other depa r t ment s ma i nta i n a n aud itr e ad y p o st u r e. Let’s also assume that the contract organization is trying to attract new business. In addition to typical audits. It has five potential new clients that wish to perform a quality audit before entering into a contractual agreement. tion to more than one group at the susan. Clients might also decide to perform a “for-cause” audit if the contract organization manufactured a number of lots with associated investigations for deviations during the manufacturing process.  To maximize audit time.schniepp@osobio. if not weekly basis. n the pharmaceutical industry. T hese organizations are constantly being audited by prospective clients. each client brings t wo aud itors and plans for a 3 . Europe.

the numbers above equate to approximately 26 weeks or half of a year devoted to handling and conducting audits. To s u c c e s s f u l l y a c c o m m o date all of these audits. The top 100 pharma outsourcing professionals will be there to discuss and network about exclusive insights into the market: t “Creating A Water Tight Risk Protection System .melcher@wtgevents.com/programme For any enquiries please contact Michaela Melcher Michaela. genera l accepta nce of responses.Overcoming Regulatory Challenges By Using Auditing Process” Johnson & Johnson t3PHFS(POPVSJF  Director Global Sourcing. a contract organization must maintain a full-time contingent. The use of shared audits has been discussed for quite a while and it seems that Rx–360 and IPEA have started down the road of solving the problem for raw-material suppliers. Confirm your place! Quote ‘Biopharm’ on www. wh ic h a re re qu i re d by reg u lator s to ensure that each facilit y has a p r o c e s s f o r m e e t i n g c o mp l i ance. and perhaps a certification process. This amount of time does not take into account preparation of responses to any potential audit observations or necessary follow-up activities. I n a d d it io n .com/Biopharm and only pay £1. there seems to be an opport unit y for industr y to work with consortiums such as R x–360 or the International Pharmaceutical Excipients Auditing (IPEA) program to share audits and thereby ease overa ll costs a nd t ime tied to the audits. Given t hese e x pec tat ions.  Companies using contract serv ices must be w illing to share their audit programs and compromise on what should be the ideal approach to assessing GMP compliance of contract organizations.com Key speakers include: t7BTDP.295* instead of £1. This would allow contract organizations to be able to maintain a robust quality system that is suitable for multiple clients. however.outsourcingevent. requires more consistent interpretations and expectat ions. E ac h aud it could easily take  4 to 5 weeks when considering preparation.Setting Up A Damage Control System With The Stakeholders” t “Overcoming challenges concerning product quality” t “Creating An Efficient Pharma Audit Strategy . procurement and R&D sourcing. t he o r g a n i z a tion must have a unique layer of resources to manage internal c GM P aud it prog ra m s. Typically. Michaela.4th May 2012.outsourcingevent.Compliance Notes week and occur once a quarter. *This offer is only open to Global heads Directors and Heads of strategic sourcing. Let’s hope they agree to continue with the process and help out contract organizations in the same manner. Hotel Palace Berlin. They must agree to a set of cr iter ion to be consistently applied for aud it ing a nd t hey must be somewhat consistent in their interpretation of the regulations.BSDBM(SJMP  Vice-President Global Pharma R&D Sourcing.melcher@wtgevents. hosting functions (both escorting and staging room activities). If you are a consultant or solution provider get in touch with Michaela Melcher. these resources are passed on to c ustomers as part of the cost for a contracted operation. responses. Researched and Produced by: . Organizations must be aware that t he t i me com m it ment enta i ls more than preparing and hosti ng aud it g roups.  Mov ing in the direction of shared audits.com or call +44(0)20 7202 7690. Novartis t/JDL8FMCZ  Procurement Director.495! 3rd . and followup. Germany www. Astrazeneca 5BLFBMPPLBUUIFQSPHSBNNF www.outsourcingevent.com to find out how you can participate.

about what’s changed since the article’s publication. Ultee. Gel staining and destaining has become much faster and more sensitive. and resolubilization. BioPharm Intl. The low capacity of membranes REFERENCE 1. BioPharm: Have affinity membranes led to dramatic gains in purification efficiency and begun “to encroach on chromatography’s turf?” Ultee: No. Part II: Improved Recovery and Greater Purity. we rewind to “Separations Technology Outlook. 24 BioPharm International www. a technique that has evolved after a shaky start. N. his article identified the major challenges with membrane technology as “considerable fouling from solids in the solution that clog the membrane. BioPharm International talked to Michiel E. 29–33 (1988). processes will be developed that take advantage of technology available in the food and beverage industry.G. molecular weight and pore size specifications that often are inaccurate because of the inexact process of membrane fabrication. filtration.biopharminternational. chief scientific officer at Laureate Biopharmaceutical Services and a member of Biopharm International’s Editorial Advisory Board. BioPharm: Where will separation technology be in another 25 years? Ultee: As the need for larger quantities of proteins emerges.Retrospective A 25-Year Retrospective on Separations Technology Throughout BioPharm International’s 25th anniversary year. Charles at BioPharmInternational. such as precipitation. but can be done with capillary electrophoresis. and vulnerability of membranes to degradation after repeated sanitization steps” (1). Pfund and Kathleen G. can researchers now read gels in real time without staining them beforehand? Has electrophoresis become faster and more automated? Ultee: Real-time staining is not yet possible with gels. Part II: Improved Recovery and Greater Purity” by Nancy E. Affinity membranes have not really been accepted. Pore size. we’ll be looking back at articles published in the first volume of the journal.com/ Retrospectives.” T The low capacity of [affinity] membranes plus the high cost of affinity supports have prevented their acceptance. BioPha r m: Dur ing elec t rophoresis. Combination or layered membranes now incorporate prefilter layers to prevent clogging of the molecular-filter layers. in terms of molecular weight. They will include techniques. plus the high cost of affinity supports have prevented their acceptance. This month. is still not precise. View “Separations Technology Outlook. such as concentration of proteins.E. Charles. but most users have methods that take this into account by applying size-separation membranes only where significant size differences appear.com January 2012 . Pfund and K. Better materials are now available that resist degradation by sodium-hydroxide sanitization. BioPharm: Have the problems with membrane technology that the authors cited been resolved? Ultee: Yes. 1 (1).

it is the patient’s own APCs that are isolated from peripheral blood cells and loaded with TAAs in cell culture. MAGE-3. Often. Provenge is an autologous cellular immunotherapeutic for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine in which the two companies will sponsor a Phase II clinical study using NeuVax in combination with Genentech/Roche’s Herceptin (trastuzumab). on the other hand. the market for cancer vaccines certainly has the potential for huge growth. they are infused back into the patient. prostate specific antigen. In fact. Once the APCs have matured. Looking at a few cancer vaccines in development pipeline. use ex vivo– prepared TAA-loaded antigen presenting cells (APCs) as the vaccine.Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines Therapeutic Vaccine Outlook Rich Whitworth Has an approval in oncology reignited interest in the recruitment of the immune system in the fight against disease? herapeutic vaccines work on the premise that the immune system can be trained or optimized to take action against elements of a diseased state or condition already present in an individual.biopharminternational. Researchers in this area found great promise in April 2010. only a few therapeutic vaccines have been approved to date. together they stimulate cytotoxic T cells to target cells expressing any level of HER2. The E75 peptide is derived from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and also uses GM–CSF. a recombinant antigen—a fusion protein consisting of PAP and the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM–CSF)—is cultured with the patient’s APCs in Dendreon’s manufacturing facility. NY-ESO-1. hepatitis B. Galena Biopharma’s NeuVax (E75) for breast cancer falls into the peptidebased category and has successfully completed a Phase II trial. T CanCeR VaCCineS Most cancer cells express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that can be recognized by the immune system as “foreign” and thus serve as potential targets for cancer vaccines. the precursor monocytes are cultured with cytokines to create dendritic cells (DCs). and various autoimmune diseases are good examples. perhaps because of the immune system’s complexity and incomplete knowledge of its pathways of action. when Dendreon’s Provenge (Sipuleucel-T) became the first therapeutic cancer vaccine to be approved by FDA. with tumor-antigen vaccines dominating over cell-based vaccines. However. January 2012 www. is currently available for patients with higher levels of HER2 expression. Provenge is an example of this kind of cell-based vaccine. tumor lysates. Tumor antigen-based vaccines can use peptides. Cell-based vaccines. which the company indicates will begin in the first half of 2012. Herceptin. the use of therapeutic vaccines in oncological indications appears to have garnered the most interest. Node-Positive Breast Cancer with Low to Intermediate HER2 Expression with NeuVax Treatment (PRESENT) study. Galena also announced in November 2011. However. Cancer vaccines seek to trigger a strong immune response to tumors by introducing TAAs into the patient possibly alongside adjuvants or immunostimulators and tend to fall into two camps. which are particularly potent APCs. with some reports indicating compound annual growths rates over 100% in the next few years (1). and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) are all examples of TAAs. Looking ahead. MART-1. Disease areas most commonly targeted by this immunotherapeutic approach are unsurprisingly those that have proven difficult to treat or cure through other means: AIDS. a monoclonal antibody therapy. the establishment of a clinical development collaboration with Genentech (a membr of the Roche group) and The Henry M. FDA has granted NeuVax a Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) for its Phase III Prevention of Recurrence in Early-Stage.com BioPharm International 25 . the picture looks quite bright. recombinant proteins. or killed tumor cells as TAAs.

has zeroed in on celiac disease and is developing technology based on research performed at The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Melbourne. Nicotine and cocaine are both examples of drug targets under development. Stimuvax is designed to stimulate the immune system into targeting cells expressing glycoprotein MUC1.Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines Antigen Express. BCC Research. As HER2 is expressed in numerous cancer types.com. Australia. UK. for example. accessed Dec. The company released positive interim results for the study in August 2011.” Report BIO052B (2010). NY-ESO-1 and PRAME. AE37 is administered with GM-CSF. also failed to demonstrate efficacy in Phase II trials after interim analysis. and in November 2011. MA). A quick search of the National Cancer Institute’s clinical-trial database reveals a large number of potential cancer vaccines currently under development. which is also in Phase III trials that began in 2008. a subsidiary of Generex. which is over-expressed or aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer. according to company information. The GSK ASCI pipeline also includes a treatment for acute myelogenous leukaemia at Phase II called WT1 and two other candidates at Phase I. for example. The compound combines purified MAGE-A3 tumor antigen—a protein expressed in a large number of cancers in-licensed from the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research—with a combination of immunostimulating compounds called AS15. Despite these failures. Merck Serono is also in the NSCLC space with Stimuvax (BLP25 liposome vaccine). however. has a similar product in development for breast cancer that is also a peptide fragment of the HER2 receptor called AE37. ◆ RefeRenCe 1.biopharminternational. currently in Phase III. 7. The development of therapeutic vaccines as a new approach to combat substance abuse is another potential area for growth. The concept of long-lasting single injections. ImmusanT (Cambridge. expanded the agreement to include the PRAME antigen. it has possibilities beyond breast cancer. Antigen Express is conducting a controlled. is to desensitize its reaction to gluten. more recently. which it obtained with worldwide rights for development and commercialization from Oncothyreon. TGF-beta is produced by cancer cells and is thought to exert an immunosuppressive effect thus protecting them from an antitumor response. Nabi Biopharmaceuticals announced on Nov. 15. unfortunately. preliminary assessment of the data showed that the primary endpoint was not met and there was no statistical difference between the NicVAX and placebo groups—these results are similar to the first Phase III study. 2011. As with other therapeutic vaccines under development. which modifies fragments of antigens with the intention of increasing their potency in eliciting an immune response. the market for antismoking products will no doubt continue to drive research into vaccines against nicotine addiction.com January 2012 . the market growth predicted could become a reality. proving efficacy will remain a key challenge.bccresearch. 2011. The polymerase chain reaction-based tests identify specific DNA sequences to help determine those patients most likely to benefit from the therapy. but the aim. Antigen Express has also completed a Phase I trial for prostate cancer. results from its second Phase III trial for NicVax (Nicotine Conjugate Immunotherapeutic) and. “Therapeutic Vaccines: The Global Market. Lucanix is a cell-based therapy that treats patients with four NSCLC cell lines that have been genetically modified to block transforming growth factor-beta. randomized. there are many other areas that could potentially benefit from therapeutic vaccines. and single-blinded Phase II clinical study in HER2 expressing patients with either node positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer. NovaRX is another company targeting NSCLC with its lead candidate Lucanix. However. more than a handful in Phase III. Cytos Biotechnology and Novartis’ collaboration on NIC002. NexVax2 is a combination of three short peptides from gluten protein that have been shown to cause an immune reaction in the 90% of sufferers with the HLA DQ2 gene. rather than increasing the immune response. another compound designed to induce nicotine antibodies. This is the company’s first candidate to take advantage of its Ii-Key Hybrid technology platform. www. Nicotine vaccines are designed to induce production of antibodies that bind to nicotine in the blood creating a molecule that is too large to cross the blood-brain barrier and thus cause pleasurable effect. Unlike Stimuvax and MAGE-A3. excitement in cancer vaccines. NexVax2 is progressing through to Phase II clinical trials. Beyond vaccine development. and at the University of Oxford. niChe TheRapieS Although there is much R&D and. Big Pharma is also trying to move forward with therapeutic vaccines. MAGE-A3 is currently in Phase III trials for the treatment of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and forms part of GlaxoSmithKline’s antigen-specific cancer immunotherapeutic (ASCI) pipeline. 26 BioPharm International www. GSK has also been working with Abbott Molecular on automated companion diagnostic tests for MAGE-A3 expression since 2009. As with NeuVax. If they follow Provenge’s lead. removes the hurdle of the reliance on behavioral modification to control the intake of substances with the potential for addiction. NexVax2 is a peptide-based vaccine.

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The limiTaTionS of cuRRenT conjugaTe Vaccine Technology The conjugate is a large glycoprotein molecule consisting of a protein linked or conjugated to a polysaccharide. Neisseria meningitides type B. and addresses the limitations of the current chemical conjugation process. the bacteria producing the polysaccharide and the protein carrier are grown separately. A new approach has been developed to conceive and produce conjugate vaccines by employing recombinant DNA technology. In chemical conjugation.. These conjugate vaccines are safe and effective against bacterial diseases and have been used in humans for many years. the underlying process of development and manufacture has limited their scope. mortality. Although several serious bacterial infections. The sugars are surface-exposed bacterial antigens to which the body will develop an immune response. both causing nosocomial infections. Schlieren Switzerland. are prevented using conjugate vaccines. This technology enables the development and manufacture of conjugate vaccines. depending on the pathogen or serotype. with global revenues forecast to exceed USD $24 billion in 2010 (1). and Y.gambillara@ glycovaxyn. W-135. The polysaccharide is then chemically bound to the protein carrier (see Figure 1). especially in young children (2). and cost to healthcare systems. Veronica. these two products alone accounted for 12% of global vaccine sales. I n recent years. These pathogens are responsible for significant morbidity. C. is time-consuming and expensive. and many diarrheal pathogens such as Shigella sp. conjugate vaccines for the prevention of bacterial infections today account for over 25% of the total mar- 28 BioPharm International www. The protein carrier is responsible for eliciting a long-lasting immune response against the polysaccharide. Key pathogens that lack vaccines include Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Within the growing market. called bioconjugates. two of the four leading vaccines by sales were the bacterial conjugate vaccines Prevnar (Pfizer) for pneumococcal disease and Menactra (Sanofi Pasteur) for meningitis serogroups A. the vaccine market has experienced significant growth following the introduction of several novel bacterial vaccines—more specifically conjugate vaccines—addressing unmet medical needs. In 2009. It is a complex chemistry-based process that. and Salmonella sp.com January 2012 . Despite the success of glycoconjugate vaccines. several important bacterial infections lack a vaccine. enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). leading to better protection against the target disease. This method faces the following challenges and limitations: BacTeRial conjugaTe VaccineS: an impoRTanT maRkeT in BacTeRial infecTiouS diSeaSe Veronica Gambillara PhD is director of clinical and regulatory affairs at glycoVacyn. The method used for developing and manufacturing conjugate bacterial vaccines is based on chemical conjugation technology. ket.biopharminternational. Together. such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and some Meningococcal strains.Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines The conception and production of conjugate Vaccines using Recombinant dna Technology Veronica Gambillara Using recombinant technology to produce conjugate vaccines in a bacterial expression system.com The vaccine market experienced significant growth over the past decade. then purified through multiple steps.

In addition. the oligosaccharyltransferase PglB catalyzes the transfer of the oligosaccharide from the carrier lipid to Asn residues w ithin the consensus sequence Asp/Glu-Xaa-Asn-XaaSer/Thr. Because E. • C he m ic a l c o nj u g at io n c a n change the structure of both the polysaccharide and the carrier protein. specialized and costly containment facilities are required.. coli is one of the fastest. However. thus resulting in loss of material throughout the process and decreased yields. coli is appealing for the production of vaccines. may induce suboptimal efficacy. allowing the heterologous production of Campylobacter glycoproteins in E. the growing resistance to antibiotics. Toxic polysaccharides must be chemically detoxified.a c t i v at e d monosaccha r ides cata lyzed by s p e c i f ic g lyc o s y lt r a n s f e r a s e s . Figure 1: Chemical method currently used for production of conjugate vaccines.Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines ALL FIGURES ARE COURTESY OF THE AUTHOR • Because the polysaccharide is produced by toxic bacteria. Despite the ubiquitous presence of polysaccharides at the surface of bacterial cells.s y n- January 2012 www. t he t wo pathways were combined in E. and N-linked protein glycosylation was believed to be restricted to eukaryotes. coli. The finding of N-linked glycoproteins in the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni disproved this theory. the everincreasing standard of safety. coli cells. Var ious proteins of C. it has not been possible to manufacture glycoprotein conjugates using bacterial cells. coli. This heptasaccharide is assembled on u nd e c ap r e ny l p y r o pho s ph ate (UPP). several purification steps are necessary to obtain an acceptable pu r it y of t he produc t. and highest produc t-to -volume systems available for the production of large molecules. or in some cases. thus making them less immunogenic. diffuses transversely) into the periplasmic space by the flippase PglK. so the same mixture must be maintained throughout scale up and production—a manufacturing and regulatory challenge. In addition. and are costly to produce. Any small change in the mixture affects the characteristics of the vaccine. until recently. Lipopolysaccharide at surface of Gram-negative Chemical bacterium cleavage and removal of endotoxin Extraction and purification Endotoxin Antigenic polysaccharide Protein carrier Purification Expression of protein carrier in bacterium Activation of polysaccharide and protein carrier and chemical crosslinking. are difficult to develop. coli. the conjugate is directly sy nthesized in appropriately engineered E. removal of unconjugated components new pRoceSS foR deVeloping and manufacTuRing conjugaTe VaccineS A ne w te c h nolo g y h a s b e e n developed for the production of conjugate vaccines by an in vivo conjugation process. jejuni have been shown to be glycosylated by a heptasaccharide. not immunogenic. and high development costs required to br ing a produc t to ma rket emphasize the need for new technologies to address these challenges and fulfill the worldwide need for new vaccines.com BioPharm International 29 . where Xaa can be any amino acid except Pro (3). often leading to further loss of immunogenicity or increased safety concerns. coli (4) and providing the first opportunity to produce N-linked glycoproteins in E. T he gene cluster encoding this glycosylation machinery was f unctionally expressed in E. • Chemical coupling between the polysaccharide and the protein carrier results in a heterogeneous product which may still contain some free polysaccharide that may interfere with the immune response to the conjugates. The N-linked protein glycosylat ion biosy nt het ic pat hway of Camp ylobac te r ha s sig n i f ic a nt similarities to the polysaccharide biosynthesis pathway in bacteria (5). Because antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria and the oligosaccharides of Campylobacter a r e b ot h s y nt he si z e d on t he ca r r ier lipid. the consensus amino acid sequence was introduced into different proteins that are not glycosylated in their original organism (see Figure 2). least expensive. T he l ipid -l i n ke d ol igos acc ha - ride then flip-flops (i. Instead of chemically conjugating polysaccharides to proteins. at the c y toplasm ic side of t he in ner membrane by the stepwise addit i o n o f nu c l e o t i d e . u ndecaprenyl py rophosphate ( U PP). T he p oly s acc h a r ide .e. the use of E. the carrier lipid. Moreover. In the final step of N-linked protein glycosylation. The net result is that chemical conjugate vaccines are restricted to certain targets.biopharminternational. bacteria were thought to be unable to synthesize glycoproteins.

meningitis B or Moraxella are challeng i ng t a rget s b ecause t he mechanism by which the antigenic sugar is assembled and expressed on the surface is less suitable for the in vivo glycoconjugation technology.. and cost of development. some vaccine candidates are st i l l d i f f ic u lt to desig n a nd produce using in vivo recombinant technolog y. pa r t ly resolv ing the challenges that the vaccine i ndu s t r y i s c u r r e nt ly f ac i n g. Some of the specific advantages of the technology are as follows: • Bio conjugat ion is ve r s at i le. Bioconjugate vaccines can be designed to not only generate a n i m mu ne response to t he polysaccharide. These factors may decrease the reg ulatory barrier and the time to market and result i n r e duc e d de ve lopme nt a nd manufacturing cost. coli expression system and 30 BioPharm International www. • The bioconjugate process is still early in development and its ultimate potential and limitations are not fully delineated. The antigenic polysacchar ides assembled on U PP are captured by PglB in the periplasm and transferred to a protein carrier. thus minimizing potential safet y concerns. After fermentation of E. From a technical perspective. scalability).com January 2012 . Glycosyltransferases Antigen repeating unit Oligosaccharyltransferase challengeS of in vivo RecomBinanT Technology The in vivo technolog y has the p ote nt i a l to ove r c o me m a ny issues that the chemical conjugation currently face in designing a nd produc i ng conjugate vaccines. bioconjugates are engineered to a reproducible structure and final product. the following challenges are still unresolved. This versatility permits the development of novel conjugates that cannot be addressed with existing chemistry-based processes. This design will lower the regulatory barriers and potentially accelerate clinical development. • Bioconjugates are engineered to have a sp e c i f ic st r uct u re opt i m i zed for ef f icac y. Bacter ial pathogens such as N. nontoxic bacterial production system. enabling t he at tach ment of virtually any polysaccharide to virtually any protein. safety. Moreover. No free polysaccharide is present during bioconjugate produc t ion t hat ca n in h ibit the immune response. • Bio conjugate s a re pro duce d in a standard.biopharminternational. coli. but also to the protein from the target organism. the in vivo technolog y has the p ote nt ia l to prov ide u n i for m product. with a n opt i m i zed sa fet y a nd ef f icacy profile. At this point.Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines Figure 2: Details of an engineered glycosylation pathway in Escherichia coli. Polysaccharide antigen Polymerase Protein carrier u s i n g a c o n s e r v e d b io s y n thetic pathway that may differ sl ight ly depend i ng on sero types is a well-understood and commonly used manufacturing method. adVanTageS of in vivo RecomBinanT Technology This in vivo technology to design a nd produce bioconjugates offers improved versatility. efficacy. Producing vaccine by recombinant methods in a standard E. The oligosaccharyltransferase PglB is able to transfer a different polysaccharide from the carrier lipid to Asn within the consensus sequence because of its relaxed specificity. easily reproducible in a low-cost expression system.e. thereby enhancing efficacy. speed. the glycoconjugate is e x t rac te d f rom t he p er ipla sm and purif ied using simple and well-known manufacturing steps similar to those used for production and purification of recombinant proteins (see Figure 3). Bacterial polysaccharide antigens are synthesized by stepwise action of glycosyltransferases at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and polymerized after flipping. However. • Bio conjugate pro cess deve lopment a nd produc t ion a re r ap id a nd s t r a i g ht fo r w a r d . • Because of the complexity of severa l bac ter ia l pat hogens. only data from preclinical and early clinical studies on a restricted number of pathogens are available. Contiinued on page 32 thesizing enzy mes of different pathogens were expressed in the presence of the oligosaccharyltransferase PglB and a protein carrier (6. with no risk of contamination by mammalian infectious organisms. 7). Add it iona l work is requ ired regarding process and assay development (i.

Proteins. Ph. Presented by Sponsored by Researchers who will bene t from attending this webinar will include: Biochemists who need to perform HPLC and UPLC of biomolecules Biopharmaceutical laboratory managers who want to improve productivity and minimize errors Scientists looking to simplify protein separation method development and routine execution of methods Analysts who needs to test more intermediate separation parameters with accuracy and ease PRESENTERS Thomas E. Wheat. Bioseparations are di cult because large molecules carry so many functional groups. Ph. including how they can be used when paired with UPLC.D.com/tools EVENT OVERVIEW: Across the pharmaceutical industry. ionexchange separations are optimized by adjusting a gradient of increasing ionic strength. speakers will consider the challenges faced by biopharmaceutical laboratories today. both the net charge and the threedimensional charge distribution can be controlled with the bu er pH. but it is generally recognized that the best selectivity is obtained by manipulating the charge of the molecule. there is growing emphasis on the development of biopharmaceuticals as the next wave of therapeutic drugs and yet. Senior Director of Marketing Americas Business Operations Waters Corporation MODERATOR Amy Ritter Associate Editor BioPharm International For questions contact Jamie Carpenter at jcarpenter@advanstar. In this educational webinar. Because the protein surface is covered with both weakly acidic and weakly basic functionalities. ion-exchange (IEX). including reversed-phase (RP). Charge is particularly important because it can form the basis of the analysis using ion exchange. present particular challenges for analytical chemists. and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). requiring careful adjustment of pH of multiple bu ers. there are many common analytical problems throughout the sector.D.Techniques & Tools for Improving Productivity by AUTOMATING CONTROL of BIOSEPARATIONS ON-DEMAND WEBC AST Register free at http://biopharminternational. Tools that can increase productivity and improve the robustness and reproducibility will be discussed. Using this parameter to develop a separation can be tedious.com . We’ll discuss techniques to improve analytical methods for bioseparations by automating control of pH. Principal Scientist Systems Laboratory Waters Corporation John MacKay. Most often. which must be analyzed using a variety of orthogonal techniques.

for the first time. M. Moreover. and these immunogenicit y data compare favorably to previous candidate vaccines tested against this pathogen.. 102 (8). Med. M. there has been no recorded sustained effectiveness against S. 10. Infect. F. met h ic i l l i nresistant S. 6. Brandish.B. Dis. E. Importantly.D.. M. More recently. No vaccine exists for Shigella.F. Lett. Exp. but what is required is proof that such vaccines can be manufactured in commercial quantities. 3 (6).M.. 7088–7093 (2006). Attempts at vaccine development. the main polysaccharides of S. 4. FEMS Microbiol. would provide a significant public health benefit. 13. Avery and W. J. C. This article describes a new in vivo process that incorporates a well-understood recombinant DNA tec h nolog y i n E. 12. The process has demonstrated proof-of-concept in more t ha n one bac te r ia l pat hoge n. 1179– 1181 (1998). Infect. M. IL. M. Sci.Special Report: Therapeutic Vaccines Contiinued from page 30 Figure 3: In vivo glycosylation system for production of bioconjugates in Escherichia coli system. Sci.. 5. J.. 1169–1171 (1973). Feldman et al.e. Natl. showed modest immunogenicity (8 –11). Shigella is an important pathogen responsible for serious diarrhea and dysentery. Schneerson. Sci. 346–361 (1992). Acad. these results are promising considering recent clinical trial failures of S.B. The bioconjugate is extracted from the periplasm and puri ed by column chromatography to high purity. Nosocomial S. This bioconjugate vaccine has been tested in animals and produced functional antibodies inducing protection in mice bacteremia and let hal pneumonia models (14). Proc. the DNA recombinant in vivo technology was able to conjugate. the vaccine demonstrated a significant immunogenic response. J. was produced under GMP conditions and tested for the first time in humans. J.biopharminternational. coli to manufact ure bioconjugate vaccines. More ove r. 288 (22). The bioconjugate produced against the serotype. Clin. EMBO J. Lee et al.. aureus has been generated by the experimental vaccines tested (12. antigen protein of S. Archer. Wacker et al. Robbins. N. as well as a vaccine for travellers. so a vaccine to prevent infection in the emerging nations where it is present. Chu. Curr. This promising Phase I data provide clinical proof-of-concept that the bioconjugate produced under GMP conditions by an recombinant DNA technolog y is safe a nd i nduces a n i m mu nogen ic response in human. Natl. Acad. the technical hurdles to producing a conjugate vaccine with chemistry-based methods are very high. 7974–7978 (2009). G. 8. Proc. T he technolog y has been a lso appl ied for t he develop ment of a bioconjugate against Staphylococcus aureus. RefeRenceS 1. Acad. 106 (19). 119 (3). 15 (2). aureus (MRSA) rates cont inue to inc rease d ra mat ically. 103 (18). O. 2010). Infect. 255–262 (1994). Robbins et al. 1790–1793 (2002). Med. 3. 521–533 (1929). Engl.. Although early. 127 (3). Pneumococcal and Meningococcal Vaccines: Market Forecast (Datamonitor. Howe ve r. J. Antibacterial conjugate vaccines have become important tools for the public-health community to prevent serious bacterial infect ion s . t he comple x development and manufacturing process has limited the potential of this important class of vaccine. aure u s i n fec t ions represent up to 50% of all hospital infect ion s. 50 (4).M. 25 (9). 2. 14. Lee. 1957– 1966 (2006). J. Despite significant research efforts undertaken by academic a nd pha r maceut ica l laborato ries to develop a successful vaccine. despite ongoing research in many laboratories for several years. Clin Infect Dis 26. and that the vaccines produced are safe and effective. al. The following are examples that demonstrate the potential of in vivo bioconjugate technology: A bioconjugate against Shigella sp. 261–270 (1973). aureus). 13). Dis.com January 2012 . Kowarik et al. Wacker et. The combination of polysaccharide and protein antigen against the pathogen will increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine at various stages and pathways of the infection. 2011). 517–524 (2001). Shigella dysenteriae.. 11.C. 3016–3021 (2005). both conjugate and live-attenuated bacteria. 7. 9. Dis. Levine et al. Science 298 (5599). T. Natl. presentation at the 51st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Chicago. Goebel. aureus to a selected protein carrier of the same pathogen (i. Aureus candidate vaccines. including a first-in-man study. Rep. was tested in 40 healthy volunteers and found to be well tolerated. Research is currently in progress to develop add it iona l vacc i ne ca nd idates a nd adva nce t hem into late-stage clinical trials. Bugg and P. thus enhancing the possibility of protection. and R. SummaRy pRoof of concepT STudieS uSing The BioconjugaTe plaTfoRm The process to create new and efficacious bioconjugate vaccines in a cost-effective and efficient manner has potential. Datamonitor. 32 BioPharm International www.C. Levine et al. Fermentation Purification Bioconjugate These data demonstrate that this in vivo technology is a feasible approach for developing vaccines against challenging pathogens and offers the promise of improved efficiency in general. M. Proc.T.L. J.

NJ. Murray Hill. and increased shelf life.Lyophilization Ice Fog as a Means to Induce Uniform Ice Nucleation During Lyophilization Prerona Chakravarty.e. Consequently. test results demonstrate the scalability and robustness of this technique.biopharminternational. is a research fellow. and Ernesto Renzi is president of sales. L Prerona Chakravarty. It involves removing water and solvents from a product by sublimation and desor ption to levels that w ill not support biological or chemical reaction. Article accepted: Oct. and Ernesto Renzi abstract Lyophilization or freeze drying is an important downstream process for stabilizing pharmaceutical compounds. Tonawanda.e. It is an excellent method to extend the shelf life of sensitive compounds for storage and transportation without subjecting them to detrimental high temperatures. both in Pharmacueticals. or ice nucle- January 2012 www. Frank DeMarco. and production-scale lyophilizers. potent active ingredients. Controlling ice nucleation during the freezing cycle of lyophilization is one such tactic that is currently under investigation as a means to achieve more robust and scalable lyophilization cycles. Fine and Specialty Chemicals in Linde Gases Division. ice sublimation) and secondar y dr ying (i. this study describes a novel means to control ice nucleation using a sterile cryogenic ice fog that is applicable to laboratory-. liquid desorption). Ron Lee. Consequently. The importance of ice nucleation temperature The onset of freezing. lyophilization continues to be indispensible to the pharmaceutical industry. 2011.. The drying step is divided into two phases: primary drying (i. and the only method available for a majority of biological compounds. the lack of control of the ice nucleation temperature (the temperature at which the product freezes) can adversely affect product uniformity and lead to suboptimal freeze-drying cycles. The control and repeatability of the cycle are crucial for achieving consistently good product quality. is a project manager. Lyophilization consists of two major steps: freezing solutions. NY. both at IMA LIFE North America. 18. and Ron Lee. A successful lyophilization cycle can be defined by dried product that is visually and functionally acceptable with a short reconstitution time. although the obvious parameters of shelf temperature and chamber pressure may be well controlled. PhD*.com. yophilization or freeze drying is an important downstream process for stabilizing pharmaceutical compounds. 16. and drying the frozen solid under vacuum through sublimation and desorption. the industry has been quick to develop and adopt technologies that facilitate improved control of key process parameters.com BioPharm International 33 . PEER REviEwED Article submitted: Aug. Demand for lyophilization technology is growing because of the high value of the drugs being lyophilized as well as FDA initiatives such as quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technolgoy (PAT). PhD. despite its high cost and complexity. prerona. 2011. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Frank DeMarco is freeze drying development manger.. chakravarty@linde. the control and repeatability of lyophilization cycles are crucial for achieving consistently high product quality. pilot-.

However. In addition. in asept ic systems of high purity the product sometimes cools below its freezing temperat ure w ithout ice crystal formation because no particulates are available for ice nucleation. Studies have shown a 1–3% increase in primary drying time for every 1 ∘C decrease in ice nucleation 34 BioPharm International www. etched . variability in ice nucleation increases the uncertainty in scaling up a cycle from laboratory (nonaseptic) to production scale (aseptic). Lack of uniformity in ice nucleation temperature caused by vial supercooling can lead to vial-to-vial variability in ice crystal structure. which is the lack of a uniform ice nucleation temperature. Vials that freeze at high temperatures dry faster than those that freeze at low temperatures. Variability in ice nucleation is compounded by vial-to-vial variations in drying behavior due to variable ice structure. and helps minimize the variability in drying behavior.5oC/min until desired nucleation tempeature is attained Cyrogenic Ice fog introduced for less than a minute Viral nucleation detected (temperature probe + visual) ation. The standard practice has been to use an annealing cycle. thus resulting in higher product resistance and increased drying times. annealing fails to address the root cause of variable ice structure. is one of the most important steps in the lyophilization cycle. Substances that cool below the freezing temperature without becoming solid are referred to as supercooled.Lyophilization Figure 1: Illustration of a typical lyophilization system employing the scalable cryogenic ice-fog technique. production-grade environments. This method results in the formation of larger ice crystals at the expense of smaller ones.com January 2012 ALL FIGURES ARE COURTESY OF THE AUTHORS Methods to address issues related to nonuniform ice nucleation Although ice nucleation is an important parameter for achiev ing robust c ycles. and decreases overall yield and product uniformity. Shelves cooled at 0. 2).biopharminternational. The degree of supercooling determines the ice crystal structure. a process known as supercooling. and can only help to repair the damage already caused. Supercooling of vials during freezing can thus increase cycle times and operating costs. ultrasonic vibration of the product. For nonaseptic systems a particle or impurity often serves as the nucleation point that allows ice crystals to grow and the product to f reeze. and then holding. However. which involves raising the product temperature after freezing to a temperature above glass transition. the benefits of shorter drying times may be offset by the additional time required for the annealing cycle. t here have been ver y few at tempts to ac h ie ve it at c om me r c i a l s c a le u nt i l recently. A cycle optimized at lab scale may have entirely different drying time requirements at production scale due to the higher degree of supercooling expected in particulate-free. making it difficult to have a drying cycle that is optimal for all vials. In addition. Lastly. temperature (1. annealing may not be well tolerated by protein systems that are susceptible to denaturation. Increased supercooling has been shown to form smaller. This variability causes problems such as vial breakage and melt-back. which in turn characterizes product resistance to water vapor flow during the drying cycle. more numerous ice crystals. Water Vapor Liquid Nitrogen Ejector Figure 2: Illustration of the two-step approach for ice-fog introduction. Other methods that have been tried at laboratory scale include using nucleating agents such as silver iodide and bacteria.

Although this technique has found success on a laboratory scale. This study will focus on the last method. and production-scale lyophilizers. ice fog. A cryogenically created fog containing microscopic ice cr ysta ls is int roduced into the lyophilization chamber after the vials have reached the temperature at which nucleation is desired. Our best-in-class configurable control systems coupled to innovative information management solutions support interconnectivity to 3rd party offerings. Please visit us at IFPAC. The difficulty is not only forming the ice fog and ensuring it is sterile. f r o z e n water) crystals in the form of a fog i nt roduced i nto t he f ree zing chamber (3). Baltimore. sudden depressurization. Ice-fog introduction followed t he t wo . The concept of temperature-controlled ice nucleation was suggested by T. pilot-. outside the l y o p h i l i z a t i o n c h a m b e r (s e e Figure 1). we have defined the state of the art in Parallel Bioreactor Systems. When the suitable vial temperat ure was achieved. the vials were cooled to a suitable temperature at or below their freezing point. Rowe in 1990 (4). one approach for reduc ing supercooling a nd controlling ice-nucleation temperature is to introduce nucleating particles into the supercooled solution. This shelf temperature in subsequent Ice fog as a means to induce uniform vial-to-vial ice nucleation As discussed above. and show it s successf u l t ra nsit ion from a laboratory concept to a commercially viable technique. This work has resulted in a novel means to produce and distribute a sterile ice fog that is applicable to laboratory-. The ejector circuit is composed of a por t for i nt ro ducing ice fog into the freezing cha mber a nd a not her por t for recycling fog out of the chamber. and ice fog. The ice crystals subsequently make their way into the vials and induce nucleation inside the vial.Lyophilization v ials.com BioPharm International 35 . Booth 306 DASGIP – Parallel Bioreactor Systems for Unparalleled Results. it has proven difficult to scale up to commercial lyophilizers. thus facilitate application of QbD principles in this crucial downstream operation.f o g t e c h n i q u e . This scalable cryogenic ice fog technolog y could provide a much-needed degree of control during lyophilization and As the industry leader for benchtop bioprocessing solutions. The v ials containi n g t he pr o duc t to b e f r e e z e d r ied were placed on t he cold plates inside the freezing chamber. January 2012 www. The goal was to determine the shelf temperat ure at which the f irst v ials nucleate and freeze. a cr yogenic ice fog was introduced into the cha mber for about 30 – 50 s.biopharminternational. A particularly advant age ou s nuc leat i ng pa r t ic le is m i c r o s c o p i c i c e (i . METHODS Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of a typical lyophilization system employ ing t he scalable c r yo g e n i c i c e . DASGIP – We know bioprocessing – since 1991.step approac h show n in Fig ure 2.. In the initial phase of the freezing process. Creating a uniform dispersion of ice fog. distributing it into the f reez ing cha mber a nd seed ing vials with ice crystals for nucleation are achieved by a patentp e nd i n g te c h n ique i nvolv i n g contact between liquid nitrogen a nd water i n a m i x i ng dev ice such as an ejector. The met a l do or of t he lyoph i l i ze r wa s replace d w it h a Ple x ig la s construction to facilitate visual observation and video recording. Detection of ice nucleation in the vials was assessed by a combination of direc t obser vation and temperat u re measu rements on the outside of select vials.W. but also uniformly distributing the ice fog rapidly throughout the freezing chamber so that all vials are properly seeded with nucleating ice particles. e . t he normal f reezing c ycle was r un with no ice fog introduction. T h i s a r t ic le w i l l desc r ib e a means to produce and distribute an aseptic ice fog that nucleates all vials in a short time. I n cont rol e x per i ments.

The experiment also showed the extent of subcooling and vial-to-vial variability in freezing temperature by recording the range of temperature and time over which all vials nucleated. Two sets of tests were performed using t wo lyophilizers. with the exception of the trigger vial.5 (I M A Life). temperature probe inside vial solution Note 2: Vials containing water. The trigger vial contained the temperature probe inside the solution. temperature probe outside vials| Note 4: Vertical lines show non-instrumented vials whose nucleation was noted visually trials helped determine the trigger temperature (tg) that indicated when the ice fog should be introduced into the chamber. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Creating and uniformly distributing cryogenic ice fog A key challenge for the commercial implementation of the ice-fog technique has been the creation of an ice fog that is sufficiently dense and that can be efficiently distributed to reach all vials in a large-scale lyophilizer. to control the density of the ice fog. The system used in the present study produced a very dense fog and also distributed the fog throughout the freezing chamber within a short time (i. 5 Note 1 Note 2 Note 3 9:43 Temperature Time 10:40 Note 4 Shelf Temperature -25 Note 1: Control vial containing water. the suitably sized ejector provides enough pumping capacity to circulate the ice fog throughout the 36 BioPharm International www. Thus. with between 10 –20 vials arranged to be visible from the front of the chamber. The temperature of this vial was monitored to determine when ice fog should be introduced into the chamber. Because of this low density. Fog c r e at ion a nd d i st r ib ut ion we r e aided by the ejector assembly. Of t he tota l v ia ls. First. However. Note 1).1 m 2 of shelf area and represented a laboratory-scale lyophilizer. it provides an extremely efficient means for quickly forming the ice fog. Note 4). it was also the vial most likely to f reeze f irst because the probe itself served as a point of nucleation. Second. Some vials were also strategically placed inside the lyophilizer on areas of the shelves where distribution of ice fog was expected to be most challenging. A modular cleanroom was constructed around the front side of each lyophilizer to replicate the particulate-free condition of production-grade environments. A laser counter was used to measure the particle concentration inside the clean room.e. The ejector serves two purposes. The f irst set was performed in a MINIFAST 1. > 5 ∘m) impurity concentration to be under 15 particles/ft 3 . through this design. Vials without temperature probes were observed visually (see Figure 3.e. nine were inst r umented using K-type thermocouples.. but not touching the walls or bottom of the vial.. Note 3). The second set was performed in a LYOM A X 2.22-∘m filters before use.biopharminternational. it gave a truer indication of the solution temperature compared with the other instrumented vials where the temperature probe was mounted on the outside. and it measured particulate (i. All instrumented vials.com January 2012 . One population was filled with pure water only (see Figure 3. Two populations of vials were used in the same test.Lyophilization Figure 3: Temperature measurements obtained in control experiments as a function of time. Prefilled sterile vials were obtained for the testing. temperature probe outside vials Note 3: Vials containing 5% glycine solution. tg was set at the temperature at which the trigger vial froze. Note 2).0 (IMA Life) with 1. not enough fog was available for all vials. less than a minute).5 m 2 of shelf area and represented a pilot or commercial-scale lyophilizer. One of these vials was designated as the trigger vial (see Figure 3. with 2. Also absent in previous tests was an efficient system to distribute the ice fog within the freezing chamber and drive it into the vials. It is also possible. All solutions were filter sterilized through standard 0. and the other was filled with a solution comprising 5% glycine and 1% NaCl (see Figure 3. had thermal probes mounted on the outside of the vials and touching the vial wall.

The rst image shows the chamber before the introduction of the ice fog. and the ice fog does not touch anything that is nonsterile.com BioPharm International 37 . water & 5% glycine solution. Sometimes uneven vial temperat ures may occ ur in laborator yscale lyophilizers because of nonuniform shelf cooling. the first vial nucleated at a temperature of around −9 ∘C and the last vial nucleated at around −18 ∘C (see Figure 3). For the control experiment. the temperature probes. As seen in Figure 4. This variation in ice nucleation time could increase in production-grade environments. Ice nucleation was indicated at the point when the temperature of a vial increased sharply.biopharminternational. Figure 4: Temperature measurements obtained in ice-fog experiments as a function of time. This choice was to ensure that absence of freezing was a result of supercooling only. and the remainder of the vials nucleated at various times inbetween. indicating the general applicability of this technique for all supercooled solutions. All surfaces within the lyophilizer itself. When trigger vial temperature hit −6 ∘C. nucleated at about the same time on ice-fog introduction. All components downstream of the sterile nitrogen gas filter and up to the output of the ejector that releases the ice fog into the lyophilizing chamber have been designed to be sterilized in place. as a function of time. instant following the introduction of ice fog. This result is due to release of the latent heat of fusion of the solution upon freezing. In addition.. The last image shows the chamber 7 seconds after the introduction of the ice fog. and not because a vial was at a temperature above the freezing point. The ice fog is produced inside the ejector using steam and sterile-filtered nitrogen gas. creation of the ice fog at production scale does not introduce anything fundamentally new to the system.Lyophilization freezing chamber rapidly. measured the outside vial temperatures which might not reflect the solution temperature inside the vial at all times. The choice of this tg was conservative so that all vials were cooled below their freezing point. Based on the data from control experiments. both of which are already used in lyophilizers today (e. even January 2012 www. steam for sterilization and nitrogen for inerting or backfilling). a trigger vial temperature of −6 ∘C was selected as tg.g. Shelves were allowed to cool at a ramp rate of 0. all vials nucleated at the same Vials containing 5% glycine -25 All vials nucleate after ice fog introduction Both vial populations. respectively. nucleated at the same time Figure 5: Sequence of still frames from a 7-second video in increasing order of time from left to right. If all vials are cooled below their freezing point. ice fog can be introduced at a much higher temperature below 0 ∘C. From a regulatory standpoint. About 20 minutes separated these two occurrences. 5 Ice fog introduction 12:07 Vials containing water Time 12:43 Temperature Achieving ice nucleation in all vials at desired temperature Figures 3 and 4 show the temperature measurements obtained in control and ice fog experiments. are sterilized. except the trigger vial probe. all the surfaces the ice fog touches before being introduced into the lyophilizer are sterile. where solutions may be supercooled f ur ther due to the absence of any particulates or impurities in the atmosphere. including the vials.5 ∘C/min. It is a significant advantage that the ejector can accomplish both of these functions without introducing any moving parts or other complicated mechanisms that would be diff ic ult to steam or otherwise sterilize. Hence. and the temperature of the trigger vial was constantly monitored. pure water and glycine solution. Both vial populations. the ice fog was introduced.

Ice nucleation in all vials was further conf ir med v isua lly a nd t hrough v ideo recording.A. 90. in nonindustrial. The last image shows the same vials 4 seconds after the introduction of the ice fog. 60–66 (1989). J.biopharminternational. J. No additional sterility concerns should arise regarding the surfaces the ice fog touches inside the lyophilizer. Sci.Lyophilization Figure 6: Sequence of still frames from a 4-second video in increasing order of time from left to right. Searles. This result is a significant improvement over the 20-min vial-to-vial nucleation variability seen in the absence of ice fog. Carpenter. F. and T.W. The water-vapor source for ice-fog generation can be chosen based on ease of use and infrastructure availability.L. and the last image shows it 7 s after the introduction of the ice fog. this phenomenon is seen in all vials inside the chamber. and comparable with the prevalent chamber moisture content that formulations routinely encounter when loaded into lyophilizers. that is used today for backfilling vials. 860–871 (2001). which shows a 4-s video as a sequence of still frames separated by 0. in turn. Pikal. J. 54–62 (2004). vials adjacent to it also nucleate and at the end of 4 s. 1990).com January 2012 . Pharm. a humidified gas stream may be the preferred source. all three vials have completely nucleated. Roy and M. Rowe. However preliminary tests have shown that ice-fog derived water is a small fraction of the total water already present in the formulation. 38 BioPharm International www. It shows the lyophilizer being filmed from outside the plexiglass door during the introduction of the ice fog.. M. CONCLUSION Ice nucleat ion du r i ng v ia l f ree z i ng i n lyophilizat ion is a n impor ta nt process parameter that needs to be controlled. after being introduced into the freezing chamber. REFERENCES 1. steam would be the preferred fluid. the introduction of a sterile ice fog is no different from the introduction of any inert gas. The first image shows the close-up of one vial just as it begins to nucleate after the introduction of the ice fog. in the center of the middle shelf of the lyophilizer. For instance. The scalable cr yogenic ice-fog technology can be used in laboratory-. Eliminating variability. whereas on the aseptic production floor. presentation at International Symposium on Biological Product Freeze-Drying and Formulation (Geneva. pilot-. can help mitigate a host of related issues and lead to improved process and product quality. It shows the close-up of three consecutive vials placed Scale-up considerations and potential regulatory concerns The scalability of the technique has been verified by replicating it on a lab-scale (MINIFAST) and a pilot-scale (LYOMAX) lyophilizer. nonaseptic laboratories. where ice fog reach is expected to be the most challenging. 2. The images clearly show a dense ice fog distributed throughout the chamber within this time.3 s in real time. Parenter. Ice nucleation inside the vials can be visualized in Figure 6. J. The rst image shows three consecutive vials placed in the center of the middle shelf in the lyophilizer before introduction of the ice fog. Technol. D. AAPS PharmSciTech 5 (4). Figure 5 depicts a 7-s video as a sequence of still frames separated by 0. Rambhatla et al. such as nitrogen. and all vials nucleate within 4–10 s following the introduction of ice fog.4 s in real time. The first image in the sequence shows the chamber before the introduction of the ice fog. T.J. 3. In summary. Randolph. Within 4 s. Introducing water in the form of ice crystals into a finished formulation may raise concerns initially. It is expected to be easily scalable to larger sizes. and production-scale lyophilizers to induce uniform ice nucleation and eliminate vialto-vial variability. 43. Sci. 4. On a macro scale. S.

could be categorized into three classes of compounds with three different potentials for toxicological risk (4). the following three possible negative effects result from the introduction of leachables into a pharmaceutical product stream. and regulatory approaches are used to control and assess the risk of foreign substances that are inadvertently added to products that humans consume. T he European Medicines Agenc y (EMA) has used the TTC approach to develop guidelines for genotoxic impurities (5). In general. PhD. because their chemical structure has similarities to those of known toxins.biopharminternational. Cramer proposed that many chemicals. and other relevant informat ion. Cramer did not identify safe daily intakes for the Cramer classes but rather calculated a protection index that could be used to establish priorities and the extent of appropriate toxicity testing. thomas. Table I presents a summary of the permitted daily exposures for the various classes of chemicals using the TTC approach. The categorization was based on a series of yes or no questions pertaining to struct ura l-ac t iv it y relat ionships (SA R s). including those of unknown toxicity. Cramer class II substances cannot be placed in class I or class III and are therefore intermediate in expected toxicolog y. quality control. Several excellent reviews have been recent ly published t hat summarize both the history and the scientific approach that TTC brings to risk assessment of chemicals (1–3). • The leachable is toxic and poses a health risk to the consumer • The leachable interacts with the drug product formulation so as to alter its stability and potency • The leachable interferes with an assay that is crucial to measuring an important property of the drug product.com. and may suggest significant toxicity. T he T TC ap pro ac h i s b a s e d on t he a n a lysis of the toxicological or structural data of a broad range of chemicals and was developed as a substitute for substance-specific information. c he m ic a l reactivity. Cra mer class I substa nces have simple chemical structures and predictable and eff icient modes of metabolism that suggest a low order of toxicity.com BioPharm International 39 . The Pharmaceutical Research January 2012 www. Stone This article is part I in a two-part series on extractables and leachables. S everal scientific. is a principal scientist in the analytical technologies group at eMd Millipore. excluding polymers. The concept proposes that such a value can be identified for many chemicals.Tutorial an overview of risk-assessment strategies for extractables and leachables Thomas E. Cramer class III substances permit no strong initial presumptions of safet y. The Threshold of Toxicological concern The threshold of toxicological concern ( T TC) def i nes a gener ic e x p osu re threshold value for groups of chemicals below which no appreciable risk to hu ma n hea lt h e x ists. The term extractables describes substances that might leach from a material’s surface into a solution while the term leachables describes substances that migrate from the material surface into the solution under the actual conditions of use. structures.stone@merckgroup. me t ab ol ic me c h a n i sm s. when considering their chemical Thomas E. In 1978. Stone.

the lifetime risk of developing any form of cancer in the US is approximately one in three. Add ing a 1 in 10 6 additional risk would increase t he probabilit y of a n i nd iv id u a l ge t t i n g c a nc e r to 0. after tests. Once such trace-level impurities can be detec ted a nd ident i f ied. found to induce cancer in animals. A lt hough proposed i n 1986. Howeve r. i mp u r it y c o nc e nt r at io n s c a n only be shown to be less than the detection limit. makes possible the identification.p e r for m a nc e l iqu id ch romatog raphy ( H PL C – M S) instruments. of ma ny of these trace impurities. as well as ever more powerful techniques to obt a i n st r uc t u ra l i n for mation on unk now n compounds. Perhaps the most notable use of TTC was in the 1996 report issued by the Pharmaceutical Quality Research Institute (PQRI) working group on leachables and extractables in orally inhaled and nasal drug products (OINDPs) (7).0 and Manufact urers of A merica (PhRMA) has also detailed a rationale for dealing with potentially genotox ic i mpu r it ies i n pha rmaceuticals employing the T TC approach (6).0 90.e. While routine analytical methods in the 1950s measured most i mpu r it ies i n t he f rac t ions of percents. The development of t he TOR p ol ic y ef fe c t ively resolves the issue that concent rat ions of i mpu r it ies c a n not be proven to be zero. Unknown compound type Structural alerts for carcinogency (but not in cohort of concern group) Noncarcinogenic. such as oral.15 1.15 µg/person-day would b e t he s a fe t y t h re shold concern (STC) level for leachables i n OI N DPs.. by the end of the cent ur y many analy tical methods could often measure impurities in t he par ts-per-billion range. one in 10 6) rate (8).333333. The first were regulatory requirements for public safet y. t he e f for t a nd cost 40 BioPharm International www. such as the Delaney Clause. possibly genotoxic TTC for PDE (µg/person-day) 0.0 540. T he qua l i f icat ion threshold for noncarcinogenic or nongenotoxic impurities was recommended to be 5 µg/person-day. T he r isk of induc ing ca ncer in man or animals is not zero u n le s s t he i mp u r it y b e l ie ve d to induce cancer is also at zero concentration. but especially t hose at tached as detec tors to gas c h romatog raphy (G C – M S) a nd h ig h. Given this statistic.0 1800. a risk of less than one in a million additional cancer cases for impur ities below the TOR was as close to zero as the Delaney Clause could have intended.5 Nongenotoxic or carcinogenic grouped by structure-activity relationships (SAR) using modifications of the Cramer decision tree analysis Organophosphate neurotoxin structure Cramer class III (high complexity by SARs) Cramer class II (moderate complexity by SARs) Cramer class I (low complexity by SARs) 18. it becomes feasible to a na lyze the risk that they might pose. T here have been several compel l i ng d r iv i ng forces for approaching tox icolog ical r isk assessments from the T TC perspective. The recommended threshold reflects the commonly observed trend that respiratory toxicities are generally greater than systemic. A s e c ond d r iv i n g for c e for approaching tox icolog ical r isk assessments from the T TC perspective has been the increasi n g s e n s it i v it y o f a n a l y t ic a l me t ho d s u s e d to d e te c t a nd measure impur ities. The Delaney Clause is a 1958 amendment to t he Food. T his requirement ult imately led to t he Rawley proposa l of the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition’s (CFSAN) Threshold of Reg ulation (TOR) approach.biopharminternational. based on an analysis of data of respiratory toxicities from three toxicological databases. PDE is permitted daily exposure. The PQRI working group concluded that the T TC level for carcinogens of 0. an American’s current probability of getting cancer is 1 in 3. a ser ies of legal challenges prevented the cod i f icat ion of t he TOR u nt i l 1995 (9). toxicities. rather than the 18 µg der ived i n t he a b ove t a ble for fo o d . According to data from the National Cancer I nst it ute col lec ted b et ween 2002 –2004. or 0. Dr ug. T he com me rc ia l deve lopme nt of mass spectrometers ( MS) of numerous types.333334. a nd Cosmetic Act of 1938 that states the following: The Secretary of the Food and Drug Administration shall not approve for use in food any chemical additive found to induce cancer in man.Tutorial Table I: Threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) summary. clearly an immeasurable increase. or. This approach determined the upper limit of concentration of a substance so that levels below that limit raised no concern that it might cause cancer at a statistically minimal (i. and much lower in certain cases. or partial or tentat ive ident i f icat ion. R at her. For example.com January 2012 .

Plenary lecture ~ P]S^aP{bSPcPQ^g ? R^]cT]cTaa^aP]SbRP[T Call for abstrac ts B_TPZTa)?a^UTbb^a9ãaVT]7dQQdRW :Pa[badWT8]bcXcdcT^UCTRW]^[^Vh6Ta\P]h Session topics ~ _bcaTP\. such data are only rarely available.” their ability to predict a sa fe hu ma n dose is c u r rent ly extremely limited. Evaluation. The European Union Registration. 2012 high-throughput process development required to perform a risk assessment on one or two impurities a re d ra mat ic a l ly i nc rea se d a s the list of impurities for a risk a ss e ssme nt i nc re a s e s.TPa]TS D P]S5dcdaT2WP[[T]VTb BTbbX^]RWPXa)9^]PcWP]2^UU\P]? iTaDB0 ~ ^f]bcaTP\. FRANCE. Furthermore.biopharminternational. while in vitro and cell-based testing can be the “canary in the coal mine. 4–7 JUNE. Currently. rather than examining each method separately (12). eve n i f the concentrations of the additionally detected impurities are extremely low.htpdmeetings.Tutorial Figure 1: Strategies for mimimizing the risks of leachables.13 bi l l ion) a nd would require more than a million animals if testing were done using current best practices (11). animal testing is the next-mostreliable indicator of human toxicological response.^]S^]D: ~ dP[XchQh3TbXV]0]7C?3?Tab_TRcXeT @ BTbbX^]RWPXa)BcTUP]7T_QX[SXZ[Ta A^RWT6Ta\P]h ALL FIGURES ARE COURTESY OF THE AUTHOR ~ PbTBcdSXTb7C?3X]0RcX^] 2 BTbbX^]RWPXa)CW^\Pb. 56 – 3.com BioPharm International 41 . as is used in the total T TC approach. T TC w ill offer greater value. T he mo st r e l i a ble d at a on hu ma n tox icolog ica l response are unquestionably from human epidemiology studies of historical chemical exposures.Tbb^]b.X]ST]<TaRZDB0 ~ ^bcTabTbbX^] ? www. Some have proposed a combination of the T TC approach w ith intelligent testing strategies (ITS). which is premised on the idea that significant benefits will result from consider ing t he met hods used for hazard assessment in a holistic manner. is currently the least reliable approach of the three. T he f i na l d r iv i ng force for approaching tox icolog ica l r isk assessments from the T TC perspec t ive has been recent concer ns su r rou nd ing bot h t he financial cost and ethics of animal testing (10). As more and more structures and toxicological information are entered into toxicology databases and as the algorithms using SA Rs improve.com U^aUd[[_a^VaP\P]SaTVXbcaPcX^]STcPX[b 7C?3Xbb_^]b^aTSQh647TP[cWRPaT  fXcWcWTPRcXeTX]e^[eT\T]c^UX]SdbcahTg_Tacb January 2012 www. However. Despite a large effort to further develop in vit ro tests to minimize the number of in vivo animal tests. only animal testing data can be reasonably extrapolated into humans. and using SARs to predict toxicity.PaVT 3 3PcPbTcb2WP[[T]VTbP]S>__^acd]XcXTb BTbbX^]RWPXa)?a^UTbb^a=XVT[CXcRWT]Ta 7^^ZTaD]XeTabXch2^[[TVT. But a T TC approach to risk assessment may ma ke some a n i ma l testing unnecessary. particularly when the dose can be reliably estimated.Tbb^]b.Tbb^]b. SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AVIGNON.TPa]TS 3 P]S5dcdaT2WP[[T]VTb BTbbX^]RWPXa)9T]b7E^VT[ 1PhTa7TP[cWRPaTDB0 ~ ^a\d[PcX^]. Authorization and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) program has been estimated to cost €1–2 billion ( USD $1. to date.TPa]TS 5 P]S5dcdaT2WP[[T]VTb BTbbX^]RWPXa)0]SaTf:^bZh6T]T]cTRWDB0 ~ PcP0]P[hbXbP]S<P]PVX]V.

and topical and lingual aerosols  Oral solutions and suspensions  Oral powders  Oral tablets and oral (i.. an appropriate reference to the indirect food additive regulations is sufficient. A c o mp r e he n s i v e review of safety considerations related to leachables when using polymeric materials in pharmaceutical applications was recently published (22). The guidance on upstream. an appropriate reference to the indirect food additive regulations is sufficient for drug products with aqueous based solvents. degradation of the drug. and Q3C (13 –15). or drug products shall not be reactive.cost ma nufac t ur ing sites. including newer manufacturing processes a nd lower. and nasal sprays  Injections and injectable suspensions  Sterile powders and powders for injection  Ophthalmic solutions and suspensions  Topical delivery systems  Topical solutions and suspensions. Case 4s: Typically. extraction-toxicological evaluation. t he Poly mer for u m Group was formed to foster better communication and strategies between poly mer and phar maceutica l ma nu fac t u rers a rou nd t he issue (19). regulaTory guidance in PharMaceuTical aPPlicaTions General guidance from FDA on impu r it ies in pha r maceut ica ls can primarily be found in ICH guidelines Q3A. Table II is drawn from the FDA guidance for final container-closure systems and clearly delineates the importance of the route of administration of the drug. strength. quality. temperature. Case 2s: Typically provided are USP biological reactivity test data and possibly extraction–toxicological evaluation.biopharminternational.com January 2012 .e. and area or volume of contact. (16) Perhaps the most specif ic FDA g uidance in the area of leachables pertains to the final con- t a i ne r c losu re (17 ). Route of administration or dosage form  Inhalation aerosols. limits on extractables. The literature contains an illustrative example of a comprehensive analytical leachables study conducted after a film used as container closure was changed. or one of its components. General guidance on equipment and materials used in manufact u r i ng pha r maceut ica l ca n be found in 21 CFR 221. O ne of t he c om mon d i f f i culties in the use of polymeric mater ia ls in a reg ulated env ironment such as pharmaceuti- ca l ma nufac t ur ing is t hat t he commercial lifetime of any polymeric material. Case 3s: Typically. is likely to be shorter t ha n t he com merc ia l l i fet i me of a successf ul pharmaceutical dr ug. solutions. The importa nce of cha nge cont rols a nd supply-chain management when using commodity products such as plastics was recently emphas i z e d (21).Tutorial Table II: Safety guidance for drug containers from FDA Guidance for Industry: Container Closure Systems for Packaging Human Drugs and Biologics (17). extraction capability of the solution relative to the material and its potential extractables. and cytotoxicity of extractables from the materials in tests such as USP <87> (18). The guidance in these documents focuses primarily on impurities caused by the synthesis of the drug. or absorptive so as to alter the safety. identity. although the risk-assessment portion of the study that presumably justified the change of materials was not included (20). Q3B. A biopharmaceutical process extractables team recommended that the relative risk of various product-contact mater ials be evaluated w ith a r iskevaluation worksheet so that the highest priority will be given to materials known to potentially pose the highest risk. Among the var iables in the worksheet are proximity to the API. additive. hard and soft gelatin) capsules  Topical powders Safety guidance Case 1s: Typically provided are US Pharmacopeia (USP) biological reactivity test data. or purity of the drug product beyond the official or other established requirements. 42 BioPharm International www. time. and batch-to-batch monitoring of extractables. or residual solvents in the drug from the manufacturing process. in-process materials. Most poly mers are commodities subject to intense cost pressures over time. In t he Eu ropea n Union. but merely refer to “extraneous contamination that should not be present” that should be controlled by current good manu f ac t u r i n g pr ac t ic e s (c GM P). inprocess leachables is appropriately less detailed because the risk is lower. These guidance documents do not directly address impurities from in-process leachables. Fo c u s on conta i ner c losu re is nat ural because the exposure time c a n b e e x te n sive — mont h s to years—and there are no further purification steps to lessen any concerns about leachables.65 which states the following: Equipment shall be constructed so that surfaces that contact components. Drug products with nonaqueous-based solvent systems or aqueous-based systems containing cosolvents generally require additional suitability information.

particularly in the OINDP application. as indi- cated by its size. filter) Medium Medium Low Low Low Medium Low–Medium Low Low Low Low OINDP in MDI High Medium High Low High High High High High High Very high risk = final formulation.by. low risk < 24 hours. poorly understood manufacturing process. low risk = 21 CFR cleared under comparable conditions of use application differences. medium risk = downstream purification. low risk are metals or glass. 7TOC or NVR measurements from model streams can be used to estimate total concentration of leachables 8 High risk = not 21 CFR cleared. The importance of QbD in extractables and leachables risk assessments. low risk = 2∘C-36∘C. low risk < 0. risk > 30 days. T he pha r maceut ica l a rena has seen some well-publi- January 2012 www. the goal is to design in the quality of the final product by understanding all critical parameters and implementing robust manufacturing processes to control those parameters. whereas the end user is more likely to perform analytical testing closely aligned with the application of the tool. the critical QbD goal is to understand and control the safety of the tool in the application. 9 High risk = 100% cell death. The FDA CFSAN still has only the single-level TOR. medium risk are thermoplastic polymers. as opposed to attempting to test in the quality from an unstable.0 cm2/mL. medium risk = > 50% cell death. robustly design in. was recently discussed (23). medium risk = 37 ºC-70 ∘C. be used to understand and predict the impact of gamma sterilization on physical properties and the amount and type of gamma-induced leachables.biopharminternational. risk assessMenT W hen Fawley publ ished h is milestone paper on the threshold approach to toxicology. risk = > 1 cm 2 /mL. medium risk = 24 hours to 30 days. low risk = 0% cell death. The author’s preferred process for achieving this safety is shown in Figure 1. T he ma nu fac t u rer of t he tool tends to perform generic analytical testing. low risk = upstream fermentation.desig n (QbD) approach to manufacturing.Tutorial Table III: Toxicological risk assessment of leachables for three devices/applications.1-1. The green levels in the figure represent steps only the user of t he tool ca n per for m because they are highly application specific. but to understand. for example. Knowledge of the technical literature could. and control the safety of leachables. 4 High risk > 70 ∘C. The base of the pyramid is the responsibility of the tool manufacturer and is where most of the safety is built in. the ph r a s e “c o m mo n s e n s e ” w a s p r o m i ne nt i n t he t it l e (2 4). 3 High QualiTy by design I n a qu a l it y. the threshold strategy is now well entrenched a nd i s b e i n g e x p a nd e d on a g l o b a l b a s i s t o a m u lt i l e v e l threshold strategy using the TTC approach. medium risk =21 CFR cleared but significant. 6 High risk = elastomers or plasticized polymers. wh ic h i nd iv idu a l sc ie nt ist s at F DA have desc r ibed as too inflexible (25). T he ke y p oi nt i n t he graphic is to not be overly reliant on analytical chemistry and subsequent toxicological assessment of the analytical data.com BioPharm International 43 . The brown level represents steps that both the manufacturer and user of the tool can perform. low risk < X MPa½. tubing set. medium risk = 0. rather than to test in the quality in the final application. The si ze of each level ref lec ts t he degree to which it helps lower the risk of leachables that affect s a fet y. While it took many years to gain legal acceptance. OINDP is orally inhaled and nasal drug product.1 cm2/mL. medium risk = 3 to X MPa½. In the risk assessment of leachables. Device and risk levels Risk variable Proximity to API1 Contact area/volume2 Contact time3 Contact temperature4 Difference of Hildebrand solubility parameter of extraction solution to material5 Material susceptibility to extraction6 Subtotal concentration assessment7 Exclusive use of 21 CFR cleared materials8 Cytotoxicity of leachables (USP <87>) Subtotal toxicology assessment Overall toxicological risk assessment 1High 2 High 9 Disposable bag (50-L bag) Low Low Low Low Low Medium Low Low Low Low Very low Disposable assembly (50-L bag. 5 High risk < 3 MPa½.

the relative risk of toxicology of the leachables and the relative risk of the amount of leachables are evaluated separately. However. a nd whet her ava ilable gener ic extractables or leachables data can help in the risk assessment. Even permeation of leachables from labels and their adhesives through a low-density polyethylene film into a drug-containing vial has been observed (28). Science and understanding are not static. Suppl ie r i n for m at ion should substantiate that the raw mater ia ls have appropr iate 21 CFR clearance for the application. u ndoubte d ly due to the greater inherent instabilit y of biologicals relative to traditional small-molecule pharmaceuticals (29). temperature. To assess the toxicological risk of leachables from product-contact surfaces.com January 2012 . and diethylhexylphthalates from plasticized polyvinyl chloride blood and intravenous bags and tubing (26. N-nitrosoamines or mercapto thiazole in rubbers. medium. or low categories. T h i s s c i e nt i f i c a s s e s s m e nt must be combined w ith information from the material sup pl ie r. a rubber leachable after a formulation change apparently caused an increased risk of red-cell aplasia in European patients receiving EPO therapy (30). Rather than sum up the numerical risk levels to achieve an overall risk assessment. and drug-leachable instability interactions are much more prevalent problems than direct leachable toxicity concerns. one must understand material science. then the concentrations of the leachable are not as important. much as in the TTC approach. and relevant toxicology to assess the value of extractables and leachables testing. and analytical-leachables studies done to characterize the performance of acceptable materials or establish root cause for materials that reduce drug stability. sources are better controlled. T he issues in biopha r maceut icals seem more centered on API interactions with leachables and less about potential direct toxicolog ic a l issues. and proximity to the final formulation). Often the risk assessment using the combination of the manufacturer’s generic leachables data w it h t he end-use appl icat ionspecific parameters and a T TC approach will conclude that further leachables studies are not necessary to establish the safety of t he leac hables i n ter ms of direct toxicity..Tutorial c i z e d e x a mple s of le ac h able s t hat p ote nt ia l ly m ig ht a f fe c t p at i e nt h e a lt h . would be assessed separately. This separate evaluation allows for the possibility that if the toxicology is estimated to be low risk. The second section contains estimations of two variables related to the potential toxicological risk of the leachables. such as the 1–10 scale previously suggested. in line with the normal definition of risk as equal to the degree of the hazard times the level of the exposure. the fundamental understanding of all the technical issues 44 BioPharm International www. Case histories of leachable problems present several clear trends in risks due to leachables. solubility parameters. The two risks are viewed as multiplicative. roughly based on t he protocol suggested by the Biopharmaceutical Process Extractables Core Team (17). cured elastomers often have a much greater chance of having leachables with direct health risks than thermoplastics. and processes are upgraded and better measured and controlled. applicationspecific parameters (i. The knowledge aPProach in risk assessMenT The goal of any risk assessment should be to promote a rational resource allocation to address potential problems. t he published leachable examples are fewer due to the relatively short time that biologics have been manufactured. TPE) elastomers or over-molded elasto- mers (31). with the highest risk areas receiving the highest scrutiny. the proper controls are in place for cGMP manufacturing. v i r t u a l l y a l l were f rom conta i ner closu res.e. Drug-stability studies should be performed early in the material evaluation process.biopharminternational. Rather than assign numerical values to each risk level.e. The higher risk of cured elastomer issues should be addressed by minimizing contact area and time. In t he biopha r maceut ica l indust r y. contact time. Because of their complex formulations and manufacturing processes. surface area and volume. suMMary As scientific progress continues to be made.. Table III shows the analysis of the toxicology risk using a series of potent ia lly impor ta nt va r iables when using three devices in t hree applicat ions. the best practice to assess the risk of leachables will further evolve. Other possible risks from leachables. solution properties. The first section of the table contains estimations of six variables that could affect the concentration of observed leachables. the effects of sterilization procedures such as gamma irradiation. the overall risk is estimated with high. Examples in the past few decades have included polyc yclic a ro mat ic hyd rocarbons f rom carbon black fillers in elastomers. Nevertheless. materials improve. such as product formu lat ion i n st abi l it y or a ss ay interferences. methodologies are advanced. 27). or selecting noncured (i.

D. 86 (2). and manufacturing. (Bethesda.. ICH. Guidance for Industry: Container Closure Systems for Packaging Human Drugs and Biologics (Rockville. 5. Müller et al. cover protein characterization. Rulis.com. Regul. Madan. 25. Extractables and Leachables Information Exchange. Impurities: Guideline for Residual Solvents. 31. Swanson. 5 (3). (Lewis Publishers. FDA Workshop on Plasticizers: Scientific Issues in Blood Collection. 29. 29–37. 9.. 21. Jenke and S. K. 2005). 28. Cramer et al. (ILSI Europe Concise Monograph Series. 24. 32 (2008). D. 13 call for PaPers * call for PaPers * call for PaPers 23 January 2012 www.BiopharmInternational. 293–308 (1967). Washington DC) Part 221. Q3B(R2). Norwood. Pharm. 10. 2005). MI. Schaafsma et al.S.O. 8.K. S. Chelsea.. www. 360–380 (2005). 20–27 (2006).M. 2566–2581 (2007). pp.P.P. 96 (10). We are currently seeking novel research articles for our peer-reviewed journal as well as manuscripts for our special issues. The review process is double-blind. 2. A. 15. Ed. Regul. Code of Federal Regulations. J. Step 4 version 2 (2006). I. iii33–40 (2005). 13. Am. P. Rev. biopharmaceutical manufacturing trends. For peer-reviewed papers. Food Cosmet. 2006). May 1999).L. 6. BioPharm. Impurities in New Drug Products. Pharm.M. 52 35 3. 53 (1). 47 (3). 12. Manuscripts are reviewed on a rolling basis. “De Minimis and the Threshold of Regulation. J. 26. We provide practical. MD. MD. Pharm. 44 (3) 198–211 (2006).. Sci. 2008). Technol. Pharmacol. Step 4 version (2003). Frawley.. presentation at Pharmaceutical Quality Research Institue L/E Workshop. 23–24 (2002). 3). 15. et al. (European Commission. elsiedata. 1st ed. K.com BioPharm International 45 . J. 1986). 14.org/ 20. 12 (2008). Pharm. 23. peerreviewed technical solutions to enable biopharmaceutical professionals to perform their jobs more effectively. MD. Russell and R. 16–17 41 27 2.. IPAC-RS Conference (North Bethesda.com. 51 21 12. Q3C(R5). poster presentation. Brussels. Toxicol. Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC): Literature Review and Applicability. Toxicol. Our single-themed issues. (Bethesda. Pharmacol. Anal. pp. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique (Methuen & Co. Food Safety Magazine. Stults. Neph. G.biopharminternational. 3. 16. 11. 18. Markovic. Transplant. Pharm. (San Juan. S. London. C. 4. Title 21 Food and Drugs (Government Printing Office. to view our full Author Guidelines. Technol. Akapo and C. Safety Thresholds and Best Practices for Extractables and Leachables in Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products (Arlington. http://www. Rev. Italy) 2004. EMA. 17. presentation at International Life Sciences Institute Annual Meeting. 27. vaccines. Boven. 70–80 (2009). 1–32. L. Int. Shanklin and S. Kroes. Kleiner. Am. Guidelines on the Limits of Genotoxic Impurities (London. Rulis. ICH. FDA. Felix. TemaNord 559:2005 (Nordic Council of Ministers. Barlow. ICH. VA. Food Cosmet. 526– 534 (2008). McCrea. Please visit our website. Schroeder. 1999). Renwick. Joint Research Centre Ispra. 20 (suppl. Storage and Transfusion (Plasticizers in Blood Bags). Van der Jagt et al. expression systems. Sci. A. Kushwaha and A. Dial. Sci. D. Toxicol. W. and tutorials. C. 255–276 (1976). Product Quality Research Institute. which include literature reviews.” Addendum to Report EUR 21405. Bennan et al. Tox. 14. 2006). (IPAC-RS OINDP Materials Working Group). and single-use technologies and facilities. 22. Q3A(R2).M. Nordic Council of Ministers. A. 32–39 (2007). Toxicol. 10. 2005). 19. Jenke. and A. 59 (6). et al. MD.Tutorial regarding leachables and toxicological safety will continue to be applied to achieve a knowledgebased risk assessment. references 1.L.65. Pharm. 9. PR 2006). R. 16 (3).” in Food Protection Technology.M. 1959). G. members of BioPharm International’s Editorial Advisory Board and other industry experts review manuscripts on technical and regulatory topics. Current Step 4 version 25 (2006). 7. Burch. “Alternative Approaches Can Reduce the Use of Test Animals under REACH. Ad Index Company Bio-Rad Laboratories CATALENT PHARMA SOLUTIONS DASGIP AG EMD MILLIPORE GE HEALTHCARE LIFE SCIENCES New Brunswick Scientific PDA PR A XAIR INC Rentschler Biotechnologie Gmbh WTG BIOMANUFACTURING SUMMIT call for PaPers * call for PaPers * call for PaPers Page Info Covertip BioPharm International integrates the science and business of biopharmaceutical development. outsourcing. Biomed. 9. J.W. Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) – A Tool for Assessing Substances of Unknown Toxicity Present at Low Levels in the Diet. Cahill. Impurities in New Drug Substances. Manuscripts may be sent to Editorial Director Angie Drakulich at adrakulich@advanstar. 30. 226–230 (2005). PDA J. A.M. J.C.

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and accelerating scale up of drug development. tion by ed compoagents. cals for efficient and ceutical biopharm is manufact maceuti is to design of Biopharuring. ents. by l basal basa me nt This has to bio biotor y authoritie nt e d digestion media ious plant raw material w it h led regula-suppleanim Food from s such al-de and Dr not limited sources including varas r ived and European ug Administthe US . and regulatory on with ons. Other times the costs of services a re to o h ig h or so c ia l nor ms p r o h i b i t w o m e n f r o m s e e king the care they so desperately need. 2 biopharma nts. Protein systems. she doesn’t have to travel to another clinic for pediatric services for her child. shorten the time of getting new vaccines to market (moving a 15–20 year timeframe closer to 1–5 years).ted hydrolysate These biopharma to the duc derived experiprotein maceut manager and improved derived ingredients the supplemen ivedto subject substrates t ion a s CHRISTOPHE ihydrolysa beennecessary hydrolysa for a ts and the active st a ndment is it is routinely plant culture and n accepted the global applications . manufacturers are contributing to allows the development community to capitalize on opportunities to extend the reach and depth of our programs. ensures protection against killer diseases. reduce . to enhance r ichly Serum-Free deve lopede d C D M the or ts. and creativity of private sector partners. the use novel ceutical production media media. growth traditiona is the combinatio the Sheffield media componen business determine Group have been const it udesigned global a Kerry medium such as better is the l PHD. THE YGS GROUP | 800-290-5460 x100 | advanstarreprints@theYGSgroup. cell culture or even lated substrates these chemically s and automatio defined mused as techcleaning that chemicall ce of media many of hydrolysate cases.8308 enhanced and Although i g h p ro t e rot i n used in motion. hydroly cell improve Plant-derived tools to practical Bio-Science Shef eld Center for Cell Culture Technology June 2010 ptimizing the culture med Figure 1.com The YGS Group is the authorized provider of custom reprints for BioPharm International.. n . hydrolysate dosage the tes have optimiz PHD. us They are the enzymatic alter native prions. cell viability. lead to –4 . stages cal activity. 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Across industry and sector. th the market more are chales for contamina of unidentifi and as re. segment ce-enhanc serum mixents JAMES Beloit. both at hybridom good g In mammalian optimizatio cell viability. as a media the dominanc industryrequiremenhigh-perfor serum JAMES many including Recent improvem n e of eliminate serum supplemen have become Today. their available as productio . and hydrolysat acids. USAID’s Global Development Alliance (GDA) is a premiere model for public–private partnerships. sold growth s can partially supplemen UltraPep. Advertise in BioPharm International! Call Tod McCloskey at 800-225-4569 ext. refined defined for chemically niques. is as for Cell Culture manager of cell optimized a lone eliminate used lysate ing director biochem Center performan medium. It also the trade es plements ceutical productioneffect of ha Media name rich media. ved using amino have reached protein m lenges. HANS given hydrolysate n effect ox@kerry. t. aim cal. helping to significantly expand and deepen the impact of development assistance by linking US foreign assistance w it h t he resou rces. The most transformative technology at our disposal. Volume 23 Number 6 ally Chemic ment of t-Derived Replace Par tial Media with Plan s sate Defined Hydroly as valuable and used Proteinsates can beculture performance. Since 2001. We are also working to train and empower community health workers who bring critical health services directly to the communities. as v ir uses.for ABSTRACT high-perf in more porThis article from the addition es that in other both new manufactu This hydrolysate for mu the overall consistent s have significant ormi orming. hydrolysa l suppleme of n is comundefined MDCK). The aa robust. USAID has formed more than 900 alliances with over 1. exper t ise. USAID is working in partnership with both global and local corporations to increase our reach and the effectiveness of development projects. componen tof res u cell of are widely Therefore.g. HyPep lian cell 80% CDM-C 0 growth + 8 g/L mammaHyPep adding 0 was achieved animal 2 bovine sera. The idea of offering health services at the community levels is critically important when you consider that 80% of people in the developing world will likely never set foot in a health facility. 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The reasons for this are many. or a combinatio been y CDM es have have been ie ld s . viabilit desired ote h n of all combinatioor 800. that’s smart. native hydrolat ring can benefit under demonstrat replace a resulted hydrolysat processes.Final Word Final Word – Continued from p.com Have you been featured in BioPharm International? For instant credibility. BioPharm: Some goa ls of t he ad m i n ist rat ion a nd of USA I D LAB EQUIPMENT Air ow Diagnostic Tools Smart editorial.. In what ways is USAID working to achieve these goals? Are there other important goals on USAID’s agenda in terms of global health efforts? B at s on: O n e o f t h e m aj o r obst ac les to prov id i ng t i mely a nd qu a l it y t reat me nt i n t he developing world is the inabilit y to access hea lt h fac i l it ies. n. animal-co . cell density rs. BHK. indetermi adventitio of develsuch nate biologiAs an and bacteria. in n that the proper Bio-Scienceglobal market prodevelopment or ica l co from production CDM for animal-de Business. . performan using ce is assessed a number 50 0 including of paramete 40 0 However.833. Smart marketing. ts to help production hydrolysat supplemen used systems. Now. By making quality vaccines available at affordable and sustainable prices. the root formuER therefore drivts in systems richly causes away from CHRISTOPH ceutical inming. the and many nents in various a var potential with opment. processes.com variety of increased cell growth. and formal s are routinely performan enhance. (CDM) stand-alone yshows and older validation n. of other variety with a The Science nt. vaccines. 100 The plant-derive 0 d 90 0 enhances 80 0 le the overall system that of the 70 0 performan specific cell line. wheat. whether children are immunized by pediatricians in the US or by health workers in rural clinics in Africa. ates. which mixture tes are composedT hese ceu batch-to-b Several plant-deri ceuticals produced can of and downstrea atch variability of a carbohydr peptides. and viability.50 are to increase access to healthcare and treatment in developing nations. Cell an integral i u m i s viability de ned part of of Chinese medium up s t r eam hydrolysate with and hamster without ova ovary developme p r o c e s s extended essential supplement cell viability. optimal . 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That is we will continue to work with our partners at global. BioPharm: Many individuals seem to be opposed to global health efforts compared with say. If we expand the coverage of existing vaccines and introduce new vaccines against pneumonia and diarrhea. the Gates Foundation. the Centers for Disease C ont rol a nd P reve nt ion. and strengthens families. fights poverty. state to state. The US commitment leverages the billions of dollars that other donors have committed to GAVI. meningitis A. be better introduced to developing populations? What are the key priorities in terms of advancing technology (e. GAVI. and most importantly. and ensure the complete roll-out of pentavalent vaccine. Together.. What can be done to overcome this perspective? Batson: We recognize that global health is vital to our national security. Fighting global disease directly protects our health in the United States because infectious diseases know no borders. and allowed GAVI to negotiate a price reduction of 67% on rotavirus vaccines so more of the world’s most vulnerable people will be protected against preventable diseases. ou r f u nd i ng w i l l e nable t he Alliance to provide countries with sufficient amounts of programmatically suitable vaccines to immunize an additional 243 million children in the poorest countries with vaccines against pneumococcal disease. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Distribution and cold-chain challenges vary from country to country and in some larger countries. The relatively recent revisions to the GAVI’s cofinancing policy requires a larger payment for countries closer to ‘graduation. BioPharm:W hat ca n indust r y expect going forward in terms of working with USAID to get its new products or vaccines to developing nations? What type of assistance may be provided and what are the timeframes? Batson: USAID is going to continue to focus on what we do best. BioPharm: Can you talk about the large commitment the US recently made to GAVI and what this will achieve? Does USAID have any other financing programs in the pipeline? Batson: To reiterate. as well as our other donor partners. a nd USAID in the research. BioPharm: Once a new drug or vaccine is introduced a developingnation market. and HIV. what are USAID’s goals for ensuring that the country can sustain the administration. purchase. BioPharm: How can new drug products. development and sustained use of vaccines in robust.Final Word an international commitment to protect more children. regional and country levels to provide varying support. we can save the lives of 4 million children over the next five years. communities and countries. maintenance requirements. tuberculosis. Combined with other donors. countries themselves. Improving the health of people in the developing world drives economic growth. quarterly child health days. Clearly countries have identified cold chain as a rate-limiting step with regard to new vaccine introduction. meeting transportation or distribution challenges)? Batson: Countries need to know how best to use data to find their greatest numbers of missed children and target those children with optimal approaches whether that means outreach. they will realize the tremendous health impact vaccines have. USAID is not the only partner to industry with regard to getting programmatically suitable vaccines developed and used in developing countries.biopharminternational. the US government makes tremendous investments in vaccines from basic research and development to field level strengthening of immunization programs. A continued effort to communicate the value and incredible return on investment from our global health efforts will be key to maintaining this support through the uncertain economic times ahead. rotavirus. January 2012 www. one of the most transformative technologies at our disposal is vaccines. focusing on the US healthcare system at home.’ We want countries to be mindful of their financial obligations but we want to continue working with our partners on the expansion of the evidence base for decision making so that when countries have to make hard decisions about how to spend their money. The supply chain has largely been undervalued and many countries do not have an adequate record of the status of cold chain equipment. and yellow fever. Experience delivering vaccines to expanded ta rget popu lat ions cou ld a lso serve to strengthen immunization programs to put the world in a position to save more lives with potential future vaccines against malaria.g. country owned immunization programs. school-based approaches or targeting indigenous populations. hepatitis B. The United States’ coordinated support for GAVI complements the efforts of the National Institutes of Health.com BioPharm International 49 . and distribution of that product? Batson: We strongly support the GAVI co-financing strategy that requires all countries to make a copayment for every dose of vaccine provided to that country through GAVI procurement. We work with WHO and UNICEF. Investing in the health of people in developing countries reduces the instability that fuels war and conflict. including vaccines. multiplying the impact of our funding more than eight-fold. and trained logisticians.

civil society organizations. BioPharm: Why are innovation and development such a big push now compared with past years? Batson: At USAID. There is no question that investing in the health technologies of tomorrow will reap incredible returns on our original investment. BioPharm: USAID Administrator Shah has spoken about how the agency is trying to improve its relationship with the private industry to make communication easier and less bureaucratic. about progress thus far and plans forward. PEPFAR. and the Peace Corps. USAID proudly announced the firstever proof of concept that a microbicide gel can effectively and safely reduce the transmission of HIV from men to vulnerable women. and in lives and money saved. and could eventually add to our present package of malaria control interventions saving more lives among young children in Africa. Our partnerships should reflect new models such as South–South and trilateral cooperation. appointed by Obama to lead USAID’s role in the initiative. and emerging and traditional donors. Leveraging the collective resources of partners through public–pr ivate par tnerships Continued on p. 48 50 BioPharm International www. partnership. among other agencies. In 2010. placing the power of HIV prevention in the hands of women. Rajiv Shah has stated on several occasions that the largest opportunities to improve human health and the human condition do not lie in optimizing services to the 10–20 % of people in the developing world who have access to world-class health facilities. Innovation and development are key components of the initiative’s and the administration’s goals. Freeman/PhotoLink/Getty Images . With each advancement.Final Word USAID Moves Global Healthcare Initiatives Forward Government plans require investment. BioPharm: What are some examples that have come about from the initiative to date? Batson: [In 2011]. we come closer to delivering more effective aid at a lower cost. foundations. including the private sector. the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). the question we should all be asking is what tangible benefits we will see for each dollar spent. we realize the benefits of investing in innovation for global health go well beyond improvements in health. research institutions.com January 2012 M. and industry collaboration.biopharminternational. and include meaningful roles for civil society and the private sector.S malaria vaccine is safe and effective. Interview by Angie Drakulich President Obama launched the Global Health Initiative in May 2009 to introduce an integrated approach to the government’s investments in global health. The initiative involves programs of the US Agency for International Development (USAID). What is USAID looking to do in this regard? What types of new partnerships is the agency forming? Batson: Cultivating a productive investment environment will require partnerships with a range of stakeholders in donor and host countries. In tough economic climates like this one. They lie in extending our reach to the 80–90% of people who do not. USAID Administrator Dr. USAID welcomed the initial news of the Phase 3 efficacy trial that confirmed the RTS. Some of the greatest advances in development have come from extending the reach of innovative breakthroughs to those who lack access health facilities. We are looking to build stronger partnerships with the development and scientific communities to support the creative thinkers who are developing the next generation of health technologies capable of reaching more people at reduced costs to maximize impact. BioPharm International spoke with Amie Batson. at the Bill and Melinda Gates Malaria Forum in Seattle. The Global Alliance for TB Drug development is bringing a new drug combination to Phase III trials that could cut the duration of treatment by half and help overcome MDR-TB.

Gradalis • The Future of Personalized Medicine – Challenges Ahead. FDA • New this Year: A breakfast Session on Career Development Strategies • Networking Receptions & Events like the 6th Annual PDA Golf Tournament at the Wildfire Golf Club & the PDA 6th Annual Walk/Run (benefiting the Phoenix Children’s Hospital) • Post-Conference Workshop: PDA Single Use Systems Workshop on April 18-19 • PDA’s Training and Research Institute (PDA TRI) will be offering eight courses on April 19-20 • Hotel activities for the entire family! Also: Post-Conference Workshop on Single Use Systems! www. Cellular and Gene Therapies. Ryan. The Best Content in the Industry Conference Highlights Include: • Two Great Opening Plenary Topics: • Future Benefits for Patients: From Discovery to Commercial Products. Deutsche Bank Securities. Chief. Barbara A. They know what you are concerned about. Ted Love. Managing Director. is hard at work to bring you the best content in the industry. MD. Laboratory of Biochemistry. CEO and Founder. Onyx Pharmaceuticals • Plenary Session Two: • The Future of the Biopharmaceutical Industry. PhD. Dendreon • Financial Analyst Perspective on the Pharmaceutical Industry. R&D and Technical Operations. Mary Crowley Research Center and President.. ARIZONA The 2012 PDA Annual Meeting is the meeting place this April. made up of your peers. Emily Shacter. Inc. Research Analyst. CDER. 2012 • Closing Plenary Topics: • Manufacturing Opportunities and Challenges in the Next 10-20 Years.pda. Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences • Emerging Regulatory Expectations. Chief Scientific Officer.org/annual2012 EXHIBITION: April 16-17 | CAREER FAIR: April 16-17 POST-CONFERENCE WORKSHOP: April 18-19 | COURSES: April 19-20 . (invited) • Student Call for Posters – Abstracts Due February 6. April 16-18. The distinguished Program Planning Committee. Matt Croughan. Executive Vice President. what you want to hear and who you want to hear it from. Professor.e nc ust ! re fe re J line n Co chu On o Br sted Po The Parenteral Drug Association presents. 2012 JW MARRIOTT DESERT RIDGE RESORT • PHOENIX.. David Shanahan. President. David Urdal.

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