This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

STRUCTURAL JOURNAL

Title no. 104-848

TECHNICAL PAPER

**of Suitable Stress Fields for Structural Concrete
**

by Miguel Fernandez Ruiz and Aurelio Muttoni

Strut-und-tie modelsand stressfields are mel/rods

I/WI call

ali Development

be used

**for the dimensioning and detailing of reinforced and prest ressed
**

concrete structures as well as for checking exipillg Diles, This

paper presents

all

innovative

approach

toward the automatic

development of-stress fields based 011 a nonlinear finite element analysis. Strut-and-tie models call also be easily developed from the resulting stress fields. Most of lire difficulties uf the existing methods fordeveloping stressfields and strut-and-tie models based on elastic uncracked analyses are overcome. The application of tlte proposed approach 10 the dimensioning of structural members ill practical cases is detailed and several comparisons with experimental results are discussed.

Keywords: analysis; finite element method: stress fields: structural design; strut-and-tie models.

.I

INTRODUCTION Strut-and-tie models and stress fields are methods that are widely used for the design and detailing 'of structural concrete. Although both methods are based on the lower bound theorem of plasticity, they have very different origins. The strut-and-tie method is based on the truss analogy, The truss analogy was developed first on the basis of intuition and without a theoretical basis.!'2 Its aim was to provide a phenomenological description of the reinforced concrete behavior after cracking, leading to simple physical models suitable to explain its response. In contrast, 'stress fields were developed as a direct application of the theory of plasticity. They. were successfully applied to the analysis of structural concrete, steel, and masonry.' Their first application to reinforced concrete was proposed in 196J by Drucker? who developed two stress fields for a simply supported reinforced concrete beam subjected to a point load and to a uniform load (refer to Fig. I).' The development of' stress fields based on' a rigid-plastic material behavior (known as discontinuous stress fields) occurred mainly in Zurich4-7 and Copenhagen.8.9 where various studies were developed on their application and applicability. Since the 19805, much effort has been done to obtain general methods for developing truss models 10.11 and stress fields 7,9,12 in a systematic way and to combine both methods for the analysis of structural concrete, The use of truss models became increasingly popular in .. f structura I concrete. pracnce especia IIy aner Sc II ate h et a.110 ' II 1. provided some interesting guidelines for the development of' such models and examples for their practical application; This approach was named strut-and-tie models by these authors. Ali and White 13 proposed a different approach for the development of such models .. So far, only a few studies have been conducted on systematic procedures for the development of stress fields. Although a well-established theoretical basis exists, a variety of discontinuous stress fields can be proposed for a structural member ACI Structural Journal/July-August 2007

subjected to a given and load combination. Consequently, the development of stress. fields remains mainly based on intuition and experience. Recently;' a general method for developingstress fields has been proposed by Muttoni et al.,[2 including the serviceability behavior. Despot'" has also proposed a finite element approach to -the- problem with promising results, combining the results 'of'a linear-elastic analysis with a set of self-induced state of stresses to respect the condition of plasticity in the elements .. Although all ,previous methods constitute an important step forward toward the systematic use of truss models and stress. fields, they present certain .limitations. This paper reviews the different methods and proposes a new approach for developing stress tie Ids and truss models based on the finite element method. A computer program has been developed implementing the ideas of this paper with both research and educational purposes and has been' integrated as an applet into an educational web site (http://i-concrete.epll -, h/), Its source code is freely c available andcan be downloaded together with the examples contained'in thispaper, RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE This paper presents an innovative approach for the automatic development: of stress fields using the finite element method: This approach 'overcomes most of the problems presented by the current methods developed with the same purpose,. 'Phis technique can be used to obtain suitable stress fields for practical design purposes-and is also a helpfulrool when-investigating the actual load-carrying mechanism of complex structures. CRITICAL REVIEW ·OF EXISTING METHODS FOR>DEVELOPING TRUSS MODELS AND, STRJ:S.S F,IELDS , As previously introduced, 'Schlaich et lUI. \ I presented a method for developing truss models named the strut-and-tie

(a)

~~~jllllllllll'l

Fig. 'I=Stress fields proposed 'by' Drucke).3 for simplysupported beam under: (a) uniform load; and (b) point Load.

,

Structural Ionmai, V. 104. No.4, July-August lq07. MS No. S·}[)[)6-256 received JUlie 19.2006. and reviewed under Institute publication policies. Copyright Ii) 2()()7, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless pcrmissiun is obtained from the cnpyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion including author's closure, if any, will he published in the May-June 2008 AC! Structural Journal if ihe discussion is received by January I. l008.

set

495

it needs to be improved for others.rIme/tires. ill 200! utu! 2004. Consequently. 7. respeclil'e/y.'c (a) -O'c (b) ddt engineering and his PhD [nun IIIL' Polytcchnicu! University (~f ft. Schlaich adopts a criterion based on the minimum of complementary strain energy of the systern'P to decide which one is the most suitable truss model Minimum " 496 .-Im/dd. Hi.'I}(~(_Jr mrd structnrc imcnrctitJIJ.rtrcngtlt {'oJ/cre/c. 2(c) and (d)).\pcctil'dy. re. (b) possible truss model inspired ill elastic stress field. soilmill the c. however. bond. used to identify from it a possible resisting' truss model. on the-cross sectional area to be attributed to each compression member. the-stress fields shown in Fig. which various truss models (different. and (b) resulting truss.Sll'it~crltl1ul. depending for instance on the actual reinforcement layout (as inclined reinforcement is typically necessary to follow the elastic uncracked flow of stresses.based on its linear elastic (uncracked) stress field. element . 1 and developed AGI Structural Journal/July-August2007 Fig..". to Fig. This approach allows the consideration of a predefined reinforcement layout.ll a strut-and-tie model can be developed for a given.11 are based. He received Swlss Fedeml lnstinne His research interests strnctures. may be excessive in some cases. 2(a) and (b) does not correspond to the commonly used reinforcement details (obtained from'different truss models Fig. I Fig . Furthermore.-lJillg s 111:(1" jiiJer!n:inforced hi#h-. a certain level of experience-is required for the choice of the most suitable stress field and to asses its applicability. Also. considering that the reinforcement layout may differ noticeably from the elastically inspired one.:lJIJClll'iltll! desi}..·iiI19R2 ami 1989. elasto-plastic considerations on the behavior of the members can be implemented. This freedom. 5 shows three possible stress fields for the same given situation. This procedure is easy. This criterion allows choosing a (russ model from various possibilities. checking of the concrete stresses requires a detailed study of the compressive stress field. In these cases (as well as for the development of stress fields in unusual cases). ei is the length of the member.\'lJr am/Hem! of liJL' Strnctnrn! Concrete antl PlrD iI' civil cJr. field method has traditionally been based on the assumption of a rigid-plastic stress-strain law without tensile strength for the concrete 12 (in 'contrast to the linear elastic uncracked law on which the analyses of Schlaich et a\. Swinerlmu]. For instance. inchuh: fin' theoreticn! bnsis of the design n. Fig.' Po!yleciIlJiq'!c He received his dil'irmrll ill Eo.'Je I'wu._'illlofced com. For cases in. but it does not give information on the actual behavior at the serviceability limit state. although developing truss models based on the elastic flow of IS tresses is very satisfying for some cases. Questions arise. and th» mndeliuM of lin' behavior of CWJC/"{!U' structures rHi/l~ stress field.' rcseurcli interests include th« .. Pn~rrs. This reinforcement ensures that no brittle failure occurs at cracking and that the cracks are suitably smeared over the element at the serviceability limit state.:rl. ACI member Aurelio MuUoni ts Laboratory at EPFL. For example.n of bridges. from the elastically-inspired one) are possible. Neglecting the tensile strength of concrete requires placing' a minimal amount of reinforcement for crack control to ensure a satisfactory behavior of the structure.mich. the reinforcement layout influences the resulting stress field within the body. however. and (i:) and (d) truss models corresponding to usual reinforcement layouts.'rin}f from' the (}fTi!drllol(l~y. 13 where an optimization process is performed choosing a truss model from a ground truss satisfying certain criteria (refer to Fig.' 4). modehn/vccording . 3). A-1m/rid. tJ his dip/nmll l~r Fig.l:j/w(.model after. I ! i I I . where Fj is the force in each member i. Another systematic approach for the choice of a suitable truss model is presented in Ali lind White. 3-Devcloplllellt of truss model by optimization of ground trusst: (a) ground [ntss with all possible bars.rerl'l"ce"hiIiIY behavior of . 4-Comparisoll of uniaxial stress-strain 1011's/orconcrete: (a) linear elastic (with tensile strength): and (0) rigid-plastic without tensile strength. The development of stress fields with the previous assumptions 12 allows a great freedom in the choice of the load-carrying mechanism of a structure.ensures a good behavior-at the serviceability limit state and can also be used to study ii~luIti"mate'llmit state response. This is justified because tensile forces carried by the reinforcing steel are necessary to ensure the internal equilibrium.HIJIIUI. . til III. 2-Dapped~el1d Ibeam: (a) linear elastic (uncracked) stress field. optimization process. The stress. is often preferred in real structures).to-Sohlaich' et al. but an orthogonal reinforcement. especially if more than one element can carry the load at a given node: the physical reality is a continuum and not a set of bars.J. Spain. 2 presents a classical problem where the reinforcement layout -developed on· the basis of an elasticallyinspired truss model (refer. and Ej is the strain in the member.. Although all of them require the same amount of reinforcement. The guidanceprovided by the elastic stress field. I I . refer to Fig.and straightforward for some cases but not for others. the stress field in a body (and consequently its overall behavior) depends on the actual reinforcement layout and is thus not exclusively determined by its geometry and load pattern. For instance.~1igu~1 Fcrmln'~cz Ruiz is " Posuloctom! Fellow Fddtirule de Lausanne (EPFL" UW. To sum up. Fig. because the! nodes and the elements of the ground truss can be placed according to the desired reinforcement layout.

1 J.19 -I'that. (e) -l1c.12 proposed a general procedure for developing stress fields considering also their serviceability behavior.2 <:. Vecchio and' Collins 17 developed a complete theory named the modified compression field theory that is suitable to be applied to compression fields including the effect of transverse strains of concrete. (b) Mohr's circle and principal strains.IS The compressive strength of concrete is adopted as the concrete equivalent plastic strength.9 ksi). For instance.: For instance. 6.a contraction (E) 'in tile yield surface with increasing positive transverse strains. 6(e)).9 + 30(/.1 (i as cracks forming near the lower tie may seriously limit the strength of the compression field.0 I. (b) wedge-shaped stress field.\(E) in t~e concrete strength.': (n -i"". The FE model implementation of this behavior can be performed using various elements that-allow to. only a limited number of parameters with a clear physical meaning are required (strength and modulus of elasticity) in contrast to more refined FE models that may improve some aspects but require the definition of many additional parameters. The elastic modulus of concrete E(' is adopted as the secant modulus of the material. I U' . 111 general.21' this parameter can be evaluated using The concrete stress-strain response is considered elasticperfectly plastic in compression and the tensile strength of concrete is neglected (refer to Fig. Fig.' and (jJ assumed directions Jar principal stresses.:) . ' on the intl~en~e of the t~ansverse strains '. approximate the strain field for a given displacement field. where the effect of the transverse strains 11 can be interpreted as . depending Oll the slenderness of the beam. the principal stress directions are assumed parallel to the principal strain directions and their values are obtained from them (this hypothesis is classical 'in the development of stress fields). FINITE ELEMENT MODEL ANALYSIS OF STRESS FIELDS' . Given a displacement field over the continuum. Although the method is completely general.1 '--i J -l:p. Furthermore.<_ 1. 12 corrected by a parameter 11(Ej) dependent on the transverse strain 11 ( !OJ ) = I 0. The automatic generation of stress fields for structural concrete is investigated in this section with the help of the finite element (FE) method. which may be difficult to measure Of quantify. "(~J/ (b) -+-4 1 ht . it requires a trial-and-error procedure that is difficult to implement in a general way and may also require a certain level of experience for the choice of the load-carrying mechanisms. Concerning the former. 6(p)). The latter is a question that remains open. leading to various models17.'1/3 EJ .a tension cut-off and an associative flow rule (refer to Fig.7. 0". implementing the main hypotheses of the stress field method:12 This approach overcomes most of the previously described limitations found when a truss model or stress field is developed on the basis of. The principal stresses are then computed from the principal strains as Fig. 6 (a) to (c)). Both assumptions are in accordance with the hypotheses of the stress field method.'J.:. The behavior for the concrete can be understood with the help of Fig. (e) actual and adopted (elastic-perfectly plastic) stress-strain response. This value is considered independent of its transverse strain state as proposed in Vecchioet al. (d) adopted yield surface for plane stress and associative flow rule. "I' = 3. Eft (d) (11) tiE. Fig. and (c) arch-shaped stressfield.constam strain triangle where the nodal forces can be obtained as 497 . Several studies have been performed ACI Structural Journal/July-August 2007 where f~ is the compressive strength of concrete -in MPa (6. Further problems for the application of stress fields are found in the value of the effective concrete strength (to account for the effect of cracking) and in the actual ductility of the structural member (that can'not be determined using a rigid-plastic material behavior).by Drucker were later found not La be suitable for some situations. 5-Tlrree different stress fields admissible for same problem and their corresponding truss models: (a) fallshaped stress field. according to' Hars·.an elastic uncracked analysis. 7 presents the application of the previous ideas on a. 6-Com:rete modeling: (a) . In this work. provide similar -results. (c) directions of principal strains.strains. Muttoni et al.)213 C • 11()Ej where}: is the cylinder compressive strength of concrete in MPa (I MPa = 6. This method is based on the choice of a load-carrying mechanism for the structure and on the control of the opening of critical cracks. The previously described behavior of concrete corresponds in fact to a Mohr-Coulomb yield surface with. its corresponding strain field can be determined (Fig. l # 0"1:.90 MPa = Iksi).

is Intrcduced as an initial 'self-induced strain in' the member. In contrast. A tmss model can additionally be developed if necessary.13 MN (252 kips) for specimen WT7 (99% of the actual strength). The reinforcement can be dimensioned from the FEM results by modifying the initial reinforcement in the element (As. a suitable stress field and its corresponding truss model for the design of a new element are investigated. = «. the force in the element remains unchanged and the value ofA. The geometry and reinforcement layout of the element are adjusted on the basis of the previous results and a new FE model analysis (considering the steel as elasto-plastic this time) is performed to check the overall performance of the structure. 8) is modeled by a uniaxial response (neglecting dowel ac'tion).l.g'le fJ at each node j.p and its hardening modulus. Excellent robustness and speed of convergence have been found with this technique for all the-cases investigated. mlH!as ·->A· ytf s. 8-Reinforcing and prestressing behavior with strain hardening. The concrete is considered elasto-plnstic with no tensile strength as previously described. 7-Collstant strain triangle: (a) displacement field ill element.10 shows dee~ beams WT4 and WT7 tested by Leonhardt and Walther. will be larger or equal to the minimal reinforcement amount..material!y. 2) and j E( I. Checking strength of existing membersapplication to deep beams Figure .(b) (d) Fig. alternatively. however. its elastic modulus E. 3) The behavior of the reinforcing steel (refer to Fig. checked. Its response is defined by the yield strength of the . and 3. using an orthogonal uniformly distributed reinforcement layout corresponding to the minimal reinforcement amount for crack control. It is interesting to compare these stress fields with those shown in Fig. (d) nodal forces. a three-step procedure is proposed: I. The resulting state of stresses is studied and a stress field is developed on its basis. Prestressing.( ~cos(J3)-TcOS(J3j+l) for i E ) (1. at element. a load on the bottom of the beam activates mainly an arching action (refer to Fig. The steel. II(c) and (f)). These elements have been implemented into an objectoriented computer program developed by the authors. (b) strain field ill element.-2 The ultimate load obtained with the FE model for specimen WT4 is 1.i is the cross section of the bar. 9-Lillk element: (a) displacementfield (b) nodal forces. I Fj.mi1l) considering the stress obtained from the FEM analysis a. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS This section presents two examples of application of the FE model. and Fig. This-result agrees with the minimum of complementary strain energy criterion provided ACI Structural Journal/July-August 2007 where As. 'When a new structural member is to be designed. ll(b) and (e). steel. if any. The FE model is solved using the actual loads. 2. is considered perfectly-elastic. (c) assumed stress field for principal stress i. Elasto-plastic = A s. 2. however. In the first one.Ej.59 MN (355 kips) (96% of the actual strength) and 1. First. 5. The FE model concrete stress fields for walls WT4 and WT7 are shown in Fig. taking advantage of the forces obtained in the various members of the stress field. tulu e. PRACTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING STRESS FIELDS AND. with a bilinear elasto-plastic law with strain hardening (and an associative flow rule).TRUSS MODELS The application of the FE model to develop stress fields is direct when an existing structure or element needs to be I 498 . A load on top of the beam activates mainly a fan action with a biaxial compression zone on top of the wall. This behavior is implemented using a one-dimensional link element as shown in Fig: 9 where its nodal forces can be obtained as Consequently. an FE trial model is developed with a reinforcement layout based on the experience of the designer or. and (e) w. and its design yield strengthf)'d As Fig. The nonlinear set Of equations is solved assembling the tangent stiffness matrix and using a full Newton-Raphson algorithm as solver. i. In the second example. it is used to checkthe response of two existing structural members.

3 ksi] and Ee = 31. it is straightforward to develop thecorresponding stress field (Fig. according to Schlaich et al.' lill) n..differences appear in the.OAf ill) jX!it'. in) (ti)( c 0.800 kslj].>IU!.. opening (geomen» according to example presented ill Schlalch et al: U). bars.2[ (46. Concerning the anchorage of the.t ~15 111m (7.. (d) WT? (after failure}.:. IICg». [ I and shown in Fig.! [ the horizontally distributed reinforcement is not used to anchor the fan of compressive 'stresses going to the right support. 14 (b) and a suitable. leading to an overestimation' of the' detlectiocts in the uncracked and crack-development stages.a!.' ... It can be noticed that in the load-deflection curve (Fig. the tension-stiffening effect is neglected according to the hypotheses adopted.9:J (Jx" ~ (J. It can be noticed. § /j Xi)!) 111111 !) 10111111 § ~ (J. ' " . truss model{Fig. tile beam belowthe opening is not used to transmit a fraction of the load to the left support. From these results. 12-Maill dimensions of studied deep beam with.3) LO[ (225) OAO (8~3)" THcI T~cI TI(). bats can be' anchored Iby bond. (b)' Fli-model-plot-of concrete pliillbij)(ll.4 and WT722: (a) ··WT4 (after fa ilure). A reasonable estimate of .000 MPa [4490 ksij). the position where stirrups and hooks have to be placed can be directly determined.IiuJ 7>: !i.11 III) I: 1110 cY Fig.! . Dimensioning of structural rnernber=-apptlcatlon to deep beam with opening .) I The results obtained considering an orthogonal reinforcement layout and using the Fls.) (H K min 9 {l:J) (e) ntl x (b) (j)l: !il '..:_Hllu) .36 (80A) 0.deflection at mlCispan Jar both deep beams.9) 0.27'(60. ''(f) stress field for' deep Beam: W77.approach proposed in this paper arc shown in Fig.d 1'7<1 F. Also.» 7.' JO !it.(jx ~I r/:l5 111111 (a) (()(!'II c. I J" These results can be compared with those proposed by Schlaich et al.reinforcement layout.tensile members are detailed in Table 1.(~8. MN (kips) Fig. (c) stress field for deep Beam WT4. 14 (c). ' For instance. 14 (a)).(fy 419 MPa [60. 13..) l'.t 4UO :1Il0 20lJ :---. however: is obtained at higher load levels. = 31.1)<.-iiI :.76 ([69) 0. = Table 1-Forces in ties for truss model of Fig..5 (2!.~ 111111 (3:0. (a) WT4 (fe = 28 MPa [4. 1 0. The placing of reinforcement in AC[' Structural Journal/July-Auqust 2007 499 .4) 0. LI-s-Deep Beams WT.40 (89.t ~II in) Fig.2) 0. . and (b) W17 (fe = 30 MPa [4. and (g) comparison oj measured/computed . 14 according to proposed approach Element Tid T2c1· TJcI T4c1 1'scl 1'C. that sizeable .06 ( [3.7 kSI] and Es = 205. .reinforcement layout (Fig.J.3) 0. U.J~ ill) § -. st ¢ ~I.-i lGJo(:.000 MPa [29.44 ... by Kupfer and previously discussed. the deflection. The 'forces in' the' .'5 iIi. as well as which . JO-GeollleTI}1 ~~d reinforcement f(lyol/~ for deep Beams WT4 and W17~. 15 (numerical values are given in Table 2).64 (142) 0. Figure I2 shows the geometry of a deep beam with an opening studied by Schlaich el.compressil'e stress directions for deep Beam WT4.1 ksi] and s. (e) FE model plot of concrete principal compressive stress directions for deep Beall! WT7.]!J III) f Ii x.000 MPa [4490 ksi]).t cO_191nl 1If- l!'!x !ll.!mlll (12)0( -iiI ~-.

d TR.71) kipn) n" j i I. Breen23: confirmed this point and also shown an increase in the strength of.(n) ~ F" = J MN ("o() kip.!x '!..~1~ ((.53(118) 0.I T 2)( ::! 101. A general procedure for implementing the hypotheses of the stress field method using . to ensure a suitable cracking . L!J:~ MN {"~:Hldps] (IJ) ~ :" = :1. 24112 mm If. 500 .70 kip"l 7 ~7x 2: fP 1~ 27x 2 if .' however.53 (118) 0.I !.d' T7.certain algorithms for the automatic development of suitable reinforcement layouts. according to Schlaich et at. Following the' approach proposed in this paper. and (b) plot of steel forces superimposed /0 previous plot. however.24 This approach. (b) resulting truss model and main vaiues. CONCLUSIONS This paper investigates the development of suitable stress fields and their. taking advantage of the minimal reinforcement that is present in all cases. Tests results by Maxwell and. research is being carried on the applicability of .53 (I'IS) 1. considering the actual reinforcement layout and the concrete nonlinear behavior.07 (239) 0. FURTHER RESEARCH Currently.r.53.I Imll in ties for truss model of Fig.d T6.~ 12 fix st fllIII # . Furthermore. however.) 1 ~ R~. 6x ~.r. corresponding truss models for structural concrete.66 (147) according to Schlaich et al.A 2>< ::: if'::!!'. seems advisable to control cracking in that region.r. if.-.07 (239).i 2x :} !tun #8 T Fig. =:1 ~IN (r. the reinforcement is smeared.2 ksiJ).elernent seems advisable.. Considering the FE model results. 15 F. J 3-Nol1linear FE model results for deep beam witt: opening: (a) plot ofconcrete principal compressive stress directions. MN (kips) 1. Table 2-Forces Element T]s. the lower tie is not used to center the resultant of the compressive stresses of the beam at the left of the opening.. ACt Structural Journal/July-August 2007 this . and (c) proposed reinforcement layout (fyd = 434 MPa [62. hi the reinforcement layout. the member..t1 T2.d I 15.l r.r.x 2 2:>(21~2flllllll '.pattern. usual and unusual cases can be systematically investigated. 25 mm :::! ~x #. I4-DilllellSionillg of deep beam according to FE results: (a) adopted stress field. ". 0.07 (239) 1. it should be said that placing a certain amount of inclined reinforcement at the upper-right 'comer of the hole. combined with the FE model introduced in this paper. (c) Fig. will allow optimizing some design criteria (for example.53 (118) 0. # <1 # ~ /':.(118) 0.II TSs. II very heavy -ties are disposed.rl T3s•d T4. With this approach.the FE method is proposed.r.'~ T9. crack width and failure load) in the dimensioning and detailing of a structural member.11 nx lit (~ 12 1111'11 fix ~1.

1982. ETH ZUrich. Bruestrup.: Pralong. (in German) 5. The influence of certain effects (for example." Special Publication. Boston and Berlin. B'. 1989. B. 1978. However.. No. This tool becomes especially interesting when the behavior of a complex or unusual stress field is studied. P. XXXIU. 252 pp. 2. giving more freedom of choice to the designer. Design of Concrete Structures with Stress Fie/cis. R. A. &2::: principal strains y. M. C. Danish Society for Structural Science and Engineering. K. MUlier.." Prestressed Concrete Institute Journal. A nonlinear FE analysis considering the hypotheses of the stress field method allows a step forward in this direction. P. J. No. limiting also the freedom of choice for the reinforcement layout for others.' ("Ein praktisches Verfuhren zum methodischen Bemessen und Konstruieren im Stahlbetnnbuu").. Limit Analysis 'all£l Concrete Plasticity. Zurich.908 pp. No." ("Anwendung der Plusuziunstheoric auf Stuhlbeton")..t steel stress A.. "Plastic Calculus of Reinforced Concrete Disks and Beams. and Thtlrlirnunn. A. P. M. 12. 19. Schweizerische Buuzeitung. (in German) 6.. Switzerland.. Theorems Limit Analysis.. A . C. the decrease in the concrete compressive strength due to its transverse strain state) is also locally introduced. Jensen. 13." IICI Structural REFERENCES or 501 .." ("Plaslische Berechnung von Stuhlbetonscheiben und-balken").78. Nielsen. 160 pp. No. ETH Zurich. seine Theoric 1II1(/llru/wcmILmg)..X 2 -II!) t« 2~)]fi II1JU T . P.(:! ~ 16 7x 2 Hun #5 I·~ I ++H-HlIII~ U)(2¢1:!IIUJI 1 2. (in German) 2. "Concrete Plasticity. Ali. Bericht." ("Die Bauweise Henneblque''). J.7 . and 6. (in German) . N. 2nd Edition. B. Thus. although it can be used to investigate the behavior of classical cases. pp. J ... Bericht. Institut rur Buustuiik und Konstruction. 21. 376 pp. 10. Verlag von Konrad Wittwer.:i!¢20IEllil 2x 21/. II horizontal displacement vertical displacement l' :::' deflection at midspan a principal stress angle with horizontal axis p nodal force angle Ii horizontal displacement & strain EI. "The Hennebique Construction MethoLl. Institut fUr Baustatik und Konstruction. ACI Structural Journal/July-August'2007 I. 75·150. Starting from a reasonable amount of physical parameters. P. May-June 1987.. Drucker. 17lcOI).. and (b) reinforcement layout. 5.• and Weischedc. Muuoni. 83. Bericht. 1961. 4. hardening modulus of steel E'l modulus ofelasticity of steel E. J 5 -Dituensioning of deep beam according to Schlaich et al. 1999.l¢'20mm ~)( 1 # 7 steel cross-sectional area : amount for crack control AsJ.·/I yield sire ngth of rei n torcement J. dimcnsionirig yield strength of reinforcement t length of element total applied load . Nielsen. 49-59.f.. 1980.." Publications.r - NOTATION f. Institut fur Bausturik . Muttoni.. Schlaich. F.. and Application iDer Eisenbetonbau.{x . and Zimmer!i. "Onthe Plastic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete.. Institut fllr Baustutik und Konstruction. but it is more interesting to use it as a guide to develop (by hand) stress fields and their corresponding truss models. Basel.' concrete uniaxial equivalent plastic strength in compression . the choice of the cross-sectional area that has to be attributed to each compression member in this analysis is not yet completely solved (partly because a structural concrete member is a continuum and not a set of bars). pp. B... 176.. E. (in German) 7. Beam Shear-Shear in Joints-Punching Shear. Thurlimunn. and Bach.0'2::: principal stresses O'e concrete stress O'..• "The Applicability of the Theory of Plasticity in the Design of Reinforced Concrete. Bulletin d'lnformation. 175 pp. :'011 Structural Concrete and the." ("Zur plustischcn Berechnung von Stahlbeton"). V. P. 3. W. 9." ("Die Andwendbarkcit der Plastizitdtstheorie in der Bemessung von Stahlbcton").• "A Practical Method for Methodical Design and Building in Reinforced Concrete.. 159 pp. und Koustruction.1899. 41·61.. o...u"/J = minirnalrcinforcement modulus of elasticity of concrete e. 3. 129 pp. 4. 1908. 1997.ll: (a) adopted {russ model and main values. 145 pp. M. and Jennewein.: Marti.: Schafer. I L Schleich. Fig. Birkhaiiser. W. The stress state of a structural member at the ultimate limit slate may differ noticeably from the stress stale obtained from an uncracked elastic analysis of the continuum (furthermore. force F dimensioning force F" hori zoruul force Fh nodal force in nodej for principal stress direction i Fj•i vertical force FL' nodal terce I concrete reference strength in compression 1<1) concrete uniaxial strength in compression J. D .. D. Schwartz. 7. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering. Ritz. J. and While. Cornite Euro-Internutionul du Beton. Marti. M. an elastic uncracked approach may be difficult to follow for some cases. ETI-! ZUrich.. 1983. 104. 150. No. if the inf1uence of the reinforcement layout is not considered).~l' shear strain '1 concrete compressive strength reduction purumeter o steel element angle with horizontal axis a stress 0'1. Truss models based on a truss optimization may overcome some of the previous problems. M. Morsch. V. The main conclusions of this paper are: I. This tool can be used alone. ETH Zurich.(0) t FJ = J tiN (6711 kips] 7. 3rd Edition. "Automatic Gcnenuion of Truss Model for Optimal Design or Reinforced Concrete Structures. Ritter. pp. (in German) 8. "Application of the Plasticity Theory to Reinforced Concrete. 163 pp. a suitable stress fields is obtained (from which an equivalent truss model can be derived). "Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete. CRC Press. Reirforced Concrete Construction..

Jan.. Nn.1. J . Ecole Polyicchnique Federate de Lausanne.• "Finite Element Method and Plasticity Theory-for the Dimensioning of Reinforced Concrete Disks.Arcordiug to Morsch. ASCE. 1998. 159 pp. 1986. No. 1961'i. ETH ZUrich. "Deep Beams. i45 pp.. 98. Comite Europeen du Beton. No. No.. 97. No. M. 24. Vecchio. pr... 14. P. Vecchio. (in German) 22.• "Shear Strength or Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Girders with Thin Webs. July-Aug. F. 91. Mar-Apr.• and Breen. Deutscher Ausschuss fiir Stuhlbcton. 45-57. . pp." ("Methode der finiten Elcrnente lind Plasuzhlltsthcorie zur Bernessung von Stahlbctonschclhcn").. Bulletin d'Infonnation. I. pp. HilI'S.1.. V.4. 142-148. 2006. R. 12(1. No. A . "Shear Security .9. Apr. "Disturhed Stress Field Model for Reinforced Concrete: Formulation:' Inurna! of S/I'IIClllm/ Engineering. pp. (in German) 23. H. PhD thesis. pp. 178. Switzerland. Kuufmann. PhD thesis. 234. pp. B. 423-433: 19. E. 18. (in German) . V. 2006. 431-442. No. V. (in Gennan) 16. F. E J. . "The Riddle of Shear Failure and its Solution..Journal.. 15..1994.' rlCI Structural Jaurua}. I070-Jn77." ("Die Schubsieherung nach Morsch"). G . 21. Sept. Stress Fields." ACI JOUt1NAL.l"irmr in Civil Engincering. "The Modified Compression Field Theory for Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected 10 Shear. E . !III 502 ACI Structural Journal/July-August 2007 . 85-86." ("Wmldnrtigc 'Truger"). Bcricht. Berlin. pp. Leonhardt. 144 pp.2. "Computer-Bused Development of PM) S. No.4. Vecchio." ACI J01JnNM" Proceedings V 83. J . P. 2UOO. JulyAug . 61. 40. 441-467. 1995: f21 pp. 17. ETH ZUrich. S . J. lind Walther. pp. Kani." ("ZUIll Qucrkrnftwidcrstnnd von Stahl-und Spunnbeumrrllgern mit dunnen Stegen"). Kostic. Germany. Proceedings V. E.-Fch.• and Muttoni. Despot. Maxwell." 6111 lntcrnationul Ziirich. . M. Z . 1964. 20. Kupfer.• and Collins. Collins.• "Experimental Evaluation of Strutand-Tic Model Applied 10 Deep Beam with Opening. N . 1964. 2001. 219-23. and Aspiotis..4. :WOU.l'lIl(J{J. "Strength and Dcfornuuions of Structural Concrete Subjected to In-Plane Shear and Normal Forces" lnstitut Ittr Bausuuik lind Konstruction. V. "High-Strength Concrete Elements Subjected 10 Shear. No." ACI Stntctural Journal. W.

- Design and Detailing of Structural Concrete Using Strut-And-tie Models
- Strut and Tie Model Design Provisions
- Strut and Tie Method.pdf
- A Guide to Strut and Tie Modelling
- CAST Questions
- Strut and Tie Calculation
- Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete
- Strut and Tie
- Design of Concrete Structures With Stress Fields
- Biaxial Behaviour
- Schlaich Truss Models PCI 1987
- Strut and Tie Model
- CIRIA Deep Beam
- ACI-Strut and Tie
- CFD-ACI-318-08
- Design of Deep Beams
- CCIP Strut and Tie Feb15
- Schlaich Strut and Tie Model
- Examples for the Design of Structural Concrete With Strut-And-tie Models (Sp-208 Aci)
- Ett 04-60-01-09 t.00 Strut and Tie Models
- strut & tie model
- FIB Bulletin 43 - Structural Connections for Precast Concrete Buildings
- FIB Bulletin 45; Practitioners Guide to Finite Element Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Structures
- Design Aids EuroCode
- CC Tall Buildings Guide
- STAAD - Plate Element
- Economic Concrete Frame Elements to Ec2
- Stress Fields & Strut Tie Model STM - Ruiz Muttoni

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd