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According to traditional American norms, males and females of every age are supposed to play out their respective culturally defined masculine and feminine roles. But sociologists know that a fallacy exists here. Believing that one must live out a certain predetermined gender role is one of those “rules” of life that many follow, but few understand. Just because a society defines what behaviors, thoughts, and feelings are appropriately “masculine” and “feminine” does not mean that these role definitions are necessarily desirable. Hence, sociologists are especially interested in the effects that gender and society have on each other. Gender refers to an individual's anatomical sex, or sexual assignment, and the cultural and social aspects of being male or female. An individual's personal sense of maleness or femaleness is his or her gender identity. Outward expression of gender identity according to cultural and social expectations is a gender role. Either gender can live out a gender role (for example, being a homemaker) but not a sex role, which is anatomically limited to one gender (gestating and giving birth being limited to females, for example). An individual's sexual orientation refers to her or his relative attraction to members of the same sex ( homosexual), other sex ( heterosexual), or both sexes ( bisexual). All of these gender, sexual assignment, gender identity, gender role, sex role, and sexual orientation form an individual's sexual identity.
Gender. The socially constructed attitudes, meanings, beliefs, and behaviors associated with the sex differences of being born male or female that are learned through the process of socialization. Gender is defined by FAO as ‘the relations between men and women, both perceptual and material. Gender is not determined biologically, as a result of sexual characteristics of either women or men, but is constructed socially. It is a central organizing principle of societies, and often governs the processes of production and reproduction, consumption and distribution’ (FAO, 1997). Despite this definition, gender is often misunderstood as being the promotion of women only. However, , gender issues focus on women and on the relationship between men and women, their roles, access to and control over resources, division of labour, interests and needs. Gender relations affect household security, family well-being, planning, production and many other aspects of life (Bravo-Baumann, 2000).
Gender and Development | Noor Ahmed M.A Sociology 2010-12 University of Peshawar
Gender is the socially constructed component of human sexuality. Gender is an inner feeling that you are male, female, both, neither, or somewhere in between.
1. “Gender is determined socially; it is the societal meaning assigned to male and female. Each society emphasizes particular roles that each sex should play, although there is wide latitude in acceptable behaviors for each gender” (Hesse-Biber, S. and Carger, G. L., 2000, p. 91). 2. “Gender is used to describe those characteristics of women and men, which are socially constructed, while sex refers to those which are biologically determined. People are born female or male but learn to be girls and boys who grow into women and men. This learned behaviour makes up gender identity and determines gender roles” (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 4). 3. “Gender is the division of people into two categories, “men” and “women.” Through interaction with caretakers, socialization in childhood, peer pressure in adolescence, and gendered work and family roles women and men are socially constructed to be different in behavior, attitudes, and emotions. The gendered social order is based on and maintains these differences” (Borgatta, E.F. and Montgomery, R.J.V, 2000, p. 1057). 4. Gender Relations, Definition of “Gender relations refer to a complex system of personal and social relations of domination and power through which women and men are socially created and maintained and through which they gain access to power and material resources or are allocated status within society” (IFAD, 2000, p. 4). 5. Gender roles are the ‘social definition’ of women and men. They vary among different societies and cultures, classes, ages and during different periods in history. Genderspecific roles and responsibilities are often conditioned by household structure, access to resources, specific impacts of the global economy, and other locally relevant factors such as ecological conditions (FAO, 1997). 6. Gender relations are the ways in which a culture or society defines rights, responsibilities, and the identities of men and women in relation to one another (Bravo-Baumann, 2000).
1.0.3 Feature and Characteristics:
Perhaps the best way to understand gender is to understand it as a process of social presentation. Because gender roles are delineated by behavioral expectations and norms, once individuals know those expectations and norms, the individual can adopt behaviors that project the gender he/she wishes to portray. One can think of gender like a role in a theatrical play - there are specific behaviors and norms associated with genders just like there are lines and movements
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associated with each character in a play. Adopting the behaviors and norms of a gender leads to the perception that someone belongs in that gender category. Gender roles are, unlike sex, mutable, meaning they can change. Gender is not, however, as simple as just choosing a role to play but is also influenced by parents, peers, culture, and society. Some examples may help illustrate the distinction between gender and sex. Parents may socialize a biological boy (XY chromosomes) into what is perceived as a traditionally masculine role, that includes characteristics like: independence, courage, and aggressiveness. Likewise, parents may socialize a biological female (XX chromosomes) into what is perceived as a traditionally feminine role, that includes characteristics like: submissiveness, emotionality, and empathy. Assuming both children feel like their gender roles fit their identities, the masculine boy and feminine girl will behave in ways that reflect their genders. For instance, the boy may play with toy soldiers and join athletic teams. The girl, on the other hand, may play with dolls and bond with other girls in smaller groups.
Traditional Gender Characteristics Feminine characteristics Submissive Dependent Emotional Receptive Intuitive Timid Passive Sensitive masculine characteristics dominant independent rational assertive analytical brave active insensitive
However, gender is fluid and can change. This can be seen by continuing the above example. It is possible for the boy to decide later in life that he no longer wishes to portray himself as traditionally masculine. The boy may adopt some traditionally feminine characteristics and become androgynous, or may adopt a feminine persona altogether (see the photos of crossdressing drag queens for an example of this type of gender construction). Either change would involve adopting the behaviors and norms that go along with the intended gender. The same is true for the girl, who may adopt masculine characteristics.
Gender and Development | Noor Ahmed M.A Sociology 2010-12 University of Peshawar
According to Niedenthal; Women are more emotionally expressive. Women are more emotionally responsive. Women are more empathetic. Women are more sensitive to others' feelings. Women are more obsessed with having children. Women express their feelings without constraint, except for the emotion of anger. Women pay more attention to body language. Women judge emotions from nonverbal communication better than men do. Women express more love, fear, and sadness. Women laugh, gaze, and smile more. Women anticipate negative consequences for expressing anger and aggression. Men are more obsessed with sex. Men are overwhelmed by women's expressions of emotion. Men express more anger. Men are stoic. Men show emotion to communicate dominance.
1.0.4 Role and Importance:
Gender roles. Sex roles that are learned and reinforced through associated behaviors and attitudes with the help of socializing agents such as family, schools, peers, media, politics, and religion.gender roles. (The examples are based on the context of the culture and infrastructure of the United States.) Model A – Total role segregation Model B – Total integration of roles Gender-specific education; high Co-educative schools, same content of Education professional qualification is important classes for girls and boys, same only for the man qualification for men and women. The workplace is not the primary area For women, career is just as important as of women; career and professional Profession for men; equal professional opportunities advancement is deemed unimportant for men and women are necessary. for women Housekeeping and child care are the primary functions of the woman; All housework is done by both parties to Housework participation of the man in these the marriage in equal shares. functions is only partially wanted. In case of conflict, man has the last say, Neither partner dominates; solutions do Decision for example in choosing the place to not always follow the principle of finding Making live, choice of school for children, a concerted decision; status quo is buying decisions maintained if disagreement occurs. Child care Woman takes care of the largest part of Man and woman share these functions
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and education these functions; she educates children equally and cares for them in every way
1.1.0 Sex and Gender: Sex refers to the biological distinction between males and females; by contrast, gender concerns the social differences between males and females. Research in sociology focuses on gender rather than sex; sociologists distinguish between sex and gender to study differences between human males and females with greater precision. Whereas sex is based on physical differences, gender is based on social factors such as values, perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. For example, men and women have different genitalia; this is a difference of sex. Men and woman also face different social expectations, as when women are expected to be more nurturing than men; this is a difference of gender. Gender varies across time and culture, as different groups have different beliefs about appropriate behavior for males and females. Sometimes it is hard to understand exactly what is meant by the term "gender", and how it differs from the closely related term "sex". "Sex" refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. "Gender" refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. To put it another way: "Male" and "female" are sex categories, while "masculine" and "feminine" are gender categories. Aspects of sex will not vary substantially between different human societies, while aspects of gender may vary greatly. Some examples of sex characteristics:
Women menstruate while men do not Men have testicles while women do not Women have developed breasts that are usually capable of lactating, while men have not Men generally have more massive bones than women
Some examples of gender characteristics:
In the United States (and most other countries), women earn significantly less money than men for similar work In Viet Nam, many more men than women smoke, as female smoking has not traditionally been considered appropriate
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In Saudi Arabia men are allowed to drive cars while women are not In most of the world, women do more housework than men.
The sex drive is one of the building blocks of human social life. While no inborn drive compels humans to act in any particular way, each drive consists of a set of recurrent tension states which impels people to some kind of activity to relieve the tension. Sexuality includes all the feelings and behavior linked to sex through either biology or social learning. The human shares with the anthropoids the biological fact of continuous sexuality meaning that the female may be sexually active at any time. The human female passes through no biological cycles of sexual acceptance and rejection. There are some species whose males and females associate continuously while mating only seasonally. Continuous sexuality therefore is not necessary for continuous association but it is a guarantee that the sexes will associate continuously. This makes continuous sexuality a part of the biological basis for human social life. Thus human sex drive is notable for continuous sexuality which ensures the continuous association of the sexes, desire for continuity which makes for enduring sexual partnerships, the desire for variety which conflicts with the desire for continuity and remarkable pliability with sex interest channeled through whatever patterns a society has established as normal.
1. Either of two groups into which many living things are divided according to their roles in reproduction and which consist of males or females 2. The physical and behavioral characteristics that make males and females different from each other. 3. Either of the two major forms of individuals that occur in many species and that are distinguished respectively as female or male especially on the basis of their reproductive organs and structures 4. The sum of the structural, functional, and behavioral characteristics of organisms that are involved in reproduction marked by the union of gametes and that distinguish males and females. 5. The oxford English dictionary: it says sex "tends now to refer to biological differences.
1.1.3 Characteristics of sex:
Primary sexual characteristics
A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism. Secondary sex characteristic
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Male Growth of body hair, including underarm, abdominal, chest, and pubic hair. Loss of scalp hair androgenic alopecia can also occur Greater mass of thigh muscles in front of the femur, rather than behind it as is typical in mature females Growth of facial hair Enlargement of larynx (Adam's apple) and deepening of voice. Increased stature; adult males are taller than adult females, on average Heavier skull and bone structure Increased muscle mass and strength Larger hands and feet than women, prepubescent boys and girls Square face Small waist, but wider than females Broadening of shoulders and chest; shoulders wider than hips. Increased secretions of oil and sweat glands, often causing acne and body odor. Coarsening or rigidity of skin texture, due to less subcutaneous fat Higher waist-to-hip ratio than prepubescent or adult females or prepubescent males, on average Lower body fat percentage than prepubescent or adult females or prepubescent males, on average Enlargement growth of the penis
Female Enlargement of breasts and erection of nipples. Growth of body hair, most prominently underarm and pubic hair Greater development of thigh muscles behind the femur, rather than in front of it Widening of hips; lower waist to hip ratio than adult males, on average Smaller hands and feet than men Rounder face Smaller waist than men Upper arms approximately 2 cm longer, on average, for a given height. Changed distribution in weight and fat; more subcutaneous fat and fat deposits mainly around the buttocks, thighs and hips.
1.1.4 Gender: See 1.0.0 to 1.0.4
Gender and Development | Noor Ahmed M.A Sociology 2010-12 University of Peshawar
1.1.5 Sex and Gender difference:
Sex = male and female Gender = masculine and feminine So in essence: Sex refers to biological differences; chromosomes, hormonal profiles, internal and external sex organs. Gender describes the characteristics that a society or culture delineates as masculine or feminine. So while your sex as male or female is a biological fact that is the same in any culture, what that sex means in terms of your gender role as a 'man' or a 'woman' in society can be quite different cross culturally. These 'gender roles' have an impact on the health of the individual. In sociological terms 'gender role' refers to the characteristics and behaviors that different cultures attribute to the sexes. What it means to be a 'real man' in any culture requires male sex plus what our various cultures define as masculine characteristics and behaviors, likewise a 'real woman' needs female sex and feminine characteristics. To summarize: 'Man' = male sex+ masculine social role (A 'real man', 'masculine' or 'manly') 'Woman' = female sex + feminine social role (a 'real woman', 'feminine' or 'womanly')
1.2.0 Women in Development:
Women in development (WID) is an approach to development projects that emerged in the 1970s, calling for treatment of women's issues in development projects. Later, the gender and development (GAD) approach proposed more emphasis on gender relations rather than seeing women's issues in isolation.
In Africa, one of the first to recognise the importance of women in farming was Baumann in 1928, with his classic article The Division of Work According to Sex in African Hoe Culture. Kaberry published a much-quoted study of women in the Cameroon in 1952, and empirical data on male and female activities was documented in Nigerian Cocoa Farmers published in 1956 by Galletti, Baldwin and Dina. Ester Boserup's pioneering Women's Role in Economic Development brought greater attention to the importance of women's role in agricultural economies and the lack of alignment of development projects with this reality. In the preface to
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her book, Boserup wrote that "in the vast and ever-growing literature on economic development, reflections on the particular problems of women are few and far between".She showed that women often did more than half the agricultural work, in one case as much as 80%, and that they also played an important role in trade. In other countries, women were severely underemployed. According to the 1971 census in India, women constituted 48.2% of the population but only 13% of economic activity. Women were excluded from many types of formal job, so 94% of the female workforce was engaged in the unorganized sector employed in agriculture, agro-forestry, fishery, handicrafts and so on.With growing awareness of women's issues, in the 1970s development planners began to try to integrate women better into their projects to make them more productive. The WID approach initially accepted existing social structures in the recipient country and looked at how to better integrate women into existing development initiatives. The straightforward goal was to increase the productivity and earnings of women.
The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) established a special Division for Women in Development, promoting concrete action to ensure that women participate in UNDP projects. The United Nations paper International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade, issued in 1980, recognized a number of Women in Development issues. It called for women to play an active role in all sectors and at all levels of the Program of Action adopted by the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women, both as agents and beneficiaries. Policies on industrialization, food and agriculture, science and technology and social development should all involve women. A 1985 report by the OECD Development Center surveyed a broad sample of development projects aimed at women. It concluded that many were too welfare-oriented. It said "future projects should avoid the home economics approach and focus on income-generating activities which are relevant and useful to the women participating". It also noted the lack of information about women's roles and activities, and called for greater research as input to development projects. The Harvard Analytical Framework attempted to address these concerns. The framework has its origins in 1980 with a request to Harvard University for WID training from the World Bank. James Austin, who was well-known for case-method training at Harvard, led a team with three women experienced in WID work: Catherine Overholt, Mary Anderson and Kathleen Cloud. These became known as the "Harvard Team". The framework was elaborated by the Harvard Institute for International Development in collaboration with the WID office of USAID, and was first described in 1984 by Catherine Overholt and others. It was one of the earliest of such frameworks. The starting point for the framework was the assumption that it makes economic sense for development aid projects to allocate resources to women as well as men, which will make development more efficient – a position named the “efficiency approach". In November 1990 the leaders of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries endorsed recommendations of the second SAARC ministerial meeting of
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Women in Development held in June 1990, agreeing that the years 1991–2000 should be observed as the "SAARC Decade of the Girl Child". A wide range of recommendations for improving the development of female children were accepted.
The validity of the basic assumptions of the WID approach have been criticized by some, while other consider that it does not go far enough. The latter group says it ignores the larger social processes that affect women's lives and their reproductive roles. The approach does not address the root causes of gender inequalities. The Gender and Development (GAD) approach in the 1980s attempted to redress the problem, using gender analysis to develop a broader view. The approach is more concerned with relationships, the way in which men and women participate in development processes, rather than strictly focusing on women's issues. In a 1988 paper Women in Development: Defining the Issues for the World Bank, Paul Collier argued that gender-neutral public policies may be inadequate, and gender-specific policies may be required to more effectively alleviate problems. In at least some countries, women have become increasingly involved in financial budgeting and management and since the 1995 Beijing Conference on Women there has been a surge in gender-responsive budgeting.
1.3.0 Women and Development: Data not available
1.4.0 Gender and Development:
Gender equality is considered a critical element in achieving Decent Work for All Women and Men, in order to effect social and institutional change that leads to sustainable development with equity and growth. Gender equality refers to equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities that all persons should enjoy, regardless of whether one is born male or female. In the context of the world of work, equality between women and men includes the following elements: 1. Equality of opportunity and treatment in employment 2. Equal remuneration for work of equal value 3. Equal access to safe and healthy working environments and to social security 4. Equality in association and collective bargaining 5. Equality in obtaining meaningful career development 6. A balance between work and home life that is fair to both women and men
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7. Equal participation in decision-making at all levels Given that women are usually in a disadvantaged position in the workplace compared to men, promotion of gender equality implies explicit attention to women’s needs and perspectives. At the same time, there are also significant negative effects of unequal power relations and expectations on men and boys due to stereotyping about what it means to be a male. Instead, both women and men, and boys and girls, should be free to develop their abilities and make choices – without limitations set by rigid gender roles and prejudices – based on personal interests and capacities. The ILO has adopted an integrated approach to gender equality and decent work. This means working to enhance equal employment opportunities through measures that also aim to improve women’s access to education, skills training and healthcare – while taking women’s role in the care economy adequately into account. Examples of these include implementing measures to help workers balance work and family responsibilities, and providing workplace incentives for the provision of childcare and parental leave. The Gender and Development (GAD) approach is a way of determining how best to structure development projects and programs based on analysis of gender relationships. It was developed in the 1980s as an alternative to the Women in Development (WID) approach that was in common use until then.
Unlike WID, the GAD approach is not concerned specifically with women, but with the way in which a society assigns roles, responsibilities and expectations to both women and men. GAD applies gender analysis to uncover the ways in which men and women work together, presenting results in neutral terms of economics and efficiency. Caroline Moser developed the Moser Gender Planning Framework for GAD-oriented development planning in the 1980s while working at the Development Planning Unit of the University of London. Working with Caren Levy, she expanded it into a methodology for gender policy and planning. The Moser framework follows the Gender and Development approach in emphasizing the importance of gender relations. As with the WID-based Harvard Analytical Framework, it includes collection of quantitative empirical facts. Going further, it investigates the reasons and processes that lead to conventions of access and control. The Moser Framework includes gender roles identification, gender needs assessment, disaggregating control of resources and decision making withn the household, planning for balancing the triple role, distinguishing between different aims in interventions and involving women and gender-aware organizations in planning.
The World Bank was one of the first international organizations to recognize the need for Women in Development, appointing a WID Adviser in 1977. In 1984 the bank mandated that its programs consider women's issues. In 1994 the bank issued a policy paper on Gender and
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Development, reflecting current thinking on the subject. This policy aims to address policy and institutional constraints that maintain disparities between the genders and thus limit the effectiveness of development programs.
GAD has been criticized for emphasizing the social differences between men and women while neglecting the bonds between them and also the potential for changes in roles. Another criticism is that GAD does not dig deep enough into social relations and so may not explain how these relations can undermine programs directed at women. It also does not uncover the types of tradeoff that women are prepared to make for the sake of achieving their ideals of marriage or motherhood.
1. The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. According to their website: "Our mission is to fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results and to help people help themselves and their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors".
1.4.5 Aims & Scope
Since 1993, Gender & Development has aimed to promote, inspire, and support development policy and practice, which furthers the goal of equality between women and men. This journal has a readership in over 90 countries and uses clear accessible language. Each issue of Gender & Development focuses on a topic of key interest to all involved in promoting gender equality through development. An up-to-the minute overview of the topic is followed by a range of articles from researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. Insights from development initiatives across the world are shared and analyzed, and lessons identified. Innovative theoretical concepts are explored by key academic writers, and the uses of these concepts for policy and practice are explored. Each issue includes an up-to-date resources section, listing publications, electronic resources, and organizations. In addition to thematic articles, Gender & Development also contains book reviews on the latest publications relevant to this field, and a Views, Events, and Debates section, with news and views on current events and trends in gender equality and women' rights, and interviews and debates on cutting-edge issues.
1.5.0 WID, WAD, GAD: 1.5.1 Theoretical Framework
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WID WAD GAD WED
liberal Feminists (a school of thought ) Marxist feminists Socialist Feminists Ecofeminists
1.5.2 Different approaches of WID:
Welfare approach Equity approach Anti-poverty approach Efficiency approach Empowerment approach
Policy and Analytic Approaches Welfare: Focus on poor women, mainly in the roles of wife and mother. This was the only approach during colonial periods, and was favoured by many missionaries. Equity: Focus on equality between women and men and fair distribution of benefits of development Anti-poverty: Women targeted as the poorest of the poor, with emphasis on incomegenerating activities and access to productive resources such as training and microfinance. Efficiency: Emphasis on need for women’s participation for success, effectiveness of development; assumes increased economic participation will result in increased equity. They are most likely to be useful when advocacy for the advancement of women is based on the more effective use of all factors of production, and/or desire for stronger and more sustainable project results. This is the approach currently most favoured by development agencies Empowerment: Focus on increasing women’s capacity to analyze their own situation and determine their own life choices and societal directions. likely to be most useful where a human development and rights-based approach to development predominates, or is desired.
1.5.3 Women and Development Approach (WAD)
Origin: Emerged from a critique of the modernization theory and the WID approach in the second half of the 1970s
Theoretical base: Draws from the dependency theory
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Focus: Women have always been part of development process-therefore integrating women in development is a myth Focuses on relationship between women and development process
1.5.4 WAD Approach
Contribution: Accepts women as important economic actors in their societies Women’s work in the public and private domain is central to the maintenance of their societal structures Looks at the nature of integration of women in development which sustains existing international structures of inequality.
1.5.5 Women and Development (WAD) Approach
Features: Fails to analyze the relationship between patriarchy, differing modes of production and women’s subordination and oppression. Discourages a strict analytical focus on the problems of women independent of those of men since both sexes are seen to be disadvantaged with oppressive global structure based on class and capital. Singular preoccupation with women’s productive role at the expense of the reproductive side of women’s work and lives. Assumes that once international structures become more equitable, women’s position would improve. WAD doesn't question the relations between gender roles.
1.5.6 Gender and Development (GAD) approach
Origin As an alternative to the WID focus this approach developed in the 1980s.
Influenced by socialist feminist thinking.
Focus: Offers a holistic perspective looking at all aspects of women’s lives. It questions the basis of assigning specific gender roles to different sexes
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Contribution Does not exclusively emphasize female solidarity- welcomes contributions of sensitive men. Recognizes women’s contribution inside and outside the household, including noncommodity production.
Gender and Development Approach
Features: GAD rejects the public/private dichotomy . It gives special attention to oppression of women in the family by entering the so called `private sphere’ It emphasizes the state’s duty to provide social services in promoting women’s emancipation. Women seen as agents of change rather than as passive recipients of development assistance. Stresses the need for women to organize themselves for a more effective political voice. Recognizes that patriarchy operates within and across classes to oppress women Focuses on strengthening women’s legal rights, including the reform of inheritance and land laws. It talks in terms of upsetting the existing power relations in society between men and women.
1.5.7 Women, Environment and Development (WED)
Origin in 1970s (Northern Feminist ) Male control over nature and women Ecofeminism Ecofeminist (Rosi Braidotti, Harcourt, Maria Mies, Vandana Shiva etc.) Theoretical stream within feminist movement Environment decline – patriarchal authority in Development planning Destroying relationship between community, women and nature
Practical Gender Needs and Strategic Gender Interests The following is a summary of some of the principal differences between practical gender needs and strategic gender interests. Practical needs:
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Short-term, immediate (e.g. clean water, food, housing, income) Unique to particular women (i.e. site specific) When asked, women can identify their basic needs. Involves women as beneficiaries/participants Problems can be met by concrete and specific inputs, usually economic inputs (e.g. water pumps, seeds, credit, employment) Benefits the condition of some women Is potentially successful in ameliorating the circumstances of some women
Strategic Gender Interests Strategic interests: Long-term Common to all women (e.g. vulnerability to physical violence, legal limitations on rights to hold or inherit property, difficulty of gaining access to higher education) Women are not always in a position to recognize the sources or basis of their strategic disadvantages or limitations Solutions must involve women as active agents Must be addressed through consciousness raising, education and political mobilization at all levels of society Improves the position of all women in a society Has the potential to transform or fundamentally change one or more aspects of women's lives. This is called 'transformatory potential' of the project/policy
Gender and Development | Noor Ahmed M.A Sociology 2010-12 University of Peshawar
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