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Architecture In Shimla
Shimla is a beautiful hill station in the Himachal Pradesh state of India. It is popularly know as the "Queen of Hills". Shimla, originally known as Simla, was a major town in the time of Britisher. Thus the architecture in Shimla is largely influenced by the Britishers. The present day Shimla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and is a popular tourist destination. It is a small hill station town with the population of 1.6 lacs. The main things to see and experience in Shimla are the grand buildings of British time, wooden handicrafts, and apples that are exported worldwide. During the time of the British, Shimla was the summer capital of the Viceroy. The viceroy and the other administrative members used to spend the summers in Shimla. From May till July, Shimla used to hustle and bustle with administrative activities. The families of the administrative members also used to accompany them to spend the summer in Shimla. This is the reason why Shimla has buildings, homes, churches, and lodges that are typically British in architecture. The architecture of Shimla is called colonial architecture. Renaissance influenced designs and neo gothic architecture are predominant in the buildings of Shimla. The Britishers and their family used to spend half of the year in this hill station. Thus the whole infrastructure of Shimla is based on their needs and lifestyle. The architecture of Shimla can be analyzed with the help of a few iconic structures of the town. The first and foremost in this category is the Viceroy's Lodge.
Tourist Attractions in Shimla
Shimla is the capital of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. British declared this city as their summer capital in 1864. Presently, it is a sought after tourist destination and dubbed as the
The beautiful lawns and the garden are added features. situated at an elevation of 6. Lockwood Kipling designed the chancel window of the central hall. historical and religious sites drawing tourists throughout the year.Queen of Hills. Summer Hill – A 5 km drive from The Ridge will take you the township called the Summer Hill. Situated in the north western part of the Himalayan Mountains. The Ridge – Situated in the heart of Shimla. The Ridge is an open space running alongside Shimla Mall. government offices and cinema complexes. wood carvings. The University of Himachal Pradesh is situated here and Mahatma . Shimla is home to a number of natural. Built by the British. This city is home to Asia’s largest natural ice skating ring. Inaugurated in 1974. Surrounded by pine and oak forests and the snow capped peaks in winter. the famous market for wood crafts and furniture. Located on the Ridge. this museum also houses a gallery of miniature Pahari style of painting. markets for shopping and restaurants making your vacation to Shimla an experience of a lifetime. this institution is a fine example of Renaissance architecture. Himachal State Museum and Library – Also known as the Shimla State Museum. It gives tourists a glimpse of the cultural wealth of Himachal Pradesh. The Mall road runs parallel to the Ridge and bends at the Lakkar Bazaar. The colonial buildings in this city reflect the neo-Gothic architecture. Christ Church. The Gaiety Theatre is an important attraction on Shimla Mall road. It has a number of restaurants. cafes. it was constructed in 1857. it is host to several cultural activities now. jewelry and costumes. In 1860. Shimla Mall is the ultimate hangout zone in this town. Shimla has an elevation of 2. Indian Institute of Advanced Studies – Started in the year 1888. There are also several entertainment options here. soon after the Sepoy Mutiny. Shimla also has numerous temples that bring in devotees on different occasions. It is another structure in the town built in the neo-Gothic style. The Shimla Summer Festival brings in large tourist crowd. Shimla – It is the second oldest Christian house of worship in North India. ancient sculptures and paintings form the largest collection here. Shimla is a popular retreat for the honeymoon couples and international visitors. Top Shimla Attractions This picturesque town is host to a number of attractions such as the following: Shimla Mall – The shopping hub of Shimla.500 feet.205 meters above sea level. The Shimla Summer Festival takes place here and New Year witnesses a grand celebration. The beautifully lined pine trees add to the serenity of the place. There are also local hang out areas. a clock was added on the church tower. On its eastern end is a large reservoir that acts as the main water supply for the town.
To suit European lifestyle there is a ballroom and a huge library. glass windows. the interior of the Viceroy Lodge is adorned with glass ceiling and fireplace. are some of the popular construction materials used in the Viceroy's lodge. . Kali Bari Temple – This temple in Shimla has Goddess Shyamala Devi as the principal deity. The hilltop offers stunning views of the city. To give the look of a European castle. However. Tara Devi Temple – This Hindu shrine in Shimla is located on the Shimla-Kalka road and around 11 km away from the Shimla bus terminal. The exterior is done in gray sandstone and light blue limestone. the material used in construction is all Indian or local. At present the Viceroy's Lodge operates as the Indian Institute of Advance Study. teak panels. This temple is dedicated to the Goddess of the heavenly stars. and brick roof have been added. Wooden stairs. The fireplace has been replaced by Indian Wheel of Progress. The structure looks like a grand British house or rather a palace. In typical Gothic style iron girders. In true British style. beams. and trusses have been used. It is also among the popular honeymoon locales in the city. Walnut ceiling with Kashimiri design. grey sandstone.Gandhi is believed to have stayed here during his visits to the state. Shimla derives its name from this goddess. The architecture in Shimla is a replica of European architecture.
ridge. the ‘Progress of Industrialized Society’ and the ‘Model Ruler’. This is in contrast to the partan accommodation of the majority of officials who actually governed . originating from the simple double-roofed hut of Bengal. asserting the dignity of the ruler without ostentation. . The landscape of Shimla is largely influenced by European architecture. Situated in the ridge area the Church signifies British period in India. It is thus ironical that the public buildings of the empire were anything but of the people. The mall.The other prominent structure that has European architecture in Shimla is the Christ Church. and which would expand in size and complexity on a scale ascending strictly in accordance with the gradations of their hierarchically ordered service. church. The stained glass windows are typical to the Christian architecture originated in Europe. in the main they continued the well-established Indian traditions of ostentation and luxury. extended to form the sun-shielding verandah in more elevated permutations. British Colonial Architecture IV The Seats of Power .Shimla and New Delhi by Ashish Nangia The British Empire legitimized its colonial rule as an entity furthering the abstract principles of the ‘Rule of Law’. An essential ingredient was the Classical portico.they lived in the ubiquitous bungalow. and gardens of Shimla are the memories left behind the British. The architecture in Shimla is worth noticing along with its natural beauty.
2006 Heritage Zone Though the INTACH had identified 329 structures in and around the town to be declared as heritage buildings but the government has decided to include only 97 of these for the time being. Only reconstruction along old lines is permissible in this zone and that too in strict accordance with heritage regulations and projecting the original structures. now in ruin and inhabited mostly by bats and a play space for children who live near. who was fresh from his imperious triumph at Pretoria. “The new structures that come up in a particular locality should be in consonance with the prominent British time building in that . The list of these 97 structures both private and government will be placed before the Cabinet for its approval. Raj Relics The Architecture of Shimla By Amandeep Madra on October 11. complete with a quaint reproduction of a rural parish church. prepared doors. The vice-regal lodge here is patterned after an English great house. the stretch from Chotta Shimla to the Vice-Regal Lodge has been notified as Heritage Zone. it pales in contrast with the last capital of British India laid out from 1913 by Sir Edwin Lutyens in collaboration with Sir Herbert Baker. windows and other material be supplied through some agency like the Municipal Corporation or a development agency at subsidized rates. during the summer months. Even though the vice-regal lodge is grand.Shimla was the viceroy’s seat for half the year. It is being suggested that in order to encourage people to adopt the British architectural features. In order to ensure conservation of heritage along the Mall.
Convener of the Shimla Chapter of the INTACH. schools.” feels Mr B. “Shimla should be declared a heritage city and making heritage conservation as a people’s movement is the foret necessity. Snow View. Gorton Castle. . bungalows. Bentick Castel or after important features on which they were located like Mt Pleasant Lodge. Gaiety Theatre. However. churches. Names galore (LEFT) BANTONY. Known by various names like “Indian Mount Olympus” “Abode of the little tin Gods” and “British Jewel of the Orient” Shimla has a name in the international market due to its unique architectural and beautiful buildings that dot the cityscape. hospitals street pattern Some of the architectural masterpieces constructed by the British include Vice Regal Lodge.particular area so that there are no eye sores in the form of ugly concrete structures. Knollswood Lodge. — Photos by Anil Dayal Perceived and established by the British during colonial period in first half of the 19th century as their summer capital. The houses were named either after the name of the owner like Kennedy House. the summer palace of the Maharaj of Sirmour is a perfect example of this style. with time they also incorporated the indigenous style as a result of which some of the buildings display attributes of a different style coined as the Anglo Indian architecture. Shimla too is a melancholy shadow of its past. Many of the names of houses were also changed as its ownership changed like Allan Bank was called Nunnery in 1840 when its was occupied by three sisters. Town Hall. The British in trying to recreate homely atphere used English architecture while constructing their houses. Malhans.” says an official. However. Pine Lodge or North View. the town had acquired global fame by the time the British left it in 1947.This is one of the t well proportioned and architecturally beautiful building of Shimla. with some Indian army officers living in it. theatres. it was the summer palace of the Maharaja of Sirmour. Located near the GPO on the road leading to the Kalibari temple. the place had a rickety cottage belonging to one Capt Gordon. Before its construction in 1880. The Bantony. with the government now keen to take some concrete steps it is being hoped that there will be thrust on heritage conservation so that it preserved for posterity. Gothic architecture Swiss Chalet bungalows were the t common in Shimla along with Baronial Chateaus with corrugated iron roof and Tudor Gothic. Like t of the other pedestrian hill stations set up by the British. including institutional buildings. Bantony. Fir Cottage. Auckland House. a dull but dignified style. The city possesses distinct British heritage. Ellerslie. Barnes Court and Chalet Day School.S. Railway Board building. Observatory House or on the physical characteristic around it like natural vegetation – Oak Ville Violet.
A singular characteristic is the absence of vertical members. Abbott 100 years back. the neo Gothic structures of the gaiety theatre and the former imperial Civil Secretariat (now the Accountant General's Office).and in this dressed or raw stone is packed. Inspired by the Renaissance in England.With the coming of the Europeans. The quality of dressed or carved stone has created remarkable temples. is the greystone former Viceregal Lodge (now the Indian Institute of Advanced Study). This beautiful building was . There are the Tudor framed Barnes Court (now the Raj Bhawan). deodar) sleepers is created . The wood extracted from the cidar tree is full of strength and can be used in multistoreys. Col. It went on changing and the initial simple Swiss-type cottages/German country houses were outshone by architectural marvels in Elizabethan style of English renaissance or Gothic or the splendour of dressed stones and gray slate roof. The 'Kathkuni' or 'Kathkundi' style of building is something unique to this part of the world. the design has an enormous seismic response . Himachal added another dimension to its rich architectural heritage. can withstand long periods of weather corrosion. All this assimilated well with the character of Shimla.S. H. and the distinctive Vidhan Sabha and the secretariat of the government of Himachal Pradesh.Shimla Architecture The presence of cedar forests has played a major role in the evolution and development of various architectural forms.there have been instances when tremors have dislodged the stones from the frame. A mesh of interlocking horizontal cedar (locally. the wood is insect and termite resistant. or slabs of quartzite have provided roofing material. have been hammered back into the intact mesh of wood houses and temples in the style are present in the districts of Shimla. Fine slate.E. some stunning architecture has been created on seemingly insurmountable sites. With inherent elasticity. This came to be known as Hill Architecture. forts and residences. not diminished the beauty of the hill station. It enhanced. Kullu & Kinnaur. The state capital has some of the world's finest examples of British colonial architecture. and later. Walls of rammed earth are popular all over and in the treeless tracts of the Trans Himalaya. Some of the heritage buildings are :- Ellerslie : The Himachal Pradesh Secretariat (Ellerslie building) was designed by Lt.
The inside of Ellerslie is made of stone quarried from Sanjauli and Barnes Court (Present Raj Bhawan) and stuck together using lime mortar. In July 1972 the "Summit Hall" where the cabinet meetings are held was spruced up and was given this name as initial summit meeting for Shimla Agreement between India and Pakistan. The brickwork too has lime mortar cementing. Larson and wrote " you are aware of the intensions of the Punjab Government to pull down the house 'Ellerslie' and build on the site a new set of offices to accommodate the whole of Punjab Secretariat. The Vice Regal Lodge : On the Observatory Hills is located the Viceregal Lodge.constructed after dismantling an old building of the same name that housed the Military Department of the Punjab Government till 1886. was the venue for many important decisions. architect to the Public Works Department of the colonial government in India.P. it was formerly the residence of the British Viceroy Lord Dufferin. basement and three floors. This rambling Scottish baronial edifice was designed by Henry Irvine. The hall is marked by a grand staircase which springs from the right and spirals up three . Abbot sought permission for construction from the then Secretary of the Municipal Committee Major W. 1899. The south facing entrance portico sees the visitor into the reception hall. which changed the fate of the sub-continent. now has 143 rooms and 31 toilets. The Himachal Pradesh Secretariat occupied it in the summers of 1967. Also known as Rashtrapati Niwas. This building with sub-basement. It covers and area of about 8663 meters. It is quite befittingly the only building in Shimla that occupies a hill by itself." The permission was granted on 28th June.
The state drawing room. an enormous wine cellar. The list of Fellows of the Institute includes names the Burmese Nobel peace prize winner Aung San Sun Kyi. and dining room. some of the interiors had to be changed to accommodate the needs of the Institute. the Viceroy hosted lavish parties and entertained the royal princes and nawabs in style. Dr.full floors. In 1947 . separate rooms for storing table linen. and the conference hall is now a seminar room for research scholars. Pretty much as in Delhi’s Viceregal Palace. china and glass. and the wood-panelled dining room . This was the venue of the Simla Conference in 1945. would you believe it. boilers for central heating and running hot and cold water in the bathrooms. the decision to partition India and carve out the states of Pakistan and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) . have been converted into a library. Several momentous decisions were taken in this building. Christ Church : The most prominent building on the Mall is the yellow Christ Church. an indoor tennis court! The lodge had extensive facilities including huge kitchens. The state drawing room. and the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru decided to make it a scholars’ den where the best minds would find an ideal retreat. a room for empty cases.Obviously enough. After independence. who was a fellow here in 1986. the Viceroy’s office is now the IIAS Director’s office. Way back in 1888 this Lodge had electric light – when nobody else in Shimla did – and. for example. ballroom. Radhakrishnan. laundry. Facing the main entrance is the grand fireplace. The Christ Church is the most important landmark here and is photographed by tourists. Without the large contingent of Viceregal attendants and the resources.decorated with coats of arms of former Governor-Generals and Viceroys . A gallery with well-appointed teak panelling is the central space of the building around which the other rooms are arranged. That’s when the Indian Institute of Advanced Study moved into the Lodge in 1965. Verandas and terraces surround the entire building at different levels. S. the Lodge remained the summer retreat of the President of India. was also taken here. Those at the lower level link the lodge to the magnificent grounds while those on other floors provide superb views of mountains. plates. The silhouette of this can be seen on the skyline for miles around.lead to the gallery at the lower level. It . reputed to be the second oldest church in northern India. ballroom. the ambience of this large estate is very different from what it used to be in the days of the Raj. a leading philosopher and writer.The institute seems like the perfect setting for lively intellectual debates and discussions. In the early 60s the President of India.
was designed by Colonel JT Boileau in 1844. and the porch added in 1873. It was extensively repaired in 1932. Gorton Castle : One of the most striking buildings of the British empire. Bazel Dean. Hope. Today. The major portion of it cost £ 250 and was subscribed by Lady Gomm wife of the Commanderin-Chief. Check out the one that represents the virtues of Faith. In the winter of 1900 the six bells were hung in the tower. According to Mr. Charity. Patience and Humility. In 1875. completed in 1904. 1899. Home Health and Finance departments. the organ was replaced by a new instrument which in 1899 was sold to the Rawalpindi Church to make room for the present organ. The actual cost of the church came out to be Rs 89. while the cost of decorating the pipes was defrayed by the Countess of Elgin to commemorate the marriage of her daughter Lady Elizabeth Bruce with H. but consecrated only after 1857. Gorton Castle is a new-Gothic structure that had the famous Sir Swinton Jacob as its architect . Fortitude.the Rajasthan jaali work on its balconies obviously came from his forty five years of experience as the executive engineer of the princely state of Jaipur. and the dedication and opening recital took place on September 28. The two most expensive stops were presented by Air Mackworth Young and Sir James Walker. It still has those lovely stained glass windows (five in all) for which it is so famed. the pipe organ is one of the biggest in the country and was erected in September. 1899. this houses the offices of the Accountant General of . Lands.The beautiful "king of instruments" was built by Messers Morgan and Smith of Brighten (England) at a cost of Rs 23. Babington Smith in the church on September 22.The 155-yearold church first had an organ which was erected in 1855.000.000. Its tuning was completed on September 23. 1898. The clock was donated by Colonel Dumbleton in 1860. this was the Civil Secretariat of the Imperial Government of India and housed the Legislative. 1899. Education.
Sir James Walker for Rs. and a tradition of amateur theatrical remains in the stump of the once colossal edifice that was the Town Hall.Himachal Pradesh. 80. It was opened on the 30th of May. and a recent blaze has testified to this in Shimla.000. The architect Henry Irwin. who built the Viceregal Lodge. This finest house in Shimla. In 1911. it was purchased by a banker. .2001 a blaze broke out in the top floor and standing testimony to its construction and to the subsequent restoration.Ribbentrop head of forest department. climbing down the hill. On the 10 Feb. it houses many of the Central Government Offices. Presently. this unusual cast iron and steel structure once held the offices of the Railway Board and the Department of Commerce. After changing hands thrice. The site belonged to one Mr. Above road level. But at a time when safety was a coreconsideration for important buildings throughout the British Empire. no trace of this huge fire remains today and its facade is as imposing as ever. this was designed to be structurally fire fire-resistant. ICS in 1840. it has three basements. Gorton. the building has four levels and with one side exposed. the upper portions of the building were dismantled as the structure was found to be unsafe. according to Sir Edward Buck also has one floor paved with rosewood like timber blocks which were brought from Andaman Islands by B. This three floored building with about 125 small and big rooms became the seat of the Accountant General in 1947. designed the theatre building. The Railway Board Building : Built in 1896-97. Gaiety Theatre : The Gaiety Theatre. The building was originally designated as the 'Public Works Department Secretariat Offices' and was fabricated by the Bombay based firm of Rishardson and Cruddas. He wished to gift it for construction of Hospital After much discussion and persuasion the building was acquired for its officers and Sir Walker was given alternate site where Walker Hospital was constructed.
It became the honoured residence of the Commander-in-Chief in the year 1865. and Sir Dennis Fitz Patrick.L. Lord Bill Beresford. After the year 1881 the Commander-in-Chief deserted it for Snowdon. which was burnt down some year back and the site is now taken by Indira Gandhi Medical College and Hospital. near Lakkar Bazaar. Jennifer Kendall. who was the Military Secretary to Viceroy Lord Lytton. who remained president of the Club from 1891-1892 during his tenure as Commander-in-Chief of India.C. the Palace has been turned into a hotel by one of his grandsons. Lieut-Governor of Punjab during 1895 and many others. who tastefully converted it into his summer Palace. Raj Babbar. Major General Sir Godfrey Williams.C. Lord Kitchner.D. a distinguished producer and actor who acted in Loyalties. Prithvi Raj Kapoor. The formal inauguration of the Simla A. Major P. Shashi Kapoor. which used it as the manager's residence. Hence. therefore became a cultural necessity for the English elite. V. time and again from financial ruin. The house has lovely surroundings. Nasseerudin Shah.The history of ADC goes back to the times when theatre was looked upon as a major and serious source of entertainment and. Shimla became the home of amateur theatre and the Gaiety Theatre produced the best of the plays performed in London.C. Anupam Kher. Wood Ville : Woodville is one of the oldest and finest houses of Shimla east. Notable film personalities like K. In the year 1881 Woodville house was bought by Sir James Walker and afterwards passed on to the Alliance Bank of Simla. Queen Victoria's Jubilee Year and its God.D. beautiful wooded walks. clusters of pine and .H. Manohar Singh.Father was lord Bill Beresford. took place in the year 1888 and since then plays have been staged in the Gaiety with unfalling regularty. Saigal.1887. frequently performed on the stage of the Gaiety theatre. and its first occupant was General Sir William Rose Mansfield. After the Raja's death. famous poet and author Rudyard Kipling. also called Snowdon Hospital. Colonel Baden-Powell. who saved the Simla A. Among the leading theatre personalities connected with the Shimla Amateur Dramatic Club are: Field Marshal Lord Roberts. Mrs. Interference and Mary Rose. the Chief of Scouts. Dnyer.(Amateur Dramatic Club) . The bank collapsed in the year 1923 and not long afterwards the house was bought over by Raja Rana Sir Bhagat Chand of Jubbal. Deane.
000 to which handsome amounts were contributed by the Indian Rajas. simla west.deodars. It was the favourite place for picnic parties.polo matches and other tournaments in 1888 which became a regular annual feature and which still bears his name although the venue of this tournament is now shifted to Calcutta. reminiscent of a large German countryhouse. birthday-balls. one of the first incomers to this place. and well-groomed lawns. Now misnamed Annandale. the Military Secretary to Lord Dufferin. the original name of this place was Annadale and this name is derived from a small story about it. this spelling appears in the early lithographs of Simla done about the year 1840. In the old regime there was a general committee for the maintenance of the ground and funds were derived from the rents paid by the gymkhana. amusements and entertainments.races and gymkhanas. away from the madding crowd. was so struck by the beauty of the valley that he saw. Shimla File Annadale Ground : No Other landmark in Simla can revive more pleasant memories than the famous playground and race-course by the name of Annadale. fetes and fancy-fairs.' The cutting of a big piece of the hill cost nearly Rs 80. that be named after a young lady to whom he was so deeply attached in his young boyhood days.flower and dog shows. This playground rests on a small patch of table-land about a three-quarters of a mile in circumference. Woodville is an ideal refuge for people who really want peace and quietude. located in a deep wide valley in the suburban village of Kaithu. An ambitious improvement scheme was launched by Lord William Beresford. The story is that Captain charles pratt Kennedy. The owner of the Woodville Palace Hotel lives within the estate. . Her name was Anna and he combined it with the word 'dale' meaning a valley. The spur on which it stood was a sort of valley-flat which was greatly extended and improved. Annandale. army tatoos. since its inception in the 1830s was the haunt of Anglo-Indian playful activities. and his keen interest in the expansion of Annandale ground gave the 'Cricketers a new pavilion and a polo field for the polo fans. thus calling the valley as Annadale.
Arguably the Scandal Point still echoes the sentiments expressed by Harrop. St. which smiles. Andrew's. The other modes of transport . salutes and slaps its horse occasionally. a two wheeled horse carriage." There used to be a mechanical equestrian statue here. It was a crude. stands the wide timber-framed PostOffice in Spartan brick and the building of the Church of Scotland. By the 1860's the East India Railway had come only upto Ambala (Umbllah) from where one had to proceed by four wheeled 'Dak Garry' or Mail Wagon to Kalka. These Carriages were mainly drawn by horse but at times bullocks or even elephants were utilised to pull them across the bridge-less River Ghaggar."The transmitters of gossip are ever at work and savory and unsavory secrets of our society are flashed to the uttermost limits of Simla with all the speed of wireless. brought the visitor to Simla. Scandal Point : Scandal Point is the hub of the town's social life. and luggage strapped on to the sides over the wheels. The very first fancy fair was held in Annandale in the year 1839. race committee and other voluntary organisations. at the foot of Simla hills. Presently there are no more races and the field is utilised as a helipad and for army exercise and parades. when it shows signs of undue activity and restlessness. It was a clever piece of mechanism. From Kalka another eight hours of gruelling journey by 'Tonga'.with the pathan driver at the reins. Behind this. harnessed in curicle style passengers sitting back to back. The Road to Shimla : In the early days of Simla settlement the visitor to Simla required Herculean strength to cope with the hardship of uncomfortable. It accommodated 4 to 6 passengers. cumbersome and exhausting travel.polo and cricket clubs.The tonga was a greater affliction than the Dak Garry.uncomfortable but strong two-wheeled cart drawn by one or two Kabul ponies. sports and occasionally for other kinds of assemblages like Dussehra festival celebrations.
to lord Combermere (1928). the janpan was described by one sufferer as 'a jolting. carried like the dandy.Present day bridge was built in 1971-72. which has the Kamna Devi temple. his lordship erected neat 'Sangah'.." The bridge still bears the name of Combermere and it was the first step towards the improvement of Simla. A. a favourite woody walk around JakhuHill. Fruit vendors and Pram Wallahas.of earlier days were bullock-carts. and under it a capacious stone tank was constructed to obviate the great scarcity of water.. will be a great acquisition to the loungers of Shimla. 'dandy' (a sedan chair slung on poles and carried by bearers) and 'jampan' or 'doli' which was a covered type of curtailed tiny box-like compartment. Today Combermere Bridge is a busy spot surrounded by the lift to cart road. or a mountain bridge of pines.and when finished. iv) Inverarm in western Shimla.. In the words of Captain Mundy. where the Indian Institute of Advanced Study is found. Seven Hills : Shimla is surrounded by Seven Hills ." Across a deep ravine. ii) Summer Hill in western Shimla. iii) Observatory Hill in western Shimla. camels and horses. back aching abomination' The Combermere Bridge : The Combermere Bridge on the mall is the oldest British landmark of Shimla. .level road round the mount Jakhu. where the campus of Himachal Pradesh University is located. The seven Hills are : i) Prospect Hill in western Shimla.C. These hills offer a wide variety of trails to visitors to explore."Lord Combermere amused himself.D. Indira Gandhi Khel Parisar. about three miles in length. and benefitted the public by superintending the formation of a fine. a quarter of mile from the town.worked entirely by Hill men..This is the present Jakhu round. mule-trains. where the State Museum is located. broad.and skillfully done..
(Motor Car Co. a unique feat of engineering. which has the Grand Hotel. He guided the engineers showing them the line. 6 in. Barog tunnel 2.) was not found capable enough to cope with the growth transport of passengers. From Kalka (at 640 m) the track rises to Simla Railway Station (2060 m) through 103 tunnels and passes through 800 bridges and 900 curves.8 Km long is the longest tunnel.S. Railway line was laid exactly on the trace shown by him. the track should take. gauge) runs through picturesque mountain scenery ascending from 2800 feet to 7000 feet.C. the M. With the growth in the simla population.luggage and the provisions of everyday consumption which had to be brought in from the markets in the plains and a necessity was felt to find a better alternative means of transport. The narrow gauge track (2ft. Bhalku and Kalka-Shimla Railway : The 95 kilometer long Kalka-Shimla Railway track. which is crowned by the temple dedicated to Lord Hanuman. Chief Engineer. Legends is that the track was revealed to him by the Devta. . It was built under the supervision of H.permanent and floating.v) Bantony in central Shimla. Harington. which holds Auckland House and Longwood and reaches out towards the Bharari spur. vii) Elysium in north-western Shimla. vi) Jakhoo in central Shimla. was laid under the guidance of Bhalku Sirmauri.So a Mountain Railway Project was planned in 1847.C.
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