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Dharmat, Dharmak

Dharmadh ya and
of the


Ultimate Value


in Mahayana




Fundamental the Dharma through


of Buddhism may be summarized

in the follow-

ing way : The Buddha, having introspection

realized the Dharma by himself, preached realized by the Buddha (pratityasamut-

for the sake of others. The Dharma

is said to be the law of causation through

pada), which is explained aryasatyas and others. In this structure, the Dharma, the truth, religious veyed the truth As for the the ultimate the practical

Buddha's voice in the form of the four value in Buddhism is merely the Buddha is fundamentally who conto them. to be and

the ultimate

and the Buddha however,

a mediator

to the people by means of words understandable feeling,

is considered

value, the object of worship, ideal in the

since he is the law-giver

sense that one should attain

Enlightenment instruction, the and the Dharma

(bodhi) (i. e. to become buddha) through Buddha's Dharma. Thus the Buddha is the first of the triratna, comes the second, which ruction revealed truth (buddhasasana) Buddha's the truth, But, again, the is used to be interpreted of which authority and on this the authority lies in the belief the

as the Buddha's instbelief that the Buddha

is in the Buddha himself. tathagata,

Buddha is called

thus gone or come, which or reality (tathata).

is interpreted

as having

become one with the


Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J . TAKASAKI) (79) Thus the Buddhist subjective or practical or theoretical a Scripture: yah pratityasaniutpadam pasyati pasyati sa dharmam ) pasyati, yo dharmam with each other. ultimate value is of a combined character of the

ideal reprensented

truth represented

by the Buddha , and the objective by the Dharma, both being inseparable to show such a structure is found in

The best formula

sa buddham pasyati/(Salistamba II

The ultimate of their engage standing Buddha


of such fundamental


of the Buddhist after the death to of The the

value was the task to be done by the followers 'preceptor. But the Abhidharma in this task since it was mainly the Buddha's teaching, and the of the dharma and the followers these which two

Buddhism was not enough aiming at the interpretation purpose was neglected.

the dharma,

which resulted in an objective undersubjective but the link between

Buddha has gradually

become super-humanised,

has been lost and the link between the Buddha The motive of the Mahayana both the subjective Buddhism kinds of links and to make the Buddha the and the objective how-

and the truth has been forgotten. was to recover ulitimate aspects. In the cource of making ever, value involves

the Mahayanistic

system of thought, sarvadharma-asti'

the first efforts were mainly devoted to establish the correct concept concept. and, being representing pratityasamut-

of the Buddhist truth against the Abhidharmic The term sunyata was its answer,

pada, the truth revealed by the Budda, this sunyata is called dharmanam (2) dharmata' or tathata', tattvasya laksana', bhutakoti', etc. Here, dharma' (1) Ed. by A iyaswami Sastri, Adyar, 1950, p. 1. Cf. Pali SN: yo kho Vakkali dhammam pasati so mam passati/yo mam passati so dhammam passati/MN, I, 190-1: yo paticcasamuppadam passati so dhammam passati, yo dhammam passati so paticcasamuppadam passati/ (2) As for the usages of these terms and their inter-relation, see Prof. H. -918-

(80) Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) in plural the the term means dharmata. and is common from this sarvadharmah', Buddhism, while This term all things the dharma meant or phenomena, the nature as told in or natural


as the truth is meant by


condition a meaning defining

thus it is synonymous of things term.

with 'prakrti', svabhava',etc. Such (3) to the Abhidharma Buddhism, but the Mahayanist, as sunya or nihsvabhava, A typical formula removed substanto show that dharmata samksepenoktam/idamprava sthitaivaisam dhardharmaniyamata satyata avipaof the

the nature

tial concept tatra

signifies the truth,

i. e. the pratityasamutpad va tathagatanam

a is found in the Salistsamba

bhagavata pratityasamutpada-laksanam yavad yaisa dharmata tathata

tyata -phalam utpadad manam dharmata



pratityasamutpada-samata ritata aviparyayata iti// As eaaily noticed, Primitive Buddhism. ing sentences jatipaccaya, ppaccayata/ These sentences referring

aviparita-tathata has


this formula Namely,

its source in the Agama

in the Samyutta Nikaya, we find the follow(3) to the pratityasamutpada: uppada va tathagatanam anuppada id asa dhatu dhammatthitata where dhammaniyamata a comparison

bhikkhave, jaramaranam

va tathagatanam/thita'va

are found in a passage (pratityasamutpada)

between dhamma

the paticcasamuppada

and paticcasamuppanna

(pratityasamutpanna-dharmah) is discussed, the nted by each anga of the 12 chains of causation, pratityasamutpanna-dharmah phenomena, conception, mental namely, is, however, nothing

latter being represeavidya, etc. The term but a name for all

and material as well, according to the Buddhist truth all the phenomena is made its appearance by cause

Nakamura's article in the "Kegon Shisho", Kyoto, 1960, pp. 95-127, where the research is done around a Chinese term @ .
(3) e. g. Abhidharmakosa-vyakhya: dharmasaility arthah. (Wogihara's (4) Aiyaswami Sastri's p. 40. n. 2. (5) SIN II, p. 25. -917dharmata harmaprakrtir Ed., p. 181) d harmasvabha vo

Ed., p. 4 cf. Prasannapada

(ed. by. de la Vallee Poussin),

Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) (81) and conditions. In comparison &ilistamba as interpreted The meaning dharmasthithitata', term dhdtu,





the while



in the may be has the

is understood

to be a word for sa dhatu', dharmaniyamata', being a derivative dharmanam'. from something

both being explained dharmanam'

as pratityasamutpannanam that which places or sustains with dharma.

the root/dha, (adhara),

and hence,

has a- similar concept .of rule, principle sense as observed Buddhism,

It can stand for dharma in the sense use of this term in this rare in the Primitive the concept of is rather

or truth.

But the independent

here (thita va sa dhatu) the

and, throughout



element' essence' or essential' nature' is predominantly applied to this (7) -term as observed in terms such as 18 dhatus' , etc. In other words, it was -understood as something substantial . This is probably the reason why the Sunyavada instead, avoided the use of this term and accepted the term ,dharmata struction which is of more abstract (8) character in its verbal con-


(6) 'dharma' in these compound words, may be interpreted - as nature' (svabhava). These terms are often used to show the eternity of the truth. e. g. Saddharmapundarika: dharma-sthitim dharmaniyamatam ca nityasthapitan loki imam akampyam/(Wogihara's Ed., p: 51) Also noticable is that the phrase utpadad va tathagatanam anutpadad va (tathagatanam)' is idiomatically used when any statement concerning the truth is expressed. Examples will be seen below. 7) Pali commentary inteprets this 'sa dhatu' as paccaya-sabhava'. Various meaning of this term is discussed in the Vissuddhimagga (HOS Ed. p. 411-2) Of these informations, see Prof. K. Kawata's article in the Komaza Daigaku Kenkyu Kiyo No. 21, pp. 25-31. But notice that 'dhatu' does not mean literally pratyaya' or pratityasamutpada'. 8) For example, the use of the term dhatu as such important sense is not observed in the Madhyamakakarika. (See the index, a supplement to the '*Daijobukkyo no Seiritsushiteki Kenkyu", Comp by S. Miyamoto, Tokyo, 1954) -916-

(82) Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) III It was in the Sutras and Sastras the Sunyavada among example by Nagarjuna terms which composed after the establishment term dhatu recovered value in objective of-

that the

its place

show the ultimate

aspect. A good-

is found in the Sandhinirmocana:

de la de bshin gsegs pa rnams byun yan run ma byun yan run ste/ chosgnas par bya bahi phyir chos nid gan yin pa de ni chos n"id kyi rigs pa yin no/l(=*tatra dharmata The argument utpadad va tathagatanam anutpadad (9) dhatu-sthitita sa dharmatayuktih/) is the definition in which the dharmata va dharmasthapanaya being ya-'


of the dharmata-yukti

a mode of

is used as rukti (or nyaya, naya). But-

the attention should be paid to the use of the term dhatu-sthitita (or-sthitata) which seems to be synonymous with thita' va sa dhatu' or' dhammatthitata of this idea statement dharma definition in the Pali of the scripture. Buddha and A further between concrete the night explanation the of the In the va tathagaof Mahabodhi

is observed

in the Lankavatara.



of 'avacana'

and that of Mahaparinirvana, as 'pratyatma-dharmata' of the latter,

it refers to the two characteristics pauranasthiti-dharmata'.


it says as follws: dharmata

dharmadhatu-sthititotpadad tanam sthitaivaisam paurananagarapathavat/ (12) And again: evem eva, Mahamate, vaisa dharmata dharmanam

va tathagatanam




tan maya tail catathagatair dharmaniyamata tathata




bhutata satyata/

(9) Ed. par E. Lamotte, p. 158. (Sanskrit reduction is my own.) (10) Cf. Ratngotravibhaga, p. 73 (ed. by Johnston, 1950) :( dharmanans dharmata ) yaiva casau dharmata saivktra yuktir yoga upayah paryayah/ evam eva tat syat/ anytha naiva tat syad iti/ (11) Ed, by Nanjio, p. 143 (12) ibid, p. 144 -915-

Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) (83) This pauranasthitidharmata mates' or the dharmata unique objective The truth Buddha as pratityasamutpada'. is called to this relation term Sutra svapratyatmagatigocaram'. is no doubt a synonym phenomena, Being revealed which of dharrnanam is revealed dharby the the same adhigatam subjectivein disnature


by introspection,

pratyatma-dharmata', (13) This definition and quite the important ultimate here,

i. e, 'tathagatair of the truth in showing As for the the

in two aspects is point as the



cussion, notable

is the introduction dharmadhatu,

of the concept- dharmadhatu. may be interpreted

(dhatu) of thing is understandable mata' dharma' signifies bana) belonging dharmadhatu signifies mah'. the this term in the

(dharma), or the truth concerning things. Any way it in the same context with the phrase dharmanam dharcompound). comp.), In the But the usage is the which, being and definition (dhatu) of Abhidharma (visaya) Buddhism of manas, narrow element called (alam-

(a Sasti-tatpurusa (a Karmadharaya the object of manovijflana.'

one of the 18 dhatus,

or the basis of cognition knowable

sense, it excludes the dharmas is perceived could be called i. e. sarvadharregion', etc. being the Remarkable it is used in the (praha-

to other 17 dhatus, but, as everything or indirectly, phenomenal dhatu'

by manas directly whole

all things all phenomena world or the universe, into

when they are cognised by the mind., Thus the dharmadhatu may be translated sphere' or the one

In this sense, the

of which similar uses are found in such terms as lokadhatu, traidhatuka, Thus dharmata, dharmadhatu has two characteristics, i. e. the law of pratityasamutpada, of the two aspects

and the other being sarvadin one word, such being

harmah, i. e. the whole sphere of pratityasamutpanna-dharmah. is the combination for distinguishing of dharma the not the' case with the term dharmata.

As for the term dharmata,

the first aspect from where the

second as observed to be abandoned

Dharmadharmata-vibhaga, tavya), i. e. those belonging


to the world of samsara is meant by 'dharma',


ibid. P. 143 -914-

(84) Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) while the dharma term to be realized is meant by sense of in the (saksatkaraniya) , i. e. the truth or the (14) id dhramata. Naturally it caused to make logical mentioned ground' above, as observed in the such use being not

eal ' state of nirvana use of this example of the


found in the case of dharmadhatu'.

What is identified with the dharmata but not 'dharmadhatu' itself,

of this last sense is dharmadhatu-sthitita', as appeared in the example

of the Lahkavatara.

Then what is the significance of the use of the term dharmadhatu ,of such double characteristics . It may be summed up in three points. namely of the 1) the possitive subject evaluation of the sarvadharma, 2) the emphasis of a of the value behind concept this evaluation, in its outlook. created and 3) reintroduction by the reintroduction

kind of substantial with each other, Abhidharmic

These points are inseparable

and are generally

doctrine, but with modification on the basis of the Sunyavada. first of all a fundamental holds its nature of dharma' idea of

As for the first point, we must remember Indian termed dharma stands thought in general that

that which

(or quality, (It may be in the Abhi(it (astitva)'


i. e. dharma' Buddhism


is also called 'dharma'.

the Bahuvrihi


The definition this line, and

is just along

the samskrta dharma its reality which

for pratityasamutpanna-dharma)

is claimed

with the same right as the asamskrta-dharma

stands for the prati-

(14) The opening stanza and the following sentences of the Dharmadharmatavibhaga goes as follows (in Tibetan): /gan phyir ses nas hgah shig span bya shin// gshan dag . hgah shig masonsum bya bahi phyir/ Ides na de dag mtshan nid l as rnam d bye//byed par hd od nas bstan bcos hdi andsad do/) hdi dag tham cad ni gnis kyis bsdus de/ chos tan chos flid kyis so//chos kyi n"e bar mtshon pa ni hkhor baho//chos nid kyis nebar mtshon pa ni theg pa -sum gyi mya nan las hdas paho//(Edited by J. Nozawa, the "Studies in Indology and Buddhology, presented in Honour of Prof. S, Yamaguchi on the Occasion of his Sixties Birthday, Kyoto, 1955, p. 11.) Cf. S. Takeuchi's article in JIBS, vol. VI-1, p. 205. (15) e. g. samskriyate anena iti samskarah; sanzskriyate etad iti samskarah. Cf. Th. Stcherbatsky, "The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana", p. 11, fn. 1. The same structnre is observed between cause and result, means and purpose. -913-

Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) (85) tyasamutpada and by the term as sarvadharma both kinds of dharma may represent are

included. Thus dharmadhatu vely the samskrtadharma samskrta or subjective which standpoint, nirvana,

being sarvadharmah dharmin'


on the one hand, and the total of From the practical samwhich represents

and asarnskrta-dharmas however,

on the other hand. samskrtadharma

sara is denied of its value and distinguished represents in its content. The Mahayanistic It denies the reality as expressed by the ultimate is the reason reality. that conception

from the asamskrtadharma as nothingness the latter of the because it the is quite opposite in this point. evaluates and the samsara,

while the latter is understood but possitively

of sarvadharma, everything

in the idea of the oneness of the nirvana is nothing Thus the sarvadharma

but a manifestation

is called dharmadhatu


of the latter. To this, again we must remember that the dharmadhatu of sarvadharmah, only the mental

Abhidharmic By the denial


is the object of the mind. element

of the reality

(citta, manas, or vijnana) could remain as the reality. This leads to the idealism of the cittamatrata and the vijn"aptimatrata, to which we will refer later words, on. To the present concern, notable is that the ultimate mental character the represents or of the subjective ultimate is expected existence of the reality reality of the of should be of the there subjective value. In other

value which

the dharmadhatu,

or the 'dharmin'

the d harmad hatu, the truth. To this last point, notable in the Mahayana is the definition of the dharmadhatu given texts. The most common one is that the dharmadhatu the teaching value of the

means the origin or cause (dhatu=hetu) of the aryadharma, (16) of the Buddha. It seems that here is implied the ultimate

(16) e. g. the Madhyantavibhaga-bhasya: aryadharmma-hetutvad dharmmadhatuh/ aryadharmmanan tad-alambana-prabhavatvat/hetv-artho by atra dhatv-arthah/ (ed. by G. Nagao, Tokyo, 1964, p. 23 f.); Sthiramati on the Tr..imsika Vijnaptimatrata: aryadharma-hetutvad dhatuh/ hetvartho by atra dhatusabdhah/ (ed. by S. Levi, p. 44) The latter refers actually to 'anasravadhatu', which is in its turn, almost synonymous with dharmadhatu as the ultimate value. -912-

(86) Dharmata, Buddha over

Dharmadhatu, the the dharma, source,of

Dharmakaya since the the

and Buddhadhatu Buddha The

(J. TAKASAKI) is worth as the

as the dharma-giver term for the Buddha

to be called source of the



is the


' An example

to show

the dhar-


makaya of this character dharmakayo tannisyandas Commenting dvidha

is observed in a verse of the Ratnagotravibhaga jneya dharmadhatuh sunirmalah/ (v. I, 145) that the first aspect stands for the second, for the desanadharma as well as the cause to attain us of the fundamental at the beginning. is quite complicated struBut the espeto investi-

ca gambhirya-vaicitryanaya-desana// the text explains while

on this,

the pratyatma-adhigamadharma, which is the nisyanda it (tatpraptihetu). cture cially conception of Buddhism, involved in its relation

of the dharmadhatu reminds to which in the term we referred

This explanation


to the dharmadhatu.

We must go further

gate this subject in the next paragraph. IV The mitive where meaning bhuta', teaching what of the first use of the term Buddhism, dharmakaya seems to go back to the Pri(18) being found in the Digha Nikaya, of tathagata. Its exact with and dhmmai. e, the well with by origin. nature that it appears dhamma-dayada' together

only one example

it is used as a synonym


is not clear, but from the context 'dhamma-nimitta' it seems to mean to above

such terms as dhammaja'

the one whose body is the dharma, the sense of truth'. It matches concept' and shows its 'dharmin beginning beginning with

in which is combined

we referred 5 collections

But the Abhidharmic of the Buddha, which

interpretation (skandha), distinguishes

of this term was the body consisting sila' being the the Buddha from the ordinary sattvas with rupa. On the basis of this

who consist of the 5 skandhas

(17) Ed. by Johnston, p. 70. (18) DN III, p. 84: Bhagavato mhi putto oraso mukhato jato dhammajo dhammanimittd ti. Tam kissa hetu ? Tathagatassa h'etam, Vasettha, adhivacanam dhammakayo iti pi brahmakayo iti pi, dhammabhuto iti pi brahmabhuto iti pitil -911-

Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) (87) analysis, the Mahayana Buddhism developed its idea to the Buddha as which signifies value. effort Thus of the

representing the historical the Mahayanist.

the truth itself, in contrast Buddha but is considerd recoverd its original

to the rupakaya character by the started

to be of a secondary

dharmakaya The systematic


on the dharmakaya

after Nagar-

juna along with the introduction of the concept of dharmadhatu. Identification of the dharmakaya with the dharmadhatu gave the former many meanings. that there due to its sphere Of them, the identification is a kind of substantial identification with as observed in the aspect of the truth may be retained by the dharmakaya the, whole understandable from what we observed above. One point to be noted here is character dharmadhatu as representing

of dharmas,

in such a phrase

as dharmadhatuvipula

akasadhatu-paryavasana aparantakoti-nistha' which is frequently used in (19) the Avatamsaka. This idea is probably a result of religious sentiment of Buddhist who regarded the Buddha as the universal god. Doctrinally it i (20) s interpreted , to signify the unlimited extention of the Buddha's light of jn"ana in time and space, of which symbolic Vairocana, This character dharmakaya the concept required the Buddha last point Amitabha, that and so on. is considered to be the essential in since it is unique to the the dharmakaya (dharma) as such 18 At the jnana features are the Buddha

of the dharmakaya being of dharmadhatu

is quite significant ultimate

the subjective

value and is not associated of virtuous qualities (bodhi),. The dharmas

itself. From this standpoint,

may be interpreted

as the Body consisting of enlightenment buddhadharma' tathagatajnana The jnana

as the result

are to be called generally avenikabuddhadharmah. referred to as buddhajnana,

as used in the case of the or tathagatabodhijnana.

is no doubt one of them and is often

(19) e. g. Dasabhamika (Rahder's Ed., p. 14) (20), With reference to this, the character of the dharmakaya is often called yavadbhavikata', while that representing truth is the called yathavatbhavikata'. Cf. Sandhinirmocana, p. 98, 99; Ratnag otravibhaga, pp. 14-15. - 910-

(88) Dharm at A,Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) the same time it is the necessary of attainment of bodhi' in the sense means (upaya) of bodhi , on the cause (21) that by which is attained' . Thus the

jnana has again a double character, means and purpose or cause and result combined in one. Such two aspects of jnana is referred to by terms prajna and jnana, or avikalpajnana and tatprstalabdha respectively. This, structure just coresponds to that of dharmakaya and dharmadhatu observed above, and applying the latter, the praj/ia (prajnaparamita) or aivkalpaparamarthayathavadbhauniverse karuna or as

jnana is said to be representing .satya, jnana as svarthasampatti, vikata, ete., while entity, the whole desanadharma,

the truth, adhigamadharma, of the , lokottara character, representing the samvrti or vyavaharasatya, yavadbhavikata,

the prsthalabdha-jnana,

pararthasampatti, of laukita (22) aspects, respectively. In relation the Buddha. the the double buddhakaya


etc. from various body of to the on his

to this, notable here. is the idea of the threefold As easily and the Namely desana understood, rapakaya the latter into the dharmakaya of jnana. giving

(trividhabuddhakaya). characteristics

the divison of corresponds represents based


for pararthasampatti the dharmakaya whose essence

for sattvas, This There

.karuna while svarthasampatti, divided

in this sense stands for the Buddha as the is the jiaana. rapakaya is again for bodhi many

into two according

to its function, the sambhoga-kaya for ordinary sattvas.

sattvas and the nirmanakaya

is, however,

problems about the trividha-buddhakaya among Mahayana texts, especially around the sambhogakaya. To discuss it is rather beyond our porpose here. We will refer to just one point in relation to the concept of the

dharmakaya. The Mahayanasiutralankara, referring to the dharmadhatu-visuddha',

(21) prapyate anena iti praptih' (Ratnagotravibhaga, p. 79) This is referred to in explaining jnana as representing the hetu aspect of the dharmakaya. See n. 15 above. (22) See for example the passages from the Ratnagotravibhaga referred to in nn. 17, 20, 21. -909-

Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) (89) regards the threefold buddhakaya as its manifestation bhinnavrttikah/ samudahrtah// (vrtti) , namely

svabhava-dharmasambhoga-nirmanair dharmadhatur


yam buddhanam

(IX, 59) The same set of the threefold travibhaga as the manifestation (svabhavika) the svabhava-kaya buddhakaya is explained

in the Ratnagoas reprekind of

of the dharmakaya.

And we know that another

is the name for the dharmakaya This leads us to remind

senting the pure dharmadhatu. double aspects of the dharmakaya, being the acquisition the dharmata into pauranasthiti-

one being the truth itself, and the other just the same as the division of in the Lankavatara utilizing the referred beginning

of the realization

and pratyatmaprobably

to above. Also the Buddhabhumisatra, Mahayanasutralankara with the adarsajnana,' regards the pure

verse of the

and its explanation

of the 4 buddhajnana dharmadhatu

and the 4 buddua-

jnana together as the 5 dharmas (element) of the buddhabhumi. It seems to remove the jnana aspect from the dharmadhatu, and this problem relatess to the defintion of the second buddhaya Tantric

as dharmasamb hoga. But the later

Buddhism regards the 5 dharmas of the Buddhabhumi as the fivefold

of the Buddha Mahavairocana. V

Now from This the jnana

we must concept aspect,

proceed of the

to the

last and most

important the the



dharmakaya above,

as representing is to be termed From

buddhajnana. result aspect'

as observed dharmadhatu there Namely

in its relation point around to the (23) (24) (25) (26) of view,

to the

aspect. is a quite being

the religious kind of

or practical relationship




dharmakaya. who

the buddha,

sattvas Ed. The The The

are to be characterized

it stands in opposition (27) as 'abuddha' or 'bodhya'. In

by S.Levi, p. 44 Ratna., p. 85 Buddhabharnisutra Mahavairocanasutra.

and its Vyakhyana, ed. by K. Nishio, Cf. Kawata, op. cit., p. 38 -908-



(90) Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) this relationship, the dharmakaya represents the nirvana as the practical

purpose of the sattvas who are actually


in the sarpsara. Being

as such, how is it possible to find out the link between the both, or the (28) character common to both? In one sense this is the problem how to understand relationship' the universal into (pra/vis) same. Therefore the idea of the identification is given by introducing to above (III). (pari/sphar, as referred of nirvana the Namely, The answer and samsara , dharmadhatu-sarvadharma the d harmakaya being or penetrates is the The its

entity pervades

or sarvatraga)

every sattva, or nobody exists outside of the dharmakaya, of the Buddha and the nature Buddha's nature is hidden this exists and of the sattva sattva, to sattvas. and the in every unknown only the

and hence the nature difference relation

is that this nature explained to the sattva



of the


in the term of tathagatajnana with analogy of the (29) whole universe concealed within an atom. On this basis, the Tathagatagarbhasictra gave the sattva the name of tathagatagarbha in the sense that the sattva is the embryo of the tathagata or he is possessed of the embryo

of the tathagata as the truth


him. The statement dharmata)

of 'sarvasattvas followed to this

explanation. What is involed


in this





for by terms,

(27) e. g. abudhabodhanartham, (The Ratna. p. 7, 1. 10, abudha=abuddha); bodhyam bodhis tadazgani' bodhaneti (ibid. p. 25, 1. 4) (28) In the Buddhist term on the hetu-phala relation, it is to be called 'vipaka' relation. Doctrinally, however, the Buddha is regarded as visamyoga'-phala. While the relation between two aspects of dharmakaya, dharmadhatu, etc. is to be termed nisyanda, relation. The answer to be given to this question is to interprte it by this nisyanda relation. (29) Quoted in the Ratna., pp. 22-24. Cf. J. Takasaki : The Tathagatotpattismbhavanird esa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratnagotravibhaga, JIBS, Vol. VII-1. (30) Quotation in the Ratna; p. 73: yathoktam/ esa kul aputra dharmanam dharmata utpadad va tahagatanam anutpadad va sadaivaite sattvas tathagatagarbha iti/ See n. 10 above. -907-

Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) (91) (31) (32) cittaprakrti and tathagatagotra. The former, standing in contrast to the concept negation the family
the concept and respects this the



reminds us of the idea of cittamatra, the latter (vamsa) whose literary


in its is

of reality

of klesa, while
as the logical is duly on


(kula) or the lineage

of dhatu as the

of the tahagata,
principle of the explanation

classifying conclusion to the

(33) groups. In given respect.


reminds us of
these above, Thus

tathagatagarbha Mahaparinirvanasutra,

be termd basis of

dhatu' the

in any

Tat hagatagarbhasutra,

modified the statement hadhatu makaya, buddha, ttihetu),

into 'asti buddhadhatuh is on the hand, being


The buddthe nature of the

(or tathagatadhatu) dharmata) other different but on the i. e. the it is quite

one hand, the cause



of the buddha,

perfectly arises

equal to the dhar(dhatu=hetu) (buddhakaa-utpain its status. More of the to

cause from which the buddha from the


exactly speaking, it is the Buddha in postulation ddha is to be originated buddhadhatu make the them to attain link between in all sattvas

in the sense that the Bupostulation

from it. The purpose to state the existence was no other than this practical and the Buddha The link between sattvas

in order to encourage the cause and the

the enlightenment.

(31) This idea goes back to the idea of citta-prabhasvarata as told in Pali AN, I, p. 10 (32) It is often appeared in the Avata isakasutra. (Tib. de bshin gsegs pahi rigs.) Of this, see J. Takasaki in the "Kegon Shiso" (mentioned above), pp. 238-309 (33) Cf Abhidharmakosa, I, 20 (gotra=dhatu); Bodhisattvabhumi (ed. by Wogihara), p. 3. (gotra=bija), etc. The term gotra is used often to classify sattvas according to their faculty in relation to the three yanas, and there is a difference of interpretation around this term between the 'ekayana' theory and the 'triyana' theory. The idea tathagatagotra=tathagatagarbha' represents the former theory. (34) Cf. Tib.: hdi na dge slon la la de bshin gsegs pahi snip pohi andosde chen-po (Tathagatagarbhasutra) ston par byed do// sems can thams cad la ni sans rgyas kyi khams (buddhatu) yod la (Peking Ed. Reprint, Vol 31, p. 185-5-6) -906-

(92) Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) result is the nature (dhatu) common to both, which is nothing of triple relation within tathata'

but the -dhatu',

dharmadhatu. namely

This structure

the dhatu is called (for dharmadhatu) of the dhatu in a

in the Ratnagotravibhaga dharmakaya' is another way. dhatuh the link, and There different

the 'trividhasvabhava the result,

of the tathagata

representing example


the cause, respectively.

to show this structure

anadikaliko The significance

sarvadharma-samasrayah/ sarva nirvanadhigamo 'pi ca// Mahayanabhidharmasutra aspect, the dhatu being but in partiwhile Namely, the first line shows verse of the

tasmin sati gatih

of this famous

may be clear from the above investigations. the structure cular, standing of the ultimate for the of sattvas the former, to the the common nature of the samskrta-

value in objective

and asatrtskrta-dharmas,

asatskrtadharma, in sainsara i. e. the

i. e. the dharmadhatu,

the second line shows the same in subjective common nature standing signifies dharma for

aspect, the dhatu being the but in particular, sarvain But these two. lines

and in nirvana, buddhadhatu.

finally the same truth, in contract

since what is meant by the term


i. e. the samskrtadharma

particular, is nothing but the phenomena of satisara. Now we come to face another problem. The interpretation as buddhadhatu mentioned above is actually

of dhatu

done by the Ratnagotravi-

(35) pp. 69-73. From the aspect of the tathata, the cause and the result are called samala tathata' and 'nirmala tathata', respectively. (ibid. p. 21) Other terms to be noted in this relation are: gotra, prakrtistha-and samudanita(for the cause and the result, resp.), p. 71 (cf. Bodhisattvabhumi, p. 3) ; asraya-parivrttilaksano dharmakayah (dhatu, the cause, is meant by asraya'), p. 79f. For the reference, a set of three terms concerning the structure of the object of faith (sraddha) used among works of the Vijnanavada will be mentioned, since it shows the same triple relation obseved here. Hamely, 1. astitva (dharmakaya as dharmadhatu), 2. gniaa-vattva (dharmakaya as tathagatatajnana), , and 3. saktatva (dharmakaya as asraya Parivrtti, or the result in relation to buddhadhatu). Of this, see J. Takasaki in the "Komazawa' Daigak Kenkyu Kiyo", No. 22, (Faculty of Buddhism). pp. 86-109 -905-

Dharmata, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakaya and Buddhadhatu (J. TAKASAKI) (93) (36) dhag from the standpoint of the so-called Tathagatagarbha theory . The Vijnanavada, on the contrary, interprete this dhatu as to mean the


This alayavijnana-

is, as well known,

a name for the citta

given by the Vijnanavada in order to interprete the idea of the cittamatra on the basis of the epistemological relationship between the mind and its objects, Abhidharmic applying But notable i. e. between terminology. is that manovijnanadhatu Being and dharmadhatu relation in the dhatu' (see III). of thus, it is well to be called the principle

one aspect of the dharmadhatu-sarvadharma it is actually i. e. the cause for the origination homogeneous with (sunya) contrary nihsvabhava) . Therefore

or the cause (dhatu)

the samskrtad harma, dharma of unreal dharmakaya character is, quite

of the samklesaits relation to the

or sagnsara, and being

them, it is by nature or tatha-

to the case of the buddhadhatu

gatagarbha, of a negative character in the sense that the realization of (38) the dharmakaya is possible only by its negation. In the case of the Tathagatagarbha cittaprakrti theory, such a negative relationship being is observed completely between outside of and agantukaklesa; the latter

the citta. On the contrary,

by involving

the cause of the samklesadharma structure.

within the citta, the Vijnanavada In this respect, dharma relationship within which dharmah standing it should

seems to recognize such negative relationbe reminded that the dharmadhatu-sarvaand the pratityasamutpannaIt is quite significant in this point being

ship in the inside of the citta as its fundamental signifies ultimately in negative relation.

the truth of the pratityasamutpada,

the pratityasamutpada-dharma

that the alayavijnana

is said to stand for the paratantra-svabhava,

(36) p. 72 (37) e. g. Sthiramati on the Trim,sika, p. 37. Paramartha, in his translation of the Mahayanasarngrahabhasya of Vasubandhu, gives both interpretations side by side. (Taisho, 31, p. 157a) (38) The term afrayaparavrtti (asraya for alayavijnana) implies this sense. As for the different use of terms afrayaparivrtti and afrayaparavrtti, see J. Takasaki in the "Nihon Bukkyo Gakkai Nenpo", no. 25, pp. 89-110. -904

(94) Dharmata, a name being



and Buddhadhatu

(J. TAKASAKI) other that two the

for the

pratityasamutpada, and the the nothing

as one of the trisvabhava, It is clear while

the parinispannarepresents link between

the parikalpita-svabhava. asamskrtadharma the both, samskrtadharma the paratantra itself.

parinispanna kalpita-svachava being which of two of the In never the

or nirvana, or

the pari. and that, dhatu', citta the




is to be called By regarding with each more this

is, in its turn, aspects standing

but citta


in neagative will say,




Mahayanabhidharmasutra conclusion, forget, that we the all ngation the may

be understood most of

clearly. point we should it may

as the value

important is,

ultimate truth of all



be termed, blished it was or the such


of pratityasamutpada dharmas, negation aspect,

which of their

is to be estaand that

by the by -the


introduction that

of the


be it the reality

buddhadhatu as involving

alayavijnana, f actor

the structure is established.

of the ultimate

of negation

(39) In the history of the Vijnanavada, the trisvabhava theory and the alayavijnana theory are of different origin. Its combination was probably established by Asarnga in his Mahayanasamgraha. Present interpratation is according to his opinion. But there are various opinions among the Vijnanavadins befor and after him around the interpretation of the trisvabhava as well as the character of the alayavijnana.