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Geoscience Education

and Cyberinfrastructure

Supported by the
National Science

W W W . D L E S E . O R G
Geoscience Education and Cyberinfrastructure

Report from a workshop held in Boulder, Colorado

April 19-20, 2004

Sponsored by the National Science Foundation

November 2004

Mary R. Marlino
Director, Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) Program Center

Tamara R. Sumner
Assistant Professor, Center for LifeLong Learning and Design, University of Colorado at Boulder

Michael J. Wright
Director of Technology and Operations, DLESE Program Center
Executive Summary
Table of Contents
This report lays out strategies for achieving a sensors, software, computational platforms, and data

well-integrated and synergistic relationship between management and visualization. Success in producing
Executive Summary 3
advances in geoscience education and a robust such a workforce depends upon implementing new
Background 6
cyberinfrastructure supporting geoscience research. approaches to geoscience education that emphasize
Introduction 8
These recommended strategies are the result of a the kind of experiential learning that leads to
Workshop Approach 12
community workshop that brought together 50 technical competence and intellectual self-confidence

Vision Statement 13 scientists, educators, and information technology in research. These approaches need to be systemic

Integrating Core Values 14 specialists to engage in brainstorming and spirited throughout the entire educational system. In turn,

Goals 17 discussion about the future of geoscience education. to be successful, the geoscience education enterprise

will require application of a full suite of tools,

Recommendations 32 The importance of integrating research and education
concepts, technologies, and data products produced
Conclusion 36 within research and development programs in
at the cutting edge of cyberinfrastructure.
Workshop Attendees 38 the cyberinfrastructure arena is clear. Continuing

advances in unraveling the complex interactions of the

References 40
components of the Earth system—with the goal of truly

understanding Earth processes—will require a scientific

workforce of individuals well-trained in a discipline,

but also conversant with cutting-edge approaches to


Geoscience education and cyberinfrastructure can co-develop and

complement one another, achieving a measure of success that neither
one alone can achieve.

The task of the workshop was to arrive at a consensus can now obtain 24/7 learning on-
strategy for achieving the vision of fully integrating demand. Cyberinfrastructure projects
research and education within an emerging geocy- should encourage the creation of informal
berinfrastructure enterprise. Six goals emerged from a and ubiquitous learning environments that
series of intense discussions among participants repre- capitalize on these emerging patterns
senting a range of viewpoints: of learning.

Collaborate and build new social structures Maximize a computational approach

Collaboration and communication are critical to to geoscience
the practice of geoscience research and education. The research community has harnessed the power
Future scientific discovery and innovation of computers to better understand complex Earth
necessitate that the definition of collaboration system problems through exciting new models,
extends beyond today’s norm to guarantee multiple visualizations, and analysis techniques. Educators Develop smart tools for authentic learning projects should support teacher professional
perspectives, skill sets, and expertise. This requires: are now beginning to integrate such approaches Authentic learning focuses on solving real-world development that incorporates the latest scientific
into the learning environment. However, the problems to engage student interest and create data, tools, and analytical techniques; develops
• New types of partnerships across academia,
increasing use of computation requires that understanding. The very nature of science— partnerships with educators; and encourages
government agencies, and the private sector
educators have a basic understanding of computers involving investigation, research, analysis, and teachers and learners to serve as co-researchers.
• Multidisciplinary collaborations between and relevant software. It also requires that future discovery of natural phenomena—makes it an ideal Partnerships should be encouraged with state
geoscientists, information technology specialists, geoscientists develop advanced knowledge of platform for authentic learning activities. Many boards of education to support high stakes testing
and educators computer science skills. Equally important, data geoscience programs have successfully integrated and to coordinate the development and adoption
and tools must be freely available and housed in collaboration tools and distributed data capabilities of materials that align with state-based standards.
• Mentoring, scaffolding, and collaboration across into the geosciences curriculum. The next Digital libraries can play a leadership role in
repositories to establish a culture of repurposing
age groups challenge to be addressed in authentic learning supporting an educational cyberinfrastructure by
between the research and education community.
• Increased transparency across geopolitical requires that cyberinfrastructure projects enhance facilitating collaboration between educational
Create dynamic models of
boundaries so that global concerns and the collection and analysis of those data through practitioners and the research community.
student understanding
solutions can be applied to local communities smart tools that automate the capture, recording,
As our population of learners becomes more On the strength of these six goals, workshop partici-
retrieval, and preservation of research information.
To support this goal, cyberinfrastructure projects diverse, educators must increasingly account pants developed a set of recommendations for future

should emphasize the creation of collaboration for individual learning styles, language barriers, Expand educator professional development cyberinfrastructure initiatives and projects. These

tools and technologies and encourage projects cultural contexts, and learning challenges. The correlation between teacher preparedness and are described in the report that follows. Participants

that embed collaboration and communication Cyberinfrastructure can play a critical role student participation in science is a strong one; repeatedly emphasized the interdependencies between

skills throughout all stages of formal and informal in reinventing concepts of testing, student thus, investing in teacher professional development geoscience education and geoscience research, and

geoscience education. comprehension, and assessment in many programs is an investment in the future scientific noted the important synergies between the goals and
disciplines. When coupled with new models workforce. Educators must continually develop recommendations detailed here with those previously
Support ubiquitous learning environments of student understanding, true student-centric their skills; however, they are often marginalized articulated in other cyberinfrastructure reports.
The pervasiveness of technology and media, learning environments can be developed and in the research effort, acting as mere recipients
coupled with an explosion of informal education promulgated. Cyberinfrastructure should be of research rather than active participants and
initiatives, has dramatically influenced where and harnessed to better understand the specific partners. Additionally, they often lack an engaged
how individuals learn. Through museum exhibits, learning processes that promote comprehension educational community through which to share
educational programming, web sites, online and learning of geoscience concepts over time. innovative teaching practices. Cyberinfrastructure
repositories, and e-learning courses, individuals

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Over the past several years, cyberinfrastructure has

emerged as an important framework for the current
and future conduct of science (Atkins, Droegemeier
et al. 2003). Cyberinfrastructure is a term coined by
the National Science Foundation (NSF) to describe
new research environments in which the capabili-
ties of advanced computing tools are readily available
OITI Steering
to researchers in an interoperable network. The
Committee 2002;
concept builds on substantial prior NSF initiatives in
NCAR 2003). While The very nature of science—involving investigation, research, analysis, and
academic computing infrastructure, supercomputer discovery of natural phenomena—makes it an ideal platform for authentic
many of these reports detail
centers, terrascale networked grids, middleware learning activities.
recommendations for scientific
initiatives, and digital libraries. Within the NSF
research, few delve into the myriad
Geosciences Directorate, reports have been issued
facets of education and how cyberin-
from the atmospheric, oceanographic, and solid earth
frastructure can transform the fundamental
communities outlining cyberinfrastructure priorities
way in which individuals learn, adapt, and
for scientific research and education (CyRDAS 2004; Although these reports, along with the National the workshop was consensus on a vision for cyberin-
think using a scientific framework.
Science Board (NSB 2003), have emphasized the frastructure and geoscience education, the articulation
importance of integrating research and education, of core community values that can support the
what has not been articulated are specific strategies integration of geoscience education into future cyber-
and recommendations for achieving this integration. infrastructure projects, the enumeration of six goals to

In recognition of the dramatically changing landscape of scientific research and information This report addresses this gap by focusing on the guide these efforts, and recommendations for action.
specific needs and opportunities for cyberinfrastruc-
technology, the NSF convened a Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure to consider Written for the broad geoscience community, this
ture and geoscience education.
the future directions of NSF-sponsored infrastructure development. In its 2003 report, the panel report offers a roadmap and an initial starting point

recommended an immediate NSF imperative to lead the charge in reinvigorating the development A common thread linking past initiatives and reports to seed discussions on how geoscience education can
is an acknowledgement of the importance of cyber- become a critical component in cyberinfrastructure.
of a technical and social infrastructure to support science and engineering research and education.
infrastructure to support future economic growth. The report specifically highlights education’s unique
The panel also recommended a new Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Program (ACP) that offers an
In this context, workforce development stands apart role in developing a scientifically literate citizenry
opportunity to reformulate numerous processes of scientific investigation and education around as an important facet of education. As a first step and workforce, and the synergies between scientific
the unique opportunities of information technology (IT). The recommended investment in these towards a fully integrated scientific research and research and geoscience education that can result

cyberinfrastructure initiatives was $1 billion per annum (Atkins, Droegemeier et al. 2003). education agenda, the NSF sponsored a workshop on from such an integrated approach.
Geoscience Education and Cyberinfrastructure in April
2004, hosted by the Digital Library for Earth System
Education (DLESE) Program Center. The outcome of

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The Definition of Cyberinfrastructure

“The term infrastructure has been used since the 1920s to refer collectively to the roads, power

grids, telephone systems, bridges, rail lines, and similar public works that are required for an

industrial economy to function. Although good infrastructure is often taken for granted and
noticed only when it stops functioning, it is among the most complex and expensive things

Introduction that society creates. The newer term cyberinfrastructure refers to infrastructure based upon

distributed computer, information and communication technology.”

– Report of the NSF Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure, Revolutionizing

Science and Engineering through Cyberinfrastructure, Daniel E. Atkins, Chair, 2003 (Atkins,

Droegemeier et al. 2003)

We have long been aware of numerous science
problems that threaten the health and safety of
the citizens of our planet. Dramatic advances in
remote-sensing capabilities have enabled us to char-
acterize and monitor the changes in our biosphere,
lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Increas-
ingly detailed and comprehensive observations of
• Interdisciplinary
the Earth system have contributed to the realization
education in
that many of the environmental concerns previously
geoscience and
understood as local problems transcend national
information technology
borders and can only be understood on a global scale.
Cyberinfrastructure already in place enables scientists • Increased numbers and
worldwide to access and analyze massive data sets diversity of students in geoscience
obtained from a variety of platforms both on Earth and information technology
and in space. As productive international research
• An informed citizenry broadly
collaborations between scientists increase, this
knowledgeable about cyberinfrastructure and
cyberinfrastructure will expand to accommodate
its essential role in enabling scientific discovery
the need to rapidly distribute data to computational
facilities and analysis centers around the globe, Workshop attendees felt strongly about the Community-Specific Knowledge Environments for Research and Education
disseminate research results, and enable scientists and centrality of these issues, and that a broad and (collaboratory, co-laboratory, grid community, e-science community, virtual community)
policymakers to work together to develop solutions. systemic perspective is absolutely critical to the
Customization for discipline- and project-specific applications
success of geoscience education and
Building a geoscientific cyberinfrastructure, however,
cyberinfrastructure initiatives. High performance Data, information, Observation, Interfaces, Collaboration
is incomplete without the concurrent development
of a geoscientific workforce capable of maximizing computation knowledge measurement, visualization services

its use. To this end, we need a systemic program services management fabrication services services

to nurture a future workforce deeply knowledge- services

able across geoscientific and information technology

Networking, Operating Systems, Middleware
disciplines. All citizens, whether oriented towards
geoscience careers or not, should have a foundation
Base Technology: computation, storage, communication
in science and mathematical concepts and critical
thinking skills. = cyberinfrastructure: hardware, software, services, personnel, organizations
Integrated cyberinfrastructure services to enable new knowledge environments for research and education
Thus, the notion of workforce development in (Atkins, Droegemeier et al. 2003)

cyberinfrastructure must include:

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reduction of students pursuing efforts to engage historically underrepresented

science, technology, engineering, populations in STEM disciplines, minority students
and mathematics (STEM) disciplines, continue to enter science and technology professions
thus compounding the shortfall. at rates far below their proportional representation in
the general population (NSF 2004a).
Continued innovation and discovery
hinges upon our ability to cultivate partici- Today, underrepresented U.S. born minorities holding
pation and facilitate communication between at least a bachelor’s degree comprise only 6.7%
scientists, researchers, and science teachers with of scientists and engineers in the labor force (NSF
diverse cultural backgrounds, life experiences, and 2004b). Over the past 28 years, approximately 400
ideas. African-American, Hispanic, Native American of the nearly 20,000 PhDs in earth, atmospheric, and
and Pacific Islander populations remain a virtually marine sciences have been awarded to traditionally
untapped resource of scientific and technical talent to underserved minority individuals. Yet, statistics from
fill our future workforce needs. Despite targeted the U.S. Census Bureau indicate that over 41% of the
U.S. workforce will be composed of ethnic minorities
by 2050 (US Census Bureau 2004).
U.S. Students Fall Behind in
A recent analysis of STEM diversity initiatives indicates
Science Knowledge
Building a geoscientific cyberinfrastructure is incomplete without that recruiting and retaining historically underrepre-
the concurrent development of a geoscientific workforce capable sented populations requires “sealing the pipeline”
of maximizing its use. 580
so that students who develop an interest in STEM
560 early in their academic careers remain engaged as they
develop the capacity for further study (Jolly, Campbell
et al. 2004). Workshop participants repeatedly
520 acknowledged the promise of a robust cyberinfrastruc-
Workforce Development U.S vs. 79% internationally for mathematics, and 53%
ture as a critical component in achieving our national
and Geoscience in the U.S. vs. 67% internationally for science (Calsyn, 500
STEM diversity initiatives. To this end, cyberinfrastruc-
Gonzales et al. 1999).
We face a critical national shortfall of new talent in 480 ture initiatives should actively seek partnerships with
science and mathematics. The Trends in International Left unaddressed, this shortfall of talent in innovative and systemic efforts to broaden and sustain
Math and Science Study (TIMSS) reported that in 1999 460
mathematics and science will severely impact participation in geoscience by diverse communities.
the U.S. ranked 18th compared to other nations in our nation’s future competitive advantage. The 440
science achievement of 8th graders (Gonzales, Calsyn knowledge economy is dependent upon a productive,
et al. 2000). A steadily declining interest in science has motivated workforce: one that is technologically 420
Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12
been reported between 4th grade and high school. literate and positioned to contribute ideas and
U.S. Average International Average
The percentage of U.S. students studying mathematics information, and engage in creative thinking. As
and science in their final year of secondary education U.S. students in fourth grade score above the interna-
our need for a technical and scientific workforce
tional average in science achievement, according to
is significantly lower than other countries—66% in the has increased, however, we have seen a significant the Trends in International Mathematics and Science
Study. However, as students approach their final year
in secondary school, the performance in U.S. schools
drops well below the international average.

Source: Calsyn, C., P. Gonzales, and M. Frase. Highlights from

TIMSS [Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study].
Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, 1999.

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Workshop Approach Vision Statement

The purpose of the Geoscience Education and Workshop participants felt strongly that geoscience Workshop participants envisioned the
Cyberinfrastructure workshop was to articulate education must work in concert, not in isolation, impact of cyberinfrastructure on geoscience
a vision for the future of cyberinfrastructure in with the cultural context of science, technology, and education as potentially having an equally
geoscience education in 2010 and beyond. It was societal trends. The progress of the last two decades significant impact. Within the context of this
a unique opportunity to understand the values of in achieving a more integrated perspective within the vision, geoscience education and cyberinfrastruc-
representative participants and the requirements the scientific and education communities was repeatedly ture can co-develop and complement one another,
educational community deems critical to linking acknowledged. The significant impact of systemic achieving a measure of success that neither one alone
cyberinfrastructure with scientific and societal impacts. initiatives such as the National Science Education can achieve.
Standards (NSES) in advancing the integration of
The workshop was structured around 4 key issues:
science, technology, and society was also noted
• What is the vision for geoscience education and (NRC 1996).

• What are the steps to achieving that vision?

• How can the geoscience community integrate

cyberinfrastructure to transform teaching and
learning processes?
During the workshop,
• How can the needs and desires of geoscience
participants created a suite of
education inform cyberinfrastructure development
scenarios illustrating their vision
and impact?
for geoscience education in the year
We envision a geoscience education cyberinfrastructure that will dramatically transform the landscape of teaching
The workshop brought together 50 leaders in science, 2010. Six working groups rigorously
and learning for all. This cyberinfrastructure will promote the recognition and understanding of the connections,
research, and education from across the U.S. To analyzed these scenarios to identify
interactions, and relationships among local and global phenomena in the Earth system. Cyberinfrastructure
ensure broad representation, invitees included goals, challenges, and recommendations
K-12, community college, undergraduate/graduate for action. Four participants were selected to will support innovative strategies for inquiry-based, collaborative learning among teachers, students, and

science, and computer science educators, informal survey the working group activities and identify researchers in both formal and informal settings. This cyberinfrastructure will enable free and open access to
educators, educational researchers, scientists, software important crosscutting issues. These data were valuable geoscience content, services, and expertise that transform geoscience education, excite a passion
developers, and students. The group was tasked with used to inform the development of this report and for the pursuit of geoscience careers, and promote a scientifically literate citizenry. The impact of this cyber-
systematically considering the transformative potential synthesized into the vision, values, goals, and
infrastructure will be an informed citizenry that embraces their responsibility as stewards of planet Earth.
of cyberinfrastructure within science and society. recommendations that follow.

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Integrating Core Values
Key Values

One important outcome of the workshop was the

emergence of a set of core values, reflecting broad
principles for effective participation of geoscience
education in cyberinfrastructure projects: recommenda-
tions considered
• Promoting stewardship of the Earth
by the participants. Scientific and technical literacies are basic requirements for an
• Building a broad-based scientifically and technically informed and productive workforce and citizenry.
Stewardship of
literate society
the Earth
• Integrating education as a high priority in Cyberinfrastructure should
cyberinfrastructure projects be harnessed to encourage active and informed
decision-making by all citizens with respect to the to increase participation in geoscience education instead emphasizes reading and mathematics in the
• Supporting human-to-human communication and and research. Cyberinfrastructure-enabled technolo- primary grades, and biology, physics, and chemistry in
Earth’s resources and the impact of humans on the
collaboration gies and workforce development programs should be secondary education. In addition, there are significant
planet. With the opportunities and stresses presented
by globalization, geoscience education is in a unique designed to capitalize and build on these interests, institutional barriers such as higher education’s lack of
• Providing open access to educational and scientific
position to promote the appreciation of Earth as and support lifelong learning about the Earth in a rich recognition of geoscience as a legitimate prerequisite
content and data, tools, and services
a system, and to enrich and inform discussions variety of forms and settings. for college admission. Cyberinfrastructure projects
These value statements permeated participant interac- and decisions regarding a sustainable Earth and its should also support the development of technical
A scientifically and technically literate society
tions and discussions to such a degree that they are resources. Cyberinfrastructure should also be used to literacies required for workforce development. Today,
Scientific and technical literacies are basic require-
worthy of calling out. Throughout the workshop, they leverage the inherent interests that many learners and computation pervades the conduct of science, while
ments for an informed and productive workforce
provided an important touchstone for all the goals and citizens have in the environment and the outdoors new media and communication technologies pervade
and citizenry. Cyberinfrastructure projects should be
professional discourse and knowledge creation. Thus,
carefully designed to optimize interest in geoscience
it is imperative to integrate geoscience education with
and science education. Declining participation in
the range of information technology skills and compe-
geoscience is a particular concern for all levels of
tencies required of our 21st century workforce.
education from K-12 to undergraduate and graduate.
“Education is key to building the sense of global citizenship that global problem-solving requires. The majority of students are electing not to study Education as a high priority in
And it is a major tool for developing a sense of shared global values that may help spare the next science before they enter college (Tobias 1990; Calsyn, cyberinfrastructure development
Gonzales et al. 1999). This is not surprising, given that Educational settings, audiences, and goals are too
generation’s unnecessary, obsolete tensions between civilizations.”
today’s high school seniors are scoring at or below the important to be adequately addressed as afterthoughts
– J.F. Rischard, High Noon: 20 Global Problems, 20 Years to Solve Them, 2002 (Rischard 2002) international average in science testing (NSB 2004). or add-ons to cyberinfrastructure projects, and instead
This situation is further exacerbated by the current must be treated as high priorities integrated in a
dominance of “core” topics in the K-12 curriculum, project’s overall design. The educational perspective
which usually does not include geoscience, but can legitimately inform both the scientific research and

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technical development goals of cyberinfrastructure Open access to educational and scientific content
projects. For cyberinfrastructure to have any impact and data, tools, and services
on education, and in turn, for workforce development For the full vision of cyberinfrastructure to be realized,
needs to be met, projects should adopt best practices international open access must be a requirement.

in learner- and user-centered design, engaging Projects should allocate some portion of their content,
educational users as co-designers. Many educators tools, or services for educational and future scientific
throughout all grade levels are master teachers who use, at no or low cost. Enabling future use will require
can offer insight into tools and techniques that are processes for creating derivative works, e.g., by
effective in geoscience education. adopting appropriate copyright models such as those

The workshop attendees envisioned a future

that would be significantly transformed by
cyberinfrastructure. By harnessing the full power

Definition of Open Access of these emerging technologies and networks,

educators, researchers, and learners can augment and
“There are many degrees and kinds of wider and easier access to this literature. By ‘open access’ to this
redefine the learning process, making science and
literature, we mean its free availability on the public Internet, permitting any users to read, download, technology more engaging and relevant to our lives.
copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them To this end, workshop participants articulated
as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers six goals for cyberinfrastructure in support of
other than those inseparable from gaining access to the Internet itself. The only constraint on reproduc- geoscience education:
tion and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over
• Collaborate and build new social structures
the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.”
• Support ubiquitous learning environments
– Budapest Open Access Initiative (OSI 2002)
• Maximize a computational approach to geoscience

• Create dynamic models of student understanding

• Develop smart tools for authentic learning

Human-to-human communication proposed by the Creative Commons, a non-profit • Expand educator professional development
and collaboration organization seeking to promote the sharing of high-
Human communication and collaboration, particularly quality content (Center for Internet and Society 2004).
in educational settings, should remain a major focus Similar to the ideals of the Open Access movement,
of cyberinfrastructure projects. Multiple perspectives which promote worldwide electronic distribution of
improve problem-solving and knowledge creation. scientific and scholarly literature on the Internet (OSI
Contact with a caring teacher or mentor sustains 2002), access is an important prerequisite for the
and motivates learners, particularly at-risk students. democratization of science and science education.
Cyberinfrastructure can support a broad spectrum Workshop attendees expressed concern about the “Today, the knowledge required to run the economy, which is far more complex than in our past, is both deeper

of communication and collaboration strategies, trend toward privatization and proprietarization of and broader than ever before. We need to ensure that education in the United States, formal or otherwise, is
spanning the range from face-to-face to distal, and geoscience data resources. Together, cyberinfra- supplying skills adequate for the effective functioning of our economy. The recent exceptional trends in U.S.
beyond, to agent-based tools and services. Technology structure and geoscience education have a unique productivity suggest that we are coping, but this observation should not lead to complacency.”
developments should be guided by a theoretical and opportunity to counter this trend. Through open
empirical understanding of effective communication access, research can be accelerated, education can be – Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan, The critical role of education in the nation’s economy at the Greater
and collaboration, not solely technical possibilities. As enriched, and learning can be shared more equitably Omaha Chamber of Commerce 2004 Annual Meeting, Omaha, Nebraska, February 20, 2004 (Greenspan 2004)
cyberinfrastructure projects themselves become more on a global scale.
complex, involving multiple and often remote partners,
this value becomes even more paramount.

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Goal 1

Collaborate and build

new social structures
There is enormous potential in adopting new forms
of social structures and teams for conducting science
and engaging in authentic science learning (Okada
and Simon 1995; Bennis and Biederman 1997). New
social structures include flexible models for partnering opportunity to use
across academia, government agencies, and the cyberinfrastructure to
private sector, as well as multidisciplinary collabora- address global concerns
tions between geoscientists, information technology that are rooted in the
specialists, and educators (Finholt and Olson 1997; concrete issues facing local
Pea 1999). Ad hoc teams form for the duration of a communities. Workshop
project or experiment. Such collaborations are often participants recognized that
characterized by vertical integration, i.e., collabora- collaboration and team skills
tions across age groups and experience levels that lead were equally relevant to both the
to mentoring and scaffolding of skills between and scientific research and the education
among researchers, educators, and learners communities. Thus, advances through
(Fischer 1998). these collaborative efforts will inform
and enhance both science and education.
To achieve a deeper level of teamwork, a
portfolio of cyberinfrastructure projects should Cyberinfrastructure should support
be initiated that is designed to teach and develop projects with an international scope,
collaboration and communication skills from an particularly those that encourage under-
early age, and to embed these skills in significant standing local phenomena within the “Environmental scientists and engineers increasingly consider the interplay of physical, biological, and social factors

and meaningful ways throughout all stages of context of global issues, and those that offer and are required to use advanced observational, database, and networking technologies. As a consequence, there
formal and informal learning. cross-national collaborative opportunities for is a growing need for scientists, engineers, managers, and technicians who have the ability to work on multidis-
scientists, educators, and learners.
Collaborations must also transcend national borders, ciplinary and cross-cultural teams to use sophisticated new instrumentation, information systems, and models;

recognizing that scientific and environmental and to interpret research results for decision makers and the general public. Fresh and innovative approaches to
challenges are not limited to geopolitical distinctions education are needed to train individuals to undertake interdisciplinary, collaborative, and synthesis activities.”
and that the necessary expertise to solve significant
problems is also distributed. International workforces – Complex Environmental Systems: Synthesis for Earth, Life, and Society in the 21st Century, A 10-Year Outlook
and research environments have become increas- for the National Science Foundation, NSF Advisory Committee for Environmental Research & Education
ingly common. The ability to look at local problems (AC-ERE), January 2003 (AC-ERE 2003)
from a global perspective, e.g., comparing pollutants
in local water supplies with similar problems in other
countries, has become a necessity. Thus, there is

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Goal 2

Support ubiquitous Culturally, a shift in attitudes has

transpired that recognizes oppor-
learning environments tunities for ubiquitous learning in
our just-in-time world (Vavoula, Lefrere
The learning landscape has altered dramatically over
et al. 2004). Technology has inspired a
the past twenty years as a result of a set of complex
media- and device-rich environment, with
and dynamic cultural, economic, technological, and
hundreds of television channels, omnipresent
social drivers. Historically, the focus has been on
technologies such as mobile phones and PDAs
traditional learning environments such as K-12, two-
(personal digital assistants), and millions, if not
and four-year undergraduate programs, and graduate
billions, of informational web pages. A 9-to-5
schools. Yet, learning is not always mediated by a
paradigm has been replaced by the 24/7 reality
teacher or professor, or confined to formal classroom
of continuous access and availability. As a result,
settings or accredited courses. A growing number
expectations for how and when learning takes place
of adults are seeking educational experiences for
have been dramatically raised. Future generations
personal and economic gain through lifelong learning,
of learners will not buy into an outdated model of
occupational retraining, and personal development
education that is rooted in the Industrial Age, when
courses (Florida 2002). to be shared among the privileged few. Self-directed Our relationship with the natural world is one of our
educational resources were limited, precious, and only
learning is now a required skill, and ongoing profes- most cherished; we hike and camp in national forests,
sional development is fundamental for operating boat and swim in our oceans and lakes, and carefully
effectively in our contemporary world. tend our backyard gardens. These pursuits are made
safer and more enjoyable through electronic instru-
This new learning landscape offers an opportunity to
mentation, maps, GPS, soil and water data, weather
influence educational, as well as commercial domains.
“Rather than using technology to imitate or supplement conventional classroom-based approaches, information, and other geoscience data. People learn
However, fundamental research is needed to address
about the things they need to know, and, more
exploiting the full potential of next-generation technologies is likely to require fundamental, rather the pedagogical, cognitive, and social dimensions of
importantly, about the things they love to do
than incremental reform…Content, teaching, assessment, student-teacher relationships and even effective learning in a world where interaction and
(Csikszentmihalyi 1991). In this way, geoscience
the concept of an education and training institution may all need to be rethought…we cannot human activities are shaped by cyberinfrastructure.
education supported by cyberinfrastructure is not just
Viewed in this light, understanding human protocols
afford to leave education and training behind in the technology revolution. But unless something about fulfilling needs. It is about enriching the whole
of learning, interaction, and communication is as
changes, the gap between technology’s potential and its use in education and training will only human experience.
important as understanding technical protocols for
grow as technological change accelerates in the years ahead.” system interaction. Cyberinfrastructure projects should be supported
that investigate creating and evaluating informal
– Phillip Bond, Department of Commerce Undersecretary for Technology, Enhancing Education Geoscience education is well positioned to use
and ubiquitous science learning environments,
Through Technology Symposium, Pasadena, CA April 29, 2004 (Bond 2004) cyberinfrastructure to leverage natural curiosities and
with an emphasis on developing design principles
concerns about the Earth system. As citizens and
for 24/7 learning.
communities grapple with maintaining, managing,
and improving their surroundings, this ubiquitous
learning environment can help elevate their inquiries
and answer immediate needs for critical information.

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Goal 3

Maximize a
computational approach
to pursue studies either directly in
to geoscience the geosciences, or in computer and
information sciences applied to the
Over the past four decades, the phenomenal increases
geosciences (Pandya, Contrisciane et al.
in computing power, coupled with the significant
2002). However, the use of computation
decreases in hardware costs, have been the basis for
in geoscience education requires that the
the rising use of computation in the Earth sciences. In
educational community maintain a basic level
addition, advances in software development, network
of technical literacy, including familiarity with
stability, and bandwidth have improved analysis of
computers and relevant software, such as data visu-
both real-time observational data and computer-
alization tools, and knowledge of how to effectively
based data. The availability of such computational
use these technologies to answer scientific questions.
power to the science research community (e.g., higher
resolution, better physical representation and coupling Cyberinfrastructure has the potential to bring together
in modeling systems, along with improved observa- new approaches that can readily integrate multiple
tional resolution and data assimilation techniques) scales, data points, and timelines to vividly illustrate
has enabled a better understanding of more complex Earth system processes (GEON 2004). Thus, there
Earth system problems. The computational link is a mandate to create more user-friendly tools and
between theory and observation is a fundamental part immersive environments that allow science research “Vast improvements in raw computing power, storage capacity, algorithms, and networking capabilities
of geoscience and how we now learn and understand and education to be conducted and understood by have led to fundamental scientific discoveries inspired by a new generation of computational models
the world around us (NSF 2000). someone other than an expert in the field. It is not
that approach scientific and engineering problems from a broader and deeper systems perspective.
uncommon for scientists wanting to do interdisci-
Educators have begun to incorporate these scientific Scientists in many disciplines have begun revolutionizing their fields by using computers, digital data, and
plinary work to be frustrated and limited in their
tools into classrooms in order to stimulate motivation
efforts to bridge disciplines because the technology networks to extend and even replace traditional techniques. Online digital instruments and wide-area
and curiosity, and to support learners in developing a
is designed only for subject matter experts. Thus, arrays of sensors are providing more comprehensive, immediate, and higher-resolution measurement of
more sophisticated understanding of the environment.
software applications designed for a variety of skill physical phenomena. Powerful ‘data mining’ techniques operating across huge sets of multidimensional
The use of computational models for simulation
levels will also support the ability of scientists to move
and the comparison to observational data can make data open new approaches to discovery.”
more easily among disciplines and their traditional
science concepts and environmental phenomena more
boundaries. – Executive Summary of the Report of the NSF Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure,
engaging and less abstract for learners at all levels
(Manduca and Mogk 2002). Cyberinfrastructure projects should be Revolutionizing Science and Engineering through Cyberinfrastructure, Daniel E. Atkins, Chair, 2003

supported that incorporate computational (Atkins, Droegemeier et al. 2003)

Immersive technologies such as 3-D visualization and
geoscience approaches with the development
virtual reality can help transform negative or fearful
of age-appropriate tools for learners. Tool
perceptions of science, helping learners to reason
creation should be accompanied by supporting
scientifically about naturally-occurring and human-
educational materials that facilitate the
influenced events, and providing a stimulus for them
integration of the tools into the curriculum.

22 23

Goal 4

Create dynamic models The implications for geoscience

education are profound. Earth
of student understanding processes occur on extreme scales
(very small, very large, very long). They
Much cognitive research over the past two decades
are frequently not readily visible and they
has focused on the role of individual differences
are almost always interdependent. Models
and preferred learning styles in influencing learning
of student learning specific to geoscience
outcomes (Bransford, Brown et al. 2000). Simulta-
education might include dimensions such as the
neously, there have been major demographic shifts
competencies required for global data collection,
taking place in learning populations. Education is no
understanding the range of spatial and temporal
longer perceived as a “one size fits all” proposition.
scales that link Earth processes, and understanding
Instead, educators are increasingly called on to
the multifaceted (dynamic, thermodynamic, chemical,
tailor educational content and activities to meet the
biological, ecological) way in which components of
individual needs of an increasingly heterogeneous
the Earth system are linked. What does it mean to
student population (Jonassen and Grabowski 1993).
understand these complex and subtle processes? This
Educators at all levels must address many different
question is equally relevant to scientists and educators.
learning styles, a broad range of disabilities or learning
Scientists seek to identify the next area of investiga-
challenges, and diverse socio-economic populations
tion; educators, to define boundaries or measures of
and cultural backgrounds.
understanding of what is already known.
Tools and services that offer such student-centered
Cyberinfrastructure has the potential to reinvent the
capabilities are predicated on the existence of rich, What does it mean to understand these complex and subtle processes? This question is equally
concepts of testing, student comprehension, and
dynamic models of student understanding (Corbett, relevant to scientists and educators. Scientists seek to identify the next area of investigation;
assessment. Educators must consider what it means
Koedinger et al. 2001). Such models would depict the educators, to define boundaries or measures of understanding of what is already known.
for students to demonstrate understanding of Earth
key ideas that learners should understand, common
system processes (Atkin, Black et al. 2001). Student
learner conceptions and misconceptions, and how
understanding in this area must move beyond rote
these ideas change over time as student under-
and nominal information. In doing so, both formal
standing becomes increasingly sophisticated (AAAS
and informal geoscience education initiatives will have
1993; AAAS 2001a; Sumner, Ahmad et al. 2004).
more promising opportunities to instill basic science
Additionally, these models need to acknowledge
concepts that can be used throughout a person’s life.
how people learn, specifically how new knowledge
is filtered and integrated into one’s own existing Cyberinfrastructure projects should be
cognitive structure (Yekovich, Walker et al. 1990; Voss encouraged to address how learners of all ages
and Silfies 1996), and how existing structures are acquire and refine geoscience concepts over time.
reshaped as a result (Ferstl and Kintsch 1999).

24 25

Goal 5

Develop smart tools for be an important part of collecting

observational data of the planet.
authentic learning Multidisciplinary integration of data
and cross-collaboration among learners
Authentic learning involves solving real-world
of all ages is essential to making science
problems, addressing issues relevant to the lives of
relevant to students’ lives (NCAR 2003). The
students, and linking students and scientists through
next advance for authentic learning environ-
data sharing, critiquing, and direct communication
ments requires leveraging cyberinfrastructure to
(Brown, Collins et al. 1989; Lave and Wenger 1991;
enhance the collection and analysis of those data.
Bransford, Brown et al. 2000). In fact, authentic
learning and inquiry-based science are closely coupled: Cyberinfrastructure must provide a platform upon
both involve the critical processes of investigation, which to build authentic and smart learning tools that
research, analysis, and discovery. are customized for all levels of education from early
grades through undergraduate education and into
Authentic learning environments demand both
lifelong learning. There are numerous instances of
technical and social support systems. They require
how the current infrastructure, with its convergence
technical infrastructure and tools to support data
of mobile, handheld, and wireless technologies, can
collection and analysis, and social infrastructure to
be used to develop smart tools that support the inves-
provide the critical scientist-educator interactions to
tigation, research, and analysis of our world (Sharples
support student analysis and interpretations. This
2000; OSI 2002; Hunter, Falkovych et al. 2004). This
dual support, combining investigation/observation
is yet another area in which educational and scientific
and research and analysis around real problems,
research needs intersect. The same smart tools that
can provide an ideal environment for student Collaboration and communication are critical to the practice of geoscience research and
are required for education will also support scientific
discovery and understanding of underlying science or education. Future scientific discovery and innovation necessitate that the definition of
investigation and research.
mathematics principles. collaboration extends beyond today’s norm to guarantee multiple perspectives, skill sets,
and expertise.
Cyberinfrastructure should support projects
Many students enter the field of geoscience because
to create intelligent, portable research tools,
of their love of nature and a desire to understand the
develop technologies that automate the capture,
underlying processes that define how the Earth works.
recording, retrieval, and preservation of field
One of the most enjoyable and exciting aspects of
research information, and devise smart tools that
discovery is field research and the ability to observe,
enable experiential learning.
collect, and analyze data. Data collection activities can
be conducted by learners at all levels, e.g. under-
graduate students providing data for fossil databases,
K-12 students collecting weather observations for the
GLOBE program, and amateur bird watchers recording
migratory bird sightings (Penual, Korbak et al. 2003).
Such wide-ranging activity in the field continues to

26 27

Goal 6

Expand educator curricula, student interest in science

has swelled [ibid]. Thus, investments
professional in teacher professional development are
development direct investments in the nation’s future
scientific workforce. College educators,
Formal public education is “big business” in terms especially those at two- and four-year
of the numbers of students served and the requisite undergraduate institutions, also struggle to
infrastructure. There are approximately 47 million stay current in the science and technology
public school students in the U.S. today, being taught fields (Egger 2003). To have a real impact on
by 2.1 million K-12 teachers in 91,380 schools across workforce preparedness, cyberinfrastructure must
the nation (Gerald and Hussar 2002; Hoffman 2003). address issues of training, awareness, and general
Over 3,700 schools of higher education prepare the educational infrastructure.

There are significant issues

in current educator profes-
sional practices that must “The frequency of computer use is surprisingly low, with only about 1 in 10 lessons incorporating their

be addressed. Many use. The explanation for this situation is far more likely lack of teacher preparedness than lack of
teacher preparation computer equipment, given that 79 percent of secondary earth science teachers reported a moderate
programs are outdated or substantial need for learning how to use technology in science instruction (versus only 3 percent of
and often fail to include teachers needing computers made available to them.)”
leading-edge scientific
– 2000 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education: Status of Secondary School Earth
practices and pedagogies,
Science Teaching, Horizon Research, Inc., December 2000 (Horizon Research Inc. 2000)
such as integrating data in
the classroom, employing
computational approaches
to geoscience, and leveraging how to construct meaningful and coherent curricula to effectively integrate cyberinfrastructure
advanced communica- from a vast array of online learning resources research and innovation into teacher
tion technologies to support available in digital libraries and other data and education curricula.
the collaborative conduct information repositories (AAAS 2001b; Sumner,
Too often, teachers are marginalized and limited to
of science (NRC 2000a; NRC Ahmad et al. 2004).
passively receiving research that has been repurposed
2000b, Sanders 2004).
Cyberinfrastructure should support the for educational consumption, rather than being
next generation scientific and educational workforce Educators must develop for themselves and learn development of educational methods, courses, active participants in the research endeavor. In a
(NSB 2004). Research indicates strong interdepen- how to inculcate in their students scientific habits of and teacher certification programs that recent national survey of K-5 science teachers, only
dencies between teacher preparation and student mind and technical literacies. As the pace of scientific incorporate current scientific data, tools, and one in 10 indicated having direct interaction with
participation in science study and careers (Seymour innovation accelerates, there will be less dependence analytical techniques. Large cyberinfrastructure scientists in professional development activities. For
2002). Historically, when there has been large scale, on traditional textbooks. Future educators, at all levels, projects should be encouraged to develop formal those with such contact, the overwhelming impact
systemic support for science teachers and scientific including undergraduate and graduate, must learn partnerships with teacher preparation programs of this experience was a better understanding of

28 29

Investments in teacher professional development are direct investments in

the nation’s future scientific work force.

science content, improvement in science teaching, prompted by the No Child Left Behind legislation have
and increased motivation and enthusiasm (Bayer placed even greater stress on teachers. Digital libraries,
2004). Cyberinfrastructure offers an opportunity to such as DLESE and the National Science Digital Library
rekindle the excitement of scientific inquiry within the (NSDL –, are critical in supporting
educational community. Conversely, scientific research teacher preparedness, promoting the development
projects can benefit by leveraging the experience and sharing of innovative teaching practices, and
of expert and master teachers who know the types developing a sense of community. As part of their
of lessons, data gathering methods, and tools that leadership role in educational cyberinfrastructure,
work in different learning environments. Desirable digital libraries should:
partnership models would offer teachers opportuni-
• act as brokers and actively facilitate strong ties and
ties for reflective practice, new skill development,
collaboration between educational practitioners
mentoring, and the excitement of participating as a
and the science research community
full partner in science research (Loucks-Horsley, Love et
The very nature of science, involving investigation, research, analysis, and
al. 1998). A current promising model that cyberinfra- • seek to develop leadership opportunities for
discovery of real-world phenomena, makes it an ideal platform for authentic
structure might consider emulating is the NSF’s GK-12 teachers within cyberinfrastructure initiatives learning activities.
program, which brings research-oriented graduate
• develop partnerships with cyberinfrastructure
students into K-12 settings (NSF 2004c).
projects to make their innovations more broadly
Cyberinfrastructure projects should develop accessible and educationally relevant
significant partnerships with individuals or groups
• develop partnerships with state boards of
of teachers, and make available sabbatical and
education to support high stakes testing and
internship opportunities between teachers and
coordinate the development and adoption of
researchers. Projects should encourage K-16
materials that are aligned with state-based
teachers and learners to act as co-designers
and co-researchers.
Cyberinfrastructure should support digital
Cyberinfrastructure also has an opportunity to
libraries as a critical technology thread that
address the very significant issues of teacher turnover,
promotes teacher professional development,
isolation, and burnout. Today’s K-12 educator stays in
innovation, and communities of practice.
the classroom an average of three to five years (NCTAF
2003). The new demands of high stakes testing


The following recommendations were articulated

by workshop participants as practical steps towards
integrating geoscience research and education within
the emerging cyberinfrastructure. These recom-
mendations are organized by the core values and
specific goals that emerged from the workshop.
Although participants arrived at a consensus on a are accessible
common vision, values, and goals, active engagement via partnerships
by the entire geoscience research and education with recognized
communities will be required to make this vision a data archives and digital
reality. These recommendations are intended to offer libraries, such as DLESE
important first steps towards this end. and NSDL.

• A targeted working group should

Recommendations based on the
be formed that includes educational
core values
outreach staff from existing funded
• A concerted effort needs to be undertaken to cyberinfrastructure efforts. This group
document, measure, and understand the impact should be charged with identifying specific
of cyberinfrastructure on geoscience education. issues and solutions, within the context of their
This will require the engaged commitment of funded projects, to the immediate challenges
educational evaluators working closely with Recommendations based on Goal 1: • Cyberinfrastructure projects that include
of integrating geoscience education into large
all stakeholders of funded cyberinfrastructure Collaborate and build collaboration with K-20, informal, and formal
cyberinfrastructure projects.
initiatives. new social structures educational partners and educators should be
encouraged. NSF educational initiatives, such
• A portfolio of cyberinfrastructure projects should
• Submitters to cyberinfrastructure programs should as DLESE and NSDL, should provide leadership
be initiated that is designed to teach and develop
be encouraged to clearly relate how their proposed in this area and act as brokers between
collaboration and communication skills from an
educational activities directly address one or more cyberinfrastructure projects, teachers, and teacher
early age, and to embed these skills in significant
of the goals outlined in this report and how they professional development opportunities.
and meaningful ways throughout all stages of
will specifically evaluate those activities.
formal and informal learning. • Cyberinfrastructure should support projects with
• Cyberinfrastructure projects and centers should an international scope, particularly those that
ensure that their data are available for broad and offer cross-national collaborative opportunities for
open dissemination, and that appropriate materials scientists, educators, and learners. International
projects should encourage understanding local
phenomena within the context of global issues.

32 33

Recommendations collaborating with teachers and learners, and

based on Goal 4: discussing outcomes should be incorporated into
Create dynamic models of tools and repositories.
student understanding
• Individuals and groups who are interested
• Cyberinfrastructure has the potential to in intelligent, portable research tools should
bring together new educational approaches be encouraged to align themselves with
that can readily integrate multiple scales, cyberinfrastructure projects. Technologies that
data points, and timelines to vividly illustrate encourage the automatic capture, recording,
Earth system processes and enhance knowledge retrieval, and preservation of field research
adoption. Cyberinfrastructure projects should information, and that underpin the development
investigate how these advanced technical of smart tools enabling experiential learning should
approaches—when coupled with models of be developed and supported.
student understanding—enable the dynamic
creation of tailored learning environments Recommendations based on Goal 6:
and learning assessments that are meaningful Expand educator
and realistic. professional development

• Cyberinfrastructure projects should be encouraged • Large cyberinfrastructure projects should be

to contribute to basic research on how people encouraged to develop formal partnerships

• Proposed technical advances in collaboration and • Projects should address lifelong learning or citizen learn, interact, and communicate through with teacher preparation programs to effectively

communication technologies should be grounded science components, i.e., investigating how partnerships with researchers in cognizant integrate cyberinfrastructure research and

in theoretical and/or empirical understandings cyberinfrastructure can positively influence the way disciplines. These projects should contribute basic innovation into teacher education curricula.

of effective communication, collaboration, we live, govern, and recreate. knowledge that will advance theories of learning,
• Cyberinfrastructure projects should develop
and teamwork. particularly types of cognition and skills
significant partnerships with individuals or groups
Recommendations based on Goal 3: important to geoscience, such as spatial thinking
• Proposed technical advances in collaboration of teachers, and make available sabbatical and
Maximize a computational approach and data analysis.
and communication technologies should internship opportunities between teachers and
to geoscience
provide educator training on the effective use of • Cyberinfrastructure projects should be encouraged researchers. Projects should encourage K-16

technologies within educational settings. • Cyberinfrastructure projects should be supported to address how learners of all ages acquire and teachers and learners to act as co-designers
that incorporate computational geoscience refine geoscience concepts over time. and co-researchers.
• Individual projects should consider collaborations approaches with the development of age-
that support mentoring and scaffolding among • Cyberinfrastructure should support innovative • Cyberinfrastructure should support the
appropriate tools and services for learners. Tool
researchers, educators, and learners, and approaches to developing computational development of educational methods, courses,
creation should be accompanied by supporting
that provide a clear structure for evaluating representations that capture, record, and and teacher certification programs that incorporate
educational materials that facilitate integration of
these efforts. model learners’ understanding of geoscience current scientific data, tools, and analytical
the tools into the curriculum.
concepts. Projects should investigate how techniques. Cyberinfrastructure projects that
Recommendations based on Goal 2: • Cyberinfrastructure should support projects that innovative tools and services can leverage support national and state-based educational
Support ubiquitous help learners and future geoscientists develop these models of understanding to provide standards, and in particular, projects that link the
learning environments advanced computer science skills that are required tailored learning experiences. issues surrounding high stakes testing, teacher
for geoscience education and research, e.g., professional development opportunities, and
• Cyberinfrastructure projects should be supported
algorithm development, current software analysis, Recommendations based on Goal 5: learner achievement should be supported.
that investigate creating and evaluating informal
and design practices. Develop smart tools
and ubiquitous science learning environments, with • Cyberinfrastructure should support digital libraries
for authentic learning
an emphasis on developing design principles for as a critical technology thread that promotes
24/7 learning. • Projects should offer field research opportunities to teacher professional development, innovation, and
K-16 teachers and learners, where they can master communities of practice.
and utilize advanced tools for data collection and
data analysis. Mechanisms for sharing information,
34 35

Our nation’s role in the global economy, the strength Achieving the vision set forth in this report will require
and vitality of our labor force, and our ability long-term funding, meaningful collaborations, and
to generate and sustain scientific creativity and strong leadership within the geoscience education and
innovation are all dependent upon a scientific and research communities. The recommendations set forth
technically literate citizenry. This citizenry, in turn, herein, coupled with broad community support, can
must appreciate the role that science and scientists dramatically transform the landscape of geoscience
play in understanding our natural and human-built teaching and learning, and generate a passion for
worlds, and their relationship to our social and political the pursuit of geoscience careers in a new generation
institutions. Previous cyberinfrastructure reports have of learners. In so doing, we will come closer to
acknowledged these dependencies and recognized realizing the vision of a geoscientific workforce
the importance of human capital and workforce that is truly diverse in opportunity, productivity, and
development. This report complements those efforts intellectual innovation.
by focusing on this critical issue and developing
specific goals and recommendations that advance the
present and future conduct of geoscience education.

“If infrastructure is required for an industrial economy, then we could say that cyberinfrastructure is

required for a knowledge economy.”

– Report of the NSF Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure, Revolutionizing Science

and Engineering through Cyberinfrastructure, Daniel E. Atkins, Chair, 2003 (Atkins, Droegemeier

et al. 2003)

Workshop Attendees

• Faisal Ahmad, Department of Computer Science, • Frank Ireton, Space and Earth Sciences Data Analysis
University of Colorado at Boulder (SESDA)/Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI)
and National Earth Science Teachers Association
• Joan Aron, Science Communication Studies (NESTA)

• Lecia Barker, Alliance for Technology, Learning and • Cliff Jacobs, Geosciences Directorate, Division of
Society (ATLAS), University of Colorado at Boulder Atmospheric Sciences (GEO/ATM), National Science
Foundation (NSF)
• Hedi Baxter, Institute for Learning, Learning Research
Development Center, University of Pittsburgh • Karon Kelly, DLESE Program Center, UCAR

• Libby Black, Math Department, Manhattan Middle • Mick Khoo, Department of Communication, University
School for Arts and Academics of Colorado at Boulder

• Ann Bradford, Office of Education, National Oceanic • Scott Lathrop, National Center for Supercomputing
& Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Oceanic and Applications (NCSA) Department, University of Illinois at
Atmospheric Research (OAR) Labs Urbana-Champaign

• Kirsten Butcher, Digital Library for Earth System • Russanne Low, Science CentrUM, University of
Education (DLESE) Program Center, Minnesota
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
(UCAR) • Tim McCollum, Charleston Middle School

• Barbara Buttenfield, Department of Geography, • Christine McLelland, Geological Society of America

University of Colorado at Boulder (GSA)

• Paula Coble, National Aeronautics and Space • Mary Marlino, DLESE Program Center, UCAR
Administration (NASA) Headquarters
• George Matsumoto, Monterey Bay Aquarium
• LuAnn Dahlman, TERC Research Institute (MBARI)

• Lynne Davis, DLESE Program Center, UCAR • Mike Mayhew, Geosciences Directorate, Division of
• Tom Reeves, Department of Instructional Technology, • John Weatherley, DLESE Program Center, UCAR
Earth Sciences (GEO/EAR), National Science Foundation
• Sebastian de la Chica, Department of Computer University of Georgia
(NSF) • Marianne Weingroff, DLESE Program Center, UCAR
Science, University of Colorado at Boulder
• Randy Sachter, Nederland Middle/Senior High School
• Susan Metros, Office of the CIO, Technology Enhanced • Tom Whittaker, Space, Science and Engineering Center
• Eric Eiteljorg, School of Education, Institute of Learning and Research (TELR), Ohio State University • Judy Scotchmoor, Museum of Paleontology, University (SSEC)/Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite
Cognitive Science, University of Colorado at Boulder
of California at Berkeley Studies (CIMSS), University of Wisconsin at Madison
• John Moore, Environmental Studies, Burlington County
• Susan Eriksson, UNAVCO, Inc. Institute of Technology • Dogan Seber, San Diego Supercomputer Center • Stedman (Ted) Willard, American Association for the
• Barry Fried, John Dewey High School (SDSC), University of California at San Diego Advancement of Science (AAAS)
• Julie Moore, Instructional Technology, University of
Georgia • Sharon Sikora, GLOBE Education Team, UCAR • Mike Wright, DLESE Program Center, UCAR
• Dave Fulker, National Science Digital Library (NSDL)
Central Office, UCAR • Don Murray, Unidata Program Center, UCAR • Len Simutis, Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC) • Memorie Yasuda, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
• Katy Ginger, DLESE Program Center, UCAR (SIO), Geological Research Division and California Space
• Jonathon Ostwald, DLESE Program Center, UCAR • David Steer, Geology Department, University of Akron Institute at SIO
• Michelle Hall, Science Education Solutions, Inc. • Rajul Pandya, Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric • Tamara Sumner, Center for Lifelong Learning and
Research and Science (SOARS) Program, UCAR Design, Department of Computer Science, University of
• Maggie Helly, A.C. Mosley High School
Colorado at Boulder

38 39

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