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THE GROUP TRAINING COURSE IN SEISMOLOGY, EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT POLICY (2010-2011) COURSE ID : J10-00880 ACTION

PLAN ON

FOCAL MECHANISM DETERMINATION OF LOCAL EARTHQUAKES IN MALAY PENINSULA AND ITS IMPROVEMENT

By Siti Norbaizura MAT SAID (D-10-03474) Assistant Director Geophysics and Tsunami Division 6th Floor, Headquarters, Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD) Jalan Sultan, 46667, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia E-mail:snorbaizura@met.gov.my

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. I NTR OD UCT IO N . 1 1-1.Contents and Findings from the Lectures, Study Trips or Workshops 1-1.1Lectures on Earthquake Phenomenology 1-1.2Special Lecture on the 2011 Off Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake 1-1.3Study Trip to Miyagi Prefecture 1-1.48CUEEConference 1 1-1.5Project Cycle Management 1-2.Outline of Master T hesis 1-3.Role of the Geophysics and Tsunami division of the Malaysian Meteorological Department 2. ACTION PLAN 2-1.Objective 2- 2.Ex p ect ed Out pu ts 2-3.Actions for Short Term (in 2 months) 2-4.Actions for Medium Term (in 6 months) 2-5.Actions for Long Term (in 2 years) 2-6.Logical Flow Char t 2-7.Information for Related Organization 3. ANNEX 1.Schedule of the Training Course (from October 2010 to September 2011) 2.Report of Observation Visit 3.Handouts of Action Plan Presentation (delivered on September 12, 2011) .. 1 1 1 4 14 1..10 ..15 16 17

..18 18 18 19 20 22 24 25

..26 26 37 38

1. INTRODUCTION 1-1.Contents and Findings from the Lectures, Study Trips or Workshops 1-1.1 Lectures on Earthquake Phenomenology Table 1. Basic subjects related with earthquake phenomenology Subject Lecturer

Practice on Theory of Seismic Waves Local Earthquake Analysis Analysis of Teleseismic Records Earthquake Focal Mechanism Seismicity and Statistics Crust and Upper Mantle Structure Seismic Tomography

N. Takeuchi ( Nov,24, 26 and 29, and Dec, 1) T. Furumura (Dec 2, 7 and 13) N. Hurukawa (Nov, 17, 19 and Dec, 8 H. Hirose (Jan, 13 and 14) Y. Hayashi (Jan, 17) Y. Yagi (Jan, 20, 21, 26 and 27) T. Iwata (Mar, 25 and 28) T. Iwasaki (Mar, 11 and Apr, 1) H. Inoue (Apr 4 and 8)

Table 1 shows the information on the basic subjects related to the earthquake phenomenology. The followings are the discussion on the detailed contents and findings for subjects of Local Earthquake Analysis and Earthquake Focal Mechanism. Title Contents : Local Earthquake Analysis. :Classification of Earthquakes, Seismic Wave of Local Earthquakes, Wadati Diagram, Particle Motion, Apparent Velocity, Hypocenter Determination and Magnitude. Delivered Documents/ Materials Findings : Handouts/Lecture Notes (softcopy and hardcopy). : A single seismic station or local seismic network observes local earthquakes. By

using seismic wave records ones can determine hypocenters, magnitudes, focal mechanisms, and crust and upper mantle structure. We learned how to pick up P- and S-wave arrival times correctly as well as other phases and to measure amplitudes from observed seismic wave records in which these phases will be analyzed by different methods to know hypocenters and magnitudes of earthquakes. A Wadati diagram (primitive analysis) (graph of S-P time vs P-time ) can be used to obtain the time origin of an

earthquake, to calculate the hypocentral distance, to obtain the Vp/Vs ratio (or Poissons ratio) in medium and to examine P and S readings. We can represent a hypocentral distance by an S-P time (a time difference between P- and S- wave arrival times), (P wave velocity) and / ratio (ratio of P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity). If we regard and / as constant ( 5.7-6.0 km/s and 1.73 in the upper crust of the Earth, where almost all earthquakes occur, respectively) we can obtain hypocentral distance by multiplication of S-P time with Oomori coefficient, k= [ /( / 1)] = 8. As for volcanic regions k is about 5 (since is about 4 km/s and / is about 1.8). The quality of reading data can be judged by travel time residuals. Data that are not on the straight line in the Wadati diagram is unreliable. In detection of initial S wave, it is sometimes very difficult to find its onset, because an S- to P- converted phases arrives earlier than the S wave. However, if we analyze three-component seismograms, we can easily identify S wave. In identification of unknown phases (predominant observed ones) we can compare the direction of their particle motion with those of P and S waves and then analyze the type. This method is described by Matsuzawa et al. (1986, 1990) who analyzed later phase of microearthquakes and identified them as P- to S- and S- to P- converted waves at the subducting plate in northeastern Japan. There are several methods for determining the hypocenter of an earthquake, in which can be classified as graphical and calculative. As for graphical method, we need to obtain the origin time (by using a Wadati diagram) and S-P times at three stations (circles are drawn based on location of stations as centers and hypocentral distances as radius). A point of intersection (let say E) of two common chords is the epicenter. One of the common chords is selected to be a diameter of a semicircle. A distance between E and a point of intersection of the straight line and the semicircle is a focal depth. Joint determination of hypocenters of many earthquakes were developed to improve hypocenter accuracy. Due to the lateral heterogeneity of the actual Earth, an assumption of the horizontally layered model is not adequate to obtain precise location of earthquakes, and thus, a station correction (travel-time difference between the assumed velocity structure and the actual one) which corrects a travel-time anomaly caused by the lateral heterogeneity (station delay) is required before determining hypocenter in order to obtain the correct earthquake location. A method that include station corrections for travel times as additional parameters to be determined from a group of earthquakes is described by Douglas (1967) and Freedman (1967). However, solutions by this method is unstable when media is very heterogenous and station coverage is not good because of trade-off between station corrections and focal depths of earthquakes. Thus this method is modified by Hurukawa and Imoto (1992), known as the MJHD method, which bring almost the same results as the master-event method (Dewey 1972) without requiring for a selection of a master event. This is the major advantage of the MJHD method and very effective especially in a case of no earthquakes are observed clearly at all stations.

Title Contents Delivered Documents/ Materials Findings

: Earthquakes Focal Mechanism. : Source Mechanism (Focal Mechanism), Moment Tensor Inversion and Waveform Inversion :Handouts/Lecture Notes (softcopy and hardcopy). Software for moment tensor inversion and Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) :From recordings of earthquake-generated waves, information about the earthquake

source may be derived, including its magnitude, location, time of occurrenece, its orientation, and movement of fault. Source mechanism also provides information of the state of tectonic stress field and location of the weak zone (fault zone). Determination of focal mechanism can be performed by using polarities of P-wave first motion or waveform inversion (moment tensor). For single event, Polarity/Amplitude Polarity of first P-wave Polarity and amplitude of first P-wave Waveform of P-wave and S-wave Overall waveform Requirement Many stations (depend on station coverage) Five or more P-wave components Five or more waveform components One or more waveform stations

In case of a sparse local seismic network, P- first motion data may not be enough to determine reasonable solutions. If we assume that the focal mechanisms for many earthquakes in close area are identical, the up down information for each earthquake can be drown in same focal mechanism diagram. Using this focal mechanism diagram, we can determine the composite focal mechanism occurred in special area. The seismic waveforms contain the information of the focal mechanism (in radiation patterns) and hypocenter) and moment tensor inversion method can be applied to determine focal mechanism and hypocenter depth. By comparing the synthetic with observed seismograms we can apply iterative techniques to determine Earth structure or source process. If we assume earth structure, we can calculate greens function and estimate moment tensor components and location of centroid using waveform inversion (detailed source rupture process). Grid search method can be used for estimation of depth and source time functions. The matrix of moment tensor inversion (which involves observation waveform and convolution of greens function with source time function) can be solved by using least squares approach. At any time, we cannot choose the actual fault plane of two nodal planes with point source. Instead, we need to refer to aftershock distribution or tectonic setting in order to determine which nodal plane responsible for the earthquake. If earthquake is large enough to detect directivity of rupture, it is useful to compare variances of detailed source inversion with two fault planes.

1-1.2 Special Lecture on the 2011 Off Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake Two days before the occurrence of mega thrust March 11 earthquake, a strong foreshock with a magnitude 7.3 (USGS) took place almost exactly at the breaking point of the tsunami-earthquake and for the shaking was felt up to Tsukuba area, the IISEE Director, Dr Ando, responded (as he used to) with updating all the students on the magnitude and location of the earthquake. We continued class with information that the shaking we felt just now was from somewhere in Sendai area. And after the first break of afternoon lecture of Crust and Upper Mantle Structure from Takaya Iwasaki Sensei, we had felt the same shaking, but with greater intensity and longer period, in other words, incredible strong one. Expecting that this shaking was not merely weak tremors, i grabbed all my valuable things with me, and upon Sensei Iwasakis advice we were all prepared for the worst which might happen. It was terrifying indeed to having experience such incredible ground shaking due to the Off Tohoku-Pacific earthquake which occurred at 2.46 pm (of Japan local time) on March 11, 2011. There was nothing else on mind, only fear of thinking whether it was really the end of life and whether i could still have time to see those of my loved ones, my family in Malaysia. As Roger Bourke White Jr. in his anatomy of memorable disaster says, A memorable disaster isn't closely related to the magnitude of losses or the victims, either. It is the survivors that make disasters memorable. It was my first and will be my whole-life-valuable-moment, indeed to being one of the people whom experienced this earthquake, and as a student studying science of earthquake and disaster policy, this is a good opportunity for me to have a practical view and application towards all the theory learnt. Table 2 shows the information of special lectures which based on the technical standpoint of researchers in the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Building Research Institute (IISEE, BRI) following 2011 Off Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake. Table 2. Information on the special lecture following the 2011 Off Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake

Subject Tectonic Background of the Off Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake (Tectonic, Seismicity and Source Process) Rapid Determination of Source Characteristic of the Off Tohuku-Pacific Earthquake Tsunami Source of the Off Tohuku-Pacific Earthquake

Lecturer Dr Bunichiro Shibazaki

Date Mar, 22

Dr Tatsuhiko Hara

Mar, 23

Dr Yushiro Fujii

Mar, 24

Title Contents Delivered Documents/ Materials Findings

: Tectonic Background of the Off Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake. : Tectonic, Seismicity and Source Process : Handouts/Lecture Notes (softcopy and hardcopy).

: With estimates of 9.0 in moment magnitude by most of the seismological

institutions, the March 11, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in northern Honshu is now placed as the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and the largest powerful earthquake to have hit Japan since modern instrumental recordings initiated more than 130 years ago. Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan. The earthquake moved Honshu 2.4 m (7.9 ft) east and shifted the Earth on its axis by almost 10 cm (3.9 in). This earthquake resulted from thrust faulting on or near the subduction zone plate boundary between the Pacific and North America plates. At the very latitude of this earthquake, the Pacific plate moves approximately westwards with respect to the North America plate at a rate of 8-9 cm/yr, and begins its westward descent beneath Japan at the Japan Trench, dips under Honshu's underlying plate releasing large amounts of energy. This motion pulls the upper plate down until the stress builds up enough to cause a seismic event. The break caused the sea floor to rise by several meters. A quake of this magnitude usually has a rupture length of at least 480 km (300 mi) and generally requires a long, relatively straight fault surface. Because the plate boundary and subduction zone in the area of the rupture is not very straight, it is unusual for the magnitude of an earthquake to exceed 8.5; the magnitude
Figure 1. Earthquake generation zone along the Japan

trench

of this earthquake was a surprise to some seismologists. The hypocentral region of this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture. The Japanese Meteorological Agency said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km (310 mi) and a width of 200 km (120 mi)(Fig. 1). This undersea megathrust earthquake with epicenter approximately 72 kilometers (45 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Thoku, Japan, lasting approximately six minutes. The nearest major city to the quake was Sendai, Honshu, Japan, 130 km (81 mi) away and 373 km (232 mi) from Tokyo. The main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, and multiple aftershocks were reported afterwards. The first major foreshock was a 7.2 M W event on 9 March, approximately 40 km (25 mi) from the location of the 11 March quake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0

MW. Over six hundred aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 or greater have occurred since the initial quake and the largest aftershock (USGS 7.9) occurred within the Ibaraki Prefecture, 250km southwest of main shock. The following figures describe the source parameters such as focal mechanism, seismic moment, and source depth, moment rate function and slip distribution obtained by the USGS and Yuji Yagi & Naoki Nishimura. Figure 2. Visual representations of source mechanism of the Mar 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Earthquake Offshore Honshu, Japan, obtained by the USGS

Title

Figure 3.

: Rapid Determination of Source Characteristic of the Off Tohuku-Pacific Visual representations of source mechanism of the Mar 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Earthquake Earthquake Offshore Honshu, Japan, obtained by Yuji Yagi and Naoki Nishimura

Contents Delivered Documents/ Materials Findings

: Magnitude Issuance from various institutions and Hara (2007) : Handouts/Lecture Notes (softcopy and hardcopy).

: The significant improvement observed after the very magnitude 9.3 earthquake of

26 December 2004, which produced the devastating Indian Ocean tsunami is that seismologists responded considerably quickly after the earthquake. Due to communication broke down following the near field event, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) somehow took longer time to provide well-established magnitude and the comparison between issuance time of magnitude is shown as per Table 3. Table 3. Issuance of magnitude for March 11, 2011 Off Tohoku-Pacific Earthquake
Source Magnitude

Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

Quick report : 7.9 revised : 8.4 (16:00JST, March 11) revised: Mw 8.8 (17:30JST, March 11) revised: Mw 9.0 (12:55JST, March 13)

Japan Earthquake Early Warning (EEW)

Within first 20s : 4.3-7.2, approx. 1 minute from origin time : up to 7.7 within 2 minutes from origin time: 8.1 (as quick guess, it is not bad, merit to EEW which currently has a successful rate of 30%)

Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC)

Mwp 7.9 (11 March 2011 05:55 UTC) Mwp 8.8 (11 March 2011 06:43 UTC) (even it was not quick, almost one hour to get result but still better improved, in comparison to 2004 Indian Ocean event)

Istituto Nazionaledi Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) Realtime Monitor

OT+3min : mB=8.0, Mwp=8.0 OT+5min : mB=8.0, Mwp=8.5 OT+8min : mB=7.8, Mwp=8.5 OT+12min: mB=7.8, Mwp=8.2 and Mwpd=8.5 OT+15min: mB=7.7, Mwp=8.4 and Mwpd=8.8 (for teleseismic event, these results are good

enough) United States Geological Surveys (USGS) OT+34min OT+1hr OT+6hr OT+7hr OT+3day Earthquake Research Institute, Japan (ERI) GEOFON, German Research Centre for Geosciences, (GFZ) Hara (2007), IISEE, BRI : USGS Research CMT Mw 8.9 : USGS W-Phase V1 Mw 8.9 : USGS W-Phase V2 Mw 9.0 : global CMT V1 Mw 9.1 : global CMT V2 Mw 9.1

CMT V1 Mw 9.0 OT+8min : Mw(mB) = 8.6 (personal

communication) 8.96

We can see that the estimated magnitude using Hara (2007)s formula (8.96) which having similar technique with Mwpd by INGV , agrees well with Mw 9.0 from JMA, Mw 9.0 from the USGS W-Phase V2 and Mw 9.1 from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor V1 and V2. The upper, middle and lower traces in Figure 4 show the observed seismogram, the squares of the band-pass (2-4 Hz) filtered seismogram, and its smoothed time series (normalized by the maximum value), respectively. A and F in the lower trace denote the arrival of P-wave and estimated end of high frequency energy radiation, respectively. The estimated duration of high frequency energy radiation is 170.5 sec (as observed in lower trace) and this almost 3 minutes source duration provides good guess that the event has a large rupture. (e.g 180 s x 2 km s1 = 360 km with rupture velocity within 2-2.5 km/s). Figure 4. Graphical representation for measurements of high frequency energy radiation using (Hara, 2007a, b)

Having shown that this method works well for March 11 event, it is possible to obtain the source duration by band-pass filtering the global data.

Title Contents Delivered Documents/ Materials Findings

: Tsunami Source of the Off Tohuku-Pacific Earthquake : Issuance of tsunami warnings and advisories, tsunami source and
Propagation and slip distributions.

: Handouts/Lecture Notes (softcopy and hardcopy).

: The big parabola (gps antenna) in Geological Survey Institute (GSI), sense the

strong coupling (the energy was accumulated) before the earthquakes, but the data was not useful for prediction as it is difficult to predict when earthquakes will happen, especially for event as big as magnitude 9.0. If Japan was prepared for magnitude 8.4 at least, the Fukushima power plant might have been protected. The breakwater or embankment in front of the power plant which having height of 10 m was too low for the 2011 tsunami, where its height reaches 15 m. A long wavelength of seafloor deformation is needed to explain the long inundation area in Sendai Plain, for instance two kinds of slips are needed to explain long-distance tsunami inundation. A deeper fault causes long duration of wavelength of the source, and if there is no slip or narrow fault (only tsunami earthquake type) there will be less inundation. Large slips near the trench with tsunami larger than expected from weak ground shaking, and when the fault is narrow are the characteristics of tsunami earthquakes. In 2011 earthquakes, two types of earthquakes occurred simultaneously which caused very destructive tsunami near the trench. The long wavelength generated from deep fault caused long inundation distance. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) had started its first issuance of tsunami warnings and advisories in just 3 minutes after the origin time and in which they were updated 10 times and covered/ expanded to a total of 66 areas before its cancellation approximatley 2 days and 3 hours after its first issuance. The highest observed tsunami height recorded by the JMA is 8.5m (or higher) at Miyako and followed by 8.0m at Ofunato (both in Iwate Prefecture).

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 5 shows the assumed tsunami source (by Yushiro Fujii (IISEE, BRI) and Kenji Satake (ERI, Univ. of Tokyo) which is located within the aftershock area with a fault length and width, 400 km x 150 km. The focal mechanisms parameters (strike, dip and rake) are 193, 14 and 81, respectively, from the USGS's Wphase moment tensor solution. The top depth of the fault was assumed to 3 km. The average slip on the fault is 20 m. The maximum heights of simulated tsunami indicate that the tsunami energy is concentrating to directions perpendicular to the strike of fault as shown in Figure 6 and tsunami propagation around coast of Japan is shown by Figure 7. After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami the international community stepped up its efforts on developing and building early warning systems. Japan is a leading nation with respect to expertise and implementation of both earthquake and tsunami early warning systems, as well as countermeasures for disaster mitigation. However, breakwater contsructed near Kamaishi port was partly broken, unable to decrease the energy of tsunami and thus brought damage to the nearby area. Two embankment constructed in the so-called Tsunami Mitigation Area of Miyako (Taro town), also did not work, but still, these countermeasures did reduce at some extent, the level of damage of the affected areas. The March 11 earthquake and the subsequent tsunami that rushed towards and devastated the shores of Honshu island in Japan would have been a substantially larger disaster than it already is, were it not for the well functioning warning systems on the Japanese islands. As for me i personally impressed on how well the disaster risk management in Japan, particularly the community in both International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering in Building Research Institute and Japan International Cooperation Agency in Tsukuba in coping the co- and post-disaster situation here. It is on the other perspective gave me opportunity to learn how crucially important to know what to do as well as to do what the best we can do when disaster strikes. Awareness on the importance of good disaster risk management should be raised somehow and be addressed in managing disaster in all countries and countermeasures in mitigating the impact of disaster should be taken, considering both financial and political aspects of respective countries. 1-1.3 Study Trip to Miyagi Prefecture (September 5-7, 2011) Title Contents : Study Trip to Miyagi Prefecture : Observation visit (some with lecture) to earthquake and tsunami affected areas in Sendai (Tohoku University and Government Office Building No 3), in Ishinomaki (Ishinomaki Tax Office and Ishinomaki Harbor Combination Government Building), in Onagawa Town, and in Minamisanriku-Town (Shizugawa Hospital and Shizugawa HS.) Delivered Documents/ Materials : Handouts.

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Findings

: The maximum seismic intensity during the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake is 7,

in which was observed in Kurihara area (northern part of Miyagi prefecture) while the strongest peak ground acceleration recorded is 2933gal (Tsukidate). According to the National Police Agency as of July 15, 2011, the estimated casualties is more than 26,000. The M8 Tokachi-Oki earthquake in 2003 is an example of successful prediction by the Earthquake Research Promotion) for which they predict that the probability of a M8 earthquake in the next 30 years is 60%. The highest probability (90% 99%) of earthquake occurrence was predicted near Off Miyagi and Off Ibaraki but with magnitude less than M7.8, much smaller than the real occurrence. The Japanese Government is now applying a long term earthquake forecasting based on the assumptions that earthquakes repeatedly occur at nearly the same location with nearly the same magnitude. An asperity model can be adopted for interplate earthquakes. The most damaged buildings observed are in and near Onagawa Town for which the tsunami height reached up to 16m. The followings are the photos of the collapsed building (swept-away and fallen over buildings) in the Memorial Park in Onagawa Town, which are proposed to be preserved.

Enoshima-kyosai hall

Four-storey RC building

Onagawa Polic Station

City Hall

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This right figure shows the damaged buildings of the Shizugawa public hospital in Minamisanriku-Town with mountains of debris in front of the buildings. Tsunami had attacked up to the fourth floor and many hospitalized people were killed by the waves. Some who were able to flee to the fifth floor (left-building) were survived. Takeshi Kanno, a 31-year-old doctor, never thought that he would save lives in his line of work as many at one time as he did on March 11. He who was on duty when he heard the tsunami alert, immediately began moving patients to the highest floor, helping dozens of people in the short window between the 9.0 magnitude quake and the deadly wave. When the wall of water arrived, Figure 3 Kanno watched it swallow the street in three minutes, taking the patients he couldnt move with it. We went downstairs, and everyone was gone, he says. Over the next two days, Kanno refused to leave those he had helped survive. When evacuation helicopter arrived, he waited until the last of his patients had gone before he too left. Three days after the quake, he at last made it back to his wife, just hours before the birth of their second child, a boy named Rei. The name evokes two meanings, a beam of light in English and the wisdom to overcome hardship in Chinese and Japanese. He is now one of the 100 worlds most influential people tallied up by the TIME (Time100, Vol. 177, No 17|2011 ). The following figures show some buildings near the Shiguzawa hospital. There were more than 300 aged people who fled up to the fifth floor of the building marked with A whom later survived and were rescued by a
B C A

helicopter. The area covered by a lot of debris (marked with B) was once a place where a group of students played before the deadly wave arrived. These students then fled to an apartment (building marked with C), trying to climb up to the top of the building but only 12 from them were survived. Behind the building marked with A was a police

station where one policeman was killed.

He was ordered by the superintendent to stay since he was

on duty, while the remaining policemen were asked to evacuate. A railway line near to this police station was broken but there was no casualties reported because no train running during this time. This place was heavily affected, and had remained isolated when all communication means were broken down. Those people who survived were rescued by helicopters. The right hand side figure shows the damaged disaster prevention office. Mayor Katsunobu Sakurai, 55 ordered about 50 of his staff members to stay here in this building to make announcement of the upcoming tsunami. He thought that the embankment would protect them from

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tsunami but unfortunately, the tsunami was so huge that it reached until the top of the building. Some of them who held the rail with their back facing the wave were safe but those with position facing the wave were washed away by this powerful tsunami. It is believed that many people were killed in this area in which two of them still made announcement to the public to flee from tsunami, until their last breath. This building is suggested to be preserved as monument. According to Dr Ando, those who escaped were safe but not those who looked for tsunami.

The above figure shows the locations of the elementary, junior high and high schools (from right to left) which located in hills area, served as an evacuation places following the tsunami. An example that can be learned, in which it must be principal to construct public facilities on the higher portion because those structure will be used for shelters, especially to the locations that prone to natural disasters. Similarly the buildings facing the sea should be a high rise building so that it can be used as shelter when tsunami strikes. As Roger Bourke White Jr. in his anatomy of memorable disaster says, A memorable disaster isn't closely related to the magnitude of losses or the victims, either. It is the survivors that make disasters memorable. One of the survivors, Mr Go To who shared his experience during our visit to an evacuation center in Minamisanriku-Town really gave big impression on us about how powerful a nature can be, regardless how well a nation is prepared or how high the technology of the countermeasures in place to mitigate the impact of disasters. Disaster does not care about borders and can affect any place, and on behalf of the people in Japan that receive assistance from all over the world, he appreciates that. He trusts that the whole world is actually connected and helpful towards hardships.

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1-1.4 8CUEE Conference, Tokyo Tech, March 7-8, 2011 Title Contents Delivered Documents/ Materials Findings : The ASEAN region which comprises Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, : 8th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering (8CUEE) : Mitigating Seismic Mega Risk through the International Urban Earthquake Engineering Center. : Book, CD, handouts.

Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, is not just geographically located between several tectonic plates causing earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis but also located in between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans causing seasonal typhoons and in some areas, tsunamis. Thus, it is economically prudent and more efficient for these countries, who have limited financial resources and physical resilience to work collectively and cooperate in the areas of civil protection as well as disaster preparedness and reduction. A synthesis report which analyse the social and the economic loss potentials and the likelihood of occurrence of different hazards at country and regional level has been carried out with a simplified quantitative risk assessment. This report shows that in terms of human casualties, cyclonic storms are the dominant disaster risk in ASEAN followed by earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, epidemics, landslides, droughts, volcanic eruptions and forest-fires. During the last 40 years (1970-2009), 1, 211 reported disasters have caused over 414, 900 deaths. In terms of social vulnerability (SV) ranking, Myanmar has the highest ranking followed by Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Malaysia. The cost of climate change in ASEAN could be as high as 6-7% loss in GDP by 2100 compared to what could have been achieved in a world without climate change. A three pillar model is proposed for disaster risk management in ASEAN countries which includes 1) assessing and reducing government liability or exposure to disaster caused by natural hazards (disaster risk reduction), 2) promoting risk transfer to private sector (insurance and capital markets) and 3) financing sovereign risk where immediate liquidity and budget support after a disaster is secured. The followings are the recommendations to reduce disaster risk in ASEAN proposed in this paper namely a) analysis should be repeated at higher resolution for instance a 100-km grid and risk aggregation by hazard type and area would provide, at low cost, a much more refined picture of risk b) worst case scenario should be considered for the highly populated cities which can later be used in preparation of city specific Disaster Management Plans (DMP) and c) a fully probabilistic analysis such as Open Source Risk Model should be performed for the hazards and regions identified as high risk in level a and b to consolidate methodologies for hazard, exposure, and risk assessment, and raising risk management awareness in the region.

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1-1.5 Project Cycle Management (PCM) : Practice for Disaster Mitigation and Development Assistance, from May, 23-25 Title Contents : Project Cycle Management (PCM) : Participatory planning, stakeholders analysis, problem analysis, objective analysis, project selection, project design matrix (PDM), plan of operation and improvement of PCM method Delivered Documents/ Materials Findings : Project Cycle Management (PCM) is a method to manage a project throughout an : Manual for PCM, handouts for case studies and presentation.

entire process from project planning to evaluation by using a standardized table called Project Design Matrix (PDM). The original form of PDM was conceived by USAID in the late 1960s (called Logical Framework). In the early 1980s, the German Organization for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) improved this Logical Framework and elaborated the Objective Oriented Project Planning (ZOPP) method, which systemizes the procedures of Logical Framework formulation including stakeholder, problem and objective analysis. In Japan, the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID) studied ZOPP and introduced it as PCM method in the early 1990s. In 1994, JICA adopted this method into Japans Official Development Assistance (ODA). PCM characteristics as described in the following table. Table 4. Characteristics of PCM Characteristic Consistency Description The entire project cycle is managed based on a PDM. Thus, even though more than one person may conduct different steps in the project cycle such as plan, implementation and evaluation, the consistency of the project management is assured. Logical Approach Project planning is undertaken based on logical analysis of the cause-effect and means-end relationships, making it possible to logically formulate a PDM with effective strategies and activities. Participation Carries out a workshop-style discussion. Along with experts, officials of the donor and the recipient country, beneficiaries of the project and local people who are expected to have a stake in the project are also invited to attend the discussion to share issues and views. The discussion also increases the beneficiaries ownership by involving them in analysis and planning process. In the discussion, it is important to reach decision by consensus, not by vote, so has the following

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that all participants will have a sense of ownership. Transparency Discussions are conducted by having participants write their views on cards and sharing the views. Discussion processes are recorded in the forms of Problems Tree and Objectives Tree so that not just project stakeholders but also outsiders can easily understand the process of analysis and planning.

1-2.Outline of Master Thesis Title Supervisor : Focal Mechanism Determination of Local Earthquakes in Malay Peninsula. : Dr. Tatsuhiko HARA, Chief Research Scientist of the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Building Research Institute. Abstract : Since November 30, 2007, small local earthquakes have been observed in the

Malay Peninsula near the Bukit Tinggi area. The total number of these events in the Malay Peninsula is 30 until the end of 2010, including the newly recorded small earthquakes in Jerantut, Manjung and Kuala Pilah, which occurred in March, April and November in 2009, respectively. Although hypocenters and magnitudes are determined for these events using data from the Malaysian National Seismic network, focal mechanisms have not been determined. In this study, we determined their focal mechanisms. We selected three crust structure models, and compared the observed travel time differences between P and S waves to those computed for these models. Although they agree relatively well for all of these models, model iasp91 explained the observations better. We analyzed four events that occurred in the Bukit Tinggi area for focal mechanism determination. We used three-component broadband waveform data recorded at stations IPM and KOM of the Malaysian National Seismic network. We determined their focal mechanisms using polarity data of the first motions of P and S waves and their amplitude ratios. We used iasp91 for take off angle calculations. We obtained relatively well-constrained solutions for all four events. The focal mechanisms of the largest 3.5mb event, which occurred on November 30, 2007 is a mostly strike slip with some dip slip mechanism, while those of three events are strike slip mechanisms. The maximum compressional (P) axes of the November 30, 2007 event is in the NNW-SSE direction, while those of three events are in the NW-SE direction. The minimum compressional (T) axes of the strike slip events are in the NE-SW direction. Since there is no surface trace of ruptures observed, this result is important to improve our understanding of these seismic activities. Keywords Discussion : Focal Mechanism, Polarity, Compression, Bukit Tinggi fault. : The consistent dilatational first motions of P waves observed for all events

recorded at IPM station imply that the mechanisms of the events are similar. Hardebeck (2002) suggests that the observed polarity at a given station should be the same for each event in a cluster.

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Comparing the fault orientations and the strikes of the nodal planes, the relationship between these two faults and the focal mechanisms obtained is not clear and the orientation of compressional axes obtained from the determination of focal mechanisms contradicts with the GPS observation before 2004. One possible explanation to these Bukit Tinggi earthquakes is that they are due to the weak-zone-normal extension mechanisms (Hurukawa and Imoto 1992). Relocation of these earthquakes will be effective to improve the accuracy of the results of this study in future works. Reference : Hurukawa, N. and Imoto, M., 1992, Geophys. J. Int., 109, 639-652

1-3. Role of the Geophysics and Tsunami Division of the Malaysian Meteorological Department The Seismological Division of the Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD), established in 1974, was aimed to serve as national centre for monitoring earthquake activities in Malaysia and its surrounding areas to meet the increasing demand for seismological information. At the end of the year 2007, it has officially changed its name to Geophysics and Tsunami Division. This is in keeping with its function to monitor earthquakes and as well as tsunami activities occured in the region. Considering the fact that Malaysia must be able to respond to both local tsunamis and to a huge earthquake like the one in Sumatra on 26 December 2004, the Government has taken actions towards avoiding a similar occurrence and has installed an end-to-end National Tsunami Early Warning System which comprises of three major components, monitoring and detection, data processing and data dissemination. It includes networks of 17 seismic stations , 10 strong motions station, 6 tidal gauges, 2 tsunami buoys and 4 coastal cameras that are useful for monitoring tsunami as well as the sea conditions over the sea and coastal regions. We have also installed 13 warning sirens for the impending tsunami. The Malaysian Government will continue to ensure that all disaster warnings can be disseminated effectively and timely to the Malaysian public. By the end of 2010, another 14 coastal cameras and 10 coastal sea-level stations were added to the observation network whereas 10 siren stations and an SMS Gateway were added to the dissemination component. Malaysia is also looking forward to install 25 more new strong-motion, under the 10th Malaysia plan and the priority of establishment of stations will be given to west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, since they experience stronger ground shaking compared to other areas in the country. With the system being operational, Malaysia will now be able to provide timely, understandable warnings within minutes, that will motivate ordinary citizens to quickly move out of harms way.

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2. ACTION PLAN 2-1. Objective To perform relocation of the local earthquakes in the Malay Peninsula by using a method of modified joint hypocenter determination (MJHD) developed by Hurukawa and Imoto (1990), and HYPOCENTER program (Lienert and Havskov 1995). To determine focal mechanism of local earthquakes in the Malay Peninsula particularly near the Bukit Tinggi fault and the Kuala Lumpur fault zone, analysed by Mat Said (2011) by using more data (stations), in addition to IPM and KOM stations. A method that uses polarities and amplitude ratios from short-period body waves first motions from data recorded at FRM, KTM and KGM, will be used. To determine focal mechanism of small local earthquakes recorded in Jerantut, Manjung and Kuala Pilah, which occurred in March, April and November 2009, respectively. A method that uses polarities and amplitude ratios from broadband body waves first motions (Snoke 1984) and/or from short-period body waves first motions, will be used. As these events occurred in 2009, it may be possible to use data from JRM station. To install temporary seismic stations within a distance of 100 km from epicenters and to observe the quality of the recorded data.

2-2. Expected Outputs

Relocation using a method of modified joint hypocenter determination (MJHD) developed by Hurukawa and Imoto (1990), and HYPOCENTER program (Lienert and Havskov 1995) will improve hypocenters of the local earthquakes in the Malay Peninsula, and thus, will be effective to improve the accuracy of the results of the focal mechanism obtained.

The focal mechanism determination of local earthquakes near the Bukit Tinggi fault and the Kuala Lumpur fault zone will be more reliable when using more data. The focal mechanism determination of local earthquakes occurred in the Malay Peninsula will improve an understanding of seismic activities in this region. A detailed picture of its structure and deformation can later be used for disaster mitigation and planning of high rise buildings.

With more seismic stations being operational, Malaysia will be able to monitor closely the seismic activities occurring in this region. The accuracy of the earthquake parameters determined by the Antelope 4.10 system will be more improved when more stations record the events. If the quality of the data from these stations are good, we can consider a permanent station at that very location.

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2-3. Actions for Short Term (in 2 months)

ACTION

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

ACTOR

NECESSARY INPUTS

IMPORTANT ASSUMPTION Environment can be set up

Participant

To set up environment for relocation All software and materials of earthquakes and focal mechanism required determination. for relocation and of earthquakes focal

Masters degree students

Guidance from IT expert(s)

in

the

workplace

of

Malaysian

National

mechanism determination are ready/fully installed.

Tsunami Early Warning Center (Geophysics and Tsunami Division). Staff with IT-computer

Organization

related background

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2-4. Actions for Medium Term (in 6 months)

ACTION

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

ACTOR

NECESSARY INPUTS

IMPORTANT ASSUMPTION Procedure described by Fatt et. al (2011) can be applied to 2007 and 2008 Malay Peninsula events.

To perform relocation of the local (2007-2008), by using a method of modified joint hypocenter

Hypocenter locations of the Participant Peninsula are improved . improves the

Masters degree students

Guidance from experts (Dr Nabuo Hurukawa from the International

earthquakes in the Malay Peninsula local earthquakes in the Malay

determination (MJHD) developed Relocation HYPOCENTER program (Lienert and Havskov 1995).

by Hurukawa and Imoto (1990), and accuracy of the results of the focal mechanism on the study region. Fatt et. al (2011) who already performed the Organization same study on local earthquakes in the Malay Peninsula for event occurred in 2009.

Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering)

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ACTION

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

ACTOR

NECESSARY INPUTS

IMPORTANT ASSUMPTION Enough data is available for determination of local earthquakes.

To retrieve three-component short Data from at least two stations period data recorded at stations of FRM, KTM and KGM for four by Mat Said (2011). with opposite location from epicenter are obtained so that different angle. Participant

Masters degree students.

Guidance from expert(s).

Bukit Tinggi events which analysed we can see polarities from

Geophysics and To retrieve three-component short period and/or broadband data of Organization
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Tsunami Division staff who are familiar with Antelope 4.10 system (Mr Afiq Zhofri and Mr Devadass).

Malaysian

National

Seismic

Network for Jerantut, Manjung and Kuala Pilah earthquakes.

2-5. Actions for LongTerm (in 2 years)

ACTION

EXPECTED OUTPUTS

ACTOR

NECESSARY INPUTS

IMPORTANT ASSUMPTION A method which uses

To determine focal mechanism of Focal mechanism solutions of four Bukit Tinggi events analysed four Bukit Tinggi events are by Mat Said (2011). A method that obtained. uses polarities and amplitude ratios motions from data recorded at FRM, KTM and KGM, will be used. To determine focal mechanism for Focal mechanism solutions of Jerantut, Manjung and Kuala Pilah Jerantut, Manjung and Kuala earthquakes by using short period Pilah events are obtained. and/or broadband data. comparable The results with are those

Participant

Masters degree students .

Guidance from experts (Dr Tatsuhiko Hara from the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering).

polarities and amplitude of short-period body waves data can be applied to the data retrieved from the Antelope 4.10 system. A method short-period broadband body which uses and/or waves

from short-period body waves first obtained by Mat Said (2011).

polarities and amplitude of

Organization

data can be applied to the data retrieved from the Antelope 4.10 system.

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Action

Expected Outputs

Actor

Necessary Inputs

Important Assumption

To

install

temporary

seismic The

accuracy

of

the Participant

Master degree students.

Budget from the Government. Expertise on installation.

Financial seismic available.

support stations

for is

stations to monitor seismic activities in the Malay Peninsula.

earthquake 4.10 system

parameters will be

installation of temporary

determined by the Antelope improved when more stations record the events.

Staff who are Organization


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To observe the quality of the The focal mechanism solutions reading stations. data from temporary will be better resolved when more data available.

familiar with seismic system and network.

2-6. Logical Flow Chart (Objective-Output-Action Analysis : Focal Mechanism Determination of Local Earthquakes in Malay Peninsula) 2 MONTHS

To set up environment for relocation of earthquakes and focal mechanism determination.

All software and materials required for relocation of earthquakes and focal mechanism determination are ready/fully installed. To perform relocation of the local earthquakes in the Malay Peninsula (2007-2008), by using a method of modified joint hypocenter determination (MJHD) developed by Hurukawa and Imoto (1990), and HYPOCENTER program (Lienert and Havskov 1995). Focal mechanism solutions of Jerantut, Manjung and Kuala Pilah events obtained. are A method that uses polarities and amplitude ratios from short-period body waves first motions or from broadband body waves first motions (Snoke 1984) will be used.

To retrieve three-component short period data recorded at stations of FRM, KTM and KGM 6 MONTHS for four Bukit Tinggi events which analysed by Mat Said (2011). To retrieve three-component short period and/or broadband data of Malaysian National Seismic Network for Jerantut, Manjung and Kuala Pilah earthquakes.

Hypocenter locations of the local earthquakes Peninsula of in are of the Malay . improved

Relocation improves the accuracy the results the focal mechanism on the study region.

A method that uses polarities amplitude from 2 YEARS body waves and ratios first short-period

Focal Tinggi

mechanism events are

solutions of four Bukit obtained. The results are comparable with Mat Said (2011). the earthquake

motions will be used. The accuracy of

Core Objective : Focal mechanisms of local earthquakes in Malay Peninsula are determined and are improved.
To install

temporary

The focal mechanism solutions will be better resolved when more data available.

parameters determined by the Antelope 4.10 system will be improved when more stations record the events.

seismic stations to monitor seismic activities in the Malay Peninsula.


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2-7. Information for Related Organization Having real experience of facing incredible strong ground shaking due to the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Magnitude 9.0 - Near the East Coast of Honshu, Japan) and the following co- and post-disaster actions taken by the community here in both IISEE/BRI and JICA Tsukuba, I see a crucial important part to learn from here is how they manage the situation and they know what to do during disaster. Raising risk management awareness is one issue to be addressed in managing disaster in my country in near future.

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ANNEX 1. Schedule of the Training Course (from October 2010 to September 2011)

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2. Report of Observation Visit

OBSERVATION VISIT REPORT 2010 10 08 EDO-TOKYO MUSEUM, YOKOAMI-CHO PARK AND HONJO-BOSAI-KAN (LIFE SAFETY LEARNING CENTER) The first observation visit by the participants from Seismology and Earthquake Engineering for the Masters degree program by GRIPS and BRI of 2010/2011 has been scheduled on Friday, October 8, 2010. The purpose of this one day visit is to learn more about the history and the culture of Japan as well as to have hands-on experience on disaster preparedness training and simulation. A total of 16 students from the E and S course participating in this visit which led by Dr. T. Yokoi, coordinator Saito san and IISE Director Dr. S. Ando and a small briefing on the visit has been given by Dr. Yokoi a day before the visit. The visit started as early as 7.45am and it took about two hours to arrive at the first destination of the visit which is the Edo-Tokyo Museum (Photo 1). Participants have the opportunity

to explore the old Tokyo through a variety of reference materials and miniatures. Dr Yokoi has began his explanation on the geological history of Tokyo Bay and Low Land, since 120,000y. BP till present (20th century) (Photo 2). He has also explained and emphasized on the Great Kanto Earthquake which occurred in 1855 and 1923 and the difference in the effects of these two earthquakes (Photo 3). He was also explaining the surface of the ground below Tokyo, the sedimentation of the alluvium under the ground which severely damaged by these earthquakes as well as the soil property of the site (Photo 4). After 2 hours short tour exploring the Edo-Tokyo Museum, all of the participants as well as the lecturers were having lunch at Yokoami-cho Park (Photo 5) and then continued with the next destination which is the Honjo Bosai-kan, to learn and to experience simulation in dealing with disasters. It began with the theater on earthquake occurred in Japan, its flashback and how the earthquake drill is important in strengthening disaster preparedness. The participants were randomly divided into two small groups soon after the movie, where each of them has the opportunity to run four simulation, namely 1)the rainstorm simulation section, of 30kmph wind speed and the humidity is as per the strongest typhoon 2) the smoke maze section 3)the firefighting training section and 4) the earthquake simulation section where the ground shaking of JMA M.7 (intensity 12) took place (Photo 6). Briefing has been conducted by the instructor from the Tokyo Fire Department before each simulation. These simulation finished two hours after and the followings are the lesson observed and learnt from the one day visit;

1. Smoke sensors should be installed in the building for early detection of fire; 2. The very first thing to do when seeing fire is letting other people know/call out for help;

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3. It is important to know what action to be taken during the occurrence of disaster and drill should be conducted regularly; 4. Visual tools/hands-on experience/simulation have proven to be very effective means at raising peoples' awareness.

Photo 1

Photo 2

Photo 3

Photo 4

Photo 5

Photo 6

3. Handouts of Action Plan Presentation, delivered on September 12, 2011.

Outline
ACTION PLAN ON

FOCAL MECHANISM DETERMINATION OF LOCAL EARTHQUAKES IN MALAY PENINSULA AND ITS IMPROVEMENT

Discussion on the Findings of Master Paper

Objective and Expected Output


A c t i o n f o r S h o r t Te r m ( i n 2 m o n t h s ) A c t i o n f o r M e d i u m Te r m ( i n 6 m o n t h s )

Presented by SITI NORBAIZURA BINTI MAT SAID


ADVISOR DR. TATSUHIKO HARA

A c t i o n f o r L o n g Te r m ( i n 2 ye a r s )

38

Discussion on Focal Mechanism of Local Earthquakes in Malay Peninsula


Issue : The relationship between the faults in the study area and the focal mechanisms obtained in this study is not clear.

Objective and Expected Output


Effective to improve the T o p e r f o r m r e l o c a t i o n o f t haec c o c a c y o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e l ur l feni l ul c e a r t h q u a k e s i n t h e M a l a y P o c an sm ea h a n i s m o b t a i n e d . T o d e t e r m i n e f o c a l m e c h a nF s ma o fm e c h a n i s m s w i l l b e ioc l l o c a l e a r t h qaunaakl e s b y M a t ysed more reliable when using ( 2 0 11 ) b y u si n g m o r e d a t a . o r e d a t a . m T o d e t e r m i n e f o c a l m e c h a n Ii m m r o v e s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p of l o c a l e a r t h q u a k e s r e c o r d e d fi n e i s m i c a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s o s J e r a n,tM t n j u a n d K u P li aa h ua ng a l . region. To i n s t a l l t e m p o r a r y s e i s m i c s t a t i o n s M fri o w i t h i n a d i s t a n c e o f 1 0 0 k m o n o tm r s e i s m i c a c t i v i t i e s i n and around Malay Peninsula epicenters.

Action for Short Term (in 2 months)


ACTION To set up environment. EXPECTED OUTPUTS All software/ materials required for relocation and focal mechanism determination are fully installed. ACTOR Master degree students
Staff with ITcomputer related backgrou nd

A c t i o n f o r M e d i u m Te r m ( i n 6 m o n t h s )
ACTION E X P E C T E D C T O RN E C E S S A R Y M P O R T A N T A I OUTPUTS INPUTS ASSUMPTIONS

NECESSARY INPUTS Guidance from experts (IT and seismology)

IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS Environment can be set up in the workplace of Malaysian National Tsunami Early Warning Center (Geophysics and Tsunami Division).

T o p e r f o r m H y p o c e n t e M a s t e r G u i d a n c e P r o c e d u r e r r e l o c a t i o n ol f c a t i o n s o fe g r e e f r o m e x p e d tess c r i b eF a b ty o the d r d t local t h e l o c a l s t u d e n t(D rN a b u o e t . a l ( 2 0 1 1 ) c a n s earthquakes arthquakes e Hurukawabe applied to 2007 ( 2 0 0 70 0 8 ) , b n t h e M a l F y tet t . af lr o m I I S E E n d 2 0 0 8 M a l a y -2 i y aa a, u s i n g t h e MP Hn i n s u l a ( 2 0 1 1 ) B R I ) . Je D are Peninsula events. and t h e i m p r o v e d .w h o HYPOCENTER analysed program. R e l o c a t i o n2009 i m p r o v e s te vee n t s . h accuracy of the results of the focal mechanism on the study region.
6

Action for Medium Term (in 6 months) -cont


ACTION To retrieve threecomponent short period data for four Bukit Tinggi events which analysed by Mat Said (2011). To retrieve threecomponent short period and/or broadband data for Jerantut, Manjung and Kuala Pilah earthquakes.
7

A c t i o n f o r L o n g Te r m ( i n 2 y e a r s )
ACTION E X P E C T E D C T O R N E C E S S A R YI M P O R T A N T A OUTPUTS INPUTS ASSUMPTIONS

EXPECTED OUTPUTS Data from at least two stations with opposite location from epicenter are obtained.

ACTOR Master degree students


Staff who are familiar with Antelope 4.10 system (Mr Afiq Zhofri and Mr Devadas s).

NECESSARY INPUTS

IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS

Guidance Enough data is from expert(s). available for determination of local earthquakes.

T o d e t e r m i n T h e r e s u l t s a s t e r G u i d a n c e A m e t h o d o f u s i n g e M f o c a l m e c h a a ri e m n s d e g r e e f r o m e x p e rpt o l a r i t i e s a n d s o f f o u r B u k i c o m p a r a b l e t u d e n t (sD T a t s u h i k o p l i t u d e o f s h o r t t s r am T i n ge v e n t s w i t h M a t S a i d gi H a r a , I I S EpE , r i o d a n d / o r e a n a l y s e d M a t( 2 0 1 1 ) . by BRI). broadband body S a i d ( 2 0 11 ) . waves data can be applied to the data To d e t e r m i n F o c a l e retrieved from the f o c a l m e c h a m iescm a n i s m n h Antelope 4.10 f o r J e r a n, t u t s o l u t i o n s o f system. M a n j u and ng J e r a n, t u t K u a lP i l a h a M a n j u and ng e a r t h q u a k e s K u a lP i l a h a events are obtained.
8

Action for Long Term (in 2 years)-cont


ACTION To install temporary seismic stations to monitor seismic activities in the Malay Peninsula. EXPECTED OUTPUTS The accuracy of the earthquake parameters determined by the Antelope 4.10 system will be improved. ACTOR Master degree students.
Staff who are familiar with seismic system and network.

NECESSARY INPUTS Budget from the Government.


Expertise on installation.

IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS Financial support for installation of temporary seismic stations is available.

Thank You

To observe the quality of the The focal reading data from mechanism temporary station solutions will be better resolved when more data available.
9

10

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