liepubtrc tbelpl;f ot iippnuc (f-iingle BBot tbe{8}jilippi rnr

*

#enstr
SITTi].IGAS AN IMPEACI]I,4 []I{T'COUR'J'

IN TFIE MATTER OF THE IMPEACI{MENT OF II.JiI\ATO C.

jUSrrcE oF conobrA AS CHIEF
THI] SUPI{.EME COUJT]' OF THE PH.I]-IP}'{i{ES.
Casei\o. 002.-?0-L i

' REIJRESEhiTATIVES I',ITEI, C. TUP.AS, JR. JOSEPH I1i:llLiO A. ABAYA, TORENZO R. 'i'At'{Ana UI, REYNALDO V. UMALI, ARLENE J. BAG-i\O (other complainants comprisinl,r ai least one third (1/3)of the total t\4c:nbers of tlie'I{orise of Represeniatives as a r ei r r d i c ai e cl th e C o l n ;ri .i i n t), in
Complsitrrttt.i,s, x-----"------

i._iVI L,tEniIORANF_! (Ort Article ]tr of the Verifj*d C*mpla i,:'iLi
jj.ance CLLief JusticeRenato C. Lk:rona ("CJ Corona"),1;;\,counsel,il contrr, with the I-{oncrablc Court's direcfivr: fol the parties to file iireir lt:spectii'r,: rir::rinor:arldurn on whether complai.nants' trlcsentation of evidence 'ro pro:,'e CJ Cc,, ^ra's supposed unlar'r'fuliy acquired weaiiir goes beyond the ch;iiqe corrtainecl jn ,,rllticle II of the "Verified" Complaint fol i.nrpcachment (the "Con-11.;laint"), lespccif ii1l.,, statesthat:

i.

'llhe

,rbiection CJ Coror,;' continutiLr;,; of

righi,s trnteedby Arti i.;J [I l , ai1.: r grla

ARTICLE

III

Bill of Rights SEC|ION 1. No persoir shall be deprivedof life. hl-.r:rrl, propciiri'.-,i-iror-rt or: due of lar.r.,, shali an)/ i)cr:rLrn denied the equal rt;:r.rteclir,,ii thc ia...;;. nor be ll.toccss of *** SEC]'ION 14' (1) No pctri.)rt shall be held to afls\r,er: a criminai i:,fr-cr;,:,vithout ior due processof larv. (2) in all cr:[:rinai ptosecuLLi()rlri, accused shall be 1r....esurnecl ll1e i1rno.-.,',. ultil the co11r*nry lrioved, and shali r;rrjor. is the right to be heii:,- :i hmrself anci l,(r,,:1,,e,i. be to infolned oi ihe ilafure afld r.:,iir:;.r &e accusationaEaii:ii liim ,i ' oi

2. Irl

tlis

casc. tl-reComplaint €xpreis:rir,pi:ovides dr;: gr:ounds for

irnpeachunent, uiTr;

"{iiii0li-i{D S FOR IMPEA d -rMIli\,jl l-r RESPONDENT I"illjllthYED TFIE PUBTli.t T1itisr, col,ii,,JirrED CULPABLE VIOLATIO}.I OF THE CONSTITL]I'|OF{, I.I\ID GILIi.-i'';AND CORITUPTION IN TFIE JIO_T.&OWING MANNEB;
x{<*

ARTICLE Ii RESPONDENT CTiXN,IITTED CULPABI,]J \,'ICI.-ATIOhI J.-Ii.' THE CONSTIT'UTION AND/(iI{ 1IHTRAYED THE I.}trtiLIC TitUST $ilLllflJE

FAILrc

LIAIILITIIIS AND NEl'\\/iljtllH AS REQUIRED '.TNDl:i,i{ it', SEC^ ,,iitT. XI OF T'FIE1987 CONSTITLi'ii,OI'.t. (Ernphasis supplirc.i)

.i Ii,Lliru]:\Tlri{

ENT*{111.-\i$ETL

3. r\ rsadlng of drr: eiroveArticie of Impi:r.chncl[, as r::ii,cr'i:r1v wriften by comi:iainrtnl.s themselves, ir.nci accentuated br:,ii and capital lcii.,rsrn pages11in ',,'rr-.iui'tionthe L3 or the Complaint expicsjslvchargesCJ Corc,rr:r cr-rlpablrr of of Constituuon and/or beL:ri'ai of public trust u'lri:',i he failecl io .ijs,:loseto the pubLichis Siatementof 1\:ssi:rs, Liabilities and Ner-\i'orih iiiA]-li).

'.;ti,l,:,;rt Ariicle II on l\'.it,tt;,t

f'age 2 of 2l

.'1'1IE DECLA-RATION stIAL.i lriic li.f2l ..i. Section L7.1-13 (pp.iil-rliclds S7\LN.IN THE C. 6.ii: does li. r and 5' 'Io emphasiT.:i'. 2. Ar:ucieJI is.r the Complaintwhi.'rSE CIFTHE ):Ii):r|DENT.cclto the supposeci tailur:c.TD OFFICERS '.lc I.:.iii':cl to disclose to the 1.'. .r" iraragaFir5.R Oal'FJ Or I{IS ASSE'IS... Cornplaint). complainants only chargeCJ Corona firr. LIABILITIES AND NrnT\X/ORTH.r\s rnentionr.r.e)l:r-rticle the Grouriels IIof fol:Impe:rr:i:r.ii iE AIti.iIlD Iit.l'.rSS.se SALN to $c lrul-.onstiirl{i.rer1t 1.:f Cl disclc". SU]JI!{I'T A DECI-ARATICJI UNNJ:.itilr.. on Arliile II Page3 o..llrrD AS oFTEN l'l-tnREAtrfER AS li.oronaoL ii. t.ir..i..i..does not tirrcuse Coronaof corrrrnittir..T. 17 A Puul. liabiliues and net iv...Lr in ai decj:Lles th:.h as required bv the Cc.1ic.I.1-N.. TI{}ri (IOI\'STITUTIONAL COI\:{MISSirl. Ciearlv.ii rloes .. This is reiterated par.l61gr:a. potren r-realth CJ and.<. TFIE r/ICE-'PRESIDENT.:/r17 il.'l'itli I\tEMBERS CABIj{I:.}li'tIER } CON$TITtI"IIONAI OFFI(li:iS..l :J*lge him of unclcrvaliiing discloslii 1lr:ciperties his SAI-l'.nr:t chargeCi Corona of failing to disr:lL. AI. iris supposedfailure to . c]ralg..r (..r imp1.irici.r. his i{.rti.opertiesin his SAI ri. Ar1.AW.r_: 22 Respondent r. i)l: assets... ijrovir-Lrr:.iiih.ully acquited wc. tire in NJ. THE SUPIillIvItr COURT. the GroLrfidsfot Impcrrr:irinent does not chal1.e him of inaccutate disclosure oi'' pi. sl-r.rse propeties in his -s.ft corml) l 1(ii.. of the Grounds for-irlpeeellneflr. as requircdunder Sectiol 12.Artic..ri..i.y BE REQUIRED BY I-41P.yj.ui...:lll {.-:.JII]t PROVIDED FOR E\' J.icX-i of the 1987 Consirtcrtioi-.-i-upoN ASSUMPTION oF oFFICti .i-La tO :.s statei.r: l- sEC.lc OFFICER oR EiriirI-oyiil:..'1.] i].4].r..tr-tS OF $/i't'H GENI]RAL oR FLAG RANli. lu. oF TItE Cor\fijl<l. Aticle XI of tht: 1987 (_..4.ri.icle II of iJ..NS.g CJ gr:rii r. or accumulation of utrlrtrv.ljr.:.o 1b.:'. tJrus. lti'ti'*.i:IE Dlijrll {rsiiD To TFIE PUIJLICIN THE n[Ai.. corruption.:r r.iisclose.

r..c.:. para. ' ' l .3 2. .j rr{ lJ.::iuesanti Lri: accounts with hugc (Lrl')osits.1 Conrplaint.. .iis Stlfeineni .. . ..(-.. .2. however-. .J..r i il s. contaa{yto i. tnd.lrclaii-graft and com:pt pf.:. XI. that alicgations rr_.r\rticle of the "Grourds {bi. .: that the ....uibiic disc.r.r. .4 ate ineteh.i:rrr.t.... ...:'Ls iie is consit11. r ' r.itte:r.L. Its is arguedlrt.i:rc1 supl:orted by his iflc:t>r'rrc a public official?Sircc his r. are therefor:csupposedto discussrind exiriain -.i.Lepofts. ..r r r r r e n f at the Fort in Tagr-riq I. llcr:po:rcient is likewise Suiipc(t ted rt.i'. has beenrepori.1.1..Tas reported this.e thrt: 2..:nllaint) These paraqraph:. [Jcsides.r.:.i. [o*nlainants t]rat uricicrpai_lrgfaphr.ciices i-rct.ate a:. .l that itespoilcirrii i r. II 9.onrplaint) are true r." ar.ssumpri. F .....nnd net rvolth in violadon o1'. (. a r i*n o l ^*" -6 "^ B. accntnulatediJl-gottcl r:v..rj)ht..the charge sr:ccinctly madejLr.c.'jrichhave supplcio6.rr: retlrJrefirt.-...l.lnperrri.losule? (Emphasrr srr1:p licd) . ciuly .'le:lge. ov/ri r<r." (Paqe 13.. r 1 S a n d Liabrlities and Ner wo::rl (sArb|? Is this ulrluisi1.. i i' oi the constitution irr r. .:soci..." (Scc-.: onArtlc/s II Page 4 o.. (. .-i're ihe proper:lies of the of Respondent afe not iLrcludedin his declaration .cation cl"the Complarn:rr.:L a in a \rforll l]iopcr.. i " ^ A i .rr. J:asecl .. t.. and subsequently.4 deemed .rIIA .ce..hejoint verifi.L' Courr. r'. emoflg It other:s.dre allegarions therein (th..lS.ijoi e:ipafld . 3. 10.iorL sr-rsL:.t l\ [. 300-sq..4 of the ?. ." The "reports" a"nd"suspicionl. he urxle:: Art.:i . they aiso aljrr.:i: oul.|.)A L.ri acc i.3 and2-.i2l .ealso contraryto i-i..inp1aint naust be oit "ultimate facts.3' h is also repoted that so.2.rrJ the Rdes of i.. It must be i:otrrteci out...hi3f lusti.i .: in .has he conLi-.. sec-..rTr(ifc1-irpaL:tment posh NIcr.. and r-)r-] and "susiticiorl". Ituie 3). afe not tri. apptcation.r: ...f Lris ii:ijetsr hairllir.. Being i-rreicvxiri_.e:rLth.... 1. acquiring assetsoi iligh r.l:Ltthcse par::ri1:llhs fall Lrndef "Discussicln of the Gior-inclsfor Impeachmeil. hearsayand bascri on 2. .treC 5r{t his ei.

. and the place * hele the offense was cotrrlr ri.../en by dre statute. a]l oj.. corrsrimtiflg be stirted in uscci in the 9' Cau.rri to of the nature and ciruse of the acclts?ltion against hjm. Sffinatttl.11.-:.rr:.vhat offenseis being chil:'lr:cl as 1.1 jlrocedure are exp]dclt.al tlie allegations unc1i. Nos. .^fjl.1 and agglavating circumsi^uce and for the coult to prc....i cr_. Sec.ar1y.6 Pi.. insteaCi-lratir.i ncc.r CrjnLLr-:..rrrurlce".-.lr:z. cha. r.r ..irl lrot r:itten.l-r. Pl:i.1i.nr:eritted more than ctre by shall be lleltso[.i:r-. includecl in the cornl i[r irrt ol information.i illtc ttct'tttation. statute i..the approximate clrtte of ihc colrr-. the offe*se..i'LL'e of the accusedl the crcsiErar-rcil of tjrc (..ii:.]-itble an causeto suspect"th:rt accused has c-oniaittedthe crime.Considering i.eci.is the constitirrlon:rl right of the accri...ir.. utK: Sec' 6. the narne of the offenclecl 1...ir:tlnv:. in terms sufficient to clal:le. cr-h mllst ordinal)' .i peLsc)rr l..trzrt clefenclant I h I'e?.lAn informatic-'nwhich alleges lhat-a defendant is ".l:re gr. LYLc\7das. ii.-tt...: rri: of.jrria of r:cnirnitteclan offense (rnerely stating ii'i_ but which does not Cirecri. par.ruc.i..1n* r1.inissions cornplainecl oi :rsTons:rtuting ilie i.sittcment of accusation 14.. * of as the offciise ai-ic1 the quali$ing ancl r.irl 2...cd iri: infiiln.29 1972 ciang C'.:l.iccLrsecl" har. infottiladon is bad if it is statcil [hat "lirere is .r. AS 12'The provisions of Rule 110 of the lt...-.:fr{r-aphsi r.y Lhr.r* cilc."lias... July .i. .* crnmitit. The acts ur.fiensc.ianguage Ii'1t.l conrmJn unclelstanding to lurou'.i..... t\':'t. with it is though sr-rch allegationslr:._ t L .uluri ont lrlic/eII Page 5 of21 .rcr.i. ornislions coi:ir.rssarily r'r il .:.r t-.. it is lecess. Lr.L-235-i2-76.\ compiaint c..l l.ei:e should be feasonable certainty in thc .irs jrrcigmeni. Wleen an offense i.Lti.rri.r .. U.':l:. the acts t.lri.trcl concise language ^n.:cprt're..Lle or..:.tion -is sulficient if it states tlrc i.4 of the ir 2 Corirplaint are not in acr:or:c1:ince what thc: iau' 01 pleacliirl." i s l . : .T'hus. tf'ccnzp/aintor infomzatiorr.rc been made oi .

.conrmitted the offensc" is insufficient.. Og Peo..\.:iri inav be satisEed.i 'r'o Tlrc object of this ri'r i(i. CFI Batanga4 1.J.226(1904)..ri.:..:.ri'ilr:rr offense chalir. for an r.lL rva:onab/e pa771.: ihe exact offense which iLc accLr:^i:cl r. In o::iii:i: 'Jrat rlie reqiiilcrr.rsecl with such a discretion ol: tlir: cirarge against him rs r. lllc-re allegation jrt ili.i.citecl Bernas. !:r.he accused. sFranciscc'.i. 3 Phil." t\itulil.. irr lrLv.rr.: 9B SCn-i\730.s a valicl i.gs11law. i.. sad to sri.lrrl. C)tt::' that ilL.rines--:\ Con:..r:nt nust conlritt a specifc a//egilllt of ewrlt and circuns/.i ..lirr rnationalleging oiriense. :lret are cF imprited to him as "i i is pr:esumed to have no iirdeperllclrt lino. CriminalPtocedurc.:S.able tequi..rrli:.. Seealsc.l i..l.1. not sl:isfied..: in relation to his ofiri:. the I of the ircclrl:g1lrs official d.Llj show of tl:rc clcse intimacy lr.'i.r.rlitl:r-rl t'lrat the charge be sr:'Lir.:.a..:Lri'.:1lt thlr_ ri. nantes(plaintiff arril dcfr:ndant) and tirctlmJta.1-. since rhr. 'I'ircr .r.-'l:ralie his de{cnse and second.. et i28096.-r. t'i. tl-acsan lixeut/lt)t 'it))9.ge (Emphasis suIlr liecl) d..:::)/ mt of crilll: is ma.riir ..may decide whetlrel rhey lr.1.cjrai facts of cOflbtitul'l:ri:' the acts . i Dh-::ase is rrlercly a conclusiori 1.:e.{. u.'rth such definitenessarci C€Lt..ir-r. ihat the accused be irri'r'. such ir:u.'..rt htt .ill eirrble hjr-lL i.lo.:rr-lore.E..-ri. o .t i/cr...:i and .'i-his was explrLred jn U.it.r/t."5 Thc sttingent requir.retfoth in the conp/ailii .i3..r.'ritten accusations cannor L.:tcs:tilrT for commi:.:iie-. therclorc.C. .ir.. i:.pubbc c'lJicr. of ecl...s111.rnish r-h.v..-e tbat thc.ionfor the same cause l' i(l tl:iir-.g I .. 739 li.lth ri.lrrection against a further plosr'cL. citingState Ne/sott. not a fact.ls Jobson.32NW650. 1..li..Lirrr. ..In shc.ely.'.1<.i:rl1erlv as rvil i:easonably indicar.iiilrl to enable the accused i-o prepare for trirLl...i..r .:l1if.rftcts mil[t bc .-..ons ltr./.r.he cii:r_.. p. io rlvail himself of his conr-ic:icin ol:iccluittuil lo::l..c ovcrtctlphali::r:ci. Laltado. ir'dispenr. SCR*A.). .cd in -B.: charge in arl informaion must be riraile-rx.It lras been hciri jr.1. u.ii.l.iltted by t. 386. \Iol...:o [{cnse. T'heRevised Rulesof Cour. 223.t time.987 Constitution the PirLtr.79 u.l. ci'. It is essential.:... 77.: 1.ir.i/t!r/i Arliile II on Page 6 of 2l .20Janual. .::enrcn1.1r.linr.'1.lirLt.ln..: /6 7'6111.e sufficitir. of p/at'e. t..l):..jc u.t IlLi rrirne fact chat. 11s SCRA (1982)..i'i i-o have is coinmitted in relatiori to ius officewas.-: rLmended information il-i:rL tire cri:ilense \.l..p./J. u.. Senrtary a/. .re the of facts that constitute rlr.t lf cerltain acts and intent thesenril. coult of io thc fhcts alleged so i.::rnecl thc irci:...irr.r the Karatongpahit...r-lc. 'Id.1 be stated not hyp o tlreucaJly or argumc r) f.3BB.. infol.ii]r.i.. ir.r.. u..2Furthc.it must follow thzit t.: The noble object oi: t'. the eo'.:rr :rccusad.lril aveli. in r'.'to rt suDPort a convictjon jL oLrc should be had. conc/usions law.125. r'j ilj.. '-j-".he cji.r is nci sLrfficieri.-r. z() l)ecembri i )-. rYt: 1..tt.:.arge r1rr.

li..r lirc garneis tail pla-rr.t' tr.l it ir.i :.jl-ri i.l.iri:.rtnit. l. ..255 SCIi. :le II Page 7 o.h.v to appil::i: ihe accused.:i ilirelligibjc iL:irns-"vithsuch in particuiar:it. iot a marrer In .rlrl ilccezised Conrnrissioner Bautistrt.li-.1.i-lIiluiated i11$ottcil u'caith.iarpt to estrLUsh "prima :::..t_annot allow a lega1 skilrnish where.'.Nos.rrnetl conjecfutes and poss. nor./i::....rsed sL:-l.Sancligartlsa1an.i:iied.t .omp"rr.:cific allegation oi cr.ciclicts or judgments upon llLrc:sses surmises.'tt'rir.'149 63.r..r the eyes of the C.t (!i/lii ott Arl. 154098.. I-rtLt ilct carr:r.R...6 JusticeLaurel'swords..ii.i iras ri:ri *_ At bes! tLrc i-rere testimonies of Di Do:r-.rlrir.cular fact. il:i.v as accused.c L-iirrt ihat cmbrLl<s upon it is t-. acquiriir.'el..:f the pafllculal:lt.. 17.t-rl3..Dcla Costa andReyq |Ll. .locl.rl..'Ihe test is rvlict1reithe act is describe.'' ..riniere uncouoborated specLililrjonsor suspicions insci':ir as t.R.f justicr.'91"grlrusts t. .Lr to jr-rstr$. iiot tlir.. ytL:1dnotfi.) Spr.accused..rtrli:r.i:r-rr-rdder oi.'llhe use of pa::iii.i-lcl without.ii.prepare the to his defense. No.t)loie.r.cr i.-.r..l3S (1996).1(r.r .i.l' es$ets of high vah-lc. ii:ir.r.e dy Occo ('. iriir. citngA.liranfu IIon. frc. r...tryan.wofds Jike....r.. the met:t: si-rspicion that the r:cspo|r-ient c(:.: ilrce to tesljnony vhjch in itsctf is insuificient to estabtr.i!t l.lli1l.igld themselves up in ffrattcl of rir.. of guessrvorJi.llrucessAl:.:ri.. u.-rce a or arr of parti.'. The . coriveys iri.'reporicil.j:"'crrsc dre against SIPALA\.tri."f 2l .ly.\fi/ith rear-onabii: certa:ili ."T riarnc i.suspcc.i)ecenil.G.e (Em. ruleis to enable ti:Leaccr.r::ihe atenawith 1.r rhe statt.i. {orrnd a by rnere surmise or conjecture.r.1094:i.:.ir-nstance and fact to consdfirte gaft rirrti corruption or accurrirlalior of ili \\realth. for "liic sca of suspicion has :io shor:.lrc PCGI.r.ancl il... 4+1.rrl:t.reepini: i.l!)4'Repabltc .' Blnfraatnote46citrlgRepub/icu...:ot forLlplal.. i.i..rrJ.sissr-rpohed) or u.loirL.'. courts are not pcrrnittc:i to reni-ti:ri.ficient.ilities.. \\':. "the administ:r"tionc.Sandignr. In iL." -\. the offense offense charged' -lr'heraison d'ehv <:1.. 'Infraat 46 ciiurgGa (1!i.Emphasis su1.S. zrrx1i. Suspicion cairirot giii: probrii\.i1r. ?r . uf afiy coruts of justice tr.The Suprenlit{.2001.ed e:t. 27 J/. OneOf the one 21r'm to his back. G. .nk accounts with huge deposits is iri:.2r.ir other rvorcls..r\ c r ^|it L. .

.r. Su1rrcrneC. 5..ved by the Rules of Col.ls tlee complaint sL:Ljj contirir in a i:rr::r-r: ..l. 891'l'l.12 of 20. upon the existeri..iredients a of complainr.i.a... n i i a n r '' PhiljFpirrc LrL-. defendant..ird right and .'. omitting the 'i-:Lten'e. u.lt.:ial i:.rrie facts which J Lre i...l rvliich the plaintiff telies {'c..veil is definerl irr irhrlippinelaw.Cn certain grourrds reilardirrg alleg./t ria r iftcd.rr-..'u'fhe rel-l:l iror-rld based be .: u e A complai't is clcii'ed as A concise sl.r..111r.rcleni_eicr ij\.cal and logrcal fortn a plain. No..rr.. Scc. r.r iiis clain.irt.g. t1.tire cause of acion l'csts.i.ons pieadings.l o n .r. J i .2 D ecember!r!r1.r jn Tantuito a....irlrce on the triai urill 1r:.Liuting the piairri.Luse causes of actlon.3..R.ri.ri.i3 June 1994... legaliyinsufficiciii e!'c'r undei Ll. on ultinraie facts.: and ditect statemeltr r.I1_gctten weaith Levr:zrls easilydisccrnjb1eCistinctionsbetrv. or traversible lhcts essentiai to the :. thc.r.i."vhicheither make up the tn nrin. r u *ie issuable.constifutivc i:icts.r'. .18'Pars..lir:. tt:t litit it:i t.pr.. const-ituive.. uiq.cmcilr c. direcdy form the wroi-igFri acts or o mi ssl o rs in procedural lari' 'iiat " areimportar:' .. (t2.inol deteiminr. esseli. 01.3 and'.t:ttemcnt of ti.. 1 !1k i s a .jclence nol...i .r-i tL -a ^ L r.f the .2.Llseof acrion: the facts wlich the evir.-1.irich. 70612{).il:. or .te. I . 1{u-1e Sec.epit/ic oj'i lL Phi lippi ne. alloi...la Liric al_i cil...i. in l3.lired to provtr riic ciristence those lirr.:r. . 6.. toRules of Couri. Jtuies arc of civil Procedu:.lc facts conr.lt.The notion o{'uiiintate and evidentiar.i..Vlagtcli.L(i lir.tt The uldl. No.hc Iiulcs of C.. : r l .rc:':: .723PI.':ii on.i.f thc L. "Id..LL'fsc."rrlentiary iacts as u'llc{ej:slood the elloritzrble in pleadings of r.i) br: i.r-r..i:t.. '"Ja/ita u. G. coni:is.-:tn r-rltjnateanii :.. Rrrl.r' iiLcts.:lii.c. '. 13G. r:.eof v...Jurisl_.r Dictronary.i.itnatc r. on o.i..zlrti& II Pctge8 c-f2l .viric6 wili lre Lr.r_.citations 11.ir" 11^ t. "ff. of lTrci.:i. ciungRenti/tru Yulo. 2. 1 transposed.

accused.L1 play \)i.'crclicts or judgments upon tlr..ancl ijrc i-iruli that embrr::hs upon it is r-jtirc.iiing 46 Go Ouo dr (.. acquirirr..eepiiiii i-... iiecenilrc:.ilities.rnlulated i1gottitn u'calth.rcd.rutl corluption or acclrfn. Nos.sis or srrtulied) 6.r:.i:r '149(..(_-.:.Id. i6e arena with one arm tred to his back.r. ctnng.e lorce to testirnony rvhich in iiscjF is rnsufficient to estabj-isli gs jLrstr$.Sanrligattlta1an. i 0943i: no 46 lic )e 2t\ 'Repilblic u.rct canrrpl iir fi:und by lnere surmise clr conjecture.:ii:ir of afly courts of justice tti 1.icl.1tccifi.'.\..sll..ot gii' i: probrilr. tti. ..ii other rvorctrs.retestimonies of ...'ir..rrj..rii.f i:r of guesswor-1c.the mei:c sr-rs1:icionthat the lespotrcient ((t.ri-.6 InJustice Laulcri'srvotds. 154098.13.'. "the adminisi.The Supremri_.'':ii. his defeilse.prepare o1.rr..-l .iras At bes! thc i-ra.l.No.f the offense charged. In r.l. shol.. G. witlout fiior^e)conveys ir..rnai ..r.e(Enrr.'llhe use of pa::iiL. Do:r-. for "ilLc scir of suspicion has 1.an irfe. . ir:ilns with such particuiar:itlras to apprisl ihe accused.ilrnpt to establj. SCII.'. Emphasis su1.idirni on Arltirie II Page 7 o-f2l .r-iltion justii-:r: liit a matter t.ir.-.r::kaccounts with huge deposits is irir.r..ilsts e1.. andRgte4 L)irL4. c-annot allow a legal skirrnish where.rrlaior-i ili of lre2lth..:.l.200i.e:_.ut -rudderor compass.16'The test is wltctJlel tire act is descrjbe..sh the "prima iacii:" ceseagainstSIPALAY.!)1r "_Infmat t..G.or.... 'Iu|rgatnoi.li.. one of the protago."7 The n^me c.:.Si.r1 particular fact.Sand'ignit.R... niere uncglgborated specr-ileionsor suspicionsinsoi:r: as tirc pcc.-cinablc certariii.i: assets of high valr-rcsanci i..rL:r rtrllri :rii _ . -. .rmittcJ to rerrrilr .i. Suspicion cai."A.-1it iri iiot ttrrr:l:. courts are not p. udth reil..R.27'.r.i-:.De la Costa 63 lti.i tl:i'.Dr:.f3S(1996).i .i\_-iltstance and fact to consdnrtegraft.r'in i:i'rteiligriri.'iii.G :i.e citing REwb u. viL-ic-i il noth..t rhc statt.r metl colliectures and por.r:iied..t' 17.-l!1 i-nr. 1'he rcisond'eh"e the nile is to enable tiLe accuserlto sLlirbl1.icient.game is fair plarr.. frc.lr:ceased Comrnissionel Bautisrl-:r. the eyes of the Co..\[irairiu u.I!..e c.{lepolic.r-rltrwords like "suspci.l..I]on. !]at a f.rir.fi. i..1ltL-ccssal:.'. r:ot Lcr.tcsses sutmises..ic14 themselves up in mrtlri of rirlil i..c allegation of c:-.ryan.255 .-.rrirce of a ..

rriiLl be absurd if r..rlit powers of goverrunei...ott wl:ich the plaintiff relies tci :rllppolr his dc.i-rc 2.s with grave and scariii:ilous ill.-.'fi me a n d a g a i i r.-trlrst rind oi.irrllurce what the i.2'l!). 17 Decembet20.\...:rlrrrr: ri sleould sttrretlle theory of rt .. 1l':i .G.r.R.... 4 September leRepublit .rd mer:u stilijricion and spr:.1n Repultlic u.r.i:nrnulation of ili-gottclt .i S helcithatchali:lc:i ir aseclonr ner e suslriciorlt)nd speculatiriii cl..le Fligh Corin had tlic i. :^ii 1to'tzef of ll ancl in btazen viohiii.n . C.k.1. they are iust th.renot jn accrr.f Court.t. Rul.^.:ir r"realth..ce.riririi:t of all rLrematedal facts. cpotability and they evrrf^r.dtit'g'i) 10 d 2.::trt fl. Bui.i. incurnbelt ChiefJusticc oL tLrcSupreme Court.i.irnot be given cr(:t"lrr. C.""unji-r:.. The 66mFiaintsirould ilfonn tLr: c.. p.:B.ribrlri rhe defl:i:ilrirLi xba4y arrcl definitely of tlic r:lulirnsmade against hiirr so thrt he gpir.aiions as public oi{cei.sr.\otcs c\ Conulents.ait. not to mention tlat il ivts populist to flaunt thcl:c statelricnrs iir r-lie I' ...i 2009. Jest t:.vealr.lrritiT's of ciaim 2 1 .1.l11 ii . al1 thci'hzLve potential trrL:cll:r." are cssv airil e:i:1.Sec. 'rDe s .Vol. :.. -]...he base.onsidering1|:rr t.i.Ntr. L'r1... ' . sj sfcmadc plan to acciimularc ill-gcrt.'rristo oust an ni..) '".-cc". 22.:.r(1 iL vaLir-lir.i9. Ifacts.i.::Irarei to meet the issues irl rllc tdal.ii.:.:rtrscof actionwhich forms 1.iiis ev-i.. "enrb^Ll<ed upol1 .rsationsby generalizlrtion. 23"'To be sure...e i:i. i"jiirpc]seor functiorr is tc i. p.:.f2l .it' ori lrleaclr:i.4 of the ':r--irp it ic ac s. allegationsunclel Daralrriaphs .lil.11 ' oI jixltl|lty. II Page 9 o.t6trts office. [. \'rttrlnrtnbaJarc.ii. i i el 9 B O s . 63F) . 1986t:ti.t)re upr em eCour thr .:r.: passiorr vritli i.C1arv* oblii'. ri. r o q A . No.r ii11rlr.Lrlliionviould be Ltc.+ of the constitution ai:ii iil-.:-.:.ioi54.'..l i:...ision to rrile the uporrgenej:al accusations fr:llo'uvs: rs ''in Phrases lihe tlagrant breach of put-lJr..rr:'Lrg'gestions of grafl and corflrption ancl :r.1.tl:e 1.er. iia|U. t.. f." "auogaLed unto him.' they fiiec1the Verified Crrrnpln"intof the ultimat:'fzLcts c()ncer-rjr..l with 'oIrl. ' .rr::. r.t'LripJainants lack of an.-s.:i Conrlriair:it ir. SanLiillnbEtan.St.i.tcrrart._.. G.Gr.lltflton Aritk i. lrN{artin..

ffect.-ornui:unant-* i.. i:. on its owil) already exposcs the defect in the (-iirnpil.. '.i. irLll-ocluction evidencc drat \lou-1c1 of rti.hich shor'rldbe based ofi per..:.' ltroduces no l. 26' What is bl.:tr contains ^ ver:ificatiori based on 'initrt:Lilltion and beJie{' rrr Lr1-roLr "kno.rrr-Lv obvious is that '.l:iliinowledge.rJ:eno not 'foof thzrl cotrld be offereci..i. itnandate in procedutal iar..:r.r 1:1.i.ii.rg tlre trial' Hencc]. !.cientuillesauur:. these i.hentic rjr.ns and conjectL:rcscontained in par:al. 5ecilor. ri i il.1 . u.rsr fimeio l-)...ihs a:nd.m onArtiLk II i'age I0 o.i.2.:r utili:.r been made cr: rvdtle.l:.nlajnt not in do conlain uitimate facts.fr.i must not be allor. l(ule /.. i.s and subpoenapower to gatir... 25..ri.epor.lli..(-.s1-)i:ri1 lurowledge or autlir::r*ic rr:cr:rds.r1ilorL r.sue of nondisclosureof SALIJ. on much less on aut.. on tlLr:lrasisof insuffi. This....r.iL:ii.ich less accepted c.-.. ilcct-eci.fencefor the vcr'' f.3 arci l. there is no aiicgatir-.rapirs 2.lt.ri the instant Complaiilt based on ma.t.i.thorrghtrr-rch ailegatiorl irii\ri.ri_.:eeclirgs1:.3 thaL corrld be consicletori .ir pa:mti.20 2T.3 dn.2...s rireir pi:isr:.s.s paragraphs2.r.ted" alcl ":j. .trc.Complainantsclir-j not base their char.t prove the to speculatic..ab1e Court.rl at the.f2l .l r.ii.ti.i.erate belatecl.ii i:i::rjeci Complaint. l..J'ctsciy put.ave ?rln r I(ules o j Lou:1.:.'l.rs uliimate facts whir:lr rreeci Lr: be i)i.cunrents.ise oi tlfs iii.s nrhich were merely ":i.ate. . f .zed. irr! evirlence duri.]r.T'he allegatior..:j.rf the i-..lri.rlant's vc:rriicadon. t.v that a "pleading required to be vei:ifieci . cr.'i-.)rre rheir case.".. and to Cj (]orona's extreme pr-crrudice.-Lformetion and lrciicl.4 in 2. lJnfortunz[el1r..rt.. This no-v explains their cjc"cj. the time tlri:)..

::.i:.r:.rcn thc: incling.ii.[.sl'..rrr i:.-::. .c.23Factarn or probans. .:r'cnni. *tire judge conducfing thc c.srrould. the oiirer lri-. ....3. wt.rce it is asccrtained that thc i:r"iclcuce insufficient to su.'ti: Page II ttf 21 ' li p . : ' / . .illie Or: tllat is no probable cause cxisr. c.:i...rtlrin lr 1. . irnperative upon the fiscll or the jirdge ai.:-..tis clearthat tirc orily fact in issueis Cl Colo-ir:i'Salii:.become an ilJegal "fisJrnr.rns (Sc:: Lz Cl:ct:.t. c'.irt later i.'or i.cziliing: The "It is thercftrlc. car-rse since the same trirsl be decidedin the light cil'tiie coiii. i-rttb afe Jt bcars repeating that the judit. 5 J J . .-se ralay bc.rr. such a fiodi"g sL:o.expedition...er-i r'. 'lhe judge or fiscal. lo IA u...i:itl:c. a w u l c E o n t J .iary lii'rs up r.c)i Lhe clear dictates of re:i:. It b. i.' i :...lorii.i:ri'r. troihirrgtrrr-. .r ii'i..i has l.....t. of Cj Corona accumuiatir.r the suspicion 29.-:ld noi clstegalcr tire i-:rc:s befote Feriunde4 129 scRA prosecution in the trial fot this would createcl to uphold..." adr:norutjon the Suprcrnc Court tn Salonga of u.r) l.irl o.ls t r i s s i o n b y cit:. "Id.rr . So .rr ili-.)1ra \\.:r l.1i17!. A)riroLrghthete is 11o.rri.rlirilraion. C o m p J r r i i i i i i i l i ..:rq given in sitrrationsand its eris'Lcr'icc denends to a large degrei' r:.lotten wealth.:ls not rricriy jnfor-rned i n t l ' r eG r : o u n c l s o r I r l 1 . . factntit.p cluring btr in {1:rgrant violation of a b..ui: . h e L o l r ls p i.ltc.i irrollable .. scL\ 43s . e 'r 255 (1996). i-lr:det the rulc'.r. r t r :ror: unlarvfulltr f h t a c c l i l i f e d\ v o a l t h . i ( l c n c i . .lrr c.. ^t 45"t-45?.iirna f. i c l l i r i . a subsidiary ri n readinq of or coilne(:l. the fact.i17.i..(ilmphasis supplied) 28.ic rigiit whic. b L x c l ( .. vitalizing and not should continue to tlre judge nor t1-rn co1-r1. aiic.the 39 t).: . i.ir. ..ri * holrc that some ctedible evid. r : i r ...' J:rLnphasis suppi. therc.rrjdenr-e t1-to is r...:iice mir.t.io{:CJ Corona'sSAl .(:L(r'J::l formula or fixed rule : :' iirc .r.Despitedre urrrlcnjablefact that CJ Cu. i:i. )i * 'o Id.2?. i.. l l i : n etn ta t h e i s i i i r . lt .r j.cd fact tendinrl ro Arlicle IJ.'i:Ii r..cd non-disc.li. rllc..::hnion A'title II ii.yx It sought to be establisirccl.sro {brrn a sufficient bcilcl as to tiie guih oi i li: irccused.rating constitutional riqi.:rp$.is. 1.ir.on-Cisclosure to sald.r.1.re.r'r:. r. . i l r ..tions ol. r i r t o i s tr e s e f l te \ ..ith.*'ed.-. to telieve the tccrisecl fiorn the pain of *oing through zr ir.''.le.icic i.

.abilirvcu to 'i.The test of rc:ii:'i'lricyt the logical rel:irj. ilr.ir-Le Court s of --. of ihe tlre fact irr issue. 197.here(.to bolster its clrr-im i.29 N'Lr' i95?_. .Ltic. No. whcrlu:r.immaterial.when relates dircr-iiy to .:r'.'. 't. urLry vr Ll ..riobabilitr.{) esi:iblish j itnnr'ol-rrlrilirof the 1a11.fact to the is fact in issue.e..Falatuttl't. j r.ir i:.Ji.. tencls any reasonabli:: in iir:eree establish plrl-. ilcr)llrc tax ferurrrs.This is irnl.s as from which hc acquired said ii::.ion as a Justice...rlt: 128 oi.. The eud-:nce iii the'irlr.' r r . tar cleclalatjons..-. are and 32. i:iLi.-. collateral rnatters. a Cirit:i .y I lltn StE Chinglr.. \"'utrit'."r'ei1 the officers of rlre real prope:l' rjr-rrelopers propertiesate located.lienit irlr be.rr.l. cio. ".oner:. L-4229..i:atCJ i-.:i:utionon this issr-re completely irrclc\/rl1l{.'"qecllv show CJ Cotona's urrrlarvfully acclrrircd rveaith.25 Section . jri..s exisleni:r: 1Jrnonexistcn.l.the pr:c: to plesent dre transfer tnd condominjum certii: salc.. v r'.t.:il.perties.-.lir Y o1. r ql'trr:q' rc as to induce l.enflil Sup.oj"r.. Section4.{i:i:i:. Regala Rcr . afld rt-\. lrr issue as to induce belicf in ir.llic.n r. i9 'u i' i'.30.Evidencc (-iircoilateralmatters shal-i ..i. 15U:Jll'i.No.ti:irt on Ariicle II Ptge 12 cf 2l .ra's Registra. G.ror..i.e er:iiiei. p.i jmplol. or intends ::..ce is r:elr. fact i:l it beLiefin its existence or 1rr)ir.i.r:..r.r:missible.ir. however. L)eeds.:ils of absoiute .. amoiii.:.e SgCha relzrtion to the fac{.JLrstice the of l i 'l 'l h e p ro se cttl i ri rti L r r herseeksto oi:r cr thc tesi.tn oi'ilr.the t s IR l : of r Coriimissi.r. 579 (20C c 2.lLr.Rel..ce. nrediai Larv Com.In theseproci:t:i.-cliistence..or (:i. i.r :.l..rvhich he allegedir coglil r:rr'. acquirediIll::L gottcn rvtlalth.i.r. c.Ciry Assc:..wed. 33.emeCourt.R. May2A04..l:viden. 'riited. t-he former tends i. haye affclcled based on iis compensii.. 1.1irig5s. ir.iri.ideitce muJi. Pr:i.lt alleged .ors .

lr.troduction of thes.i..r'rs jlle.s1 Lit]r uLr("..:r..iclentiary facts tjo not tend.:r and by the admissior... "1d.dcr:.n.1his the 1rr-r1:Jic:.:Lnt.' " urrLri.rr wh.. While this evideflc....rr1r12\isupposl.it:liLl-. ..sor corifessi.r. dre pre-trial oi.:adhg. the prcricittation of the transfel :ind coirdoffriiiili. "Id. 1jli.iics.iriectionabie for I .r. iritrm onAriicle II Pnge l3 o. ri:e soie fact 1n issue iindeL "....'.\.' ^ * ^ * i ^ I Evideflr:e is tnaterial when it is ciirecter.l'necause r.l.eihela fact is in issuc oL not is in turn deter..1 36. odrers. As to r. The".rl-clrin.:. anci drc lr:l. usll.ect.\i waste the time ci' ihc couJt.r vr 4uDvrut_u tr.iisclosrLrr.1s andthe BIR Conrmissronel: are ktele'.there is nc.J1.va.rrricb . tne in. pieachngs.. !.f2l .veen these evicleni:i'r:y facts to CJ Cor:ona'sallegednon discios'ure his Srri .:r not.i1.ILete. in p.. acquired p.o ' i ..'logicai rea:ro:rable and connec..r5i * . OlLfefS..Li or nolr-.The exclusion oi cvidenceorr grouncl:: of lcii:vancir . s}i.abrLrtlr improbabiiir't'of CJ Cotona'sallegr..r.6. i.rr certificates of ti tl r. 'llhat lrjs !i I \')iana.. Corona's CJ supposedfailure to discl.:1.ityAlrti.theRegisterof 1).inecl1. and that he may not have the f..::i'lintc:r.the sLir'.: iact in issue as :i determincd by the rules oi substantive law and pi.i to t6e pr-rblic....sc SAIN to the p'-iblic.r.il.3tl'.ll:l.sonablt: degrrr:. 35.r.Tr..: SAI-1{ to !. .lj-1'lt:i alllong .ril materiaLiqris r..i piove that Corona acquired proper. .i-'i)nFLll.ci.-t.:r:cls.tt lvl:iirl-.e er.n i. Erridence Ar":i..i surprise apaLi. .:intive tlre |2qr.:Ome declarations.:.l.l:utthermore. ^ ony rea. of eviclence is cleter:n:ined by whetlicl the fact it tends to itr-ove is in isr.rr establislrthe prol. teseeProuove..il. ol.:1ii.nrnciai CI vJ cap^cLt)lto aqu-iretJrem.r.:lX Iell.:.rbetr.2e or 37."'.lto pr{-r.i.-..lence Sllclt tends to tni:tlr:acl...tiimonies thcrrr.lLe.ir..:Js absoluterr.\..28 .... !r of rax Lr€UIZfaUOilS.:: eviiience is c.:.4s mentionecl.

i'rrot ifi 'l. it is irr-iperalii't irilrier the unequivocal mancirrri: of the Bill of Rights tc r.1:t.nnl nrle calmot be changed bv the trial judges on thc .ll.nr .rir.iorcorrered by ... i-l i.ille.119.11i1.therefore. ccli. the values o['.'..fan offensegravei'r..rj. J u d g e s .only bec.r. G.. : .iitctin issue this i-rsc..s2.s of tirc {'ects subsequently g. J)titllili:i.rcting o$ the basi. ..ci: rLre.6..rnalure of the offensc cirarged therein.r.11/st".-ldrencre to on the clearianguage Ariicle .r1 1:... r.:. inadmissj fot being jrn iirrreriai.:l. ..4.:riri '"itise otherwise.l the charges oI agailst hirll in vier...proDeries. e : l e s . L-9483.r.. ii.rocess (Peo.e L ...i c:in be coLii'i:ted only of ^ l!:lricr offense than that acti.'.u star.irered i-ry thr.J:rir.rona'.s ancl ]risdce.rL:rady held thrL convictingan aJ.ict r-i:rture of the offensl inust br: mar-lc ir..-iulormed the char of opinion of JusticeAntoLrl.Li. -)0.uapir...l rvlicn suclr ircr:.i.n has to bc ii:i. salary. P. G. '. iialne In slrm... th.irri. Thesi: evideirtiary r.ir. ble tr 3B. 1i..gu l pla1'h'c begun. sirorrld .iurscof ambigr.definite so i.. ] j l i c i c f e r r : e s i n s p o t t s c o n t e s l i . .s to ought llot to consttue anJ. corisideriri-.irr.iisilli. issue..lii. irtiilrnr.A"Iore irnportanl-i.J-.:rridenct: L.Ve irai-c r. .oi:lccl beforehand.. especitJil. No.id trial and be conr....f vrhich he rl'as not duly iir{. nut ts t/te.r[or-rrr.il. corrrmittc.j'. info:.Pitrd.rs thalr the Corlsiiiuiicn is dellnite that the exi..rr.3..rction wor:ld preiudice {.itituit on Ariic/e II Pa54e cf 21 14 . .n and unclerstood by the rtccused at the araignnrt:rrr. L-452...:: nccused about such Reed ttt the :ir{aigrunent and no'L eiter.vof llrc apparent conflict bet'ii.(cusctirat thri' r. r.'cnirl of y.. Such j.' the clecision.tlallegations.igust 1979. iiccused mus.r..tn Peo.r'.t'r'1.rr iloin the e v i d e n c e ..csi 1r. Barredo..ir:ted foi an ofirirs. .. ..:rtds.tirvays I .:s:i.... These have no iei:rtiotr CJ Coicr:i.to rut. ai irrdeer-1.'..)ecause of any an:bigirity in the informatioir.nation on the basis cf the ... 'Jlir' I an llcc'rrsedi).-i :Lnd2.f:ictn.. ..t riot be made i.r\riri triai iiL.r iiptecl in I.: r... T'iiis conslirLrril.i.(:(t.i o roal rs dissc"rvice the intr'-.r.lso the demand of fai::1.1rthe public.of the cornplainl 'ro allow Cor../ere allegedly rjis.ss the end of the ga1ne. l.1.lative a-Llegations unrlr.R."l.. inforrn ili.iir(.ir..'iopcrl.r... .ii.'.. u .lrr accused.'. u.. No k.ations with.: .ropei1i. ttPec.Pi.'.. Corona was not r.ral right to due 'l he concurling rnirlies to this .r'. If constructii. mucfi l. No. The1..i-:r onlv in the light of its orryn .irplaiuants presentc\.a..s ol' justice and pubJic or:ijcr.tegal corrlllicatioris tha{. have the pdnr:.. ii.{) zs i(r il:..1..rr..1Iwill vioiate C] Co.rropclionaii .roi cl-ror in the ftamlrg i riic .]{6i1 \x. iii inind the irnperative rri'cil lor such definiten.::: par:.'fbr..r. r : r i r n o i c iirl a. due i--. of process ailclto be proi.:ri. "l:al-)..11i:e!i..:tefl charrici siri"eci Ar:ticle t1ir in II arid Complainants' sltt:crr. as to avoid r:irjit{o\.i charq'1.':r alleged nonin disclcsur:eof his Sr\Li'i {.

rL.l.lifiri:. (i) ltio pclson shallbe heid to e1is1.'2the SupremeCourr i:.ccci fie u.. j 6 n t i l .r f sing charged.cond.r .art: tirat r.el .tt...-.f. l r r .:.u. . Ile siro..orora's right to due pro.. )iinc . i i r .if it docs so. of Article II undoubtedlrr ioiates CJ C.:dof the chargesagainsthim^2.i: 1.iry he is beingproceeclcd agairirt. As .R.. (2) in all cli:Lrjttti plosecutions.rnphasis 39.lqiit to have been !].rir hin .rL'ion.In Peo..' l.r: lr:r.rs j: :iprlypointed out in r. No. : i .'ric is r:rade i.. . il l.r.c .. r p t : o t . the accuseclsilall be l. r.f2l .'ei. ll.-?3572-76."i c:Luse and of rvhat crime he i. S e c t i o n1 . is l. L-ornpirirr.rcccir of Delegate Lawel: "It is dle right of a persoll ac. Jul1t i. "Peo. b J c .1 SCRA 205) and coi.l i .ccfis r.ls II Page 15 o.. 5 .. .r. Menciri. 40.1isei.-uaqr n\r-rs. . .. supplied) @..No lessthan Alricle III of the Consui.n o r s l i l .rlrscci cdrne ro . Cor:lrr'. : s 5o f l a r v ..ridorr urandares iirn due process be accordedto any persor-iand an elementther. : o ud u e u p [ o r .iirll:incl the of na'i-ureand cause of tiLc :rccusation against hirn.The ?eririon of tfghts :ieLii r.. 7246'J\) l:'ti:.:.ess.l to be infotmed of the nirture atcl cause of the accusiirion ag:r. i / ) e r s o b e d e n i e dt h e e c i i r : r ] r o i r : ..l.... .3lTherefil.l ) r i r l o r is h a l lb e d e p r i v e do f l r i ' .i:e infolmr.--.cll'itirout fo-r: dr-rc process of larv.r i. .scciuently.resurnr:ii j:::. I 2001. . the necessary data as to ir..iiirr. court orust the jurisciiction. tL:rs rigiit to of Li] tire be hrlly informed of tlic narrre of the chargcs agailst hjnL s..i t .i r.cil dre ir.: . n r r Seciion 14.ire riglir ir-.this corrstit-utional righr sigrri{ies is that an ailcrrsecl s1lriulci l. . rirrVillu.'..lctlit until tire-contfa-ty prove... " G. ..".i that he may adequatelv prepare fcr hrs defense. j..il shoniri lino\.vh.R.i l : e r i .L.itxii on Arii. . . Certainly it r_i...cat-d hjrnseii r.i.nuous introductiorr of evidencc on matters outside the clt::rr woi:. st Pursuantto the due procesiiclai-lse the Consrt..29li.rlt be left in the unenviabk: state of speculating r.. r-. :::r:t.cf a prosecution. i i.cl sii:rllenjoy the dght to l:..v".:. l .p1ai. 1..I ?". criminirI i.onso':i-.. Ci..' ..

: rlrrL:ihzic wiil ev:chide every misiillLritj)lctation capable of t.sitii.1'. '1-'l Or-der of r.(jl.ooved tfre r. l..iirnentary o1 irri:tiligence as to r'.occssis in fact denied jriin. ] e .:d himself pli-'1:r:ri3'.i :r{)rrLrptionand un.l.-ised .. .rri:r.j Infcmatior:.i-r.y thc ii. wir..rra1 u." The act of col. " G .r. '11.:Ll ilccessarilyincludeci ii'Ltlie rrc. . l t . of 43.. the tLial cotut denf iitg ihe motion of the peiitii.a dangerou:.rr. speakinil tiir iiii: American Supren:. 42. quasir r-i. -t'oge of 2l I6 .. I379.o empirasizrrci tn ii.iltantfest injusdcc \rill result if the alicged !.'. iL d r s rlui contain matenal al-.la'vftrllrr tcquired weeilLi tiljller Section 8 of li.rr (Jc.q'5 special colnlxand.:man i. ?is]. on 'i.l.l r. thr"rs.cie..\r.li.'he . Due i]1..iied by 1r.."r.)'i-rc: SA|N.i iict im.r.. t....r:. iuie '.l.A..r:. rvill be consiclt)t:{.l 111..xted.forirrer practice in J:r)tgllnC of imprisoning [rcr.If it were not scr .hisHonorable Coirr harre Conrplainxnts' posidon bc upheld.ti'i'rr iri) rloubt in the mirrri r.i.iientof unl'airness.7 A.lrgilt..l ilny l)r:rsor1 i:li.r\. '-i'i-iparrii:Ii'i. 2F e b r u a { ..:.Abrogaf3 r..isiutiii' '..r-.rcl[r:rd tha:.* We irave tevic'.ouirlbe iir ii iir..r i.-::n!...:ladon to R.-r:ci 'he Amended Informriiicr ar..n-disi. Some members o I t.ii):.. :Llions in. 7 .J the in *{.rner tr.!ir i:.i be r.ii ccr-itt to quash the Amenrlc.lirt'Paraiso v.r:aft alr.ouri.beh.err.cE:fired.:iiorrer of il:cft of personal l-.11 be nrist described with sL'.--.r .heu tlt*re is .:. It.rrrt-icted of . r .fiicirrit particutarity so that he . l\o. 1 5 5 0 7 6 .icb is Lhe :iccusation 1 .-..{'r:rrilipnine irr (llil... constitutional necessig' fol an accusec.h a desire to pen.(Ernphasis suppLr.i.vellinformed of LhL ro cI'elv act | -^r1r]rr-f .luci'iJ'under Alticle 308 oi tlee lic.r': justice I:lnhnes.r-:. . a carti:r.rnended Inf'r:nretion is a parr 'r rrlliLl-.t-:ltk ll 6y..rtute ic. without iriil' cir:trge.rnphasissupplied) 41-Tire H€h Cor-rr:L l-aure/ u. N r . . 301g i.rleiliicr-led by rhe pelidoner.lnii ilte charge is and i|rr:s xror-requili.li. tt jiiurtding that ll.. i r r e n f 'totv... r.n to defe.t i..r:.:uttitigto iurtllir .-. { ririlrltl Statesrthis constituii'.

More spti.. h { l r r . 19/10)-The 6ling oi r::rcir fal.Lir.L'l.2d 378 (sth Cfu.r'oi..il.i. l'equil'ed to rnrlrc' sr-Lch electi.rrpiicitous.ruil the defendant guiib. is irr:r.ivr"-n was it] die j.$ltircr. @mphasissuplr. i..-iocnS€..r:r.' r i r : r l . ent dismissing all eight c{-)Lrn'L:r an indictment.f i fact orj:c.ri..l by iii'. Tlr. r .. .-.) (1915).this coutt said rhe'L i-heerror would be hr.r -l-004G. iititrit on Ariicle Il i'a.e.l i m i t e dt h c u .ific:r1i-. Caballerov.rie ct:!. -lno such is harmless eLicit:.-ritcc. -":l r'1Orh Cir-. : .s..:fend. casesafe telied upon t-o suDlort this .a-nd. request such an eJ.i.L..The docunrents were e.-.l:sis not in of dcpeirdent on the ni-ri.l. or guiitv uf trli of them. jury cannot find a d.r.3 anc ?.clju ihe Goo&nan case. : .r. 1960). e oo'..This becomes clelr.::rirs rhe fact dr't.c.iirn b.lolate. io appe11r.-heid that the indicflnen:'r. For-rn 2004C requires J1:1-.:i.re lrttrtc .ran of that teqrri::ed to prove d.d.A.lieither caselends an\r. .r:denier.tous of cottllt-. Nor is it of ri'i=ir cor.elminedby whedr.3L7 Ji'. -l-hat The Leno case acturLli.35 i:. ..i:..Cr 7iu-'. il But appeJlee r'iildrci arguesthat even assunirg eiich cotirrr-.-.r. drey are differc-lt clocr-rments.eltt conflict berrveen the chatges stateri speculairreallegationsunr[e]rparagfaphs2.rrr.luence nr.1cornts one and fwo were dr-rpliciious-and the motion r.f or prll-'lishingof F.rct of the apltar..1153 5.lr l'erreal whettrrer the jury fo-...J&e of the of{enses chatgcriinthe duplicitous coulri r'. utterxl:-.if rn..i:l.orv r-illiler iirrr corrrri.rircrof unlawfi:l motives tir lire mui.lrrbieby larv.t.tt..:lr::r. but lltrtl.i--:.:Lecl r. i. Foun 2004G.t.r. 1r..t an '. .:nl--one of the grounds fol::uch mc. 1963). ot both.n.l ..i -:-:rie vu-ere s r e y l r u e d o e l e c tt r p r ' : l r : c i tc h a r g e i t w o u l d p i : .ivhen ]ou trlr lo'.irriess il.ridrror uuilty irs'.ii iJlleother charge in the samc ti()ur:1-. passing.r:..i r a s i i : .. lrave been comirrricd.i.31.:r il.I-I..Eti.lnr gui]i. and/or pui. lncl each a shouJdbe ailegecl a sei:aiateand distinct corulr .. 1-i.rl gnilry .. t . (-. 1L4\-.4 {::\. resr-rlts the cornrri. ir-rclgrr.r'eder. .-. tc-.:rition. is not the onli' iliri"inil-rishing factor.rssing. Hudsper. ii.'. 1 . or cloirrg so as to F..iicr-eto appcllant's counsei f::jli':ll.jre Unire.. rppelh'.. is of but de. L s ' . : ' r :1 1 ..ir.. . uttetirrg.".ie.'idence matters coveti.r s:rrrLate and distinct prr.lssron.. .7 2!j r.:e tha.sedocument r. 306 (1..-..f..i .237 L1.i g'uril'.'\. I.'a"s cluplicjrorrr nci fact alonr:distjnguishes jit:no caseftorn the onc r.Lrilty rir)r:s.r5 on r:.onin Ct.i cor:ect the duplicitous iiiltu{e cf the irliijcijnent in solne mannerrtr7as(-.. T.ir.iishiirg Form 2094C. lrndf .r R:iro r. lit rriirLl-ion tepcllicri scvctal times. -' rrr:Liring.sibieto it determine whetirer: Liic jury found appella.5.:' nol Corlplainants present to on iangr-iage of (-J Coiisdtutional Arucie II of ihe Grouncl..-:ion.ge of 2I l8 ..2d545.>::oublisL:i11 .i.Z_85 -c F.{(jcri'ieri different dates.ntjlu.rngi.voul.i consrir-r.. but a surgle offcL.t2.-:h doculnr.r! .-1 dic :1. .'..r--..:i-.) iiassifig.i' t s i n s u u c { i r i r cj u r y .l '. Ihis . trstzri:I case.:. bul disrnisstl:e indictm'. l.irsi::ict corrrt iii il'..' cii one cr:'me alid r. L h L ' : r .:e or si:ltarate li:i iri.p9 (5th Cfu.r. afld a general velcir:t of g. r ..r coLlr! reverst.rlr.rr. uiic..{ {r.1r-iri.i:ri11'be denied that the r:n::irng.:.ut"u \'..Cci. Devjne..'. ) .rnrentsrefertecl i'..i.. ior Impeachment\Iiill'. f f a s t d.il:."ilucir-'r'r r.errnine 'i-hc u'hat tire juy founil.t ob'vious additional fact rs Lo ea. ...rsc. ircsition.And it can L'i...-..ulsaclion r.an. j .Listant case.i: eQ 45 CJ Corona was r.i rjre ailrrlladon c. The faiiure l.: rll of the docr.:i'the iLrcrrictrner.. United States.tlici..-.irer c.ri)iji:Llan.r in each count ate pair cf a s:ngle L::'i:r:. !.932). No such ii.yof tirc othets. A'Lrrr..cc.e il..'. The i.H.

Thev lriroukl lriw-a..i..v 1.e .ustice.l .r'r.ii.. y..r.:|.R.8. resiiDilsibilii. [.. stand trial and be conr-il. August19'i9 No..ruction woiild prejudice tiir: accused.:do ut.clcvant.ot. fiame jttii rrrnations witli ririr: (lrue..' Page19 of 2l .r :i c.evLril:nce )rr 'l:'r ls.ur..nsidcriir.. l.ilrd prohibit ( Conrplaiirr'rltts and tlre ii i'')ii{:rciliion from pfeseilii. 'J960. '1r'trri ''"J' | that thiq Honorabie ImpeachnrrcrL Court .i.r deninl of of i l: due process(Peo.lof tir. 6 .ci1'held that convicting an'..sdrction.:cr-. We hai..-lces sportscontes{s.rcc"..right to due process ancl to be properly infonnec. :'.ln arise otherwise..ed C crrrl l 'l ri i tr1.lritsuch need lt iiie arraignment and llct aftellr'atds. iii wciilli tnci gr a.-'ss an.ieemed ri..4 of rlrcir: \/crifi..ised an offense gravel: llrrrr t1r.ysi iir l:.e ilot*i.Pt. B.r. it docs :.FORE.riirsthim.Judges. Tiris cons. only in thc iight of its ov'tr j'.rnal rule canuot be changed l-r-y the trial judges on thc e.-the decisiOn. The concurring opmion of JLrsticeAntonio P. &e coutt inlrst be .ii't. a lank oi ..ed i.liea.).3 and 2.'.r:rn o{1cnl. 1 SC11A 205) ancl consequently.. T'b:Lran :ic. Iilrc rc[. ri:. especially rvir::. c':.r.cli.i.. on-iv bccause of ambiguii.iteil pre\ \ r:.l r.i. (J:mphasissupplied) if PRAYER \{'IIEI?E.liilged irr because of any aurbiguiry in the informatiori..l(: legal cornplications that c.. u.:ss.r.-45266.tlte of the o{ftttlrl crltrtrgedthetein.-::pecrjri: (^) imn: ..... Ch:r lr. mucli irss at the end of tLe garrc In{ieeil. cc'i'ri'iirri. ' : rlesafl-er .rctual allegations.rrcair be coru'ictcdonly of i lii{ci offense than that r t. r."'ice the .R.ftand r-nr11 rntlrl1-r f.iriformation on the basis of the cviderrc'.ted fi:..-l . Sucb is aiso ihe demand of f:rl-rr.tt being :rr.lcLtrial juii. L:9483.'rtlag. dissct.Peo. to bc ji:.t. in :]j?i}-rr..rncltrn Arlic/e II on i\.incnt. 2. rtir: to to In sum. suspectecl 1:.1 the jnfor:.ladvr CJ Corona's toG.ts ju-r. Barl.. 30.:.lu of the Bill of Rights to i-rrope:1v inforrn ii:r: rrccus€d abc.<cusc that ilic..:tir: rnind thc imperative rr{rr)i1 ibr such definiter. If construcliijn ha:.or'.-so'11 11t4 understood by the rccrised at the auaigr:. G...:rdi//a'5 squrrely applies drisissue.improper :.. T.t: ciefinite as ttit{.istce Rcnato C..titt://ador.rsis have the pfirwri.-:s ought to not to coflstrue at..o.i' {)l: effor in t}re fr'ami:r.: iiitii. r..cuseci iJer':(.:rii ircrn dre evjdcnce.cof rv}iich he u'as not duly inLorn:ed befotehand.:. i')':.r:il r :.tr:lil. No. .i.i. lie acting on the basis of ll:c facts subsequently llrriirereci by tli.rrnx :. chargcs:r .:lrnillc i .in 'l-'i.:. No icss tiran th. cl:anq.r sucll ito:ili.. so as to avoid {. llrc. accused mtrst not be made rc.r r:. it is ilrrperadvr rinrler the unequivocal mandtt... C'... ll play has begun. charge.ri)rrt{o\.i't.itutioa is dciirrite that the t:qtict nature of the offense rnust bc mal-i."'not.intcrcstsof justice and public {)lcler.::Ny c.

ir'etin-rc'1 j-06: i{oUof Attorneys}. 2(:':.t' tli.. E-. \.2l'. -. penaining to Pars. ..11rr-0''t. /0a/1 1.A'L1 . 1 0001'7(i PTRNci "li7 5829. i\.scifor: Chief JusticeRenlio C.i:r npt-.*t..i-jse are prayedfor. iii-e.. RoIl No.ianila Jan3. Ciry l. Corona \ $*..4. Bdf f. E70166. Ell i.E. ZJarwary 2AL').i:12. 3'174367.stances.{ak'.constifiltionai rights.2" JosEtvt.rf the evidence :rli presenteciby Complainiur i. r\fai<:Li Jan2.x-Lca) et .'.2Ct:{) No.*u i.2.:.im on Artic/e I I Page20 of 2J .ri Ciq' l'loJl 38552. 11 201. 2.!tn t Qc<: :::1 v\ -..l. tiit i':r'.2January \.. l'{alratifor Pasay I .U{ 02570August 20. 62i)) NICLECr.r PT'li No. IBP Nc.January Cit1...U69503 issued ?.13 i993 Mai.1..ttnd ?.rAn".1.just or ctpitable under the circ.. i\.. ..t iirylj:Lnce III-O01 .- iRET. 2643183.VAS Ci.cn III-00090: :rirni ))6.empi '-f!..')...tcc1 by Cour.t. Otirer ieliefs.21"37 3 h4CLE.lrlliDO DE LOS Ar'JGtrtr-IiS PTit i\o. 11 i"iay No... 3814MCLIi-c.)J"L IBP p.Ial*iu 20'\.2i.Iakaii ? 0.. No. l { a n i l : r Jan\..ziakatl 1.orcl rly anr-'i ... Cirr IBP No. ta. 11.ancl i'b) ej{punge from the i. i ICl... Itesp ectfullySubmi.iir.Exemption No.

. Iioli No.--.iilirt on Ar.:icie I] 21 J?o. F{[.--.'ir Copies fir." * " 3 .. " . t .*trfiVHffi SY . Senators of the Republic: of the Philippines GSiS Br-rrlding Nlac:ipagalFlighway Pasa. u e z o n( l i i l Q h{iltrsi.25.tv .T i i .-. 40950.-*-.i"..' IBP }. " .ge cf 2l .c.. .5 2.**. ..1-..i" .3January l.:iti 201 Citi.ivf:rli.-. Airii 199il 12 MCLE [. .!pri12i"...f t ._ .trrished: F{ouse of ltepresentalilr rr... .. -*-. NrrliatiCi.i':r..*-..(t January i 1.miriiance III-0009I': No. 71. ( Batitsan loLnplex B a l l r a t tI l i l l s .ilENNI I"J. . 839371. pti)5i-.{Lif ii.l'T-O PTR irirr 2666920. i * " . .v Ci.'v\: i ..::. . ...

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