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Cneprr.n 5

LEGAL REASONING

''Wot k ifl.arciste

t pith ond tunh./! to rnsas is nat Ftnitkd n1lnu"

44atit

.andrct i

f

"".:nrh

h:.

otstlktl!tight"

Anofl!ha6

Hitltlln Apldr

On.e you begin to study LLa and b€.ome a

lawyer,

(r(tuJ

901, of the Lime vou wiu be applyinE the law to

sidatiuns.lour 'lill in doinB so. wirl der"r'nF

how

Sood

a laF yer you will be. Therefore,

it is or

l'

to

l+F\ptrlFd rh the l l B rnFan.F Te(r.hould e'alrp

From the first few questioN oI the Mrd?l T.si

lrpp. vou mbl have rFaL.ed Lhal all rl lrle\

lo am\e

at the .orect aNer is a thought pro.ess, Le8al

edu.ahon i! pnmarily concehed with the development

uI Uus l&ulty oI lcSrllersoninS To bemore

'pRrh" ..

this s(bjet, amlyti.al thinking inevitably leads you

to

the m$t appropriate choice among many anbiSuity

ad biasd gaeraustioB.

A t)"ical legal reasoning qrestion appears as

Ev"aeELE 7

LEGAL PRINCIPLE: Wh@ver, intending to take

of the

dishonestly n\y Nvable prope.ty out

possssion of my person wilhout thai pereon's coNnt

moves th.t propsty jn ord€. to s!.h takin& is said to

<omit theft.

l^rhoeve. comits theft, shall be

punished with imprisonment which may ertmd to

tNie

ye.B or with fin€ or with both

|ACTUAL SITUATION: AlM *es a

'ins

belonging to ,\mya lying on a table in Amya's house.

Not ventuing to misappropriate the

Ior f

..

r

of

*.r.h

nn8 iMediately

md detection, Arb hide. $e mg

udcr lhe efa covei, where it is hi8Hy improbable

il will ever b foud

L\at

bI Amya. AIu has the intention

of taking the ring froh

the hiding pla.e and selling it

when the loss is forSotten.

DECISIONT Is Am guilty of iheft ?

(b) No.

(.)

Yes, b€.ause Aru had the intenhon of

removilg the nng ftoh Amya'6 possession.

(d) Yes, be.ause Aru had L\e int4tion of taklng

m0\ ible propcrn

and with ihis

inlention he moved the

Th" an-we! to the dbo\e qur"hrn

ii (d, Hc-e D r

melhod which will always l€ad you to lhe .orE.t

fIRST read the 'Trgal Pnnciple' and lreak it into

its componet parts. La doinS s, remembd every

word

of the legal plin.iple

is important and so is the

'Ihe

legal Pnncitlc

order ol words in w

ch it is sta ted

  • 2. intcnding Lo Lak€ dishonestly

  • 3. any novable properry

  • 4. out of lhe possession of any pe.son

  • 5. without thatperson's consent

  • 6. moves that propeity

  • 7. inordq to 6uch taking

L

is sid lo.ommit thelt.

  • 9. Whoever.omits theft

  • 10. shalL be punished

  • 11. with impdsoMent years

whi.h my 4tend lo lnJ@

or with lin orwidlboih

With ttus prin.iple

whi.h 6rnrly Pe(eived,

!o Amya

lyinS on a

aMly* the fa.tual sihrationi 1. Arun ses a ring belong'n8 table in Amyat horse.

  • 2 Nor venturind Lo nlaPP,oPrialP the Mg imedidtel)

Io, lear o{ s€rr.I and detechon

  • 3 Am hides th€ ring sder the sofa coaer, wh6. ii is hig

y improbabl that it will ever b€ found

  • 4 AM has the intention ihe hid,nE pla.e dJ

of taking

the ring from

los ,'

.ellinS ,t ahm Ihe

35

Crldt to LLB. Entrinc. Exaftinatiok

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ip:

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= t:-

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. Arun

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nrenboh

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he urhna,cr) narF;,rl."

r,

-

.

-

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,.,

=.€nbo

rxse.!on

.:: ..._

d/

E bmo\dolPrroDd^

d.e

.^,;,,

,,.,",

._

o"r "r il

s.4<'Jn

is ro rrrte rhe rine

i-jj:],,!, :"*,. :*,nr

ffij

obv,^,!\r,

;jsi'^.,*:;;o,".*'. "Jn*a

^m)

r\

.,

trT,i**.:"ft;iH,TJ:il':.T:'*

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;.ffi

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f;.':l:"ji.'

\ohp

t:tcr rih

; li"'li:,".::'":t

'

f,';";{i*:i:*Ti"d*t$li;l

e w'hotu{Lonhts theft = Alu.

" ::Iir';;2iT,H'#;: tuav .xtend to th,e. !.q,s

-

is arso iiabrc Io, rhcrt

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AREAS OF TESTINC IN LEGAL

REASONING

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F:lril.iljr^.[.iH::H" "l.,fl iT];;

{b) LawofConrncr

(d) Coturirurionat

. ln

Law

aforem€nhoned e\ahDt. "^,, ..

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[i',,trr:ll,.".,*:F;*:]'L:*;

il{",.'lr"i*,',:"-',:'*,"ilttk";,,r'

To equip you wi& Iegal r€asoning rknb Io. law

entrancc exams, ae shall take e.ch area oI law one b]

one, €xplain inporlant 1e8al tri

..

itles

.nd prcvi.l€

illusEations or examples c\plinnnB the lc8a1 prnrciple

so that you leam the way to appLl legal prin iples to

i!e

giren factual situation anti a at the most concct

..

Tlegeneral excepLion5 are nrai l

lrr Ur'\ou^dn6\ ot mi.d or rnsaNI\.

(b)

!-uo!trca"blr.o-

  • k) liis to be noted that orls olproving excepLion li".

1]cr'!.olp.!$le 9 lq::

on accused who wmts to take boefit oI su.h lawful

A. CRIMINAL LAW

The Principle of 'Me,s

Rea'

"A'1rs 11o jl.it

rcu1n flisi n.ns sit /.r" is a latin

maxid $hlch lals do$n a fmdam€ntal p.inciple of

criminal la\'. It

says ttial the act (4.h6) nr itsell is noL a

..

a guilty mind.

(ih. ldcssiiis don with lrdrs r.r';

It n\eans a .limiial intcntion is essential to corohhte a

Rut there might be offe.eseve withoutft.fls r.d.

S€v€ral modem statutes passed in dre inter€sts of

pnblic safei] and social r{elfar. which imposes sEict

liabiliLy. :&e

fnr.l|lP

.r

-Leaulation

social and

4qqlii]r

,{r,

/,

o:Lqtrrlqt liability ex.luds the

j--i}e

sroud u

-,-1,}

tr$ene

and proiect the

thacommu4ity wbi.h

.re ena.Ed io

economic inte.est of

rcgui.cs sbi.t adheren e to la$s. Examples of such

ena.tmsts are dle lssentirl Commodities A.t, ihe

l{oLor Velricles Act, etc.

ExAMplr 2 NIrs. Ioseph was married to Mi. loseph. Afl€r one

rcar she rlas deserred by he. husband. she made atl

possible enquines about him.

tntihately, she came to

kDw lhll her husband was on a ship bond for

Ameri.a wNch wns dest oyed

in dre deep sea. She

slpposed herself i widow and @Eied anothe. man

nert y€ar- Ir the meantime Mr. Ioseph reappeared.

\{rs. losepn was (harged for the.ihinal

act of

lhe question belore the Cout ol Appeal was

lrlelher M6.

Ioseph.omitted

the offen.e of bigam)

\.Lth a gujlly intention. The coun, by majority, applied

rhe principl€ of "M€ns Rea" and acquitted her as she

had actcd hder a !o&fd. belief that her Inst husbdd

\':-

/1rid lqp-e q '> au suilry rord or a.r, -i

n

C€neral Exceptions

Ihcre nrc <crtain gcneral dcfen.es sdcr the

crin{naL law whid ac.used.an piead befo.e lhe cotrt

tu pruve his imocmce The burden of prool of hI

{ch exception lies on rhe a.cused himself For

.\imFle:.4 commiis in offcncc {hcn he is oi unsound drintl o. insa.c. Thc burde', ul proring insaNty lies on
I

hnbclf, oI course, .,1! lawyer will prove on his

Unsoundn€ss of Mind or Insanity

EI/MLE 3

LlC, t ?RINCIPIE: Nothnrg is an ollence don€ by

of doing it

by reason of

a person sho, at drc time

6o6dness oI mind, is incapable of lnowing the

natuie of the a.t or what he is doing is $!ong or

contrary ro lat. |,4CTU,4! SITUATION: A takes lus son I lvho is

three

yars old- for a bath to ihe we]l H€ ttuoM

hjs

son iNide

the well so ihal he could

lrave a Sood baL\.

Afte. 10 minutes, he

also jumped in

the

w€ll to take a

good bal\ and t@! his son out of the well. He was rescaed by villagers. His son was found dead. H€ is

charged fo.r murder. Medical Repoit declaies him to bc

of unsourd mind suffeling from scnous mentil

  • (a) As ,4 kiXs his en

B bv dnowinJ.

him in the

well, he comits murd$ and be punished

  • (b) A c

pl€ad lmondness of mind as a

defence and he should not b€ chargcd fo.

  • G) ,4t family sholld b€ rcsponsible for mu.der to ler tum

take .hild

to rhe well.

Of couse, the coned answ€r shall be (bJ. Only a

nnd (an rhrow hF oM .ru d ,a l

p{.on oI so6d

well tohave good bath. Medi.al evidence also supports

Ex^MPlt 4

tEGAt PRil\'cIPlEi Sa me as above in Exnmple 3. L4CTU,4I SITUnTION, .4 .eceivcd divinc ordus

inhis sleep to sa.rifice his yea. old.hild. He.arries out

the order and kills his son Decide.

{a)

(b)

A is to be puished for murder.

,4 is noL guilLy of anl. offen.e

as it

as ofder

/(l

a (an plcad r-

rdre

s oI tud

r' deferce

dnd he.l-ould no be rlbrSeJ to, mude,.

The coiieci answer is'C'

Intoxication

"Nothing is an olicnce rehich is done by a peison,

$,ho, at the tine ofdolng it, isbyreason ofinloricalion,

in.apable ot knoring the nature of L\e act o! thatwhat

Guide to LL.B. Elltnnce Exrlminntion

h€ b dunA^

E

erher h:ong

,".,*i"r

r*e wtu.h

or.onrra4 ro i.w l

h-

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2 fti.

.i8nr

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a\.c

re

rh,ou;h

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cue

aaaubr

dn dcr hr,cn

o,

dearn

or

appnhiroiu-

s-evous h'1

:1t:*o,

'r

raoc ^r L&dtpne or

"t

arv penon.

rni.nshiia\a,rdbeaq,i,n

rir

r-o6e.b,e;tun8

Ld,.s-,!rorroJrnro,Tp"u,.,h".to"i.,.:l),l:'

L(,'*hnor,e-edbl

'

L,\ro,.-

Mo\.lcdAe

",.r

and

r'crdim

dbe.,cbri."-

r",",or-r.,r o. *itr,o,,

wtong'ul.onnr emenL

lli:+:'pt-n

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' m:*;i:illn:;:,n;x:^.*"t1":il " *i :i,",."':::*,*":?;:il,::ft"":il':"':1:

or tus act rc. ir mt6t be ver) h8h

Did,rp.r 5

Ary rFq

a

S iggressor or on. wt o

pnvate der6ce. rrr*e

"

"rrack

is

"o

has no riAhr of

.ight or pii"aie

.,:,cAL,DNNCtry.t.

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wM

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d'*'b'

-,e,re,ps

rrrbre

pubrr 'eruanri.

NoLhnB sanurren(e

habre roafpre,iare

r$eperonwhucom,ed ;"i:"l,liJll'::;:,t::,:;fi.'::;:j::*

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ttc4t P^/^(,P/

Fo, r'"rI.J.e or

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d.^tunered i8ditut hi. h irrana *raour

,", j,::,:;ii;'jT*"::"y.Y:*:

rnd

on his

l'il,J:Lr',rt"i'."H;rHe

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Rishr or private Dren."

,l

a.nr

,o p.o,c(

tu.

tr-dv

,".

A.Pe- 1.n".

rropqrv"\hel.rir,/Lod- ap,q_-.,",""1'"i.1 ..

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e'eft.seJr{neiiqt,tot.etJete .._

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ts"rlRdlu,r'dVrrur,J-c6u.tr\o "ortertrc

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Ex^wrr 7

IEC/1I PRINCIPIES:

(l)

Any pelson may se reasonable to prot€ct hjs property or pe6on.

the foi.e

io

..

e

]n order

0D Howser,

ebployed dusr be

Proportionate to the apprehended ddger.

FACTUAL SITUATIAN: Ravi was wall:ing on a

lonely road. Maniyan .ame with a kiife and said to

Ravi, "Your ljJe or

your puse". Ravi

pulled out his

rerolve, Oi reeinS it. Mmvdn idn Rdvi \hoL \'tm)dn

(a)

(b)

(c)

Ravi will not b€ punished as thde was dmger

to his

FoPe.ty.

Ravi win not

be psished as the for.e he used

was

proportioMle b th€ app.ehnded

injur),.

Ravi will be phished as the force enployed

was dispropo.tionate

to the appreho.Jpd

(d)

As Mdiyan

a threat

ran to es.ape rhele was

no longe!

be

to Rnvi's p.op€.ty. So Ravi wil

The.or€ct aNwe! shau be (d).

You can appreciate

Mr. Maniyan

rd to

l.) to be a cloe oplion but, once

scape the.e is not ar all my appreheded danger. 5o"

w\en there s no thedr to a properry

oI private d€fen.€.vailable.

or body, no ri8hr

EXMLE 8

LEC,1r PRINCIPIE: l}te has right to delend his

Fropqry

aSai,st criminal hatu provided it is

approach publi. authoniies and more

hte d

noi po$ible to

harm thd is necessary has not been caused to avert the

|ACTUAL SITU/TION: The fam of X on outsknts

oI the Delhi was atlacked

X without i

bl, a gang of almed robbe.s.

orminS rhe poli.e, at first wamed the

robbeis by

the fan, he

firing

in rhe an.

As rhey were fteeing fron

fired and ki ed one of theh. At the trial-

L X can avail the right of private defen e as he

ll

was

defdding his

lile and p.operty.

X.amot avail the .ight as he failed to inform

IIl.

ry.

X cainot avail the right as he caused more harm

tlDn was nsessary to ward off the danSer. X .an avail of the right as at first he only fired in

(a)

  • I and Iv

(b)

  • I ody

{<)

[edlU

id)

IV or y.

ANwo lo Lhi.

quesrion is of,ourqe .c, ftr, r.

b<a$e X has failed to take recou* to the publk

authorities t police.

..

,

Further, he kills a robber wrnl€

meatu there was no

he was fleeing away. It

apprehe,sion of death or grievous hu.t to him E\.\\'?LE 9

W on retumin8 home late after work was accosted by a\ alned vaSabond who tried to rob her purse and

vaiuables at knife point. W raised an alam but was

ffiu

..

esstul

in obtainjng

help. In the eruuing struggle

w snatched the lqite tom the brigand dd kiUed him

L Can claim the .jght of prlvate defd.e as she

was

defendinS her life dd property.

Il. Can claim private defs(e as she tried to obtain

helP b!t cotld nul ifprca, h pubLc duthoribr.

I[. Camot claim privaie defen.e as to defend a lew

valuables a pe6on

(mot

be hlled.

Iv. Cauot <laim private def*.e as it was he. oMr

fadt that

(a)

Iandtr

she was coming home late ai rught.

(b)

(c)

TII

Iil dd Iv

(d)

ln

rr this case, l{

.d

(laim

ihe right oI privatc

defence. Hence, the mwd will b€ (a).

Theft and Extortion

Section 378 of IPC defines 'thff. Theft is taking

aw,) of a movable ploperty

ivith

Even if

dishonest intention, it

our oI ownerr po,*sron

dishonest int€.tion without owner's consent.

the L\ing

is resoved tspora.ily wiur

amosts to theft. (Srp:

Ill strctions

  • (a) A dts down

a lree on Z's po$e$ion withont

as soon as A had seveled fic

Zt coNent. Hae

lree in order to such tzkin& he has .omitted

  • (b) d puts a bait for doss in his

pocket, and thus

hduce. Zc dog io follow ,r. Here. ir,1 .

intention

Zt

be dishonesUy to take the dog o,rr of

withour Zt cotudr,

A has

possession

comjtted theft as eon as Zt doShas b€8un to

Section 383 defines 'extortion'.

Erlorlion may be of

Extortion

heans

to iin

or any other

F\ro.aon s

moeable o. imovabt€ prop€rty.

putting a person in fea. of injDry

persoi, and thereby dishonestly indu.ing him to

dellrer 'o dnv ppFnn any \aluable Tl-,r.

djsroling a person oI his property by puturg hh

lllBtatioB

  • (a) ,4 ttueatero to publish a delanutory libel conceming Z u{ess Z sives him honev He

  • 40 cuae ta LL.B. Enndnce Ernnn&tnn

fiu.

-du(F.

,/

ro gr\e tun

tp

Z ru.,g.,

monel A t-d5

c.lmitred E\rorhL,n

/

r,rrhrq

e.r

\ ,r tr ..

r

,b. ,,1 -\

,r. r

..

at Brie\oc nur

or dtfi\ tu, +at ro

{Sn. dnd

htanl rntq.lr d Jptrrer,t ro

d

r/l \r-.

jeleJ

lhc

md\

trl--

to A.

^

I

Hrrp, ar tne paper e

Inlo a raruble

br !o^\erled

Kuity. A has conmtted exroltion.

Ex^\81E 70

-LL-qr

FRr\r

/plt. wls

dy

pehon drlhone\dy

pos*ssion

ui

riae\

--,

uu

rh€fr

n-) rovdble prnTsrv out ot rhe

orer |cFon wrthuul hi5 co@t, he rs quitD of

r 4(Tu 4t

5nU4t lON.,1com€. ro B; hoE dd

rhe atmrion to rerlm ir

bMuse the book has b&n

ture\ awiv i b@! wrrl

(a) I

coturjts theft

taken wirhod 8! con*nt

(b)

I does noi comit theft b<aw

he interds ro

r€txm th. bo.L ,4.coulnLs r\eft bEar,se he 1ac taks a brot

\ hr.h

rs

movahle property

4 c.rturuL $pfi

b(ar

he ras moved Lhe

/.1

,Jl

book from 8,r houk Answer {b), dishon€st nrertion notprove{i.

EtuMpLE 17

,4 find<i FuBe

"

mnirs

.4

..

bEtonS to tum

nr, thc rold

anJ he teps

ir

thpfr hFciu.e Lh. puse doec nor

1,, I

comml>

$efr be(du+ he do$ not try to

find the uMer

c

rd

,,i doe. rur (onrnil rhcfr

beldu*

rhe pus

w$ nni iiktr horn thody. po\*$ion

,4 Loturur. $efr @cdure he doe not reDofl to thr DolkP

Ex4MpLE 12

n

ii.d. a dum'rd lh8

t!j.!

nr a, Labte 4 Drc\s

kepr;E it

mo;eo ltle

.,t the r'ng $id,.he hLenr;on

a

ibl

ofdi.nune,Ut

,4 c.mftr. defr bftau:e he has

rinS from

Bt tablew houthis conrat

,4 doel nor

nor leit

conmit thefr btraue he hns s6ll

,,i hous.

c

..

1

dops noi

commit thefr because I is caretess

hirh his vatuables

d

{ (onnt5 L,he[ the momFr

he pkts

dn8 d'\honesuled iirended ro keeD rr

A

up Ure

.\r.r.t

'r, hoaejl i.,.1/

,

tt

d

\

...

Ex+tplE t3

.p.

. Wh@\er

intendxrA

hu,able properD out ot Lhe

to

u.e

po\c+ior uf dnr F^on

m,^e. col]rnt 'h". then
m,^e.
col]rnt 'h". then

propprh

wrLnoll Lur

n.rurr,o !u,h

peNn (.oMl,

launq,. lard ro

FACTUAI S|TUA. ON: Veerappm with his

assocrates,

entered intd a covemenr Rsetue Forest

rdtjrd

oul Ldtu"bh

5dnddthood Ee,.

choDpins rr.

arerea

w,Ur a .ieh .r

He*le(ted a .anddth ooJ nF dnJ +rrled

suddeilv

hn

Tlev

potr.e

.ee!

dppeared on fe *rne ma

ro

pro\true Veerdppan rnd tu.

wheLher

l,hev

wi

succ+d.

asooales ior Lneft <rale

5tatevou answer rn rwo or ttvee stenc*

,46@r. Vecrappr can not be

pro*(uteJ tor thefi

properry

tU

rt F

A tudal*ood

F4 i. not a movable

attached lo the cdrrh Furrler, he hr'. noi m.Leu lhdr

properq

for

d

in order

auempt ro

ro rd^inE it away.

(omrl

He mdv

be 8uitt,

,o.".

thefr oi una* -i -"

Ch€ating

Sechon 4t5,of

rhc IpC

defner

irrea6r,r'. gt"oon,

indu(emenL b) on;

ro hih

In(rude\ d haLdulert.r o\honer

,

perion lu lhe

or d!

olhq

otie! dho dctrveN dny propdry

Ie^on. Thu,, a pe!,on who cherts

.rta

r{pre\frrarion wiri

a dish(m\l

dnolher. ndte. d

or hdudulenr rrenhun \o d, lo indure rhe Ltecrved

peren to do or omit to do som€thing.

Itlust/atio8

r ..

r. bv

prerendir€

JRci\e.7

lo be n rhe t.vit*Mce,

and hu( dr\hun$lt)

sooJ

on

(re.rr

tor

have

ntenhorllv

'rt*ly

ind(p, Z ro tet hh

wtuch hedoes norh€rn iu pa!,4 cheals.

rbr ,4

by pled8rr-s a( dun";d. rrrj.te htuch h.

e ror ddmond".

intenuotul.y

ndJ.es 2

di"hone{ly

dpcerve,

,o tdd

de.eiv€s Z into a betief trDr A

pad ofa (ontra.r mdde w,L\

pe ormed and

rhrreby

krowi

7 and the,eby

monev

A.he:r(

(.) d intstionauy

tL. pe,formed,4 t

./-

,wtu.h

le hr, not

dr"hone,Llt indr(e.7 ro pay moner ,4 ct Fd15

EhupLE 74

/

tGAr PqlvLrf' r

A

perun i. guilry

i,,lu(6

b;thF

whe. hc raudu.ent

,

\

deliver the lartrr s properry b Ixm

ot.hcdFnS.

pe^q

ro

fi!

fu,4(

)/t

u.4

dr,.

rON 4 rrt.etv r"pre.enled ro d

he

^a,

an

ufriier nor

rne

e\dtrrang L,re

h

buw,6

"

a readr.\ rBred

;a

"

raiouarre

rdodrry ^ Da,d lhe

",m

a"a

t-ow_\er,

t,t,.o".,e

a -hop-ohne,

( olMerc rl Tc,e. DetJ-Tenr. wlx'e

dccoMLs or Lhe +uD. 4

n'rowd\e

w,ln

a.{smerl

nrir

,l-oweJ rntere{

bn.r ..

oten Jn rturatrenl

Lne h^pF,hrr he qJulr

lrom

4.c8ard.

r"""

rr"

tu.,J\

rn!rathe

or<appedred tofr

rhc <-ne tne potr.e.

mMged to (at.h hold of A and prosecure him for

EWPLL 16

  • (a) ,{.onmitied chealins, beau* he induced I to part

(ith

the Mic.owale ovd, posing as

though he was lioh the Come.cial raxes

Departm€nt. {b) ,4 commlted cheating, b€.auR he did not pay

G)

the subsequdt iBtalment.

A did not.omit cheabng, be.ause I

h

ded

over the article in order to get a favoEable

assessment from,4.

lhe.orrect amwer wornd be (a).

4 fa sely repre"erts thar I.e F M

oilcer llom

Comrnercial Tax Department His i.tenddn is to get

emeLhs8 fraudu-lsdy del,ve,ed lo tum Fcm a. \on

payment of subsequent lstalmenis appear to be a part

ExAwLE15

Shyam by pled8ing as dianonds ariicle whi.h he

lnows are not diamonds intentionally de<eives Ram,

and iheleby dishonestly indu.es Ram to lend mone!.

  • (a) Shyan is not grilty of cheating

(b)

(c)

Shyam b

(d)

trtility, or affe.ts it

or damage

(a)

(b)

Shyam is Solty of cheating'

auilty

of loigery

No.e of ti.e above.

r1€ .olrect answer is (b).

Mi6chi€I

Section ,{25 of dre IPC defines this o{fence as

intenl to cause, or lnowing i\at

"Whoevei, with

he is likely to cause, nlongfi, loss or damage to the public or to any persoo .auses the destruction ol anl' properly, or dy su.h.hang€ jn any property or in the situation thereof as destroys o. diminishes its value or

injuiouly, comits "mischief".

is not €ssenhal lo the offence oI

€xpldndlio, l.-lt

nnschiel that he offender should intend to .ause loss

to the orrner oI the propeity njued or

dcstroycd. It is sufficient if he intends to .ause, or

lnows that he is likely io cause, wronSiul Loss or

dama8e to any person by injudnS any property,

rvhether itbelongs to that person or not.

Ixrl,natirr 2-Mis.hlef may be.omitted by an

a.t aifecting properrv belonging to t}le person who

rormr. rhydd,orro u,drpe-o.dnd olheF pii rli

lmportantpoinls io be taken care oI are as follows

With intention or knowledge, causing loss or danuge to an). property of anl' pereon

The acl deslroys or dimnnshes tlp value of

sucl troP$ty.

IECAI P i\ICIPLE: Whoever with the intent tu

cause, or kno{ s thathe is likely to.ase, wronglul loss

or damage to ihe public or io any pelson, causes the desbu.tlon o{ any p.operty, or any su.h chante in anv

properry or in th€ siluation lhereof or deshovs or

diminjshes its value or utilily, or aftects it injLdotrsh,

F-4CTU,4I SIIUATJON: O, knowing L\al his assets

are about to be tnlen in execulion in order to Rtisfy a

.lebt due from hjm to Z, destoys those assels, with Lhe

.-rennon ol Lhereb) p e\hbrg Z hom ohLarMB

satisfaction of

L\e debt and it caued damges to Z

Decide whether Q has .omitted any nisJh jef

.

DECISlO({

  • (a) Q comiLs nnschet be.ause he knowingly .aused L\e damges io z.

  • (b) O does not comit mis.hief be.ause hs a.t cannot be prov€d on the groud of law and evidence in ils support.

(.) Q camot be punshed because Ns assers are

nol sufficient to obtain stisfa.non otdet,t

  • (d) Q can be prosecuted

o,rly if debt is )aood delt

The aNwer is (a)b{ause he.omnb hlschiel and

is liable lor such offen.e.

E/

tPLt 77

LEGAL PRINCIPLE 1: Mischiei is an injul lo

prope.ty wlth L\e intention of causinE wronEtullo$ lo

LEGAL PRINCIPLE2 The pcrson to shom th.l(bs

is $rongtully cau5ed by mischief need not be the

olarer oi the property tumselt

FACTUAL SITUATIAN Ahas leased hi3 house to

I

lor 5 yeaF Atter

one yea. ,.1 feeh the n€ed for the

houseand reqlests I to va.at€ thehouse, brt E rel8es.

,{ in order to get ts to va.ate

but I

the lbuse, .ar6es fire lo it,

with L\e h€lp oI the nelghbous qui. y

extinEuihes th€ fire before it could r€allI damge the

  • (a) d is gulry of nis.hief.

0)

,a camot be

#ilty

of causin8 mischicf.

  • (c) A is not tlilty

of mjsclncl is thele was no

rhe answer would be (a).

,4 wolld be liablc loi mischief be.ausc he causcs

fi.e lo the property to cause w.ongful loss o. dahage

to B He <amot es.ape liability for being L\e owner oI

the house as it is legally in occupatjon

of I

'Drnuge

may be rery little but,4 s knos'jngly caustrg wrongtul

loss will make him llable

  • 42 C itle to LL.B. Efltnnce Exrmnldhan

El.:-upt t 78

lIG.4l PaINe-lPlEi Same as above.

FACTUAL SIIUATION: P eolMtarily throws into sea ^! ring with intention of causing wrongtul loss to

(a)

(b)

k)

(d)

P i-.

8{il$

ot mischief

P is guiltv of.heating

P is guilty of things

Noneofihe above.

Ite anqwe

is (a).

Criminal Attempt

.Alrempl i\ an inr"rrional prepararor) adi@ h tu\ h

Idil- rn rB obJe.t

Attempl

ro Muder delD.d u/r t47 of

10 years o.

upto life

IPC is puishable

Eith

impljsorunent.

To coNtitute

coruit d olf€nce requireF

an offen e of atrempr to

  • (a) intention !o comnt e offence, and

  • (b) doing an act towards rh€ comission of tr1e

(i)

IlhBrdtians

A nakes

an auehpr

to pick ihe pocker

into Z< pocter

of Z by

Z

l-dc

Ltuu.Frs hi. hrnd

n.'tn.-!

'.

h r poclcL. A ,\ 6L Iry for arrempr ro

(b)

,4, with the intention

oI causing the death of a

a deeert

.hild of tender years, erposes ft i!

place. r,l is guilry foratremprto muder

(c)

J

,.1, intending

po

"

..

rrd

to

tu'-!

nuder Z by poiron, puchases

+,e rome {.Lh tood

Lao.e. A l-d.

(orrn

.4 pta.es

cd

rhe

t}|e food on I r

oilence

I

oI aLlempt to mud€r.

mr^.- Jr d,,emt! lo rcal 6ome *eL

by

ble,bnL up.- d

boy ard hnds

no ieBel jn

.l,e t".;fi;r rhe"e Ir

ilLer,o oDenirg

jL. He ha'q do.e

an act tos'rds L\e cormission of theft and is

guilly io! altemp o comit rheft

Ev,AjlPLx 19

LE6,.1l PRINCIPTE: wlroeler aftmpts to .ommit

an oflence Fuishable by the lndian remt Code

wjth

imprisoment for life or imprisonment, or to .ause

such an oflence to be commjtted and

tn su.h arrempr

does an) ad towards the comission oI rhe offence,

FACTU,II s/IUATION: X srays in Solrh

Exlensjory New Delhi. One eveniaS he thought to steal

Jll rhe

.eheller\ r,um Meka & Sotu Compu) dr

orar(l-.

Hp ca.leo hi. Mo r,,;"ds io

drive towards beins rich

hote

luth E\'en.ion

Eold

help him in su.h of his

o\en8ltr Ths lhe tr,o maJe LI-e uderqrouo

ruhdrd' he Metd & 5otu lrom north "i,le dunn8

midnight. Durin8 su.h p.ocess one of his