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IRON ***********
S.G. Iron is one of the family of cast iron, in which graphite is in the form of spheriodal nature, so this iron is called spheriodal or nodular cast iron or Ductile Iron. Moulding 1. Moulding should be planned minimum one melt 2. Every mould should have heat No. Along with Ductile / SG identification mark which will be reproduced once metal is poured. 3. After making moulds for one melt, heat No has to be changed before making further moulds. 4. Since SG Iron is prone to mould wall dilation leading to secondary shrinkage, Mould rigidity is a very important factor. Melting: Metal Charge Calculation: Description Heel Metal SG Pig Iron Mild Steel Silicon Steel SG. Returns Required Chemistry in base metal Final Chemistry in casting Qty Nil Carbo n% Wt Silicon % Wt Manganes e % Wt Sulphur % Wt

3.9 3.7

1.4 2.6

0.3 0.3

0.025 0.015

Sulphur Level before Treatment 0.025 % Max Phosphorus Level 0.06 % max Use Coconut charcoal only as a carburizers to reduce the Sulphur levels and also to eliminate desulphurisation.

Laddle: 1. Treatment laddle with Tundish cover to be used for treatment. Dia to Height Ratio should be 1:2 for treatment laddle. For pouring TSpout laddle / Goose neck laddle to be used. However one T-Spout laddle and one treatment laddle to be kept as a stand by. 2. Ladles to be pre heated to 700C before treatment by burner or other suitable method. 3. Treatment Laddle should have compartment / Pocket to keep Mg alloy. Addition to the treatment laddle. a. Metal Flux 0.1 % (Ferrogen) b) Fe Si Mg 1.2 % to 1.5 % c) Fe Si Grannules or } 0.8%, 0.4% to the treatment Laddle proprietary Inoculants} 0.4% to the pouring laddle 0.2% can be reduced when we are going for 0.2% Mould inoculation To be added in the sequence as per drawing. Mg.Treatment: 1. Treatment temperature 1500C 1520C 2. Slag should be thoroughly removed before tapping the metal in to treatment laddle. 3. Metal to be tapped 400 Kgs/500Kgs. 4. Initially start pouring the metal in to the treatment laddle with the same speed, as we are pouring normal cast iron. Once the reaction started pouring as fast as possible and complete. The tapping of full 400 Kgs metal before reaction clear. After completing the reaction remove Tundish cover, sprinkle slag coagulant and remove slag thoroughly as early as possible by slightly tilting the laddle. Add balance innoculant on top of the laddle, Stir the metal with rod. Then pour the metal through Gooseneck to the hand shank, pour hand shank laddle metal to treatment laddle. (It will help Untreated metal in spout to get treated and also Mix innoculant properly) if we use pouring laddle separately it is not necessary, but 0.4% Innoculation has to be added when we are transferring metal to pouring laddle inoculants to be added slowly to metal stream.


The maximum time allowed to empty the laddle 8 MTS. If we are

able to empty the ladle with in the time metal has to return to furnace.

Fading of the Spheroidinzing Effect: The fading results in the appearance of Quasi flake graphite. Fading happens due to loss of magnesium content, high Oxidization or with high base sulphur. The corresponding reaction may be as simple as mg + O Mgo + S - Mgs. Considering the relative stabilities of the above two compound a more likely is Mg + S + O = Mgo + S if the source of Oxygen is as Oxide silica, as an example the corresponding reaction are 2mg + Sio2 = Si + 2mgo 2mgs + Sio2 = Si + 2mgo + S It is well established that fading rate is influence by initial mg content the higher the faster the fading. Higher Temperature - Faster the rate of fading. Delay in Pouring Time delay in Pouring after Mg treatment leads to spheroids deterioration resulting in fading. What is fading ? Fading is the phenomenon in which the shape of graphite nodules deteriorates to faded form called vermicular graphite/ Flake graphite with very much inferior mechanical property. When fading occurs: Mainly fading occurs due to deficiency of residual magnesium. For a perfect S.G. Iron the level of residual magnesium should be in the range of 0.04 %to 0.06%. If the residual magnesium levels fall below 0.04 %nodules deteriorates to flake. Deficiency of Magnesium occurs due to: 1. Treatment Temperature is above 1500C. 2. Insufficient covering material early reaction (1:1) 3. Slow tapping Exposure of magnesium for longer time. 4. Poor quality of magnesium. 5. Time of pouring Every minute 0.001% mg loss will be there. 6. Tundish hole diameter should be 60 70mm if it increases the loss of magnesium will be more. 7. Closing of Tundish cover Tundish cover should perfectly seat into the main ladle. 8. Any gap between Tundish cover and main ladle the loss of

magnesium will be more. 9. Trace elements Bismuth, Tellurium, Lead, and Aluminium can cause the fading. 10. Exposing the alloy for longer time in atmosphere also causes loss of magnesium. 11. Poor inoculation causes nodule deterioration & Carbide formation. Remedial measures to avoid fading: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7.

8. 9.

Correct addition of Fe Si Mg. Complete covering of Fe Si Mg + Fe Si. Temperature should be 1500 10C. Tapping should be tundish full and to be completed within 60 Sec. Avoid interrupted tapping / slow tapping Weighments of alloys Fe Si Mg & Fe Si should be corrected. Do not hold the Fe Si Mg in the ladle before tapping, if any crane / Furnace Break downs occur remove the charge materials in Fe Si Mg & fe Si and again add fresh materials Dont expose Fe, Si, and Mg Alloy in open atmosphere. It should be kept in a closed contain before use. Tap the correct quantity of metal (Gauge should be used for ladle) / Crane weighing scale to be used.

Inoculation is the process to which the solid crystals of Fe Si addition to the molten metal, resulting change in physical properties. Control of NODULS size and count is essentially the result of effective inoculation practice. What is the purpose of inoculation :
1. Reduce the tendency to form chill and mottle by promoting

2. 3. 4.


ductility and reducing the danger of cracking during knockout or fettling. Increase the number of graphite nucleation sites, so that number of graphite nodules formed with general improvement in properties. Encourage the formation of full spheroidal graphite nodules. Inoculation will off set the effect of Magnesium which is a powerful carbide stabilizer. Inoculation will minimize the section sensitivity (even in thin and thick sections, the properties will be same). Stream inoculation is much better than ladle inoculations ie 0.15% stream inoculant is much better than 0.65% ladle addition of silicon.

7. Add the innoculant after magnesium treatment is completed, after removing the Mg. Dross. 8. Innoculation in laddle should be between 5mm to 6mm size. Avoid fines far as possible. 9. Inoculate as late as possible before pouring stir thoroughly, to ensure complete dissolution and distribution throughout the metal. 10. While inoculating in the Mg-Treated ladles, first skim the metal surface to avoid loss of innoculant. 11. For most efficient inoculation transfer the Mg treated metal in to pouring laddle and innoculant to be added in metal stream.

12. Innoculant Addition:

Normally nodular Iron, requires more than gray iron, about 0.6% to 1% according to section thickness. 13. 0.1% Late metal stream inoculation will ensure the Max chill reduction in the casting. 14. Innoculant should be stored in water proof container to avoid moisture pick up. It lowers the efficiency of innoculant. 15. Ferrosilicon Granules/barium base/lathanumbase only has to be used a innoculant for ductile Iron. 16. Fading of Innoculant:The effect of an innoculant is at a maximum almost immediately it is dissolved in the iron. The effect fades at a rate depending upon the operating condition and innoculant used. Normally 50 % of the innoculant effect is lost with in first 5 8 MTS traveling.

1. Base Iron having higher sulphur significantly increases the risk of dross formation in castings. 2. During Magnesium treatment, sulphide and oxides are formed, which may remain suspended in the metal giving dross defects in the castings produced. Magnesium rapidly oxidises and forms magnesium rich oxide film, which is constantly being formed on the surface of the treated metal during handling or pouring. may result in inclusions in the castings. 3. It is very important that the slag on the surface of the treated metal on pouring ladle should be removed or prevented from the metal to enter into the mould. 4. Many inoculants contain aluminium which can promote pin hole defects in nodular irons. This can also lead to dross defects. 5. High magnesium recoveries also cause the dross defects ie lower tapping temperature.

1. The melting point of magnesium is 600C and it boils at 1100C which is much less than the tapping temperature of metal ie 1500 10C.
2. The density of pure magnesium is only 1.74 grams that is why it

was alloyed with Fe Si; the density of Fe Si Mg is lesser than the density of liquid metal (Cast Iron).

3. Volatilization and burning of Magnesium resulting in the formation of copious amounts of white Magnesium oxide fumes.

COMPOSITION SG 400 / 12 Carbon Silicon Manganese Max Phosphorus Sulphur Magnesium Copper Tensile Strength Minimum Elongation Minimum Matrix BHN SG 600 / 3 Carbon Silicon Manganese Max Phosphorus Sulphur Magnesium Copper Tensile Strength Minimum 3.6 3. 8% 2.4 2.8 % 0.35 % 0.06 Max 0.015 Max 0.04 0.06 % 400 N/mm 12 % 95 % Ferrite 135 - 175 3.5 3. 6% 2.3 2.5 % 0.35 % 0.06 Max 0.015 Max 0.04 0.06 % 0.5 0.8 % 600 N/mm 500 / 7 3.6 3.7 % 2.4 2.6 % 0.35 % 0.06 Max 0.015 Max 0.04 0.06 % 0.3 % 500 N/mm 7% 50 % Pearlite 170 - 230 700 / 2 3.4 3.5 % 2.3 2.4 % 0.35 % 0.06 Max 0.015 Max 0.04 0.06 0.8 1 % 700 N/mm

Elongation Minimum Matrix BHN

3 % 90 % Pearlite 190 270

2 5 100 % Pearlite 225 - 305


Carbon: In S.G. Iron the final carbon should be in the range of 3.50 % to 3.60%, if carbons below 3.40%castings are prone to shrinkage. Carbon should not be more than 3.70 %, if it is more graphite flotation occurs and also exploded graphite structure occurs. Silicon : In S.G. Iron the final silicon should be in the range of 2.50 % to 2.60 %, if silicon is less than 2.2% castings are prone to shrinkage and more than 2.7% castings are prone to brittle (White fracture) Structure. Manganese: In S.G. Iron the manganese content should be less than 0.3% for 400/12 graded, if Manganese is more, it reduces the elongation by promoting the grain boundary segregation especially in thickness castings. Base Sulphur: Sulphur content should be as low as possible is 0.025 %. Phosphorus: Phosphorus content should not be more than 0.05% which affects the impact properties.

Segregation and Documentation

All the SG Iron runner and riser are to be kept separately along with rejected SG Iron casting and re-melted only when SG Iron is poured INSPECTION PROCEDURE TO IDENTIFY, INSPECT AND ASSURE QUALITY OF SG IRON CASTINGS

To identify and separate the S.G Iron castings knockout stage, to offer for inspection and to have a record about the quality of the castings and its parameters the following procedure will be followed. Identification of treatment Quality: Lab to prepare a metal flag indicating the treatment No / Melt No. This is to be inserted in the liquid metal at the sprue of the last mould in every Mg treatment.

At knockout : All the castings should be kept separately as per ladle No. and box no. After getting micro report / clearance from lab by inspecting the Micro Sample, if micro structure is O.K., All the runners should be removed and the casting will be offered for further processing. The treatment sheet will be handover to melting /QA. If the micro sample is not O.K the last box lug piece will be taken as a sample and the same will be subjected for micro testing. If the micro structure is O.K the entire lot which falls under the same treatment will be made O.K. If the last boxes lug piece sample micro is also not O.K then the segregate the casting by micro examination 100%. Melt No:eet Metal Flag Treatment No:Sh

4 Nail








: :


: : : : : : :



LADLE ADDITION: IF ANY INNOCULATION%: Name of the item poured No of boxes Poured

SL.No .

Pouring time









Heat Treatment: Annealing for 370 / 17 Gr Heat to 875C Hold for 3 hours switch off and cool to 700C and again hold for 3 hours cool to 300C in furnace take out then air-cooling. Stress Relieving (Customer requirement): Heat to 550C hold for 3 hours switch off and cool to 215C takeout then air-cooling. De Sulphurization :
If Sulphur level is above 0.03 % metal is to be De Sulphurized by using soda ash

or Calcium Carbide chips as a general rule 1 % of soda ash (Na2 Co3) or Calcium Carbide (Cac2) is needed to reduce the base Iron Suplhur content from 0.1% to 0.01% it can be more (OR) Less depending on Desulphurization efficiency. Reaction Follows: Na2 Co3 (Slag) + Fe -----> Na2 + Co2 + Na2o + Fe S - Fe + Na2 S

Sodium Carbonate React with ferrous Sulphide and Sodium sulphide will come as slag. The Smell of Ductile Iron: The Ductile Iron smells when a fresh cut (OR) fracture of the material is exposed to air. The odor resembles that of acetylene. Chemical analysis has revealed that the major component of the gas emitted from the surface is Phosphine not to be mistaken for Phosphene. Phosphine is generated by action between Magnesium Phosphide inclusion in the ductile Iron and air moisture as follows: Mg3 P2 + 6 H 2 0 = = PH3 + 3 Mg (OH) 2

GGG 40.3 Grade Low Silicon with annealing

C : Si : Mn: P : S : Ni :

Chemistry: 3.6% - 3.7% 1.9% - 2.1% (Final) 0.3 % Max 0.05% Max 0.015% Max 0.5% 0.6 %

Heat Treatment : Heat to 870C @ 100 / 120C / Hour Hold for 5 Hours Switch off and cool to 300C @ 50C / Hour Resulting Properties : Tensile Strength : 400N/mm Yield Strength : 250 N/mm Elongation : 18% Impact 14 joules at 20C (Sub Zero Temperature).

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