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Alexander II (1855-81): emancipation of the serfs; military, legal, educational, local government reforms; later reaction o Alexander II Proactive

e o Emancipation of the serfs 1861 Allowed for the formation of committees Amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by peasants of the Russian Empire Serfs were granted the full rights of free citizens Gaining the rights to marry without having to gain consent Own property Own a business Peasants would be able to buy the land from the landlords However many could not get enough money to buy back the land and were forced to choose between being homeless and going back to working for their previous landlords so that they can get back their land Indentured Servitude o Reforms A reaction to the failure at the Crimean War Humiliating to Russia Its considered to be the beginning of the fall of the Tsar From there on, militarily, they just get crushed all the time Alexander II comes in at the end of the Crimean War Also a reaction to an awareness of military advances implemented in other European countries Military Restructuring Universal military conscription

o Rich and poor had to serve in the military Army reserve and military district system were set up o Still in use a century later Strategic railways were built Emphasis on the military education of the officer corps Corporal punishment in the military and branding of the soldiers as a punishment was banned Judicial administration Based on the French model Introduced security of tenure New penal code Simplified system of civil and criminal procedure Trial in open court Judges appointed for life A jury system Creation of justices of the peace to deal with minor offences at a local level Was previously corrupt o Judges were getting very little money Rich always bribed them o Increased the money of the Judges So corruption went down o Peasants couldnt go to court Local Government Reforms Zemstvo o Bureaucracy o For the rural districts (1864) and the large towns (1870) o New rural and municipal police under the direction of the Minister of the Interior Educational reforms Russification o Everyone was taught to learn Russian o Builds up nationalism Later reaction When people get a little taste of freedom they are ok at first But then they realize that they could have more Political voice was stifling Tsar still had the chance to veto anything Nothing really changed The serfs were free but they had to work to pay off their debt Indentured servitude o Although you are free, you have so much obligation or debt that youre still not really free o Servant of the system o Where many peasants were given freedom but were not educated or skilled enough to find a job good enough to own their own land End up working for their old landlords

Alexander II gets assassinated Comes from the university structure o He allows them a voice and it turns extremist o Educated people o The Tsar doesnt really understand it He says hes giving them freedom of speech and theyre saying hes not giving it to them Everyone wants democracy o Just like Western Europe o Devine right is crap, according to the Western thought People are happy from around 1861 but by around 1872 all those things have time to developed to the point where the people realize they want more Legal system Innocent until proven guilty Theres still always some corruption By giving them more freedom of speech o Corruption becomes more of a problem later even though it improved earlier Once you give people freedom you cant take it away Policies of Alexander III (1881-94) and Nicholas II (1895-1917): backwardness and attempts at modernization; nature of tsardom; growth of opposition movements o Policies of Alexander III Reactive Angered by his fathers death Super reactionary He changes pretty much everything except He cant bring serfdom back He cant just send peasants back to their owners He extends Russification Goes crazy with it Pogroms o Killing of Jews o Attached to the idea of Russification o The May Laws Banning Jews from working in civil service Direct anti-semmetic violence Encourage emigration Ignatyev 1/3 convert, 1/3 leaves, 1/3 dies Positive integration and negative integration Positive integration o Original Russification People are taught Russian Negative integration o Like the pogroms

o Just getting rid of everyone who isnt like them Educational structure is put back Dont get to speak against the Tsar Will literally go around and kill people if people speak about the Tsar He kills Lenins brother This is considered part of the chain reaction that makes Lenin who he is He develops work camps If you do something bad you do work that they need done Policies of Nicholas II Has some more attempts at modernization Doesnt really want to be Tsar Family man Not really into all this political stuff Attempts at modernization Industrialization The big decision he makes o Borrowing money from France o Sells grain Sergei Witte o All these reforms are made under him o Major cause of 1905 revolution o After, Tsar creates the fundamental laws Counter acts the Duma Almost adds to the problems as opposed to making solutions o Although he thinks hes fixing them o Hes fascinated with industrialization Doesnt really know how to make it happen but he wants it to happen Somewhere in between Alexander II and Alexander III Within the city and the country side it goes to shit Other issues Political o Soviet begins to form o Duma isnt happy They have very little voice The Nature of Tsardom The concept that the people are in a structure where they dont see any other structure Especially with the cutting down of educated voices Hard thing to change the minds of people and the way they view things The general uneducated population is generally not educated enough to know that theres something else Same in France (prior to the French Revolution)

Until enough people realize that there is another option theyll basically just accept it Kind of like a father figure Even though the people complain and bitch about the situation or the Tsar o If someone else tells them hes bad then they are wrong o People dont go against it too much Especially in the face of someone else o Growth of Opposition Movements Despite greater police surveillance Opposition became more organized Great range of political parties came into being during the period Industrialization, urbanisation, rapidly increasing population and bouts of economic depression Caused opposition Contributed to undermine social order and the stability of the regime As a result, Nicholas II made concessions In October Manifesto o Reluctantly gave in to demands for the creation of the duma o The declaration of the Fundamental Laws showed his lack of commitment to the concept of constitutional reform Significance of the Russo-Japanese War; 1905 Revolution; Stolypin and the Duma; the impact of the First World War (1914-18) on Russia o Russo-Japanese War Russia is Militarily weak The Mutiny o Russian ships are asked to sail out of the Black Sea to go around Africa to Port Arthur o By the time they get there Japan won o The guys on the ship actually mutiny They rise over the captain and take over Just shows the big weakness of the military In the military theres no rising up unless theyre really unhappy or starved etc. Economically Lost Port Arthur Positives of Nicholas II (industrialization) o Built a lot of railroads o Russia was building their railroad Theyre generally ill-equipped and slow so it took them a very long time to build it Von Shleiffen plan was built knowing this Wilhelm and Von Shleiffen knows that they can hold Russia off not only because we can

defeat France but because we know Russia will be slow to mobilize, proved in the RussoJapanese War Socially Chaos Lost a lot of faith in the Tsar Foreign relations Russia is a Joke The rest of the world has a lot less respect for them They are the first Western Power to be defeated by an Asian power They lose a lot of face This proves a good thing for Japan o Who is suddenly noticed 1904 = War 1906 = Peace treaty happens Within this: 1905 Revolution Different groups complaining about different things No one has a real leader Father Gapon (During Bloody Sunday) Organized a peaceful workers procession to the Winter Palace to deliver a petition to the Tsar o Freedom of speech o Better work day o More womans rights o All over the place o Begins peacefully in Petrograd Suddenly turns violent Not like hes the unified leader o Organically doing it with a smaller group of people in the city So the Tsar (Nicholas II) says hell fix it o October Manifesto Creation of the Duma Better hours He says some things about Freedom of Speech Doesnt say anything about free healthcare Even the things he says hes going to appease, he doesnt say how The people are appeased for a bit Prevents the overthrowing of the Tsar This was due to the lack of leadership and ideology October Manifesto o Just enough to get people to step back But then, Nicholas II creates the Fundamental Laws

Basically says what the relationship is between the Tsar and the Duma The Tsar has the power to say no to anything the Duma says Nicholas II essentially named himself the Supreme Autocrat Two housed Russian parliament o State Council Upper house Half appointed by the Tsar Other half elected by various governmental, clerical and commercial interests o State Duma Lower house Members were to be chosen by various classes of the Russian people Complex scheme of indirect elections System was weighted to ensure the ultimate preponderance of the propertied classes Held the power of legislation and the right to question the Tsars ministers They did not have control over their appointment or dismissal

Stolypin Appeases the peasants more Changes to Imperial Russias agricultural sector Reforms Initiation of cooperation in agriculture Large-scale development of individual farming (Khutors) Improvement of existing land areas Formation of an Agrarian Party o Representing the peasant interests Improvement of education o Increase in the agricultural productivites 1913 Stolypin gets killed WWI breaks out in 1914 o Which was the biggest cause of revolution? Regardless of Stolypins reforms doing well for economy, the problems with the Duma wouldnt be address, leading to chaos o Is WWI the biggest impacting piece or is it all the other things? Duma Lots of problems The combination of the Duma and Rasputin almost shows that the Duma is going against the Tsar

o They have freedom of speech but not really Theyre given a voice but arent listened to WWI During the War the Tsar still has to make decisions Starts working directly toward forcibly getting soldiers Starts forcing people to make arms and food to go to the soldiers All of the workers feel like theyre the most important part of the system but theyre not getting the benefits Gold mine strike o Theyre working with the gold but arent getting any of it Tsars Decisions Getting council from Mongliev Not seen as seeing council just as a vacation He directly goes to the Front o He doesnt know what hes doing o No one respects him Tsarina sends him letters saying that people are kind of unhappy o But they have no clue just how unhappy the people are o Impact of the First World War on Russia Russian troops were slaughtered in their millions Russia didnt really have a strategy They just used their large numbers Nicholas made things worse by going to the front Made him directly responsible for the defeats in most peoples eyes Left the government in the hands of the Tsarina and Rasputin Economic Chaos People in the towns were starving and freezing Triple Entente (1907) Britain, France and Russia A very big cause of the revolutions 1917 Revolutions: February/March Revolution; Provisional Government and Dual Power (Soviets); October/November Bolshevik Revolution; Lenin and Trotsky o The Nature of the 1917 Revolution Initiated by the women Men were off fighting the war So really most of the workers were women March 8 1917 they went on a march demanding bread o Turned into rioting Lots of arguments Military o Figes would support that it was the military who gave permission to people to attack the Tsar and revolt o They were the ones who captured the Tsar on his way back Social and political

o Pipes would have said Social and Political Provisional Government Half Soviet Half Duma Idea is that the soviet actually has a lot more power Growth of opposition movements February/March Revolution Centred around Petrograd (modern day St. Petersburg) Immediate result Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II o Renunciation of his office The end of the Romanov dynasty The end of the Russian Empire Provisional Government and Dual Power (Soviets) Tsar was replaced by a Russian Provisional Government Under Georgy Lvov Alliance between liberals and socialists At the same time socialists formed the Petrograd Soviet Ruled alongside the Provisional Government Dual Power October/November Bolshevik Revolution Petrograd Capitalization of the February/March revolution of the same year Overthrew the Russian Provisional Government Gave power to the soviets Dominated by Bolsheviks Since the revolution was not universally recognized outside of Petrograd Russian Civil War Winter Palace was captured Lenin and Trotsky Why did it succeed? (Perhaps Seven Powers Gave Lenin An Opportunity) Provisional Government problems Slogans o Bolsheviks had good slogans Peace, bread, land All Power to the Soviets o Simple, straight forward, easy for people to understand Pravda o Party ran its own propaganda machine o Newspaper Pravda (truth) got their ideas across German Money o Germans financed the Bolsheviks o They knew Lenin wanted to take Russia out of the war Lenin o Strong leader who was able to move the public Army o The Red Guards o Set up and trained under Trotsky Organisation o Bolsheviks were concentrated into one area

Even though they were surrounded, they were still all together and able to come together Trotskys name grew to stand for cruel discipline He was the one going out and actively doing things for the revolution Lenin was the one who organized it For the white propagandists Trotsky was evil o For the red propagandists Trotsky was a saint Trotsky believed that war was not just through the army but also conducted in peoples minds and thats what he valued the most Trotsky believed psychological warfare was the most powerful Trotsky was basically a combination of Lenin and Marx Lenins Russia (1917-24): consolidation of new Soviet state; Civil War; War Communism; NEP; terror and coercion; foreign relations o Consolidation of new Soviet state How Lenin consolidated power Lenin opened talks for an armistice with the German government o Lenin withdrew Russia from the war (what many people wanted) o By signing the humiliating but critical Treaty of Brest-Litovsk How the Bolsheviks stayed in power Weak opposition o Opponents were weak o So many opposition groups with different goals that they never managed to organize themselves to find a common enemy in the Bolsheviks o Instead, they fought against each other Political misjudgement o Underestimation Collapse of army o The Tsarist army was mainly compromised of people who wanted freedom o After the Tsar abdicated, a lot of soldiers revolted against their officers o Many returned home or joined the Bolsheviks Workers and peasants wanted change o Awful conditions in cities and the country side o Bolsheviks offered them change in exchange for support Attacks on opposition o Bolsheviks underlined the shortcomings of the opposing parties Use of class warfare o Made the peasants and workers more aware of the classes above them that were exploiting them o Civil War Whites vs. Reds When the Bolsheviks were on the brim of losing the war: Trotsky was everywhere and very effective Violent Civil War White guards shot the Red prisoners Red Army killed White prisoners

Bolsheviks were basically in command Behind the scenes Extreme famine o Many dead from starvation The Civil War had left the nation in chaos The Sailors wanted communism but not the Bolsheviks War Communism Perspective of certain revisionist historians War Communism was a conscious attempt to create a new social order Perspective of Bolshevik supporters War Communism originated in a series of emergency measures introduced to deal with the increasingly difficult economic and military situation The Bolshevik was therefore inclined to see the essential features of fully fledged Communism embodied in the war economics of 1918-19 People are physically acting out against it Ineffectiveness is proven by creation of NEP NEP System introduced to replace War Communism Created to strengthen the foundations of Socialism and lead to its complete victory Unemployment begins and grows Brought some form of economic sense No industry was obligated to supply the state Inflation Bartering was reintroduced in rural areas (since economic modernization hadnt reached the countryside) Encouraged workers to work harder so they could make more money Causes competition, not so communist Scissor Crisis Industrial prices were 3 times higher than agricultural Lots of food is produced rapidly Farmers began producing food rather than any other products (ex. Cotton) Eventually, government interferes o Force down the prices of manufacturing produce and decrees were issued that controlled prices Tax on food produced The very notion was a simple recognition that food produced was private property (capitalism) Terror and coercion Trotsky claims Lenin emphasized the absolutely necessity of terror as early as 1904 "The dictatorship of the proletariat is an absolutely meaningless expression without Jacobin coercion." o Jacobin: An extreme political radical. (Comes from a term used to describe a member of a democratic club in the French revolution)

In 1905, Lenin directed members of the St. Petersburg "Combat Committee" to commit acts of robbery, arson, and other terrorist acts He opposed the use of terrorism as a mindless act but endorsed its use to advance the communist revolution Lenin had abandoned any reluctance to using terrorist tactics by 1917, believing all resistance to communist revolution should be met with maximum force. Trotsky: "The man who repudiates terrorism in principle, i.e., repudiates measures of suppression and intimidation towards determined and armed counterrevolution, must reject all idea of the political supremacy of the working class and its revolutionary dictatorship." Foreign relations Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Marked Russias exit from WWI Provided relief for the Bolsheviks o Who were tied up fighting the Civil War Lenin believed good foreign relations would define how communism would be in the future Good relations were important to national security Economy also required trade with the industrial countries Treaty of Rapallo (1922) Germany and Russia agreed on mutual recognition Cancellation of debt claims Normalization of trade relations Secret cooperation in military development Soon after the treaty Soviet Union obtained diplomatic recognition from other major powers o Britain (1924) o Private US firms began to extend technological assistance And develop commercial links in the 1920s But withheld recognition until 1933 Active policy in China Aided the Guomindang (Nationalist party) Stalin wanted the Chinese Communist Party to join the Guomindang and infiltrate the government from within o Trotsky proposed an armed communist uprising and forcible imposition of socialism Although Stalins plan was finally accepted o It came to naught when in 1927 the Guomindang leader Chiang Kai-Shek ordered the Chinese communist massacred and soviet advisers expelled

European diplomacy and the changing balance of power after 1870 o 1871: Bismarck unifies the German states o 1873: Dreikaiserbund (League of the Three Emperors) between Germany, Austria Hungary and Russia Great powers make alliances in case of war o 1878: Congress of Berlin Bismarck played the Honest Broker Treaty of San Stefano Took away Russias gains from San Stefano Bulgaria was divided into 3 parts Coastline part and Macedonia were returned to the Ottoman Empire Austria-Hungary takes firm control of Bosnia-Herzegovina Russia was frustrated with Bismarck and Britain o 1881: Austria-Hungary alliance with Serbia o 1881: Renewal of Dreikaiserbund (military treaty) o 1882: Austria-Hungary alliance with Romania o 1882: Triple Alliance was formed Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy Italys joining was good for Germany Both were against France More of a military alliance o 1887: Reinsurance Treaty Secret alliance between Germany and Russia Both would maintain neutrality in case Germany attacks France or Russia attacks Austria-Hungary Aims, methods, continuity and change in German foreign policy to 1914; global colonial rivalry

Bismarck was in office from 1870-1890 Tried to keep peace in Europe Also tried to keep France isolated Tried to keep Germany in the middle of the balance of power o 1890: Wilhelm II kicked Bismarck out of office Introduced Weltpolitik as a foreign policy (1897) Replaced realpolitik Went from concentrating efforts on eliminating the possibility of a two front war in Europe to being the leading power on the continent o By means of its army and subtle diplomacy AIM: Transform the country into a global power by means of aggressive diplomacy and large navy o Frustrated with the limits of Germanys geographical position in the centre of Europe Weltpolitik: Primarily a naval policy Let German-Russia treaty overlap Created tension and uncertainty between allies and enemies o Colonial Rivalry 1875: British Disraeli buys shares for Suez Canal 1882: British occupation of Egypt (Suez Canal) 1884: Germany agrees to protect Namibia (becomes German colony), Togo, Cameroon (business purposes) Bismarck: Does not wish to colonize, just protect business establishments 1884-85: Partition of West Africa decided peacefully by European Powers West Africa Conference in Berlin o Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa (during New Imperialism period) o Coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power o Organized by Bismarck o Eliminated most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance 1885: Germany colonized Tanzania and New Guinea 1911: Italy succeeds in Libya Relative importance of: the Alliance system; decline of the Ottoman Empire; Austria Hungary and Balkan nationalism; arms race; international and diplomatic crises o The Alliance System o Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1876: Serbia vs. Turkey Seeks Russian support o Russia says: western Balkans are under Austrias influence not Russias 1877: Russia declares war on Turkey

Fighting over Bulgaria Russia wins Declares the treaty of San Stefano 1878: Treaty of San Stefano Large independent state of Bulgaria but had to be administered by Russia o In exchange for access to Bulgarias coast line Russia took access to Danube from Romania, Serbia, Montenegro Russia received land in Georgia and Armenia o As well as access of the Dardanelles (only this sea access was taken away from Russia in the Berlin treaty) Serbia resents Austrian influence in Bosnia Herzegovina Serbia wanted that land Austria-Hungary and Balkan nationalism Policy of the Dual Monarchy (Austria Hungary) To suppress the nationalist movements both inside and outside the empire Wanted to gain political control over the Balkan Peninsula o Where nationalist movements were rife and always giving encouragement to the nationalist movements within the Austro-Hungarian empire Centre of Balkan nationalism was Serbia Always hoped to unite with the Serbs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire to create a large Serbian state Therefore, the first enemy of Austria-Hungary was Serbia Austria-Hungary also hated Russia because they, being a Slav country, always backed up Serbia in any Austro-Serbian disputes 1908: Bosnian Crisis AKA Annexation crisis or First Balkan Crisis Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Treaty of Berlin o Amended to accept the new status quo bringing the crisis to an end Crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary vs. Russia and the Kingdom of Serbia Annexation and reactions were contributing causes of WWI 1912-1913: Balkan War Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire Large parts of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule 1912: They formed the Balkan League First Balkan War (1912)

League attacked Turkey Ended seven months later by Treaty of London Turkey lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans Second Balkan War (1913) o Bulgaria attacks Serbia and Greece Bulgaria did not like the division of the spoils in Macedonia made in secret by her allies: Serbia and Greece o Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked While Romania and Turkey also attacked Bulgaria to gain territory o Treaty of Bucharest ends the war Bulgaria lost most of its territories it gained in the First Balkan war Assassination of Franz Ferdinand (1914) What sparked the First World War Assassinated by the Black Hand (nationalistic Serbian Group) o Gavrilo Princip (member of Black Hand) Arms Race 1897: Weltpolitik German World Policy German industrial expansion was so dependent on imports of raw materials from oversees that a vast colonial empire was required with a large navy to support it Weltpolitik was a programme of naval expansion and heavy involvement in colonial affairs o By way of justification to match UKs force o And increase support for authoritarian rule Unsuccessful and expansive colonization coupled with the financial expansion into the Middle East and build-up of its navy o Lead other European states to fear its neighbour and question their motives o Creates tension between the Triple Entente (England, France, Russia) and Triple Alliance (Germany, AusriaHungary, Italy) 1898: Naval Bill Germany begins to develop naval power 1906: UK release the Dreadnought Bigger, better than others Suspicion and distrust amongst all of Europe 1907-10: British naval expenditure increases To compete with German expansion

o o

1908-10: Anglo-German arms race climaxed Causing international tension o International and diplomatic crises July Crisis Diplomatic crises among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 Led to the First World War Immediately after Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand o Series of diplomatic manoeuvrings led to an ultimatum from Austria-Hungary to Serbia and ultimately to war Ultimatum was part of a coercive program o Meant to weaken the Kingdom of Serbia as a threat to Austria-Hungarys occupation of the northern Balkans Weakening of Serbia was to be achieved either through diplomacy or by localized war (I the ultimatum were rejected) o Austria-Hungary preferred war To ensure war, the terms of the ultimatum were so harsh that they were certain to be rejected Germanys Blank Cheque Offered blank cheque to Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary was promised unconditional support from Germany regardless whatever action Austria Hungary decided to take in punishing Serbia Germany was agreeable to war with France and Russia but hoped to avoid it with Britain British reaction Britain was committed to Frances defence o But British government was aware that in order to enter the war, a better reason that vague commitments to France would be necessary to convince British public opinion Belgian neutrality agreed at the Treaty of London (1839) served its purpose o When Germany initiated Von Schlieffen Plan o Britain joined the war and declared war on Germany Effects on civilian population; impact of war on women socially and politically o Civilians Civilians became a military target Economic impact Shortages of all produce (most importantly food) Rationing of bread, tea, sugar and meat The Great Depression Living standards plummeted Population losses were enourmous

Propaganda gave the false impression to the public that everything was ok When in reality many were dying o Under strict rules of DORA people werent going to know this o Women Socially Britain Women played a new role in the economy As the total war of attrition demanded the mobilisation of all of societys resources o Many women moved into traditional male roles Early 1915: Women were employed as nurses, ambulance drivers, postal workers, bus conductors, police women and fire fighters Late 1918: More than 7 million women employed in war work Ministry of Munitions o Largest single employer for women Womens Land Army (1916) o Attract women to work on the land o Food production had become a priority Womens Armed Forces o Women drove ambulances, operated food canteens, entertained soldiers, worked as cooks, waitresses, clerks, typists, telegraphics, telephonists, packers, drivers and mechanics Wages were higher Conditions improved Increased womens opportunities WWI pushed the constraints of gender roles Since men were off at war, women were employed in all sectors of the economy Women no longer needed escorts to maintain their reputations New sexual freedom Skirts became shorter, women wore trousers, bras replaced the corset Women wore short hair, smoked and wore make up in public o Women Politically Independence was enhanced Started to focus on suffrage (right to vote) Since they had to do the jobs that men had been doing for years But right after the war men tried to go back to the way it was Women couldnt be pushed aside as easily Factors leading to the defeat of Germany and the other Central Powers (Austria Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria); strategic errors; economic factors; the entry and role of the United States o Factors leading to defeat Germany

Weak allies Entrance of US British blockade o Led to the lack of materials o Starved of supplies, German army was weakened and lost support from German people o Caused shortage of weapons and decrease in food production Russian army attacked Germany sooner than expected o Germany fought over two countries at the same time, so it had to split its army German morale had collapsed on both the Western and Home Fronts Strategic errors o Von Schlieffen Plan Violated Belgian neutrality Belgian army and British forces fought better Austria-Hungary Army was not prepared for what it would face o Not suited for aggressive war Strategic errors o Strategy for the first months of the war could nto be decided upon o Plan R Plan was to send huge forces across the border into Russia Within a week they retreated over 200 kilometres Left heavy guns and ammunition behind Defeated by Russia Ottoman Empire Financially crippled A conspiracy was discovered in Constantinople against Germans and the Committee Revolt in Adrianople o Against German military mission Committees formed around the country to rid the country of those siding with Germany Army and navy officers protested against the assumption of authority by Germans Anti-war demonstration by women Bulgaria Lack of proper diplomatic preparation and support from some of the Great Powers

Serbian and French troops made a breakthrough the Macedonian Front o Led to the final victory of WWI Russian Revolution o Spread anti-war and anti-monarchist voices among the troops and in the cities Riots and strikes spread around the country Womens revolt o Protested food and clothing shortages Government was impaired when the details of the Treaty of Bucharest were announced o Treaty divided Romania among the Central Powers Conditions at the front and anti-war propaganda o Thoroughly undermined the morale and discipline of the Bulgarian Army Entry and role of the US Causes of US entry (April 1917) Elites (including president Woodrow Wilson) wanted to ensure a liberal, capitalist world order in contrast to reactionary militarism and colonialism or widespread revolution and communism Strategic situation of US o Leading neutral industrial and financial power Both Germany and Britain violated US neutral maritime rights o Sinking of the Lusitania (British passenger liner) German submarine warfare seemed more ruthless American trade with the Allies o Tripled to $3 billion a year (1914-1916) o Helped economic recovery in the US Pro-British elites and the urban press increasingly emphasized German immorality o Invasion of neutral Belgium o Sinking of Lusitania Woodrow Wilson issues a warning to the Germans o To abandon its submarine warfare against passenger and freight-carrying vessels o Germans temporarily cease submarine warfare until 1917 1917: Germany announces the continuation of submarine warfare o Ends diplomatic relations with US Zimmerman (German Foreign Minister) o Attempts to provoke Mexico and Japan into attacking US with the promise of German assistance after the European front was conquered o The Zimmerman Telegram Decoded by the British and sent to the US

Role

Pissed US off

Fresh American troops were enthusiastically welcomed by the warweary Allied armies o Arrived at the rate of 10,000 a day o Germans were unable to replace their losses Hundred Days Offensive o Final period of WWI o Series of offensives against Central Powers on Western Front o Forced German armies to retreat beyond the Hindenburg Line Followed by an armistice Post-war peace treaties and their territorial, political and economic effects on Europe: Versailles (St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevres/Lausanne) o Treaty of Versailles Vengeance, not reconciliation, was the treatys dominant tone Allies hated Germany because o Money they had to spend on the war o For starting the war o Causalities/Deaths War Guilt Clause Germany had to accept everything as their fault Reparations Payments for the cost and damage caused by the war Disarmament Reduced their army to only defensive Limited navy Officially ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers Required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war Not ratified in the US War Guilt Clauses Germany was forced to disarm Make territorial concessions Pay heavy reparations to certain countries Pushes Germany into The Great Depression o Treaty of Neuilly (sur-Seine) (1919) Dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers Required Bulgaria to give Western Thrace to the Entente Thereby cutting off its direct outlet to the Aegean Sea o Treaty of Saint-Germain (en-Laye) (1919) Signed between Allies and the new Republic of Austria Declared that the Austro-Hungarian Empire was to be dissolved Include war reparations to be paid by Republic of Austria

Austria could not enter into political or economic union with Germany Without the agreement of the council of the League of Nations Broke up Austria-Hungary Reduced territory Austrio-Hungarian army became limited Result - The vast reduction of territory, population, and resources of the new Austria severely affected its economy and made them resentful

Treaty of Trianon (1920) Between the Allies and Hungary Hungary: One of the successor states to Austria-Hungary Regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state Defined its borders Treaty of Sevres (1920) Peace treaty between Ottoman Empire and the Allies Never ratified, replaced by Treaty of Lausanne Treaty of Lausanne (1923) Ended the state of war that existed between Turkey vs. Allies Defined the borders of the modern Turkish state

Germany 1919-33: political, constitutional, economic, financial and social problems o Political Sparticists Uprising (January 1919) in Berlin Soviet Republic in Munic Political assassinations (Rathenau, Erzberger) Weimer Republic signed the Treaty of Versailles (against the better judgement of Politicians) Humiliating for Germany and her government

Various attempts to overthrow the government by force failed or were supressed Government by emergency decrees became commonplace (1930 onwards) In the end, system of government was paralyzed This is when Hitler rose to power Weimer Republic falls Result of protests People lost faith in the Republic Army was not fully under the governments control Led by the right-wing General Hans von Seeckt German army had failed to help the government during the Kapp Putsch and invasion crisis of 1923 Constitutional System of proportional voting (system within the Weimer Republic) Result: 28 parties o Made it impossible to establish any majority in the Reichstag o Caused frequent changes in the government Constitution was ineffective No one listened to the government States have too much power Germany adopted a new constitution in 1919 Seemed to work Economic/financial 1923: French and Belgians claimed the Germans had not paid reparations Occupied the Ruhr o Germanys main industrial area o Violation of Treaty of Versailles Hyperinflation (Great Depression) Prices for everything skyrocket Value of money lessens One incident says that a lady left a basket of money outside the store and when she went out found the basket stolen but the money perfectly intact Germany relied heavily on loans repayable in full on demand Especially from the US Reparations needed to be paid On top of Germany starving High unemployment Social People began to turn more radical Starvation Percentage of women in the workforce had risen Former soldiers were of the opinion that they had not lost the war Believed that the army had been cheated

(Hitler later phrased this as the stab in the back) Result: Germans looked for people to blame o Some the Kaiser, most the new Weimer Republic o Some even blamed communists or jews Suspicion within Germany Under the Kaiser: armed forces and aristocratic Prussian elite enjoyed many privileges These groups now had to try and re-establish their authority First president of the Weimer republic worked hard to try and win the support of the elite groups and the army Italy 1919-39: Mussolinis domestic and foreign policies o Domestic Emphasis on National Glory and Patriotism Coordination of the economy While allowing private property Emphasis on production and banning of activities which hurt production More order and efficiency in Italian life Crushing the mafia Several public construction programs and government initiatives throughout Italy to combat economic setbacks or unemployment levels o Foreign Shifted from pacifist anti-imperialism to an extreme form of aggressive nationalism Believed that conquered foreign territory was the sign of a great nation and a great power Army nearly doubled in size Mussolini wanted to establish a modern Roman Empire in the Mediterranean (rivalling that of the ancient Caesers) A successful foreign policy might distract the Italians from their miserable conditions at home Wanted more territories To settle the surplus Italian population and acquire raw materials for industries The impact of the Great Depression (case study of its effect on one country in Europe) o Germany Gave Hitler the opportunity he needed to rise US government was providing loans before the depression (Dawes Plan) When the depression hit, US had to reduce its payments (Young Plan) Germany depended on this revenue so it fell apart Still had to pay reparations Printing of more money to keep up caused hyperinflation Collapse of the Weimer Republic People lost faith in government

Weimer Republic eventually fell Unemployment Starvation/poverty Low wages Many Germans believed to despair the very idea of progress Became convinced that the prosperity of post-war Germany was irrevocably lost Allowed for the growth of political extremism Concerned that their money was not safe, Germans withdrew their money from their banks Many of the banks became insolvent and had to close America even asked for repayment of loans Germany was in no condition to do so Government responded to depression by cutting back in production and consumption Cutting public services Decreased trade amongst countries Protests and demonstrations against the government Britain/UK UK was far from having recovered from the effects of the First World War Loss of foreign exchange earnings Left British economy more dependent on exports More vulnerable to any downturn in world markets War had permanently eroded Britains trading position in world markets Through disruption to trade and losses of shipping Overseas customers for British produce had been lost Industries struggled to survive without the military to create a demand for goods Cutbacks in production resulted in mass unemployment Tariffs on foreign imports were raised Only decreased international trade and pushed the country further into the Depression Return to the Gold Standard (1925) Method fixing the value of currency to an amount of gold However, inflation during the war resulted in the Pound Sterlin to become an overvalued currency o Result: British exports were more expensive on world markets o Discouraged foreign countries from importing Britains goods Relied on payment of reparations But Germany could not afford to pay them Often resulted in default (failure to make payments) With the outbreak of WWII

Britain was able to fully free herself Unemployment dropped as workers were organised into preparing the country for war Spanish Civil War: background to the outbreak of the Civil War; causes and consequences; foreign involvement; reasons for Nationalist victory o Background Began after a pronunciamiento (declaration of opposition) by a group of generals against the government of the Second Spanish Republic Uprising was authoritarian and anti-separatist War ended with the victory of the conservative Nationalists Overthrow of the democratically elected government Exile of thousands of left-leaning Spaniards o Causes Spain had made little progress, lost her empire and fallen behind in the industrialization process Deep divisions in Spanish society Landowners vs. Peasants Church vs. Anti-Clerical o Church had enormous power in Spain o Opposed to social reform Led to groups that sought to reduce the Churchs influence Conservatives vs. Liberals o Lack of a political middle o Extremist elements were increasingly popular Countryside vs. Towns Spanish army had a tradition of interfering in politics Long standing tradition of violence in Spanish politics Democracy had never really been established o Therefore parties tried to reverse election results through violence Democracy in Spain had brought about corrupt governments Undermined the concept of democracy There was electoral fraud and continuing landlord control under Spanish democracy Desire for autonomy in several regions Conservatives saw this as a threat Anarchism was a powerful force in Spain Weakness of the Second Republic Its failure to carry out reforms Failure to act against those that were plotting against them Failed to maintain law and order Army concern at the possibility of a communist takeover Assassinating of the right wing leader Calvo Sotelo

Consequences Many killed (around 700,000) 200 buildings burned and made uninhabitable Priests and members of the Church were killed Republicans were sent to concentration camps and executed Hitler and Mussolini were brought together by their cooperation in the Civil War This formed the alliance that pitted them against the other European powers in WWII Foreign involvement Nationalist side Germany o Signed the non-intervention agreement but still got involved o Offered various forms of aid and military support to both sides o Almost all in support of the Nationalist faction o Operation Ursula German U-boats active around Spain Whole mission was kept secret Difficulties in identifying legitimate targets and concerns about discover limited their operations o Condor Legion Spearheaded many Nationalist victories o Provided training to Nationalist force Technically proficient Covered: Infantry, tanks and anti-tank units, air and anti-aircraft forces, and naval warfare o Financial support Italy o Provided Corps for Volunteer Troops Supported political goals of the German and Italian fascist leaderships Tested new tactics Provided blooding so they would be ready for battle in any future war o Contributed more than 60,000 troops at the height of the war o Involvement helped increase Mussolinis popularity among Italian Catholics o Italian military help to Nationalists against the anti-clerical and anti-Catholic atrocities committed by the Republican side worked well in Italian propaganda targeting Catholics o Sent large amount of material aid to the nationalists Cruisers, destroyers, submarines, aircraft, bombers etc.

Loyalist (Republican) side USSR o Material aid o Purchased arms only from the Soviet Union o Sent more than 2,000 personnel Mainly tank crews and pilots who actively participated in combat o Soviet foreign policy considered collective security against German fascism as a priority o Soviet actions could hardly had been further from the goal of spreading the revolution Mexico o Refused to follow the French-British non-intervention proposals o President saw the war as similar to Mexicos own revolution o Moral comfort to the Republic Especially since Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru sympathized more or less openly with the Nationalists o Material assistance o Financial assistance Reasons for Nationalist victory Loyalist ranks Riven by factional strife Intensified as the loyalist military position worsened On the Nationalist side internal conflict also existed Especially between the military and the fascists But Franco was able to surmount it and consolidate his postion Gradually, the Nationalists wore down Loyalist strength Bilbao, the last republican centre in the north Fell in June1937 Nationalists drove to the Mediterranean and cut the Republican territory in two Late 1938: Franco mounted a major offensive against Catalonia Barcelona was taken With the loss of Catalonia Loyalist cause became hopeless Republican efforts for a negotiated peace failed Communists were divided into the Stalinists and the Trotskyites Mutiny began within the communists Nationalists had popular support from people who had experienced Bolshevik tyranny at first hand Support from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany Much more foreign aid than Republicans

Deficiency in arms and equipment among the Republicans proved to be one of their greatest shortcomings against the better equipped Nationalist forces Nationalists were better organized than the Republicans Didnt suffer the same political disunity as the Republican camp Franco had absolute control of the arm Republicans were disoriented and disorganized Military officers were of a better standard (being middle class men, usually well educated) than the average Republican ones

Hitlers domestic and foreign policy (1933-39) o Domestic policy Church Aim: Bring Church under state control as church can be a potential source of dissent Religion came under state control Many Christians protested and spoke up against treatment of Jews as well as the persecuted handicapped and mentally ill o Most were sent to camps Workers Aim: To reduce unemployment and to provide for their needs (work and bread) Public works scheme was introduced to create jobs A large party bureaucracy was set up providing office and administrative posts Purges of Jews and anti-Nazis from the civil service and across all other professions leaving a lot of vacancies 1934: Rearmament started 1935: Conscription was introduced Once employment levels rose o Care was also taken to keep the support of workers Women & Children Aim: Indoctrinate and ensure that all of German population was working toward Nazi goals Women were seen as homemakers and caregivers for children o Role primarily at home and nowhere else Made to feel as contributing to the nation by given the task of perpetuating the German race o i.e. women were just baby machines, producing the next generation of Germans Family planning centres and contraception was banned o To increase childbirth and therefore population (and in turn soldiers to fight the war) Cross of Honour of the German mother o Medals given to recognize women who had birthed many children Education and Youth groups were the primary ways to indoctrinate children Subjects were manipulated to fit Nazi ideas

Ex. Biology focused on the Nazi race theory and justified the superiority of the Aryan race All teachers and professors were closely watched o To assure they did not stray from Nazi ideas At 14 all boys and girls had to join youth groups o Boys: Hitler Youth o Girls: League of German maidens o Traditional family bonds were attacked as children were taught to put loyalty to the Fuhrer first o Children were encouraged to tell on their parents as well as figures of authority to the Gestapo (Nazi police) if they expressed anti-Nazi views

Foreign policy 1933: Germany left the League of Nations Hitler protested that the Allies had not disarmed after WWI 1934: Attempted Nazi coup in Austria crushed Attempt by Austrian Nazis to overthrow the government failed Austrian Prime Minister Dollfuss was killed in the attempt Hitler at first supported the attempted coup but disowned the action when it was clear it would fail 1934: Poland and Germany sign alliance o The first of his infamous ten year non-aggression pacts o Caused a surprise in Europe at the time o Alliance broke Germanys diplomatic isolation o Also weakened Frances series of anti-German alliances in Eastern Europe o However, like many of his agreements, this was only a tactical move Hitler had no intention of honouring the agreement in the long term 1935: Germany broke the military clauses of the Treaty of Versailles Using the pretext that the other powers had not disarmed Hitler announced that Germany was going to reintroduce conscription Created an army of 36 divisions Germany was going to build up an air force (the Luftwaffe) and expand her navy All these were against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles o But very popular in Germany Britain, Italy and France form the Stresa front in protest o But took no further measures o This front was weakened when Italy invaded Ehtiopia 1936: German troops reoccupied the Rhineland British were not prepared to take any action There was a lot of sympathy in Britain for the German action o Without British support, the French would not act

French built the Maignot line: series of forts on the German border and felt secure behind it He drew the conclusion that Britain and France were weak and that he could get away with more aggressive actions o This is what finally convinces him to invade Poland, but does not get the reaction he expected Rome-Berlin Axis signed o Alliance between Italy and Germany o Agreement to pursue a joint foreign policy o Both agreed to stop the spread of communism in Europe o Pact of Steel Open declaration of continuing trust and cooperation between Germany and Italy Encouraged a union of policies concerning the military and economy 1938: Anschluss with Austria Nazi party in Austria and the many that supported the union made this happen Austrian Prime Minister, after being threatened, tried to stop spreading German influence by calling a referendum o This enraged Hitler and Prime Minister was forced to resign o New Nazi Prime Minister invited German troops in 1938: Sudetenland handed to Germany as a result of the Munich conference Hitler encouraged the Germans living in the Sudetenland to demonstrate against Czech rule Munich Conference o Britain, France, Germany and Italy (Czechs were not invited) o British and French agreed to Hitlers demands and it seemed as if the threat of war was averted 1939: Rest of the Czech lands occupied by the Germans Hitler took over the rest of the Czech lands after encouraging the Slovaks to declare independence under German protection Czech president was invited to Berlin and threatened with the bombing of Prague, should he not agree to German occupation This was the first non-Germanic land that Hitler had seized This occupation outraged public opinion in Britain and marked the end of appeasement 1939: Germany invaded Poland (WWII began) Britain guaranteed Poland, after occupation of the rest of Czechoslovakia, that if she were attacked Britain would come to her aid Under the Treaty of Versailles, Poland was given the German speaking port of Danzig and the Polish Corridor o In order to give it access to the sea

Hitler wanted to destroy Poland in order to gain living space (Lebensraum) Britain/France and Germany were trying to gain support of USSR o Stalin did not trust Britain and France (felt that they were encouraging Hitler to attack Russia) o Stalin was also greatly angered by the Munich agreement Ten Year Non-Aggression pact o Pact is signed between Germany and Soviet Union o Soviet Union benefits Given more time to prepare for war Gained a lot of territory in Eastern Europe o German benefits If she attacked Poland she would not have to face a two-front war Hitler was hoping that the pact with Russia would keep France and Britain from going to war if Germany attacked Poland o But within 2 days of the invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany (WWII begins) Search for collective security; appeasement in the interwar years; the failure of international diplomacy; outbreak of war in 1939 o Collective security Creation of the League of Nations Originally thought up by Woodrow Wilson Wilsons Fourteen Points o Proposed a fair deal for Germany and the establishment of a League of Nations Disarmament was meant to ensure collective security o But the League had no way to enforce this o When Germany rearmed there was very little it could do about it Weaknesses of the League o USA, USSR and Germany were not part of the League US isolationism kept them from joining international affairs o Appeasement in the interwar years Appeasement: the policy of granting concessions to potential enemies to maintain peace Britain adopted the policy of appeasement Appeasement began when Great Britain recognized Italys annexation of Ethiopia Britain did nothing when Hitler annex Austria Munich Agreement o Without Czechs there, Britain basically hands over all Sudeten territories to Germany

In return, Hitler promises to respect the sovereignty of the remaining parts of Czechoslovakia Essentially, appeasement was a failed policy Failure of international diplomacy At first, internationalism had a chance to succeed It was a battle between internationalism and national self interest The Great Depression deepened in intensity and duration National self-interest won out Major shift toward authoritarian forms of government in the 1930s became a dominant issue of the interwar period People didnt care about helping others when they were dying within their nation Outbreak of war in 1939 Hitler invades Poland: Britain and France declare war

Second World War in Europe; Cold War: impact on Germany, NATO and military cooperation o Second World War Allies vs. the Axis

Total war Holocaust Germany set out to establish a large empire in Europe Ends in the total victory of the Allies over the Axis in 1945 UN is established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts Soviet Union and US emerge as rival superpowers Setting the stage for the Codl War Cold War: Impact on Germany Germany divided conferences (US, Britain, Soviets = Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin) Tehran Conference o Agree to focus on defeating Hitler first o Agree that after defeating Hitler they can come back and help American with their war against Japan Yalta Conference o Move Polands boundary westward o Priority: Unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany Germany was split into four occupied zones

Berlin was also split (so that no single nation had Berlin) France was allowed to have the fourth occupation zone in Germany and Austria Demilitarization and denazification in Germany o Open up a second front to relieve some of the stress that Russia is feeling o Russia agrees that they will mobilize to open up a front against Japan Potsdam Conference (Roosevelt dies, Truman takes over) o Truman is less lenient toward Stalin And also receives a phone call to inform him that the US has reached the ability for nuclear warfare It is now just a matter of time and place o Division of Germany and Austria into four occupation zones Splitting Vienna the way Berlin was split o Reversal of all German annexations after 1937 Sudetenland, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria, Poland etc. Economic infrastructure collapsed Inflation Shortage of food Millions of homeless East Germany Established as a Stalin-style Socialist state Became a member of the Warsaw Pact Came to have one of the most advanced economies and standard of living of the Soviet-bloc states West Germany Became a surprisingly stable western democracy Even more so than East Germany Allies were making sure that the Germans could never again begin the expansionism that had led to the two previous wars Germany became the centre for all the tensions between Democracy and Communism Russia, with its new found territory, replaced Germany as the country that was getting too big NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 1949 Treaty of Brussels is considered the precursor to the NATO agreement Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and UK Constitutes a system of collective defence Its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by an external party Not much more than a political association But: Korean War galvanized the member states

Raised the apparent threat of Communist countries working together o Integrated military structure was built First NATO Secretary General (Lord Ismay) The organizations goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down o Military cooperation Post-war problems and political and economic recovery in Western Europe: devastation; debt 1945-9 o Establishment of United Nations (UN) o Military requirements of war had generated enormous advances in technology, medicine, communications and the implements of war Radar devices had uses later o Research that went into development of the atomic bomb Produced information about the phenomenon of radiation How it applied to such things as x-ray technology o America is pulled out of Great Depression with the victory Along with Great Britain and France (who were still trying to pay US back from WWI) Since US gave money to Germany to help pull them out of a depression, and Germany gave that money to Great Britain and France for war debts o Colonialism started to disappear o Militarily New technologies Much improved tanks and airplanes Deadly atomic bomb Made wars faster and more brutal o Economy Depression was over Massive government spending during the war had ended unemployment and created new jobs for men and women Demands of the Cold War kept government spending at high levels Demand for consumer goods and new homes kept the economy moving upward o Politics Weaker influence of Western Europe Previously, western Europe had shaped much of the way the world ran But when these nations were exhausted economically, militarily etc. they began to be shaped Result: bipolar equilibrium o That is: Two superpowers: US and USSR Women could vote in France and Italy

o Capitalism vs. Communism o 1949: NATO Establishment and consolidation of the Federal Republic of Germany to German reunification o 1949: Establishment and consolidation of the Federal Republic of Germany Federal Republic of Germany = West Germany US and Great Britain combine their occupation zones into what came to be known as Bizonia France agreed to become part of this arrangement, making the three zones the Federal Republic of Germany Formally established as a separate and independent nation Marked the effective end to any discussion of reuniting East and West Germany Arrangement of divided Germany was supposed to be temporary But as the Cold War went on it was clear West and East would not join together German reaction Many Germans did not agree with this, since they were hoping that Germany might be reunited Soviet reaction German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was officially announced Marked the end of any talk to reunify Germany East and West Germany served as symbols of the divided world, and of the Cold War animosities between the Soviet Union and the United States o German reunification 1990: German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany 1989: Fall of the Berlin Wall Germans in both states welcomed the joining Moves toward political and economic integration, cooperation and enlargement post-1945: EEC, EC, EU o Moves toward European integration were seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent o European Economic Community (EEC) International organisation created with a view to bring about economic integration among its six original members Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands Created by the Treaty of Rome (1957) Subsumed into the EU when it was created o European Commission (EC) Executive body of the European Union Responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Unions treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union

European Union (EU) An economic and political union or confederation Spain: Francos regime and transition to, and establishment of, democracy under Juan Carlos o Francos regime Political structures Represented pragmatic approach Had great flexibility in dealing with changing domestic and international situations o Since he never formed a true, comprehensive, constitutional system Fundamental Laws Labour Charter o Set forth the social policy of the regime o Stressed the mutual obligations of the state and its citizens o All Spaniards had the duty to work The state was to assure them the right to work o Adequate wages, paid vacations and a limit to working hours It ensured labours compliance with the new regime by labelling strikes as treason Constituent Law of the Cortes (1942) o Provided the trappings of constitutionalism o Cortes (Spanish Parliament) was purely an advisory body Did not have the right to initiate legislation or to vote against the government It could only approve laws presented by the executive The Charter of Rights o More cosmetic than democratic Government bestowed them and could suspend them without justification o Placed more emphasis on the duty of all Spaniards to serve their country and obey its laws o Ex. Spaniards have the right to express their opinions freely but were not to attack the fundamental principles of the state Law on Referenda o Attempt by Franco to make his regime appear less arbitrary o Provided that issues of national concern would be submitted for the consideration of Spanish citizens by means of popular referenda o Decreed this law without having consulted the Cortes Law of Succession o Spain would be a Catholic, social and representative monarchy

Franco would be regent for life Unless incapacitated o Franco had the authority to name the next king when he thought the time was appropriate and also revoke his choice at a later date if he so desired o Solidified Francos rule and legitimized his position as head of state by popular suffrage Passed with over 90% approval Law on the Principles of the National Movement (1958) o Law reaffirmed the nature of Spain as a traditional, Catholic monarchy o All top government officials were required to pledge their loyalty to the principles embodied in this law Organic Law of the State (1966) o Designed to codify and clarify existing practices o Established a separation between the functions of the president of government (prime minister) and the head of state o Outlined procedures for the selection of top government officials To make his regime seem more democratic Included pardons and reduced terms for prisoners convicted of civil war crimes Guaranteed that refugees who returned would not be prosecuted if they did not engage in political activities o Transition Ambitious plan that counted on ample support both within and outside of Spain Proved challenging as the spectre of the Civil War still haunted Spain o Establishment of democracy under Juan Carlos (1975) Death of Franco elevated Juan Carlos to the throne Until Francos death, Juan Carlos remained in the background and seemed to follow the dictators plans of appointing him his successor as head of state with the time of King of Spain Once in power, Juan Carlos facilitated the development of the current political system Case study of one Western European state between 1945 and 2000 (excluding Germany and Spain): the nature of the government; domestic policies; opposition and dissent o