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Indefinite Tenses (examples)

Present Indefinite
1. Expression of usual, repeating or constant actions in present(true) time. We go to the University every day. I usually get up at 6 oclock. We seldom meet. 2. Expression of general provisions irrespectively by time. Cats catch mice. Two and two is four. Pentium is faster than 486th. The Earth goes round the sun in 24 hours. 3. Expression of action or the property describing a subject is constant or during the present(true) period of time. He speaks English very well. My girlfriend plays the piano. Im a student. 4. Designation of action or the condition, taking place during the moment of speech if they are expressed by verbs which, as a rule, are not used in Continuous. What do you want? I do not quite understand you. 5. Expression of the future prospective actions or conditions in adverbial subordinate clauses of time and a condition after the unions if, unless, till, until, when, as soon as, before (in corresponding(meeting) Russian offers future time is used). Ill wait you till you finish your breakfast. Come next week unless you are very busy. Ill join you as soon as I can. Lets wait until the rain stops. 6. Expression of in advance planned actions in the near future, described by verbs to go, to come, to arrive, to leave, to start, to return. We leave next Saturday. He comes back tomorrow, does not he? The train starts at 3:45 a.m.

Past Indefinite
1. Expression of the separate facts (actions, conditions), taken place in the past and not connected with the present. I bought this book in Moscow. I knocked the door, but no one answered. Im sorry I was out when you called. 2. Expression of repeated or usual actions in the past, not connected with the present. Last summer I often played chess. When he was ill we went to see him every other day. 3. Expression of action or the property characterized a subject in the past. Lion played chess very well when he was a small boy. 4. In additional subordinate clauses in indirect speech when the verb in a main clause costs(stands) in Past Indefinite. He said he lived in Studencheskaya street. I told him I did not like parties.

Future Indefinite
Unitary, repeating or constant actions or the conditions concerning by future time. Ill do my best to help you. The rainll be over in a few minutes. Ill write to you every week.

Future Indefinite in the Past


Transfer to indirect speech of words or the ideas of any person(face) concerning the future. He asked me if I could help him and I said that Id help him willingly. I was sure shed be late as usual. He told me he would never repeat the same mistake.

Continuous Tenses (examples)


Present Continuous
1. Expression of the action made during the moment of speech. What are you doing now? Where are all the guys? They are sticking around. 2. Expression of action or the condition continuing during the present(true) period of time, but not necessarily concerning by the moment of speech. Im staying at my friends. I hope you are enjoying your vacation. 3. Expression of the separate actions planned for the near future (in particular with verbs to come, to leave, to call, etc .). When are you coming to see us? She is giving a birthday party tomorrow. He is calling on me tonight. So youre leaving for Moscow on Saturday, are not you? 4. Expression of a constant habit or bent, thus are often used adverbs always, constantly, all the time, etc ., and all phrase accepts a shade of disapproval, impatience. Youre always coming late! He is constantly getting into trouble. 5. Expression of intention to make action in the near future (with use Present Continuous of a verb to go). What are you going to do with you old motherboard? I'm going to throw it away as far as I can.

Past Continuous
Expression of the action proceeded during any moment or the period of last time. Time of action usually is underlined adverbial words or subordinate clauses. It was snowing all day yesterday. I was not expecting you quite so early. It was raining hard when I woke up.

Future Continuous
Expression of the action proceeding during any moment or the period of future time. Time of action can be specified by adverbial words or a context. Form Future Continuous is used seldom enough, except for some standard expressions with verbs to expect, to stay, to see, etc . When my train arrives, my friends will be waiting on the platform. Ill be expecting you at 4 oclock sharp. The use in value Future Indefinite in informal conversation. Will you be staying for dinner? I'll be seeing him this afternoon.

Future Continuous in the Past


It is used seldom enough. It is used in the same values, as Future Continuous, but only in additional subordinate clauses after verbs to say, to tell, to think, etc I did not call on you yesterday evening because I thought youd be setting up the newest version of the Microsoft Office. He said hed be studying English all day long.

Perfect Tenses (examples)


Present Perfect
1. Expression of that fact, that the last action has any result in the present. Ive read many books by Dickens. 2. The use in offers without any adverbial modifiers of time. Ive heard so much about you. The rain has stopped, we can go. 3. The use in offers with adverbs or adverbial phrases of not certain time or frequency already, never, yet, often, always, seldom, rarely, several times, etc . Have you ever been to Kiev? Ive never heard of it. Well have to wait for him, he has not yet finished his breakfast. 4. The use in offers with adverbial words and adverbs of certain time today, this morning, this week, all day, just, etc . when the specified period of time still has not ended by the moment of speech. Ive just seen him. Sorry, hes just left. I have not seen her today.

5. The use in offers with the adverbial modifiers of time specifying for the period during which occured (happened) or could occur (happen) action (lately, for a long time, how long, so far, up to now, up to the present, for the last two hours, for three months and so on Item), since any moment of last time and down to present (true) time. I have not seen you for weeks. So much has happened since I saw you last.

Past Perfect
Expressions of action in the past which occured (happened) and has ended before other last action or till any moment or the period of last time. Yesterday he told me he had seen her a week before. He thanked me for what I had done for him.

Future Perfect

Expressions of action which will be finished till the certain moment or action in the future. It is used seldom. By the end of the term we shall have read two English books. Come tomorrow evening: by that time Ill have finished my work.

Future Perfect in the Past


It is occasionally used in the same cases, as Future Perfect, but in indirect speech after verbs to say, to tell, to write, to think in last time. He said that he would have done his task by two oclock. The teacher said that we should have finished that book by the end of December.

Perfect Continuous Tenses (examples)


Present Perfect Continuous
The designation of action or condition which has begun in the past and proceeded during the certain period till the moment of speech and or all still proceeds during this moment, or has ended directly ahead of it(him). Ive been waiting for him for two hours. What have you been doing since I saw you last?

Past Perfect Continuous


The designation of long action which has begun till any moment of last time and proceeded down to this moment. Little-usedly. I was very tired when I went to bed because I had been working hard all day. The news did not surprise me because Id been expecting it for some time past.

Future Perfect Continuous


The designation of a continuing action in the future which will begin till any moment or the period of future time and will proceed down to this moment (period). It is used extremely seldom. By next year we will have been living in this town for five years. When Ann gets her diploma she will have been studying at the University for six years.

Future Perfect Continuous in the Past


It can be used instead of Future Perfect Continuous in indirect speech after a verb-predicate of a main clause in last time. He said that by next April his father would have been working at the factory for ten years.

Subjunctive Mood
The subjunctive mood serves for expression of assumption, an opportunity, desirability or unreality of actions. In English language there are two forms of a subjunctive mood: Subjunctive I which is used in a simple sentence or in a main clause of a compound sentence, and Subjunctive II which is used in a subordinate clause.

1. Subjunctive I
It is used in simple offers1 (or in a main clause of a compound sentence with conditional additional, expressing unreal conditions2) for a designation of unreal action which in opinion speaking could occur(happen) under the certain circumstances in the present, the past or the future. If the statement concerns to the present or future time, Subjunctive I coincides with form Future in the Past. would (should) + Infinitive without a particle to. 1Its a pity you cannot come tomorrow. I would help you with pleasure. (I with pleasure would help(assist) you.) 1 It's a pity youre busy now. He would be glad to come with you. (It(He) willingly would go with you.) 1 It's a pity we have not a right to interfere. We would not do it. (We would not began to do(make) it(this).) 2 It would do you a lot of good if you did not smoke. (If you did not smoke, it would be very useful for you.) If the statement concerns to previous period Subjunctive I coincides with form Future Perfect in the Past. would (should) + Present Perfect 1 Im so sorry I had no money with me yesterday. I would have bought that thing. (It is a pity, that yesterday I did not have with themselves money. I willingly would buy(purchase) this thing.) 1 Why did not you call him yesterday? He would have helped you. (Why you have not called to it(him) yesterday? It (He) would help(assist) you.)

2. Subjunctive II
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It is used in subordinate clauses for expression unreal conditions1 or unreal comparison and an impracticable wish, regrets2. If the statement concerns to the present or future time, Subjunctive II coincides with form Past Indefinite, and the verb to be can take the form were for all persons(faces) and numbers. For expression of a regret concerning future time in additional additional modal verbs would and could are used. With the second person(face) the modal verb would can express the polite or impolite request depending on intonation3. With the third party the statement with a verb would can have character of exclamation and express irritation4. 1. If I had any free time now or tomorrow, I would do the work myself. (If I had a free time now or tomorrow, I would make this work itself.) 2 I wish it were summer now. (As though I would like that now there was a summer.) 2 I wish I knew where they lived. (I would like the nobility where they live.) 2 I wish they would come to see me tomorrow. (As it is a pity, that they will not come to me tomorrow.) 2 I wish we could get the job done tomorrow. (As though I would like that work has been made tomorrow.) 3 I wish youd help me with this job. (you could not help(assist) me with this work?) 3 I wish you would go away. (More likely you would send away(leave)!) 4 I wish the music would stop! (When this music at last will stop!) 2. If the statement concerns to previous period Subjunctive II coincides with form Past Perfect. 1If I had any free time yesterday, I would have done the work myself. (If I yesterday had a free time, I would make this work itself.) 2. I wish I had called him yesterday. (As it is a pity, that I have not called to it(him) yesterday.)