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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Instructor: Architect Abelardo Firmeza

COURSE OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Architectural Design Theory 3. Esquisse 4. Building Economics 5. Building Utilities 6. Approaches and Strategies 7. Simulated Board Exam ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - it is the translation of an abstract solution to a real, tangible and concrete solution - it is the optimum and better solution which must approximate the pre-set solution of the examiner - it must involve the judicious use of design tools in developing the solution within: a. parameters / constraints b. circumstances c. environmental conditions : must be conserve : must be protected : must be included in the design solution - set by the examiner. The solution must be: SAFE Simple provide what is needed or simply follow instruction Appropriate must fit on concept Functional look-out for specific use of the building Economical

FORMAT OF DESIGN EXAM 1. 20x30 tracing paper provided by PRC 2. Black ink final drawings is in black ink 3. Pencil for enhancing and construction line (staedler pencils) 4. College major plate type drawings - schematic - no dimensions - no call-outs such as specifications - fully rendered in the used pencil shadows but not colored - material must be drawn in full - no columns unless it is part of design - furniture layouts defending on layout and instructions - entourage and landscape are allowed but not colored RULES 1. Individual drawing implements and drawing boards - triangles - compass - pencils - magic, masking, scotch tapes - rubber band - drawing board with straight edge - erasing shield - scissors - protractors - french curve - 2 sets of sign pens varying in points - circular template - optional coloring materials - cutters - ballpens - erasers (different types) - liquid paper

- scale - watch 2. PRC will provide tracing paper with official seal 3. Drawing Grids - preset grids, but to be shown to the proctor 4. Not allowed! - no color - no people or human figures - no vehicles even triangle representation on plans - no electronic equipment - no scientific or programmable calculators, only simple scientific calculator is allowed - no references TOOLS 1. Drawing implements 2. Codes Building Codes 3. Building Standards 4. Vocabulary ARCHITECTURAL CONVENTION 1. Lettering -simple gothic, upright and all caps -text : 4mm in height -title : 8-10mm -sub-titles : 6-8mm 2. Lines -construction lines or guide lines -final lines -dimension lines -masculine/feminine lines 3. Each drawing must have title and scale and north orientation -orientation must always upward ! on site development plan -on plans refer to main entrance of structures

Notes: Acconometric Drawing - another type of aerial perspective Berthing - term for parking at water FORMAT OF THE QUESTIONAIRE 1. Title 2. Background or description of the problem 3. Requirements a. Plate requirements specify needed rooms or spaces b. Drawing requirements specify scale, needed drawings, etc Notes: Marina - luxurious facilities for water vessels - yatch - fine dining : luxurious eating place Condominium - high-rise residential buildings - luxurious - with elevators to make it more luxurious than townhouse - can be bought but original lot remains to the owner Townhouse - can be bought - horizontal residential structures - can be leased (long term) Apartment - not more than 10 units

- rented (short term payment) - usually two storey and for rent Rowhouse - can accommodate a full length of block Tenements - an apartment that is not more than 4 storeys Apartelle - fully furnish with equipments (such as food, beds) while apartment will be provided by the tenants Condotelle - rented by other person to the owner of the room wherein the owner of the room rented it to the owner of building Hotel - rented area provided with room and comfort room and other facilities will be common areas Motel - rented area with room, comfort room and garage (motorist hotel) Garage - enclosed with walls, roof and door and facilities for repairs Carport - with roof and columns Parking Slot - compose of lines and has no enclosure at all EXAMPLES OF TITLES ANALYSIS The OASIS a resort - a mirage : an illusion of water in the desert - located in the desert; a body of water located in the desert - leisure activities - having a main focus of water element it can be water fountain The HAMLET a townhouse - hamlet : a small French village - having no huge elements such as columns

- compose of common center area such as plaza The TIANGGE a flea market - flea : surot - baratillo - huge number of stalls that is detachable Notes:

Assume 1-1/2 hours to finish every sheet Consider facing

a. reading and understanding (3 hours) b. preliminary drawings (2hours) c. final drawings THINGS TO BE AWARE IN DESIGNING 1. vocabulary 2. building code 3. presentation 4. requirements 5. common sense Notes: Stairs cutting line -7th and 8th steps

THINGS TO DO IN PREPARATION FOR DESIGN EXAM 1. practice drafting technique 2. multiple deadline time management 3. composition - sheets must be clean - clear, use acceptable architectural symbols and architectural conventions - respect margins PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION
Dimension Contrast Proportion Scale Balance a. Formal balance b. Informal balance Rhythm Unity Character Variety Measurements Fixed Proportions Gravitation Movement Order / Harmony Expression

7. Education UNITY

: masculine; formal

- creating unified site development plan 1. Central Theme - creating a motif 2. Major component of buildings must dominate - exceptional size - strategic location - unique shape 3. compact and coherent unit - orientation marker, ex. sculpture - inward orientation 4. Harmony in materials, styles, design, etc. CHARACTER - manifested external expression of internal qualities

Equilibrium Physical Manifestation

CONTRAST OF LINES Masculine Lines bold, dark, straight, strong lines Feminine Lines soft, fragile, thin, curve lines 1. Residential 2. Institutional a. government buildings b. health care 3. Industrial 4. Commercial 5. Recreational a. active b. passive 6. Religious : feminine; informal : : : : masculine; formal masculine; formal masculine; formal feminine; informal

a. b.
types

function use of the building association influence of traditional

c.

personality character of occupants or human quality ANALYZING THE DESIGN PROBLEM read understand a. title b. description or background c. requirements - plate - drawing familiarize with the site a. simply given b. derivation / computation - closing the traverse (protractor and calculator)

: masculine; formal : feminine: informal : masculine; formal

textual SA = FA - common area (35%) plate requirements / components code requirements - BP 344 (accessibility law) a. site development - parking allocation (for disabled - curb-cut-outs - ramps (1:12)

determine the area of the lot a. formula - regular shapes - irregular shapes b. dot-grid method - approximate area all dots included in the site will be multiplied to the reference area of the square c. planimeter - use in computing the lot d. road runner - used in computing the length of the road determine the buildable area (BA)

b.
tructur comfort room - corridor (1.50 meters) - stairs - fire exits

s e

buildable area = lot area open space 70% 30% open spaces 1. set backs type of lots page 2. private yards (front, side, rear) page 3. road abutments page 4. height of buildings page 5. private open space page 6. natural open spaces a. rivers 5.00m b. creek 3.00m c. sea/beach front 50.00m d. pasig river 10.00m determine the floor area (FA) FA = BA x No. of storeys saleable area (SA)

231 227 228 234 226

- ventilation
heights a. naturally ventilated b. artificially ventilated - 1 storey - 2 to 4 storeys - 5 to infinity storeys (high-rise) structure a. superstructure b. substructure - in every five floors correspond to one basement

COST ESTIMATE BULDING ECONOMICS levels S budgetary estimate (floor area x cost parameter) D detailed estimate (floor area: specific x cost parameter) C bill of materials (materials x cost) C bid estimate (bill of materials x margin of profit) cost parameter/ sqm 1 storey: low cost P1.00 P5,000.00 2-4 storeys: mid cost P5,001.00 P12,000.00 5-infinity: high-rise P12,001.00 infinity basement (1.2%) = next level

direct cost = A

3. 4. 5.

equipment 20% of A margin of profit 30% of A overhead 15% of A (ballpen, bond papers, gas, secretary, etc.) 6. contingency 10-15% of A (allowance, wastage) : paid by contractor

7. 8.

bonds and insurances 10-30% of A miscellaneous 15-20% of A construction cost + AE = project cost

components of the estimate a. land development cost 25% (P500/sqm) 1. earth development 2. roads and access ways 3. utilities (civil works) 4. landscaping 5. furnishings b. structure 75% 1. structural 25% of the cost 2. utilities 15-30% of the cost 3. architectural 45-60% of the cost

UTILITIES 1. water supply 2. waste water 3. sewage 4. electricity 5. lighting 6. mechanical 7. intelligent system locations of utilities is outside a. utility company b. users c. intermediary treatment horizontal

BILL OF MATERIALS 1. materials 2. labor 40% of x

x 35-

45 meters: maximum length of corridor Note: Utilities step-down transformer : 220V to 110V step-up transformer : 110V to 220V water tanks GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS - basically linear and rectangular in plan 1. formal (masculine) 2. multi-storey 3. linear development 4. flag pole / assembly area

HOSPITAL 1. users a. patients b. medical practioner c. visitors 2. activities RESIDENTIALS - (informal) feminine 1. multi-storey : 4 storey and below 2. multi-family 3. utilities are shared or common areas 4. orientation: work west rest east

5. clusters

3. high rise

RECREATIONAL gyms 1. users a. players b. officials c. spectators 2. playcourts

playcourts rooms bleachers

3. 4. separate out-patient unobstructed view - less column with the gym track oval 1. track and field 2. track and soccer 5. philippine heart center , example swimming and diving pool pool

bowling - usually synthetic wood was used nowadays

- concessions : barbershop, boutiques, etc 3. magnet nodes

4. parking 5. theme activities golf 1. 18 holes done by landscape architect 2. clubhouse usually two storeys and placed on the middle a. first floor - dirty area - caddy - clean-up b. second floor - function room - fine dining - boutiques - pro-shop ECUMENICAL 1. all religion - no symbols of particular religion 2. celebrants place (altar) - congregation

resort 1. feature 2. amenities 3. operation system COMMERCIAL 1. one-stop-shop - all ages accommodated 2. flagship store - usually department store

EDUCATION 1. classroom 2. 1 teacher = 40-50 students (1 sqm/person + circulation ) 3. standard module 7m x 9m 4. flagpole / quadrangle 5. laboratories / libraries / admin / pe 6. parking 7. canteen TERMINALS international Ok : cargo X domestic Ok Ok

Sea Land

Air

Ok domestic a. lounge, passenger b. offices c. reception d. hygiene facilities international a. lounge, passenger b. offices

Ok

1. ilocos 2. mountain province 3. batanes

: bahay na bato : ifugao house : ibatan house

c.

recep tion d. hygie ne

facilities e. customs f. immigration separate people and good separate in and out

EXAMPLE DESIGN PROBLEM - government building -formal / male -rectangular / linear (45 meter) -multi-storey -flagpole / assembly 3 branches of government -executive : major -legislative : vice major -judiciary : judge north (type of government)