J.

Keeshin

PROGRESSIVE ERA BLAH BLAH

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Urbanization The process by which cities grow or by which societies become more urban. Boss Tweed & Tammany Hall (political machines) Political machines have traditionally wielded influence in U.S. society, and one of the most notorious was Tammany Hall in New York. Controlled by the Democratic party, the power of Tammany Hall grew to such an extent that its members dominated New York government for nearly two centuries. Thomas Nast- tweed cartoonist Victorian Age social Darwinism Henry George Progress & Poverty was an American political economist, and the most influential proponent of the "Single Tax" on land. He is the author of "Progress and Poverty" written in 1879. Edward Bellamy American writer and utopian socialist who publicized his political views through his popular novel Looking Backward (1888). revivalism settlement houses & Jane Addams American social reformer and pacifist who founded Hull House (1889), a care and education center for the poor of Chicago, and worked for peace and many social reforms. She shared the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. Women’s Christian Temperance Union organization that seeks to upgrade moral life, especially through abstinence from alcohol. skyscrapers Louis Sullivan “form follows function” American architect known for his early steel-frame designs for skyscrapers and for his influential dictum “Form follows function.” tenements Susan B. Anthony Anthony is known as a women's rights leader, but she also campaigned against slavery and in favor of temperance (the abolition of liquor). NAWSA The National Woman Suffrage Association, an American women's rights organization, was established by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in May of 1869. Clarence Darrow American lawyer known for his highly publicized defense of so-called lost causes, such as the Leopold-Loeb murder case (1924) and the Scopes evolution trial (1925). Thorstein Veblen: predatory wealth, conspicuous consumption American economist who described a fundamental conflict between the provision of goods and the making of money. In his popular study The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) he coined the phrase conspicuous consumption-The acquisition and display of expensive items to attract attention to one's wealth or to suggest that one is wealthy. Social Gospel , liberal movement within American Protestantism that attempted to apply biblical teachings to problems associated with industrialization. It took form during the latter half of the 19th cent. under the leadership of Washington Gladden Progressive Era cities grew rapidly in size and number. The progressive movement arose as a response to the vast changes brought by industrialization. muckrakers: American journalists, novelists, and critics who in the first decade of the 20th cent. attempted to expose the abuses of business and the corruption in politics. Tarbell American muckraking writer and editor remembered for her investigations of industry, including History of the Standard Oil Company (1904)., Steffens American journalist. As managing editor of McClure's Magazine (1902–1906), he exposed governmental corruption in a series of articles, thereby inaugurating the era of muckraking journalism., Riis Danish-born American journalist and reformer whose reports on living conditions in city slums led to improvements in housing and education., Dreiser American writer and editor whose naturalistic novels, such as Sister Carrie (1900) and An American Tragedy (1925), portray life as a struggle against ungovernable forces., Wells American journalist and reformer who campaigned nationwide against lynching and founded the Negro Fellowship League in 1910. McClure’s published a series of muckraking exposés that prompted social reforms.

J. Keeshin

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Model TIt is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car which "put America on wheels"; this was due to some of Ford's innovations, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting, as well as the concept of paying the workers a wage proportionate to the cost of the car, so that they would provide a ready made market. Oligopoly When a particular market is controlled by a small group of firms. investment bankersA person representing a financial institution that is in the business of raising capital for corporations and municipalities. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire The worst factory fire in the history of New York City occurred on March 25, 1911, in the Asch building, where the Triangle Shirtwaist Company occupied the top three of ten floors. Five hundred women, mostly Jewish immigrants between thirteen and twentythree years old, were employed there. The owners had locked the doors leading to the exits to keep the women at their sewing machines. In less than fifteen minutes, 146 women died. The event galvanized support for additional efforts to be made to increase safety in the workplace. It also garnered support for labor unions in the garment district, and in particular for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Women’s Trade Union LeagueThis organization sought to organize working women into trade unions while introducing their everyday concerns about wages and working conditions to the growing women's rights movement. Children’s Bureau, Grace Abbott 1878–1939, American social worker, b. Grand Island, Nebr. She did notable work as director (1921–34) of the Child Labor Division of the U.S. Children's Bureau. The Child and the State (2 vol., 1938) is her most important publication., children welfare Sheppard-Towner Act was passed by Congress in 1921. The legislation authorized federal aid to states for maternity, child health, and welfare programs. However, the Supreme Court ruled the act unconstitutional in 1922. Margaret SangerMargaret Sanger, a nurse in the poor neighborhoods of New York City, founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in 1916. At the time it was illegal to publish and distribute information on contraception and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. An advocate for birth control and women's rights, she founded the American Birth Control League in 1921. Later the organization became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Comstock Law was a 19th century United States law that made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, or lascivious" books through the mail. It was passed on March 3, 1873 and is a clear example of censorship. It was named after its chief proponent, the anti-obscenity crusader Anthony Comstock., birth control control Uprising of 20,000 response to triangle fire collective bargaining Negotiation between organized workers and their employer or employers to determine wages, hours, rules, and working conditions Industrial Workers of the World The Industrial Workers of the World—also known as the IWW, or the Wobblies—is a radical labor union that had its beginnings in Chicago in 1905. Mother Jones Irish-born American labor leader and union organizer. She helped found (1905) the Industrial Workers of the World. Presidents and Progressive Reform Robert LaFollette was an American politician who served as a U.S. Congressman, the 20th Governor of Wisconsin from 1901 - 1906, and Senator from Wisconsin from 1905 - 1925 as a member of the Republican Party. He also ran for President of the United States as the Progressive Party candidate in the 1924 elections. He is best remembered for his support for direct election of United States Senators (17th amendment) and opposition to big businesses. Square Deal The Square Deal was the term used by President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt and his associates for the policies of his administration, particularly with regard to economic policies, such as antitrust enforcement. Anti-Trust Policy 1902 Coal Strike was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania that marked a change in the role of the United States government, which had historically sided with management, to functioning more as a neutral mediator. Department of Commerce and Labor (1903) The United States Department of Commerce and Labor was a short-lived Cabinet department of the United States government.It was created on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4,

J. Keeshin
1913, and its bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor. Hepburn Act (1906) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates, and led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) The United States Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 provided for federal inspection of meat products, and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transport of adulterated food products or poisonous patent medicines. The Act arose due to public education and propaganda from people such as Upton Sinclair (author), Harvey W. Wiley (researcher), President Theodore Roosevelt and Samuel Hopkins Adams (author)., Meat Inspection Act (1906) National Conservation Commission Panic of 1907 The Panic of 1907 was a relatively serious economic downturn in the United States caused by a New York credit crunch that spread across the nation and led to the closings of banks and businesses. The severity of the downturn was such that it prompted the United States Congress to form the Federal Reserve System. It was the fourth Panic in 34 years. Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909) reduced the United States tariff rate to 37%. It was very effective. However, the tariff had not been lowered enough to satisfy Progressives. President William Howard Taft was ridiculed for being so passive. The debate over the tariff split the Republican party into Progressives and Old Guard and resulted in the eventual presidency of Woodrow Wilson. Ballinger-Pinchot Dispute (1909) was a dispute between Richard A. Ballinger and Gifford Pinchot that helped lead to the split of the Republican Party. Mann Act (1910) The United States White-Slave Traffic Act of 1910 prohibited so-called white slavery. It also banned the interstate transport of females for immoral purposes. Its primary stated intent was to address prostitution and immorality. The act is better known as the Mann Act, after James Robert Mann, an American lawmaker. 1912 Election Incumbent President William Howard Taft was nominated by the Republican party with the support of the establishment wing of the party, despite the fact that former President Theodore Roosevelt had won all but one of the Republican primaries; at the convention, the Republicans' progressive wing split off as the Bull Moose Party and nominated Roosevelt. Democrat Woodrow Wilson, nominated by his own Party on the 46th ballot of a contentious convention, defeated both in the general election, winning a vast majority in the Electoral College with only 42% of the popular vote, and initiating the only period between 1897 and 1933 when a Democrat would be elected President. Underwood-Simmons Act (1913) 16th Amendment (1913) income tax 17th Amendment (1913) direct election of senators Federal Reserve Act (1913) is a 1913 act of Congress that created the Federal Reserve System, the central bank of the United States of America. Federal Trade Commission (1914) The act was part of the program of President Wilson to check the growth of monopoly and preserve competition as an effective regulator of business. Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) A federal law enacted in 1914 as an amendment to the Sherman AntiTrust Act (15 U.S.C.A. § 1 et seq. [1890]), prohibiting undue restriction of trade and commerce by designated methods. New Freedom & New Nationalism Theodore Roosevelt, running on the Progressive party ticket, advocated a "New Nationalism," a coherent platform of social and economic regulation.In response, the Democratic candidate, Woodrow Wilson, formulated what he called the "New Freedom." Federal power, he argued, should be used only to sweep away social, economic, and political privilege and to restore business competition. Louis Brandeis American jurist who served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1916–1939). His opposition to monopolies and defense of individual human rights formed the basis of many of his high court decisions. Child Labor Act (1916) 18th PROHIBITION & 19th Amendments WOMEN VOTE for harding cause hes good looking

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