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distance is small. To start, we have sin(L+dh) = cos(p)*sin(L) + sin(p)*cos(L)*cos(HA) where L is the latitude, dh is the difference between the altitude of Polaris and the altitude of the north celestial pole, p is the polar distance of Polaris (which presently qualifies as a small angle, less than a degree), and HA is the local hour angle of Polaris. Note that dh is what we're looking for. If we have a good enough expression for this in terms of hour angle, we can take an observed altitude for Polaris (after correcting for dip and refraction) and add dh to it to get the latitude. First step, expand the left-hand side using the sum formula. Next, replace cos(dh), sin(dh) as well as cos(p) and sin(p) by the small angle expansions: six(x)=x, cos(x)=(1-(1/2)*x^2). That should give you sin(L)*(1-0.5*dh^2)+cos(L)*dh=(1-0.5*p^2)*sin(L)+p*cos(L)*cos(HA). Now collect together the terms in sin(L) on the right-hand side and divide both sides by cos(L). You get dh = p*cos(HA)+(1/2)*(dh^2-p^2)*tan(L). Dissecting this, we have a term linear in the polar distance. This is a simple "rotating clock" term --as Polaris goes round the celestial pole, its altitude oscillates up and down. Then there is a quadratic term, much smaller since the polar distance is very small. But this term is seemingly circular (in the sense of self-referential) since it depends on dh. But we can replace dh in the quadratic term by its linear, first-order, expression. That is, replace dh^2 by (p*cos(HA))^2. Then after applying the obvious trig identity, you get dh = p*cos(HA) - (1/2)*(p*sin(HA))^2*tan(L) Now since p varies during the year, we should replace it by p(t) and introduce p0 which would be the mean polar distance during the year. This is a small change, so we can ignore the quadratic part here. The result is dh = p0*cos(HA) - (1/2)*(p0*sin(HA))^2*tan(L) + (p(t)-p0)*cos(HA). We're getting close. There's a very old trick for making all the corrections positive: add some arbitrary constant to each term such that the constants add up to one degree and then subtract one degree from the final result. We then have: dh = -60' + a0 + a1 + a2 where a0 = k0 + p0*cos(HA)

we can add k'*(sin(HA))^2 to a0 and subtract the same from a1. This is optional. a0: Corrects for the distance between Polaris and the pole. And also to reduce the range of a1. Two last bits: HA = HA aries+SHA and the SHA of Polaris doesn't change much. and varies with latitude Mentally interpolating based on the day of the month on which the observation took place. find a2. find a1. o a2: Corrects for variations in SHA and declination of Polaris.(1/2)*(p0*sin(HA))^2*tan(L)/3438 a2 = k2 + (p(t)-p0)*cos(HA) and k0+k1+k2 = 60' (and I'm assuming that dh and p0 are both in minutes of arc so the quadratic part of a1 has to be divided by 3438). as it varies on a diurnal cycle Mentally interpolating between the nearest estimated Latitudes.a1 = k1 . so we can tabulate in terms of HA aries. o a1: Corrects for the angle of view of the diurnal circle. and varies depending on date o .

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