Advanced Research methodology

Research proposal ARC 514 ADVANCE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

BY
ADIK JOHN ROBERT PGES/UJ/00112/10

JOS HYPERMARKET
GEOMETRIC APPLICATION AND BIO INTEGRATION IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

ARC S.A MADAKI,PhD.mnia

AUGUST, 2011

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Advanced Research methodology
ABSTRACT JOS HYPERMARKET An attempt at achieving sustainable through biointegration to passive efficiency of ventilation In Nigeria today, the commercial industry plays a pivotal role in economic growth, it controls a large percentage of the gdp. It is quite obvious that we are making progress, and the winds of reality backing us up. Nigeria now is rising to become the world’s top 20 economies. The federal government is making concerted efforts at attracting foreign investors. Plateau state is not an exception in this respect. The federal government intends to build inland ports in various locations of the country in which plateau state is one, this requires wholesale products and good in large quantity. The market will tend to serve other neighbouring states It is against this background that this thesis seeks to explore the market potentials of the state by proposing a befitting facility that will take care of the market potentials that will spring up around the region,also a facility that is responsive and addresses nature since the common Nigerian is used to a natural open market senario. It shall provide an enclosed environment for the feeling of safety and security at the same time an exposed feeling of openness , with space functions like superstore,supermarkets and department store. The result is an expansive retail facility carring a wide range of products under one roof including full groceries line and general marchendise. This thesis is aimed at boosting economic activity on the Plateau.

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questionnaires.Advanced Research methodology The project shall be located at Jos south LGA Plateau state. relevant publications. site visits to existing market centers and hotels. 3 . Research materials shall be obtained through journals. with captivating terrain characterized by a low dense-high income. books. local and international case studies as well as the internet. Finally. this site enjoys the presence of vastness . the project seeks to achieve passive ventilation through biointegration with contemporary architectural geometric materials and forms to provide a living environment in which organic nature can flourish and human activity attains full consciousness.

commerce embraces two principal actions. Passive ventilation can be: • controllable air movement through openings such as windows. moist or polluted air.Advanced Research methodology INTRODUCTION The relationship between Man and nature. Both actions involve expenditures on a variety of goods and services in countries where economic activity thrives Passive ventilation relies typically on using both convective air flows that result from the tendency of warm air to rise and cool air to sink and taking advantage of prevailing winds. space and form is more organic than cerebral. Ventilation is needed to bring fresh air into a home and to remove stale. It may also be needed for cooling. though intellectual abstraction is a necessary component of human thought. the general attitude to space and the natural world is vital The concept of the study seeks to achieve maximum use of space in an enclosed environment as it tends to go more natural and passive as much as possible Plateau state is not an exception in this respect. Many passive ventilation systems rely on the building users to control window and vents as indicated by site conditions and conditions within the building. travel plus activity. doors from wind pressures and/or indoor-outdoor temperature differences • uncontrollable air flow through unintentional openings in the building envelope (infiltration) resulting from wind and temperature generated pressure differences across the building envelope Passive ventilation is the least expensive and most environmentally friendly way to 4 .

Since earliest times. in some situations passive ventilation on its own will not be enough: • wet areas such as bathrooms will need extract systems to remove moist air • airtight homes may need a supply system to bring in heated. every part of your body follows the same predictable patterns. begin with a fundamental belief in sacred geometry. including astrology. seeds. flowers. From the shape of your DNA to the cornea of your eye. we celebrate nature’s innate forms. take a few moments to reflect on the ways some numbers and patterns appear again and again in every part of your life. architects have relied on mathematical principles. tarot. Geometry in Your Body When studied under the microscope. or spiritual geometry. Sacred geometry. However. The ancient Roman architect Marcus Vitruvius believed that builders should always use precise ratios when constructing temples. soul-satisfying spaces. and other living things share the same spiral shapes. drier outside air Architecture begins with geometry. "For without symmetry and proportion no temple can have a regular plan. Architects and designers may draw upon concepts of sacred geometry when they choose particular geometric forms to create pleasing. numerology. 5 . Geometry in Your Garden The jigsaw puzzle of life is made up of recurring shapes and numbers. When we create a floral arrangement or walk through a labyrinth. and feng shui. Many mystical and spiritual practices. is the belief that numbers and patterns such as the divine ratio have sacred significance. Leaves. living cells reveal a highly ordered system of shapes and patterns.Advanced Research methodology ventilate a home. Honeybees and other insects live structured lives that mimic these patterns. Absurd? Before you dismiss the idea of sacred geometry.

Geometry in Music The vibrations we call sound follow sacred. Concepts of sacred geometry are expressed in the beliefs of Christians. Geometry and Architecture From the pyramids in Egypt to the new World Trade Center tower in New York. inspire creativity. Geometry and Theology In his best-selling novel The Da Vinci Code (compare prices). Amazingly. and other formal religions. metalithic tombs. even when we dismiss The Da Vinci Code as a tall tale. Muslims. The energy grid formed by these lines suggest sacred shapes and ratios. or ley lines. and evoke a deep sense of joy. we can't dismiss the importance of numbers and symbols in religious faith. Geometry in the Sea Similar shapes and numbers are found beneath the sea. Brown's book is pure fiction and has been hotly criticized. Geometry and the Cosmic Grid Stonehenge. But. from the swirl of a nautilus shell to the movement of the tides. and other ancient sites stretch across the globe along underground electromagnetic tracks. great 6 . Jews. archetypal patterns. the patterns found in your diamond engagement ring may resemble the formation of snowflakes and the shape of your own cells.Advanced Research methodology Geometry in Stones Nature’s archetypes are reflected in the crystalline forms of gems and stones. author Dan Brown used concepts of sacred geometry to weave a spell-binding tale about conspiracy and early Christianity. Hindus. Perhaps this is why astrology lies at the heart of so many spiritual beliefs. you may find that certain sound sequences can stimulate the intellect. Geometry in the Heavens Nature’s patterns are echoed in the movement of planets and stars and the cycles of the moon. For this reason.

under one roof. To produce structures that were functional as well as models of architectural beauty. Man has always needed shelter. hypermarkets allow customers to satisfy all their routine shopping needs in one trip 7 . Some of the more popular hypermarkets include the Wal-Mart Supercenter. designers had to apply principles of mathematics in their work. palaces to house the rulers. including full groceries lines and general merchandise. It was then that architecture came into being. The idea behind this big box store is to provide consumers with all the goods they require. men were able to settle in more permanent locations. we create dwellings that comfort and inspire. With the advent of agriculture. and churches where they could worship their gods. Moreover. As years passed. In theory. In the earliest days men were nomads whose main occupations were hunting and fishing. Proper ratios and proportions related each feature of a building with every other one and with the whole structure. a hypermarket is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store. Fred Meyer and Super Kmart. no matter how humble. the principles of geometry are not confined to great temples and monuments. Hypermarkets offer shoppers a one-stop shopping experience. The result is an expansive retail facility carrying a wide range of products under one roof. man’s knowledge grew and principles of construction improved. and they built lasting structures to use as homes. Now they designed tombs in which to be buried. Various geometric shapes provided maximum use as well as a pleasing appearance in all types of architecture. In commerce. In order to survive they moved from place to place very frequently. No longer were men satisfied to build houses alone. They were content to live in caves and other temporary shelters. monuments to serve as memorials. Geometry shapes all buildings. Believers say that when we recognize geometric principles and build upon them.Advanced Research methodology architecture uses the same essential building blocks as your body and all living things.

an environment that shall encourage commerce trade and ineraction among people. There is also the need to take advantage of the beautiful scenery of the state and surrounding landscape. by creating an aesthetically sound architecture in harmony with the natural environment. the justification is that of energy conservation AIM AND OBJECTIVES  To create an environment that allows man to interact freely with nature. thus improving man economically. technologically and mentally by keeping him in the right state of mind.Advanced Research methodology JUSTFICATION MOTIVATION All human endeavors begin with the realization of a satisfaction and the desire to better the lot of the human race. The driving force behind this project comes from the desire to contribute to the boost in economic activity on the Plateau. 8 .  To evolve architecture that does not just provide shelter but also help contribute to the well being of man in the environment. The jos hypermarket stands to bring a lift in the trading pattern of jos.  To create an avenue for revenue generation for the state. socially.

Good ventilation possibilities to reduce energy cost in design 9 . the evidence that global warming exist is overwhelming.Advanced Research methodology ARCHITECTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY Architecture has been regarded as the custodian of civilization. science has established the correlation between burning fossils and fuels and planetary warming. The architecture also portrays a modular design of a grid frame work of skeletal structure of columns and beams for  Expansion potentials  Flexibility  service  wide spans  natural integration  Good visual conductivity between the outdoor and the indoor environment. in this age of global warming. According to Chrisna Duplessis (2001) it is not what buildings are but what they do and how they do it that is the major concern of sustainable architecture. This project intends to advocate the need to save the environment and to show how it is interwoven to man and his activities. bringing man close to the natural environment as he interacts and trade beneath and between the buildings.

research materials shall be obtained through a review of relevant literatures and publications. Domestic and international case studies shall be carried out to analyze existing problems and proffer solutions. books. Personal visits to existing resort centers and hotels. 10 .Advanced Research methodology SCOPE The project is geared towards the proposal of a hypermarket with basic functions such asgrosry stores. parks for children and oldmen will be provided. first in consideration is the For a reasonable outcome. interviews and questionnaires shall be administered to justify the need for a project of this magnitude. journals. supermarket and general marchendise In other to further upgrade and support the inland port. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Geometrical forms are the basic building blocks of architectural function and edifice.

Advanced Research methodology WORK PLAN 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 gathering of materials Series 2 Series 1 sketches site analysis design details details specification 11 .

Since earliest times. Vitruvius found that the human face equals one tenth of the total body height. 12 . and feng shui. numerology. soul-satisfying spaces. begin with a fundamental belief in sacred geometry. from swimming fish to swirling planets. He observed that all human beings are shaped according to a ratio that is astonishingly precise and uniform.618) – exists in every part of nature. tarot. For example.Advanced Research methodology LITERATURE REVIEW Architecture begins with geometry. including astrology." Vitruvius wrote in his famous treatise De Architectura. "For without symmetry and proportion no temple can have a regular plan. Absurd? Before you dismiss the idea of sacred geometry. or spiritual geometry. Scientists and philosophers later discovered that the same ratio Vitruvius saw in the human body – 1 to PHI (1. take a few moments to reflect on the ways some numbers and patterns appear again and again in every part of your life. The ancient Roman architect Marcus Vitruvius believed that builders should always use precise ratios when constructing temples. has been called the building block of all life. The foot equals one sixth of the total body height. architects have relied on mathematical principles. This divine ratio. Sacred geometry. And so on. is the belief that numbers and patterns such as the divine ratio have sacred significance. Many mystical and spiritual practices. or Ten Books on Architecture The proportion Vitruvius recommended was modeled after the human body. or divine proportion. Architects and designers may draw upon concepts of sacred geometry when they choose particular geometric forms to create pleasing.

we celebrate nature’s innate forms. you may find that certain sound sequences can stimulate the intellect. Leaves.Advanced Research methodology Geometry in Your Body When studied under the microscope. and evoke a deep sense of joy. and other living things share the same spiral shapes. From the shape of your DNA to the cornea of your eye. Honeybees and other insects live structured lives that mimic these patterns. When we create a floral arrangement or walk through a labyrinth. seeds. living cells reveal a highly ordered system of shapes and patterns. archetypal patterns. inspire creativity. Amazingly. from the swirl of a nautilus shell to the movement of the tides. Perhaps this is why astrology lies at the heart of so many spiritual beliefs. Geometry in Your Garden The jigsaw puzzle of life is made up of recurring shapes and numbers. Geometry in Music The vibrations we call sound follow sacred. For this reason. Geometry in the Heavens Nature’s patterns are echoed in the movement of planets and stars and the cycles of the moon. the patterns found in your diamond engagement ring may resemble the formation of snowflakes and the shape of your own cells. flowers. Geometry in Stones Nature’s archetypes are reflected in the crystalline forms of gems and stones. Geometry in the Sea Similar shapes and numbers are found beneath the sea. every part of your body follows the same predictable patterns. 13 .

and other ancient sites stretch across the globe along underground electromagnetic tracks. 14 . we can't dismiss the importance of numbers and symbols in religious faith.Advanced Research methodology Geometry and the Cosmic Grid Stonehenge. the principles of geometry are not confined to great temples and monuments. Since geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with figures. The energy grid formed by these lines suggest sacred shapes and ratios. metalithic tombs. But. Concepts of sacred geometry are expressed in the beliefs of Christians. no matter how humble. Jews. author Dan Brown used concepts of sacred geometry to weave a spell-binding tale about conspiracy and early Christianity. and other formal religions. An understanding of geometry is completely essential to architectural design. Hindus. Believers say that when we recognize geometric principles and build upon them. both in a practical sense (such as calculating load-bearing segments of a structure) and in aesthetic considerations (such as a building's symmetry or scale with its surroundings). Moreover. lines. Brown's book is pure fiction and has been hotly criticized. and shapes. we create dwellings that comfort and inspire. Geometry shapes all buildings. Geometry and Theology In his best-selling novel The Da Vinci Code (compare prices). great architecture uses the same essential building blocks as your body and all living things. even when we dismiss The Da Vinci Code as a tall tale. Muslims. it has many practical applications in the field of architecture. or ley lines. Geometry and Architecture From the pyramids in Egypt to the new World Trade Center tower in New York.

warm climate. Whether it is through a series of related rooflines to create a dynamic façade or through the use of oval spaces to create interesting internal spaces (as was common in Baroque architecture). For example. geometric calculations are used to determine load-bearing elements like floor joists and beams and practical concerns like roof pitch. whether it is a home or a skyscraper. for example. while a flat roof would be more suitable in a dry. the roof of a house in an area prone to heavy snowfall will be a triangle with steeper sides to allow snow to fall off. Lines and shapes are designed to work together to create structural integrity in specific applications. Geometry and Framing o Geometric calculations are also used to ensure safety in the framing of a structure. calculations are made to determine the weight load on the base of the building. Geometry and Aesthetics o In addition to structural considerations in architectural design. In a large steel-framed building. architects have always attempted to use geometrical principles to make buildings 15 . geometry is also used to improve the aesthetic appeal of a building. can be thought of as a series of interrelated structural elements designed on geometrical principles. Even in residential framing. and grid made up of smaller rectangles is used to distribute weight evenly to ensure the building's structural integrity.Advanced Research methodology Geometry and Design o A building.

and the so-called Egyptian triangle. Mathematics. and Architecture. following threads of Art. 16 .618. and for squaring of the circle." These shapes are present in many historical structures.Advanced Research methodology more attractive. Welcome to Geometry in Art & Architecture. The Math Topics for the first unit will be an introduction to the triangle in general. is utilized in shapes that are thought to be the most aesthetically pleasing. In addition to looking at art and architecture. Since the Egyptian triangle contains the golden ratio. The plan is to go more or less chronologically. There. it continues to be of interest to both mathematicians and architects. as in the use of flying buttresses in Gothic architecture. contained in the great pyramid. the story goes. The Golden Ratio o One geometrical concept that has been historically incorporated into architectural design is the "Golden Ratio. these designs are closely related to structural necessities. At times. the "Golden Rectangle" and "Golden Triangle. We'll be taking a long journey together. expressed as the number 1. from Egypt to the present. including the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Parthenon. we'll cover any mathematics-related topics as we go along. like the travellers in this picture." or Phi. geometry got its start when rope stretchers were sent out to put back the boundary markers washed away by the Nile. we must be able to find perimeters and areas of the square and the circle. This ratio. Because of this ratio's presence in both nature and art. starting in Egypt. we'll introduce the ideas of ratio and proportion here.

3. Art Motifs. 2. that we can't go too deeply into any one topic. square.e. biological) forms. and especially those that were both mathematicians and artists or architects. such as the circle. Geometric Constructions. People. a painting. 4. The movement began to mature in the early 21st century. 1. pentagram. hexagon. like squaring the circle. 7. In particular. the sacred cut. how they are chosen and how they affect the contents of a painting. a Sierpinski tetrahedron. especially recurring themes that we see over and over in art. and their use in so-called Sacred Geometry. in our final unit on Chaos and Fractals. We'll limit ourselves to Western art only. we'll look for the golden ratio and the musical ratios. 6. or a sculpture. Use of geometric symbols. Shapes of Frames. and we'll also end with a very different pyramid. and constructions of the pentagon. the Gothic Master Diagram. Math content. Bio integration is a movement for the design and construction of expressive buildings whose layout and lines borrow from natural (i.Advanced Research methodology We'll start our journey with a pyramid. and thus in early designs research was stressed over practicality. of course. 5. or octagon. ones that played a key role in developing the ideas related to this course. Bionic architecture sets itself in opposition to traditional rectangular layouts and design schemes by using curved forms and 17 . Proportions between the parts of a building. mandala. triangle. but even with that restriction the coverage is very wide. any geometry or other math that is closely related to the art or architecture we're studying. That means.

Advanced Research methodology surfaces reminiscent of structures in biology and fractal mathematics. One of the tasks set themselves by the movement's early pioneers was the development of aesthetic and economic justifications for their approach to architecture. 18 .

2.Advanced Research methodology Reference 1. circles. Included are outstanding examples of each style of architecture as representative of the society of each era. Formal demonstration is kept at a minimum. New York: The Viking Press. Vocational and Technical Mathematics in Action. 19 . and Spiller. Straightedge and Shadow. John E. Many historical and cultural sidelights and explanations of methods applying to geometry in industry are found throughout the book. Frank. 1978. 1965. New Jersey: Hayden Book Company. Reichgott. _ John Wiley and Sons. stairs. 1969. String. Levine. area and volume are included. A book on mathematics for students of trade subjects. Basic Geometry. Today’s Geometry. fractions and decimals. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Ball. 1968. Geometry: Plane-Solid Coordinate.Practical Problems in Mathematics for Masons. Has a good review of fundamental operations involving whole numbers. Jane. 1940. The use of geometric figures as bases for design in architecture is described. Rochelle Park. New York: Prentice-Hall. Samuel. An excellent text for lower level high school geometry courses. Julia E. New York A history of the evolution of architecture in the United States. Lee R. 4. Incorporated. Delmar Publishers. and Zartman. 5. and shadow. Ray C. Morgan. Diagrams of floor plans of buildings are shown. and volumes of solids. Hammett. This book reveals how men discovered basic principles and constructions of elementary geometry more than 2000 years ago by using three simple tools—string. Albany. The application of mathematics in building walls. Units on perimeter. 9. Boston. piers. diehard G. 6. walks. 1973. 6. Diggins. Architecture in the United States A Survey of Architectural Styles Since 1776. 1976. pilasters. straightedge. 3. David. and Brown. Ralph W. areas. columns. 7. book covers selected mathematical concepts and skills required for competency in solving trade problems. Chapters 5. New York. An excellent textbook written primarily for the student who wants to use geometry in the world of work. and driveways is explained. An excellent high school textbook for use in college preparatory geometry classes. Nicely illustrated. and 10 discuss polygons. Jurgensen. et al: Houghton-Mifflin Company. Incorporated.

Walker. ISBN 981-4068-25-X  Peter JM. ISBN 962-593-415-4.  Schoppert. London. London: Times Editions Pte Ltd. Nas. The Traditional Architecture of Indonesia. 2002 Archipelago Press.. Gillian (202)..Advanced Research methodology Bibliography  Beal. 207 pages. Bali Style. Barbara (1995). Architecture of Bali: A source book of traditional and modern forms. Hong Kong: Periplis Editions Ltd. Island Style: Tropical Dream Houses in Indonesia. M. Singapore. Gillow.. Damais. Java Style. Paris. 224 pages.  Dawson.. 1997. P. J. 1994 Thames and Hudson Ltd. Rio. Didier Millet. ISBN 962593-232-1  Wijaya. ISBN 0-500-23714-X. The House in Indonesia 20 .. B. ISBN 0-500-34132-X  Helmi. S.

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