US History (AP) Antonakos

Name Jeremy Keeshin Ch# 10 pp. 280-290 Themes: Factions, Greed

“So What”
In the era of Jacksonian democracy, the changes that occurred were a function of the greed of certain groups at this time and how they sought to implement their beliefs. The first real parties were established during this period. Jackson’s win in the election of 1828 was the first time a party and presidential campaign was set up with the focus of backing a certain candidate. John Quincy Adams, the victor of the 1824 election, helped lay the groundwork for this party. His narrow win, with the help of Clay and the House of Representatives, invited the opposition to target him. When Jackson won in the following election, he was quite a decisive and dynamic president. During Jackson’s term, he really pushed for certain issues. In regards to Indian removal, Jackson felt that it was a necessary thing and must happen briskly. He had almost a duty to the Southern states to speed this ousting because they aided him so much politically. He forcefully backed this bill to remove all the Cherokee Indians. When it passed the Senate and House of Representatives, the ensuing Trail of Tears was a sad demonstration of the greed and inhumanity of the administration. This just continued the United States’ paradoxical view on freedom. They would force Native Americans out of their land and force blacks to be slaves, while they would promote the great institution of liberty. There were many other demonstrations of greed and factions in Jackson’s administration. The Peggy Eaton affair was an almost childlike scenario where the cabinet members resigned after their wives could not get along socially. The nullification crisis was an important demonstration of regionalism versus nationalism when Jackson threatened military action to silence South Carolina’s call for the voiding of the new duties. Even furthering this was the conflict between Biddle and Jackson on the continuing question of the constitutionality of the bank. The issue went back and forth after Congress renewed the charter, as Jackson vetoed it and later rode this anti-bank platform all the way to the 1832 presidency. So what was the reason that Jacksonian democracy mattered? It mattered because it planted the initial seeds of popular participation in government as well as groups having heavy political influence. Jackson’s forceful removal of the Indians was mainly because of a debt he owed to the South. It marked the start of nationwide, influential parties and started the nation into a phase of great dissent.

Trends/Ideas NATIONAL PARTIES/FACTIONS Henry Clay and “American System” Opposition lays foundation for Democratic Party PREJUDICE/GREED Trail of Tears and Indian Removal

Important Events/Legislation – include date and then a brief definition Tariff of abominations 1828, tariff that tries to please all but angers southern traders, 1832 lowers them a little Peggy Eaton Affair 1829, cabinet wives don’t receive her socially, all resign Trail of Tears 1828, military coerces Cherokees out of home to march to Oklahoma, approx. 13,000 die during trek Nullification, right of an individual state to set aside federal law, S. Carolina does so with Tariff of Abominations 1832 Bank War circa 1832, Biddle wants the bank, Jackson doesn’t, Biddle tries to re-charter 4 yrs early, Jackson vetoes

Significance: The battle between factional and national wants was raging during this period. “Who” – key personalities – a brief and compelling ID Jackson- loses 1824 election, but comes back to win in ’28, representative of the people, nationalist Crawford – chosen by Republican caucus J. Q. Adams- doesn’t get majority but wins pres., suspicious presidency Clay- misses final three, accused in fraud in Adams win, switching voters Calhoun- withdraws from pres., goes vice, disagrees much with Jackson Biddle- egotistical bank man J.keeshin