You are on page 1of 28

APPEALS IN ADERVATISEMENT

TOILET SOAP
4/21/2012 SUBMISSION TO MR. SHAHID NAVED PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

GROUP MEMBERS
SHAHBANO KHAN (202147) AFSHEEN HABIB (202139) ROWIDA USMAN (202130) HAMZA ARIF (202153) FAHAD AHMED (202123)

Principles of Marketing

Page 2

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

TABLE OF CONTENT
ABSRTACT...4 INTRODUCTION...5 LITERATURE REVIEW....8 DEFINITION..11 APPEALS IN ADVERTISEMENTS..11 EMOTIONAL APPEAL12 PERSONAL APPEAL13 FEAR APPEAL....15 ECONOMIC APPEAL..16 HUMOROUS APPEAL...17 CELEBRITY APPEAL21 CONCLUSION23 REFERENCES .24

Principles of Marketing

Page 3

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

ABSTRACT
The most basic of human needs are the need for food, clothing and shelter. Special need for these necessities cannot be created with advertising. However, there are certain other products that provide comfort in life and advertising aims to generate demand for these products. Advertising uses appeals as a way of persuading people to buy certain products. Advertising appeals are designed in a way so as to create a positive image of the individuals who use certain products. Advertising agencies and companies use different types of advertising appeals to influence the purchasing decisions of people.

The most important types of advertising appeals include emotional and rational appeals. Emotional appeals are often effective for the youth while rational appeals work well for products directed towards the older generation. Here are just some of the various different kinds of advertising appeals seen in the media today: The first purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of advertising appeals and advertising spokespersons on advertising attitudes and purchase intentions. The second purpose was to compare the effectiveness of the influences of different types of advertising appeals and different types of spokespersons on purchase intentions. The toilet soap industry was chosen as the research object.

Principles of Marketing

Page 4

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

INTRODUCTION
Advertising has become one of the most important commercial activities in the modern competitive environment. Companies spend a large part of their budget to produce and run advertisements for promotions to communicate information about their company and products. Companies hope that consumers will purchase their products due to the advertisements, which deliver messages about a certain brand and its products.

Thorson and Leavitt (1992) stated that the best prophet for purchase is advertising. Technologies progress rapidly day by day, contributing to the constant renewal of and changes in broadcasting forms. Among those forms, advertising media is widely used. Advertisements are useful for the representation of a commoditys image. They also act as announcements for the corporate image and product positioning. Advertisements are a kind of persuasive communication that offers product information to every consumer via institutions in charge of production or supply.

In a complete study of marketing and promotional activities, advertising usually plays the most important role. Therefore, the advertising effect has become a key issue. Kotler (1997) pointed out in his study that advertising appeal is the theme of an advertisement. To make the audience receive a necessary message, advertisers have to put some driving power into the message. This driving power is appeal. Every advertising appeal represents an attraction, which arouses consumers desires. What kind of advertising appeal design can attract consumers more easily and effectively? To highlight a commodity image, many companies invite famous stars to be their product spokespersons. It is easier for consumers to identify with celebrities.

Expert spokespersons help present product differences more effectively by combining their rich professional knowledge with reasonably persuasive appeals. The right choice of advertising spokesman is a critical element in successful advertising. Does an advertising spokesperson influence consumers attitudes or enhance purchase intentions? This is what this paper will explore. Advertising attitudes reflect persuasive
Principles of Marketing Page 5

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

psychological effects and act as important indices for measuring advertising effects. Thus, advertising attitudes create a certain influential power on purchase intentions, which is yet another management issue we want to explore in this paper.

Kotler (2003) divided advertising appeal into rational and emotional appeals. Most studies have focused on the impacts of advertising appeal on attitudes or purchase intentions. Few of them have compared rational appeal and emotional appeal and have determined which one creates significant effects on advertising attitude more effectively. This induces the first motivation for this study.

Most studies have focused on the direct relationship between advertising appeal or advertising spokespersons and purchase intentions, while few of them have examined the relationship among advertising appeal, advertising spokesperson, purchase intentions, and attitude simultaneously. Moreover, few researchers combined different approaches of advertising appeal with different types of advertising spokespersons to determine which combination of appeal and spokesperson is more effective in creating an impact on advertising attitudes.

Principles of Marketing

Page 6

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

LITERATURE REVIEW
Allport (1935) pointed out that the difference between the two components lies in that cognition stands for an individual evaluation towards external stimulation, while affection reflects an individuals internal feelings. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) defined attitude as a learning orientation based on which a state of constant like or dislike is generated towards a certain object. Kotler (1991) suggested that attitude refers to an individuals long-lasting perceived evaluation of like, dislike, emotional feelings, and action intention towards an object or idea. Aaker and Norris (1982) found that the advertising attitude created by rational appeal is better than that by emotional appeal. Rational appeal appears to provide information explicitly and directly related to a product, which attracts consumers attention more easily and generates a better advertising attitude. Ray and Batra (1983) pointed out that emotional identification comes before rational identification during a cognitive process. Emotional messages are more vivid and thus rational appeal works better than emotional appeal in attracting consumers attention.

Berkman and Gilson (1987) defined advertising appeal as an attempt at creativity that inspires consumers motives for purchase and affects consumers attitude towards a specific product or service.

Advertising appeal refers to packaging products, services, organizations, or individuals in a variety of ways that clearly deliver a certain benefit, stimulation, identification, or reason to explain what consumers are thinking about and why they buy products (Kotler, 1991).

Principles of Marketing

Page 7

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Kotler (1991) defined rational appeal as rationally oriented purchase stimulated by directly giving explanations of a products advantages. Rational appeal focuses on the benefits consumers may enjoy.

To meet the varying demands of their target consumers, advertisers commonly use rational appeal and emotional appeal in their advertising in an attempt to influence consumer behavior (Chu, 1996).

In an advertisement, it emphasize that a product or service could achieve the function and benefits consumers desire. He defined emotional appeal as the stimulation of consumers purchase intentions

by arousing their positive or negative emotions.

Positive emotional appeal covers humor, love, happiness, etc, while negative emotional appeal involves fear, a sense of guilt, and so on. Attitude is an essential concept in psychology, but it is also widely applied in the social sciences and marketing. According to Belch and Belch (1998), advertising appeal is applied to attract consumers attention. Advertising appeal aims at influencing consumers attitude and emotions about a related product or service. It is classified into rational and emotional appeals (Chu, 1996; Belch and Belch, 1998).

The attitude held by consumers caused by advertising can be classified into two components: cognition and affection.

Cognition and affection stand for thinking and feeling, respectively (Vakratsas and Ambler, 1999). Schiffman and Kanuk (2007) defined advertising appeal as suppliers application of a psychologically motivating power to arouse consumers Lin 8447 desire and action
Principles of Marketing Page 8

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

for buying while sending broadcasting signals to change receivers concepts of the product. Hence, advertising appeal is applied to attract the consumers attention, to change the consumers concept of the product, and to affect them emotionally about a specific product or service (Belch and Belch, 1998; Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007).

By rational advertising appeal, the product can be emphasized by its benefits, in which the consumers self-benefit is the key proposition, and the function or benefit requested by consumers of the product or service is articulately presented in advertising. On the other hand, emotional advertising appeal places stress on meeting consumers psychological, social, or symbolic requirements, where many purchase motives come from.

Schiffman and Kanuk (2007) stated that attitudes are a psychological tendency accrued from learning and a continual evaluation towards a subject.

Lin (2008) defined advertising attitude as a continuously reactive orientation learned from a certain object. Such an orientation represents an individuals personal standards such as like and dislike, and right and wrong.

Schiffman and Kanuk (2007) indicated that advertising appeal may change consumers attitude. By using broadcast messages to trigger consumers inner momentum psychologically, consumers are likely to echo and recognize the advertising messages and further change their attitude towards the advertised product.

Principles of Marketing

Page 9

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Johnson and Johnson


Company used the tag line The Language of Love where as in Pakistan they use Mumta ka Ehsas to motivate the mothers by using emotional Appeal to buy their product.

Safeguard
Company of safeguard used their tag line Paanch Beemariyoun say Tahaffuz by applying fear appeal to motivate the customers to buy their product.

Lifeboy
They Use their Tag line Ghulay Kam Chalay Ziyada to motivate the customer to buy their economical product.

Lux
Lux Use celebrity appeal by using tag Line Meri Khoobsorat Jild ka Raaz by Reema Khan Whereas Katrina Kaif Gives tag line Reesham say bhi Rayshmi tera Ehsaas Makhmali

Principles of Marketing

Page 10

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

DEFINITION OF ADVERTISEMENT
Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services through mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television or radio by an identified sponsor.

Appeals in Advertisement
In Advertisement many types can be used but some of them are given below concerning the example of toilet soap.

EMOTIONAL APPEAL
An emotional appeal is related to an individuals psychological and social needs for purchasing certain products and services. Many consumers are emotionally motivated or driven to make certain purchases. Advertisers aim to cash in on the emotional appeal and this works particularly well where there is not much difference between multiple product brands and its offerings. Emotional appeal includes personal and social aspects.

Principles of Marketing

Page 11

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Johnson and Johnson company used the tag line The Language of Love where as in Pakistan they use Mumta ka Ehsas to motivate the mothers by using emotional Appeal to buy their product.

Principles of Marketing

Page 12

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

PERSONAL APPEAL
Some personal emotions that can drive individuals to purchase products include safety, fear, love, humor, joy, happiness, sentiment, stimulation, pride, self esteem, pleasure, comfort, ambition, nostalgia etc.

Principles of Marketing

Page 13

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Principles of Marketing

Page 14

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

FEAR APPEAL
Fear is also an important factor that can have incredible influence on individuals. Fear is often used to good effect in advertising and marketing campaigns of beauty and health products including insurance. Advertising experts indicate that using moderate levels of fear in advertising can prove to be effective.

Company of safeguard used their tag line Paanch Beemariyoun say Tahaffuz by applying fear appeal to motivate the customers to buy their product.
Principles of Marketing Page 15

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

ECONOMICAL APPEAL

They Use their Tag line Ghulay Kam Chalay Ziyada to motivate the customer to buy their economical product.

Principles of Marketing

Page 16

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Humorous Appeal
Humor is an element that is used in around 30% of the advertisements. Humor can be an excellent tool to catch the viewers attention and help in achieving instant recall which can work well for the sale of the product. Humor can be used effectively when it is related to some benefit that the customer can derive without which the joke might overpower the message.

Usiing of Humorous Ellement iin Advertiisiing Us ng of Humorous E ement n Advert s ng


The big question of the study is: How can advertisers increase the likability of an advertisement if sexual appeal has to be used? This study proposes the use of humorous elements to tune down the negative effects brought by the advertisement when provocative and nude models are used. There has been numerous researches proving that advertisement with humorous appeal can gain consumers likability. A strong positive correlation is also found between the degree of how well an advertisement is liked with the likability to the brand advertised (e.g., Gelb & Pickett, 1983; Haley & Baldinger, 1991; Weinberger & Campbell, 1991; Zhang, 1996). In short, adding humorous elements can

Principles of Marketing

Page 17

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

enhance ones likability of an advertisement and eventually increase liking to the brand advertised.

Defining Humor
Humor has been widely used in advertising. It has been suggested that 24.4% of prime time television advertising in the U.S. is intended to be humorous (Weinberger & Spott, 1989). Regarding to advertising budget, 10% to 30% out of the total expenditure of $150 billion in the U.S. national media, is paid for the placement of advertisements that are having humorous content (Spotts, Weinberger & Parsons, 1997). Operationally. humor is defined, according to Sternthal and Craig (1973), as heightened arousal, smiles, and laughter exhibited by an audience in response to a particular message (p.13). Moreover, humor can be defined in terms of how well the audience perceive the level of humor and it can be administered by pencil and paper test to measure how the audience perceive a particular message is humorous and funny or not. This study will adopt this method of measuring the perceived humorous content.

Humor in Advertising and Its Effect


The reason why humor has been widely used in advertising is due to its power of create liking towards the advertisement by from the consumer. It has been found by Weingerber and Spotts (1989) that advertising practitioners coming from the U.S. and U.K. are generally favor in the use of humor on advertising. A couple of reasons are found and supported by many other researches that humor can enhance ones favorable attitude towards an advertisement. It is reviewed by Weingerber and Gulas (1992) that ten advertising studies and seven non-advertising studies report a positive effect of humor on liking while only two advertising studies and three non-advertising studies report neutral or mixed findings. By experiment, Gelb and Pickett (1983) successfully tested the hypothesis of the perceived humor in an advertisement is positively associated with liking the advertisement. Subjects were asked to comment two advertisements with humorous and serious appeal of
Principles of Marketing Page 18

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

quitting smoking, the findings showed that the subjects hold stronger positive attitude towards the advertisement with humorous element. Similar findings are found in another research carried out by Gelb and Zinkhan (1986). 120 subjects were asked to comment after listening to a newscast and there were six advertisements with and without humorous elements in between the newscast. It is supported that those advertisements with humorous elements were commented highly in terms of their likability. The present study mainly focus on likability to an advertisement as the operational definition among all others operationalization. The main reason is that there is numerous research supported that likability to an advertisement directly associated with the likability to a brand (Gelb & Zinkhan, 1985; Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Shimp, 1981; Zhang, 1996). Theoretically, Shimp (1981) argued that the increased favorable attitude towards an advertisement would enhance the likability to the brand advertised and eventually affect the consumers choice of brand. Mitchell and Olson (1981) illustrated that it is essential to understand how audience respond to commercials since a linkage between attitude toward the advertisement and attitude toward the brand is established, and that brand attitude is a function of attitude towards the brand is suggested. Since the likability to an advertisement is strongly mediating the likability to a brand and even the choice of brand, the present study propose that the use of humorous element can enhance the favorable attitude so that the brand advertised with sexual appeal can be more acceptable by the consumers. The other reason of choosing humorous element to tune down the bad effect brought by sexual appeal is that humor is able to decrease counter-argument. Sternthal and Craig (1973) argued that a person is more easily to be persuaded when distraction is present and that humor have the power to distract the audience during the process of persuasion. Distraction can inhibit the audience who initially hold negative feedback towards a message from generating and rehearsing counter-argument, and finally ease the process of attitude change. Gelb and Zinkhan (1986) hold similar that humor can distract people and that decrease counter-argument. Sexual appeals with nude models and provocative messages bring enormous effect on people which arouse peoples judgement from ethical view of point (Gould, 1994; LaTour & Henthorne, 1994), it is expected that humor can tune down

Principles of Marketing

Page 19

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

the negative feeling aroused by sexual appeal if it is able to decrease counter-argument provoked.

The Effectiveness of Using Humorous Elements Across Product Categories


It is argued that the use of humor as well the effectiveness of using advertisement with humorous elements is different from one product category to another (Spotts, Weinberger & Parsons, 1997). Day-to-day products including snack chips, beer, alcohol as well as tobacco products are what fall into the category of yellow product and it is found out that there is an increased positive impact on persuasion if incongruity-based is used. The frequency of using humor in this product category is found the highest among all in both TV commercial and radio advertisement (Weinberger, Spotts, Campbell & Parsons, 1995). However, by observation, product falling in this category is also highly using sexual appeal to sell. Therefore, for the present study, beer will be used as the product advertised since it falls in the category in which humor as well as sexual appeal is highly prevailing to be used to hit the audience.

Principles of Marketing

Page 20

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

CELEBRITY APPEAL
Celebrity endorsements are the oldest trick in the book, and you would think we know longer care what brand of underwear Michael Jordan wears or what kind of appliances Kelly Ripa uses. Nonetheless, celebrity pitches stick in peoples minds, so even if we know better than to buy something just because a famous person claims to like it, we nonetheless remember the pitch and the product

Principles of Marketing

Page 21

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Lux Use celebrity appeal by using tag Line Meri Khoobsorat Jild ka Raaz by Reema Khan Whereas Katrina Kaif Gives tag line Reesham say bhi Rayshmi tera Ehsaas Makhmali

Celebrity Endorsement Effectiveness through Credibility


In response to the frequent use of celebrities in advertising, scholars have developed theoretical explanations of the effects of celebrity endorsements. Most academic investigations have used the traditional source credibility models (Ohanian, Impact), based on Hovland and his associates' work in the early 1950s (Hovland, Janis, and Kelley). The source credibility model focuses on characteristics of the message source or sender as the key factors influencing the persuasiveness of the message carried by the source (Erdogan). According to the model, a source's expertise (e.g., knowledge, skills, and experience) and trustworthiness are the essential components comprising source credibility. Attractiveness has been also identified as an important characteristic of the source that influences message effectiveness (Erdogan).

Principles of Marketing

Page 22

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Conclusions
Advertising intends to promote the sales of a product or service and also to inform the masses about its features. It is an effective means of communicating the value of a product or service with people at large. Advertising utilizes different media to reach out to the masses. It uses different types of appeals to connect to consumers spread across the globe. The arious types of advertising appeals use different ways to highlight product features and draw mass attention.

The important findings in this study were as follows: (1) Advertising appeal has a significantly positive influence on advertising attitudes, and rational advertising appeal is more significant than emotional appeal, (2) spokespersons have a significantly positive influence on advertising attitudes, and a celebrity spokesperson is more significant than an expert, (3) the influence of the combination of rational advertising appeal and an expert Spokesperson on advertising attitude is more significant than the combination of emotional advertising appeal and an expert spokesperson and (4) advertising attitudes have a significantly positive influence on purchase intentions.

Principles of Marketing

Page 23

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

REFERENCES
Aaker DA, Norris D (1982). Characteristics of TV Commercials Perceived as Informative. J. Adv. Res., 22(2): 61-71. Allport GW (1935). Attitudes, In Handbook of Social Psychology. Worcester, Clark University Press. Belch GE, Belch MA (1998). Advertising and Promotion. New York:McGraw-Hill. Berkman HW, Gilson C (1987). Consumer Behavior Concepts and Strategies. Boston: Kent Publishing Company. Blackwell RD, Miniard PW, Engel J F (2006). Consumer Behavior, 10th ed., NJ: South-Western Thomson Press. Buchholz LM, Smith RE (1991). The Role of Consumer Involvement in Determining Cognitive Response to Broadcast Advertising. J. Adv., 20(1): 4-17. Chiou HJ (2006). Quantitative Research Method and Statistical Analysis, 3rd ed., Taipei: Wu Nan Publishing Company. Chu FG (1996). Strategy Analysis of Advertising Rational Appeals Strategy. J. Adv. Public Relat., 8: 1-26. Coulson JS (1989). An Investigation of Mood Commercials. In Cognitive and Affective Responses to Advertising, Tybout PA (eds.), MA: Lexington Books. Dodds WB, Monroe KB, Grewal D (1991). Effect of Price, Brand and Store Information on Buyers Product Evaluation. J. Mark. Res., 28(3): 307-319. Fishbein M, Ajzen I (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior Reading: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Mass: Addison Wesley. Freiden JB (1984). Advertising Spokesperson Effects: An Examination of Endorser Type and Gender on Two Audiences. J. Adv. Res., 24(5): 33-41. Gloden LL, Johnson KA (1983). The Impact of Sensory Preference and
Principles of Marketing Page 24

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Thinking versus Feeling Appeals on Advertising Effectiveness. Adv. in Cons. Res., 10: 203-208. Guielford JP (1965). Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education, 4th ed., NY: McGrow-Hill Inc. Hsu SJ (1990). Management, 10th ed., Taipei: Tunghua Publishing Co., LTD. Kamins MA, Brand MJ, Hoeke SA, Moe JC (1989). Two-Sided versus One-Sided Celebrity Endorsements: The Impact on Advertising Effectiveness and Credibility. J. Adv., 18(2): 4-10. Kotler P (1991). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, 7th ed, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Kotler P (1997). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, 9th ed., New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Kotler P (2003). Marketing Management, 11th ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Laskey HA, Fox RJ, Crask MR (1995). The Relationship between Advertising Message Strategy and Television Commercial Effectiveness. J. Adv. Res., 35 (2): 31-39. Lee KY (1996). The Effects of Message Involvement, Advertiser Credibility and Advertising Appeals on Advertising Communication Effectiveness. Master Degree Thesis of Institute of Management Science, National Chiao Tung University. Lian NH (1990). Advertising Spokesperson Effects: An Examination of Endorser Type and Gender, Master Degree Thesis of School of Business, National Taiwan University. Lin CH (2008). Marketing Management, 4th ed., Taipei: Hwa Tai Publishing Co., Ltd. Lin LY (2008). Advertising spokesperson is a cosmetician of product image, Commercial Times, August 26, E4. Lin LY, Tu KM (2006). The Influence of Brand Concept Image and Advertising Appeal on Advertising Effects: The Moderate Effect of
Principles of Marketing Page 25

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Involvement Level. Tamsui Oxf. J. Econ. Bus., 15: 77-108. Lin LY, Tseng HC (2008). The Influence of Brand Strategy and Corporate Image on Consumer Purchase Intention: The Moderating Effect of Involvement. J. Econ. Bus., 19: 79-122. Liu CP (1998). The Influence of Different Product Advertising Appeals, Involvement and High vs. Low Self-Monitor on Advertising Effectiveness, Master Degree Thesis of Institute of Management Science, National Chiao Tung University. Liu RL (2001) The Impact of Message Appeals, Positive and Negative Message, Source of Message Credibility. Need for Cognition of Consumers on Advertising Effect. Master Degree Thesis of Institute of Business Administration, National Cheng Kung University. MacKenzine SB, Lutz RJ (1989). An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents toward the Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context. J. Mark., 53: 48-65. McCracken G (1989). Who Is The Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process. J. Cons. Res., 16(3): 310 Mehta R, Sivadas E (1995). Direct Marketing on the Internet: An Empirical Assessment of Consumer Attitudes. J. Direct Mark., 9(3): 21-32. Brown SW, Mowen JC (1980). On Explaining and Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorser. Advert. Consum. Res., 8(1): 437441. Ogilvy D, Raphaelson J (1982). Research on Advertising Techniques that Work and that Dont. Harv. Bus. Rev., 60(4), 14-16. Peng CY (2000). The Impact of Spokesperson Credibility on Advertising Effectiveness and Purchasing Intention, Master Degree Thesis of Institute of Business Management, Da-Yeh University. Ray ML, Batra R (1983). Emotion & Persusion in Advertising: What We Do & Don't Know About Affect. In: Bagozzi RP, Tybout AM (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Research.
Principles of Marketing Page 26

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Schiffman LG, Kanuk LL (2007). Consumer Behavior, Pearson Education International Press. Schlosser E, Oerter H, Graf W (1999). Surface Mass Balance Investigations on Ekstrmisen, Antarctica, 1980^1996. Ber. Polarforsch./Rep, Pol. Res., p. 313. Lin 8457 Shamdasani PN, Stanaland AJS, Tan J (2001). Location, Location, Location: Insights for Advertising Placement on the Web. J. Adv. Res., 41 (4): 7-21. Thorson E, Leavitt C (1992). Attention, Memory, Attitude, and Conation: A test of the advertising hierarchy. Adv. Cons. Res., 19(1): 366-379. Ting YH (1999). A Study of Advertising Effects of Different Media Properties, Advertising Appeals, and Product Involvement: A Comparison between Print Media and the Internet. Master Degree Thesis of Institute of Communications Management, National Sun Yat-Sen University. Tung HC (1998). Advertising Appeals, Spokesperson's Type, Self Monitoring and Self Congruity (between Consumers and Spokesperson) on the Effectiveness of Advertising, Master Degree Thesis of School of Management, Yuan-Ze University. Tsai YT (2000). The Influences of Advertising Spokesmen and Advertising Appeals Upon Advertising Effect, Master Degree Thesis of Institute of Science Management, Tamkang University. Vakratsas D, Ambler T (1999). How Advertising Works: What Do We Really Know? J. Mark., 63: 26-43. Wang J, Tokarz R, Savage-Dunn C (2002). The Expression of TGF beta Signal Transducers in the Hypodermis Regulates Body Size in C. elegans, 129(21): 49894998. Wang EP (2001). The Communication between Consumer Involved and Recommend Advertisement in Leisure Sport Products, Master Degree Thesis of Institute of Sports & Leisure Management, National
Principles of Marketing Page 27

APPEALS IN ADVERTISING

Taiwan Normal University. Wu RC (1990). Do you belief me or belief it? Breakthrough, 55: 14. Zeithaml VA (1988). Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence. J. Mark., 52: 2-22.

Principles of Marketing

Page 28