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SUBMITTED BY: M.Kavyaarasi Reg:No:10CB12 SUBMITTED TO: Dr. C.V.Kulandaivelu M.A., M.Phil., M.B.A., Ph.D.
The competencies have five characteristics. It encompasses a combination of knowledge. Skill (is the ability to perform certain mental or physical tasks) Example: Mental competency includes analytical thinking.Review of literature: Introduction: Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a specific job. direct and select behavior towards certain actions. Good eyesight is physical traits of a pilot. Knowledge (Information a person has in a specific work area) Example: An accountant's knowledge of various accounting procedures. namely: Motives: Things a person consistently thinks about or wants that cause action. More generally. The ability to establish cause and affect relationship. A person possesses a competence as long as the skills. a skill. Example: A person who values being a leader would be more likely to exhibit leadership behavior. Emotional Self Control and initiative are more complex consistent responses to situations. and knowledge that constitute that competence are a part of them. motives drive. Example achievement motivation people consistently set challenging goals for themselves. having the ability to perform a specific role. competence is the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified. and skills in influence and negotiation. abilities. enabling the person to perform effective action within a certain workplace environment. Relation Competence: Creating and nurturing connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks. management competency includes the traits of systems thinking and emotional intelligence. Self Concept: A person's attitude value or self image. take responsibility for accomplishing them and use the feedback to do better Traits: Physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations. Therefore. The four general competences are: Meaning Competence: Identifying with the purpose of the organization or community and acting from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community. or an ability. one might not lose knowledge. A person's values are reactive or respondent motives that predict what a person would do in the short run. skills and behavior utilized to improve performance. but still lose a competence if what is needed to do a job well changes. For instance. .
GENERIC Competencies which are considered essential for all staff. change management. Types of competencies Organizational competencies — unique factors that make an organization competitive Job/Role competencies—things an individual must demonstrate to be effective in a job. including directors and senior posts. finance and administration. role.e. industrial process sectors. task. function. i. team leadership.e. or output Types of competencies MANAGERIAL Competencies which are considered essential for staff with managerial or supervisory responsibility in any service or program area. Personal competencies—aspects of an individual that imply a level of skill. investment management.communication. etc. i. i. regardless of their function or level. environmental management. achievement. however they are applied horizontally across the Organization. Learning Competence: Creating and looking for situations that make it possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to solve the primary tasks and reflect on the experience. TECHNICAL/FUNCTIONAL Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform any job in the Organization within a defined technical or functional area of work.e. or duty. Change Competence: Acting in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future come to life. human resource management. . program execution. an organizational level. processing tools. analysis and decisionmaking. or in the entire organization. linguistic. etc. Some managerial competencies could be more relevant for specific occupations. etc.
the modern competency movement in industrial-organizational psychology actually dates from the mid1950’s and early 1970’s.Competency mapping in historical perspective: The Roots of Competency Approach: Michael Crosier shocked the management community by defining the organization as imperfect social compromises . s needed to be developed in education. . In that regard. while not strictly about competencies. Critical incidents itself can be defined as a set of procedures for systematically identifying behaviors that contribute to success or failure of individuals or organizations in specific situations. The educational objectives developed by them were grouped under the cognitive domain. Flanagan concluded that “the principle objective of job analysis procedures should be the determination of critical requirements. Benjamin Bloom (USA) In mid fifties BENJAMIN laid the foundation for identifying educational objectives by defining KSA. It is Flanagan’s critical incidents technique that sixteen years later inspires David McClelland to discover and develop the term of “competency”. Trochim's are generated by a group. Trochim's technique differs significantly from Novak's original school of thought. In a later form. Despite a growing interest of competency among mangers and human resource professionals in recent years. From here. Later in 1986 William Trochim developed the concept map into a strategic planning tool for use in the design of organizational components. was important because it laid the foundation for a new approach to examining what people do. critical incidents technique was originally discovered. the critical incidents technique would resurface to focus around significant behavioral events that distinguish between exemplary and fully-successful performers. History of Competencies: John Flanagan (1954) A seminal article published by John Flanagan in 1954 established Critical Incidents Technique as a precursor to the key methodology used in rigorous competency studies. Based on studies of US Air Force pilot performance. While Novak's maps are generated for an individual. Concept maps were invented by Joseph Novak in the 1960s for use as a teaching tool.Far from being scientific constructs he depicted a complex organization as a reflection of its actual degree of competency. These requirements include those which have been demonstrated to have made the difference between success and failure in carrying out an important part of the job assigned in a significant number of instances”. Flanagan’s work. John Flanagan’s work (1954) and Dave McClelland’s studies (1970) might be cited as two landmark efforts that originally invented the concept of competency.
or lead to. Certain characteristics or abilities of the person enable him or her to demonstrate the appropriate specific actions”. the specified results. The Achieving Society. an intensive face-to-face interview that involves soliciting critical incidents from performers and documenting what the performers thinking and doing during the incidents.” . stressed the importance of systematic analysis in collecting and analyzing examples of the actual performance of individuals doing the work. Boyatzis. like Flanagan. These competencies exposed by Mc . Some Common Definitions of Terms Competency was first popularized by BOYATZIS (1982) with Research result on clusters of competencies: “A capacity that exists in a person that leads to behavior that meets the job demands within parameters of organizational environment. Motivating economic achievement and power the inner experience brought out several new dimensions of the competency. Richard Boyatzis wrote the first empirically-based and fully-researched book on competency model developments. The method for documenting the actual performance was collected through the behavioral event interview (BEI). His classic books on Talent and Society. Boyatzis grounded competency interventions on documented behavioral indicators that caused or influenced effective job performance. in turn brings about desired results” UNIDO (2002)A Competency is a set of skills. Boyatzis was explicit in describing the importance of clearly-defined competency as reflected in specific behavior and clearly defined performance outcomes when he wrote that “the important points is that specific actions cause. Achievement motive. RANKIN (2002): Competencies are definition of skills and behaviors that organizations expect their staff to practice in work. and that.” MANSFIELD (1997): “Underlying characteristics of a person that results in effective a superior performance.David McClelland (Harvard Psychologist) He pioneered the Competency Movement across the world and made it a global concept. related knowledge and attributes that allow an individual to successfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job. It was with Boyatzis that job competency came to widely understood to mean an underlying characteristic of a person that leads or causes superior or effective performance. As founding developer of competency modeling in the United States. Richard Boyatzis.Cleland dealt with effective domain in Bloom’s terminology.
Process of Competency Mapping The broad processes that are followed in an organization while undertaking the process of competency mapping are detailed below: First stage of mapping requires understanding the vision and mission of the organization. Behavioral. abilities. conceptual knowledge and Attitude and skills etc) needed to perform the same successfully. Competency Map. skills. or industries that are part of the individual’s current career plan.related concept that refers to areas of work at which the person is competent Competencies: Often referred as the combination of the above two. Second stage requires understanding from the superior performers the behavioral as well as the functional aspects required to perform job effectively.Tool for the first and second stage: BEI/ Structured Interview Third stage involves thorough study of the BEI Reports/ Structured Interview Reports Identification of the competency based on competency frame work Measurement of competency Required levels of competency for each job family .related concept that refers to the dimensions of behavior lying behind competent performer. trait. departments. . and judgment required for effective performance in a particular occupation or profession. Meaning and Concept of Competency Mapping Competency Mapping is a process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a give job or role or a set tasks at a given point of time.attitudes. social role or a skill of a person linked to superior performance on the job. managerial. HAYES(1979) : Competencies are generic knowledge motive. Competence: A work. Competency profiling is business/company specific. Competency Mapping. ALBANESE(1989) : Competencies are personal characteristics that contribute to effective managerial performance. A competency map is a list of an individual’s competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role Competency profiling It is the process of identifying the knowledge. organizations.WOODRUFFE (1991): Competency: A person. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent’s task or activities and identifying the competencies (Technical.
Care should be taken that the indicators should be measurable and gives objective judgment.Tools should objectively measure the entire competency required.Training to the assessor should indicate their thorough understanding of the competencies and the tools and also as to how the behavior has to be documented. Potential Identification. .Restructuring .Role Clarity .Step 10: Mapping of competencies Use of Competency Mapping Competency mapping serves a number of purposes. Methods of assessment can be either through assessment centers or 360 Degree Feedback If assessment centre is the choice for assessment then tools has to be ready beforehand .Inventory of competencies for future planning .Step 9: Preparation of competency dictionary . Sixth stage involves detailed report of the competencies assessed and also the development plan for the developmental areas.Step 4: Preparation of semi structured interview .Determine the type of the tools for measuring competency . Steps in Competency Mapping The Steps involved in competency mapping with an end result of job evaluation include the following: . Fourth Stage requires preparation for assessment.Selection.Prepare the schedule for assessment . Fifth Stage involves conducting assessment centre.Step 8: Validate identified competencies and proficiency levels with immediate superiors and other heads of the concerned department . . Growth Plans. Usually it is a two day program which would involve giving a brief feedback to the participant about the competencies that has been assessed and where they stand to.Succession Planning. .Step 3: Obtain the job descriptions .Development of dictionary which involves detail description of the competency based on the indicators. It is done for the following functions: .Step 2: Identifying hierarchy within the organization and selection of levels .Gap Analysis .Step 5: Recording of interview details .Step 7: Indicate proficiency levels .Step 1: Identify departments for competency profiling .Step 6: Preparation of a list of Skills .
Direction with regard to specific areas of improvement Competency based training Competency based appraisal process leading to effective identification of training needs. giving the individual the tools to take responsibility for their own development. Opportunity to identify/ develop specific training programmers . Focused Training enabling improvement in specific technical and managerial competencies. Collection and proper analysis of factual data against the set standards.Competency mapping is also used for the following functions in an organization Competency based recruitment Competency based interviews reduce the risk of making a costly hiring mistake and increase the likelihood of identifying and selecting the right person for the right job Competency based Performance Appraisal Creation of Competencies in an organization facilitate the Performance appraisal process by means of Establishment of clear high performance standards. Competency based succession planning Competency based succession planning is based on Assessing employees’ readiness or potential to take on new challenges. Give the line managers a tool to empower them to develop people. The major Areas of research in an organization where competency mapping is widely used are Training & Development Recruitment & Selections Succession Planning Career Planning Recognition Replacement Planning Performance Management .Focused training investment. Conduct of objective feedback meetings. Individuals would know the competencies required for a particular position and therefore would have an opportunity to decide if they have the potential to pursue that position. It helps in determining the person job fit can be based on matching the competency profile and generates an ideal profile of an individual that confirms to the set of competencies required for excellence within a profession. Competency based Development Contribute to the understanding of what development really mean.
html .com/faculty_column/fc1051/fc1051.Seema Sanghi Building Robust Competencies: Linking Human Resource Systems to Organizational Strategies . Green Web Reference: http://www. Designing and Implementing Competency Models in Organizations.Paul C.Reference: Books: The Handbook of Competency Mapping: Understanding.pdf http://www.org/fileadmin/media/documents/pdf/Employment/UNIDOCompetencyModel-Part1.unido.indianmba.
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