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A BSTR A CT Mary Douglas argues in Leviticus as Literature thatBible studentshave tochoosebetweenaccepting the muddle made by imposing a Western linear readinguponanarchaictext,ortryingtoreadthebook throughitsownliteraryconventions.Shegivesmany examples of how to read a text through its own literary conventions, as well as a broad overview in the form of an analogical reading. In this paper, I substantiate Douglas approach by systematically defining the twentytwo literary units that compose Leviticus, as well as the larger structure that connects them. Each of the twentytwounitshasa similarnon linear structure that can be viewed as a table. The inclusive structure of Leviticus is composed of three concentric arrays of units, with Lev 19 at the focus. Each array has a common organizing element. The outermost array is placeoriented; the middle array is timeoriented; the inner array is personoriented. The focus,chapter19,isholiness.Theimagecreatedbythis arrangement is a holy core that emanates outwards through successive arrays of person, time and place. This structure can be interpreted as an analogical representation of the Tabernacle with chapter 19 paralleltotheArkoftheCovenant,theinnerarraythe Holy of Holies, the middle array the Holy Place, and the outer array the courtyard. The experience of readingLeviticus,accordingtothisanalogy,placesthe readerinapositionanalogoustotheHighPriestonthe

Day of Atonement. Like the High Priest, the reader follows the inner path to holiness at the center of the book, passing through the courtyard and the Holy PlacetotheHolyofHolies.Thispathisreversedinthe secondhalfasthereaderHighPriestreturnstosociety whenexitingtheTabernacle. I NTRO D U CTI O N
Anotherpossibilityagain[forexplainingthesource of Leviticus] is suggested by the studied elegance and powerfully contrived structure. A literary compositionthatissoimpressivecouldsuggestthat writing a theological treatise was the full achievement.Theskepticallikelihoodthatthe book is a beautiful fantasy, a vision of a life that never 1 was,hangsheavilyovertheinterpretation.

Likeananthropologistcuttingthroughthebushto discover a lost civilization, Mary Douglas has opened upanewpathforBiblicalresearch,throughthejungle of source criticism. In the first four chapters of Leviticus as Literature she demonstrates that Bible studentshavetochoosebetweenacceptingthemuddle made by imposing a Western linear reading upon an archaictext,ortryingtoreadthebookthroughitsown literary conventions. 2 She argues for an analogical reading of Leviticus most convincingly, displaying an extraordinarily farreaching scholarship. Doubtless, such a reading will lead to places yet to be explored
1 2

MaryDouglas,LeviticusasLiterature,(Oxford:OUP,1999)7. ibid.,51.


and theories that will conflict with the currently acceptedmuddle. InthelastthreechaptersofLeviticusasLiterature (1012), Douglas offers her own analogical overview ofthewholeofLeviticus,comparingittothestructure of the Tabernacle. Intuitively, the imagery fits. The redactor of Leviticus could not have found a more appropriate structural analogy than the Tabernacle. Thiscompellinganalogyinvitesfurtherexploration of the structure of Leviticus. Douglas herself has stated the ground rule for structural analysis: Everything depends on how clearly the units of structure are identified.3 She explains the importance of clearly defined units in her book on Numbers: If the analyst can manage not to take responsibility either for selecting theunitsofstructure,orfortheprinciples of relationshipbetweentheunitsof the text, theanalysis of the structure will be more secure. The safeguard is to have some principle of selection that makes the interpretationaworkofdiscovery,notofcreation.4In thispaper,IwillattempttoexpandDouglasargument with a clear definition of the units of structure that make the interpretation of Leviticus a work of discovery. Based on these units, I will offer a modificationofheranalogicalreading. THE LIT ER ARY U NI TS Leviticus contains twentytwo welldefined literary units, whereas printed Bibles divide the book into twentyseven chapters. To avoid confusion, I will refertomyunitsasUnitsandmarkthemwithRoman numerals. Nearly all of the discrepancies are found in thefirsttenchapters,whichreducetofourUnits.Unit Iincludeschapters13,IIincludes45,IIIspans6 7, and IV covers 810. The first three Units describe different aspects of the sacrificial system. The fourth contains an extended narrative described by Milgrom astheinaugurationofthecult. 5Anotherplacewhere the division by chapters must be modified is chapter 22.IreadthischapterastwoUnits,consistingofverses 125 and 2633, respectively. This division is based on the subject matter of the two Units. Once we have identified22:2633asaseparateUnit,itssimilarityto chapter12becomesapparent.Bothconsistofjusteight verses, containing birth, seven days after birth, the eighthday,andsacrifice.Thesimilaritybetweenthese twoUnitswillplayanimportantroleinidentifyingthe overall structure. A minor adjustment has to be made between chapters 13 and 14. While they remain two literaryUnits,theend ofchapter13,verses4759are properlypartoftheUnitthatincludeschapter14. AsrecommendedbyDouglas,theidentificationof the literary Units is based upon some principle of selection that makes the interpretation a work of discovery, not of creation. The principle of selection that I have employed to identify the Units is itself a discovery. Each of the Units has its own welldefined structure. I have defined each Unit as such, only after first identifying its internal structure. At this point, it maysoundasifwearelookingatapotential regressio adinfinitum.Ihaveproposedidentifyingthestructure of Leviticus by identifying its Units. Now I claim that each of these Units has its own structure. Moreover, I will further state that the structure of each Unit is defined in turn by the structure of its components! In ordertoavoidtheregression,Iwillintroduceaformof literarycalculus. Leviticusdisplaysleveluponleveloforganization in a powerfully contrived structure. 6 Therefore, it is notcomposedofasinglesetofunits,butratherasetof sets. Each level of organization is based upon its own set of units. In order to speak about the structure of Leviticus, we musthaveanunderstandingof several levelsoforderandthesetofunitsassociatedwitheach level. Once we have established the levels of organization, we can apply the literary calculus to definethemostusefulsetofparametersfordescribing theoverallstructureofLeviticus. As I have mentioned, on one level Leviticus divides into twentytwo structurally similar Units. I willrefertotheinternalorganizationoftheseUnitsas the microstructures of Leviticus, and the arrangement oftheUnitstogetherasthemacrostructure.Thekeyto applying Douglas discovery method to Leviticus appeared when I discovered that the macrostructure employs the same rules of organization as the microstructures. Thedevelopment ofa common set of rulesforthesetwolevelsofstructureistheresultofan analytic process that I have playfully termed literary calculus.Thesimilaritytothetruecalculusisfoundin

MaryDouglas,InTheWilderness (Oxford,OUP,2001),Prefaceto thePaperbackEdition,xxiii 4ibid,94 5JacobMilgrom,Leviticus116(NewYork,TheAnchorBible,1991) 491




theneedtopostulateasmallestquantum,orintextual terms,theprimepericope.Thisisthesmallestblock of text which is structurally significant. Like a prime number, it can not be divided into factors. I will explain now in basic outline just how these prime pericopes are organized in six levels of ascending complexity. For consistency with later sections of this article, I will refer to some groups of textual elements as rows and tables. I will explain the significance ofthesetermsafterIpresentallsixlevelsoforder. THE LEV ELSOFO R DER a.PrimePericope 1 b.RowofPrimePericopes(dyadsortriads) 1 2 or 1 2 3 c.TableofPrimePericopes:Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 = Unit 7 8 9 Thefirstthreelevelsoforderareillustratedabove, beginning with the prime pericope (a). The second level of organization (b) connects two or three prime pericopes in a set, or row. All of the prime pericopes combine with one or two other consecutive pericopes toformeitheradyadoratriad.Thenextleveloforder (c) combines consecutive rows of pericopes in tables. ThisisthelevelwhichIhavetermedUnits.EachUnit ismadeupofdyadrowsortriadrows.Ofthetwenty two Units, only two combine both dyads and triads within the same Unit. The other twenty are all homogenous, eleven containing only triads and nine only dyads. The arrangement of the different types of Units is one of the objective criteria for defining the structure. For example, the first three Units all consist exclusively of triads, while the next three consist exclusively of dyads. We will now see how the macrostructure, the arrangement of Units, reflects the microstructure,thestructureofasingleUnit. c.Unit Unit d.RowofUnits U1 e.TableofUnits U1 U2 U3 U2 U3







TheUnitsare tothemacrostructureastheprime pericopesare to themicrostructure.Justas theprime pericopes (a) of the microstructure form rows (b), so toodotheUnits(c)combinetoformrowsofUnits(d) in the macrostructure. One difference between the rows of consecutive prime pericopes (b) and the rows of consecutive Units (d) is that the Unitrows are all triads, while the pericoperows are divided between triads and dyads. For clarity, I will refer to the Unit rows as Unittriads. The Unittriad (d) combines with two more Unittriads to create a table of Unittriads containingthreeUnittriads(e). We can now see that the organization of the macrostructure in levels ce precisely reflects the organizationofthemicrostructureinlevelsac.There is one more level of order (f) to take into account in ordertograsptheoverallplanofLeviticus.Thelargest structureinthebookisbasedontwonineUnittables.


Thetwotablesformanintroversionaroundchapter19, asthefollowingdiagramillustrates: f.ThenineteenUnitintroversion U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9 Chapter 19 U91 U81 U71 U61 U51 U41 U31 U21 U11 Thisstructureaccountsfornineteenofthetwenty two Units. The three remaining Units are not part of theintroversion.Interestingly,thethreesuperfluous Unitsalldealexclusivelywithimpurities.Itisasifthe redactor had stated that the symmetrical structure is pure, and that the asymmetry created by the addition of the Units on impurities makes the structure itself impure. The reader, like the priest, must remove the impurefromthecamp(structure)inordermaintainits purity.Iwilldevelopthispointtowardstheendofthis article when discussing my analogical reading of Leviticus. M U LTI P LE CO NT EXTS Wehavenowcompletedthepreliminarysurveyof the six levels of order that are utilized to create the structureofLeviticus.Altogether,eachprimepericope combines with otherpericopestoformfiveadditional levelsoforder(bf).Eachlevelofordercreatesanew context within which a given pericope has to be understood. It follows, that the redactor formulated and honed each pericope to function within multiple structural contexts. Any given term within the pericope can serve to connect the pericope with other pericopesonanyofthelevelsoforder;multiplelevels oforganizationcreate multiplecontexts.Douglaswas quite accurate in describing Leviticus as having a powerfully contrived structure. 7 I will explain now two more structural contexts in the tables of levels (c) and(e).

TA BLES The Units of the microstructure (c) and the tables ofthemacrostructure(e)shareaformalsimilarity;they canbothbereadastables.Iwillillustratethispointby meansofthefollowingdiagram. L M R L(1) M(2) R(3)

L(4) M(5) R(6) L(7) M(8) R(9)


The rows oftheabove table representconsecutive blocks of text (as indicated by the numbers in parentheses) and are marked by consecutive letters,

.The columns are marked as L(eft) M(iddle) and

R(ight). When the text is arranged in this format, consistencies appear in the columns as well as in the rows.ThecontentofeachprimepericopeinaUnit(c), as well as the content of each Unit in a table of Units (e), is a function of the intersection of two planning lines,its rowand column. The compoundlabels, such as


indicate that the specific element, prime

pericope orUnit,isacompoundcomposedof the concept which includes L, M and R, and the L concept,whichincludesL, LandL.Inthismanner, thetablescanbeseenasconceptualspace,Cartesian coordinate systems in which each point (element of a table)isafunctionoftheintersection oftwo concepts, itscolumnandrow. The columns of the Units (c) and the columns of the tables of Units (e) thus create two more structural contexts. This brings the total number of structural contexts to seven: levels (b)(f) plus the columns of the two levels of tables. The rows of the tables are levels (b) and (d). A full analysis of the structure of Leviticus should include a reading of each of the twentytwo Units as a table. However, due to constraints of space, I will discuss only the tables of level(e). CAT A LOGO F U NIT S In order to facilitate the discussion of the overall structureofLeviticus,Iwillfirstpresentabriefcatalog



ofthetwentytwoUnits.Ihaveindicatedinthecatalog thatall of theUnitsexcept XIIIformUnittriads(level d) and have marked these triads AG in order to makeiteasiertofollowthenextsectionsofthisarticle. The catalog consists of a structural outline of each of the twentytwo Units indicating the verses of each prime pericope, a brief heading to each Unit, and a short descriptions of each pericoperow. I tried to follow Milgroms section headings as far as possible. WhereIchangedhisheadingoraddedadescription,I indicatedthisbybrackets.Theseoutlinesshouldprove useful for anyone desiring to investigate the Units as selfcontained textual elements. The complete formattedHebrewtextcanbedownloadedat:

THET WENTY T WO U NITS Unit triad A:T heS acrific ia lS ystem a ll per icoperow stria ds I(13)ThreeSpontaneouslyMotivatedPrivateSacrifices 1:19 2:13 3:15 1:1013 2:413 3:611 1:1417 2:1416 3:1217 theburntoffering[entirelyforthealtar] thecerealoffering[primarilyforthepriest] thewellbeingoffering[primarilyforthedevotee]

II(45)SacrificesRequiredforExpiation 4:121 5:16 4:2226 5:710 4:2735 5:1113 purificationoffering[classifiedbysinners] graduatedpurificationoffering[classifiedbyobject offered] reparationoffering[classifiedbysins]

5:1416 5:1719 5:2026 III(67)AdministrativeOrder 6:16 6:1723 7:1121 6:711 7:16 7:2227 6:1216 7:710 7:2838

[priestlyofferings] [offeringsofexpiation] [wellbeingoffering]

Unit triad B allp erico pero ws dya ds IV(810)InaugurationoftheCultandAftermath 8:136 10:17 10:1215 9:124 10:811 10:1620 consecrationandinauguralservice [deathforimproperentrytotheTentofMeeting] eatingofpriestlyportion

V(11)DietLaws 11:123 11:4142 11:2440 11:4347 [animals] [insects]

VI(12)Childbirth 12:14 12:67 12:5 12:8 [lengthofimpurity] [purification]


Unit triad C: Imp ur itiesa ndP urific atio n VII(13:146)[Impurityfrom]ScaleDisease
13:18 13:1823 13:2937 13:4044 13:917 13:2428 13:3839 13:4546 [Whenapersonhasitshallbereported] [Theskinofonesbody] [Ifamanorawoman]


VIII(13:4714:57)Purification 13:4750 14:19 14:3338 13:5155 14:1020 14:3947 13:5659 14:2132 14:4857 fabrics [people] [buildings]

IX(15)GenitalDischarges 15:115 15:1924 15:1618 15:2533 male female

Unit triad Da llp erico perow stria ds X(16)DayofPurgation 16:12 16:2932

16:322 16:3233

16:2328 16:34

theritual thedate

17:17 17:1314a

17:89 17:14b

17:1012 17:1516

[sacrificial] [nonsacrificial]

18:12 18:616 18:2425 18:34 18:1721 18:2629 18:5 18:2223 18:30 openingexhortation theprohibitions closingexhortation

Foca l Unit XIII(19)Holiness 19:12 19:1112 19:3 19:1314 19:4 19:1516 19:510 19:1719a 19:19b 19:2022 19:2325 19:2627 19:32 19:2830 19:3334 19:31 19:3537


This Unit has a unique structure, which mirrors four Unittriads (AD) and three Unittriads (EG) thestructure ofthewhole book.Itisdividedintotwo by the unique Unit XIII. This Unit is the subject of an blocks, offourpairsandthreepairsrespectively, bya articlewhichcanbeseenindraftat: unique triad(19:19b25).Thismirrorsthedivision of thebookinto sevenUnittriads,dividedintoblocksof Unit triad E allp erico pero wstria ds XIV(20)PenaltiesforMolekWorship,Necromancy,andSexualOffenses 20:15 20:1012 20:2224 XV(21)InstructionsforthePriests 21:16 21:1012 XVI(22:125)[SanctifiedObjects] 22:12 22:9 22:3 22:1016 22:48 22:1725 [peoplesanctify] [Godsanctifies] 21:78 21:1315 21:9 21:1624 [allpriests] theHighPriest 20:68 20:1316 20:2526 20:9 20:1721 20:27 opening exhortation including penalties for Molek worshipandnecromancy penaltiesforsexualoffenses closingexhortation

Unit triad Fa llper ico perow sdya ds XVII(22:2633)[AnimalBirth]

22:2627 22:31 XVIII(23)TheHolidayCalendar 23:13 23:914 23:2325 23:3338 XIX(24)TabernacleOilandBread;TheCaseofBlasphemy 24:14 24:1012 24:59 24:1323 oilandbread:[thepermanentdisplayintheTentofMeeting] thecaseoftheblasphemerandtalionlaws 23:48 23:1522 23:2632 23:3944 [sevendays] firstbarleyandwheatofferings alarmblastsandpurgation thefestivalofBooths 22:2830 22:3233 [animalbirth] [closingexhortation]

Unit triad G:Re dempt io n XX(25)Jubilee 25:17 25:2528 25:3538 25:817 25:1824 25:2934 25:3946 25:4755 [theland] [property] [persons]


XXI(26)BlessingsCursesandtheRecalloftheCovenant 26:1 26:313 26:4244 XXII(27)ConsecrationsandtheirRedemption 27:18 27:1625 The sizes of pericoperows (b) used in the Unit triadscreatearecurringpattern.UnittriadAcontains only triads in its pericoperows; Unittriad B contains only dyad pericoperows; and Unittriad C contains both dyad and triad pericoperows. This pattern is repeatedinUnittriadsEG:Econtainsonlytriads,F onlydyadsandGbothtypesofpericoperows. THEHO LYP UZZ LE Once the Units have been identified, Leviticus looks like a puzzle spread out on the table waiting to beput together.It has well definedparts that seemto lackathematicornarrativethread.Still,itisnottotally lacking in structural hints. The division of the first seven chapters as they appear in the opening Unit triad (A) is generally accepted. The closing Unittriad (G) has already been identified by others, including Douglas and Milgrom, whereas Lev 25 and 27 speak ofIsraelsredemptiveresponsibility,Lev26focuseson YHWHs responsibility, by virtue of the covenant, to redeem Israel. 8 Surely there must be a correlation between XII (18) and XIV (20), both of which contain extensive lists of forbidden sexual relations. Also, the similaritiesinVI(12)andXVII(22:2633)couldpoint to a structural link between them. So too, we can expecttheretobeaformalconnectionbetweenthetwo narratives,IVandXIX. Thisconcludestheintroduction.The remainder of this article has three parts. First, I will outline the structureofthebookofLeviticusbasedonthetwenty two Units. Afterwards I will outline the process of solving the puzzle, the process that leads to the discovery of Leviticus formal structure. Finally, I will
JacobMilgrom,Leviticus2327(NewYork,TheAnchorBible, 2000),2409.

26:2 26:1441 26:4546

[IsraelscommitmenttoGod] [interactionbetweenGodandIsrael,blessingsandcurses] [GodscommitmenttoredeemIsrael]

27:913 27:2629

27:1415 27:3034

[requiringpriestlyjudgment] [notrequiringpriestlyjudgment]

briefly consider the analogical reading inherent in the structure. I will begin now with an outline of the structurethatwillbedevelopedduringtheanalysis. P ART1: A NOV ERV I EWO FTH ESTR U CT UR E


The outline above shows how the Units group into seven triads and one singular Unit, XIII. The analogical structuredoesnotincludeUnittriad(C),whichcontains only material on impurities. The six remaining Unit triads compose the two tables of Units in level (e) and combine to form the level (f) inversion. The two dimensionalnatureofthetablesisbasedonaconsistent relationshipbetweentheUnitsofeachUnittriad.InA,B, and D, thefirstUnit ofeach Unittriad canbedescribed asorientedtowardsGod,asopposedtothethirdUnit which is oriented towards people. The middle Unit of these Unittriads contains material indicating an interaction between God and people. For example, in UnittriadA,UnitIisGodoriented,usingthephraseto theLordovertwentytimes.UnitIII,ontheotherhand, is people oriented, focusing on priestly prebends. The middle Unit, II, demonstrates the connection between people who sin and God who provides the means for expiation.Theconsistencyofthisthreepartarrangement leads to reading Unittriads A, B, and D as a table in which the columns have the values marked in the followingillustration.




Unit Triads A B D God Oriented I IV X

Units ConnectingGodand People II V XI People Oriented III VI XII

Table3.TheOrientationoftheUnitsinthe FirstUnitTable

The Units in Unittriads EF have a similar relationship,buttheorderisreversed.

Unit Triads E F G People Oriented XIV XVII XX

Units ConnectingGodand People XV XVIII XXI God Oriented XVI XIX XXII

Table4.TheOrientationoftheUnitsinthe SecondUnitTable

The reversed orientation in table 4 is one of the reasonsthatIrefertothestructurethatcombinesthetwo tables as an inversion. The other components of the inversionareinvertedcontentparallels,chiasms,between UnittriadsAandG,BandF,andDandE.Eachofthese pairsofUnittriadscreatesastructuralelementthatIwill call an array. The two Unittriads of each array are chiastic. The array is yet another structural context, making a total of eight with the five hierarchical levels (bf)andthecolumnsofthetwolevelsoftables(cand e). Table 5 demonstrates how the Unittriads will be connectedintheanalogicalreading.

The analogical structure consists of three concentric arrays. Each array includes two Unittriads: A and G, B andF,DandE.(IwillexplainlaterwhyCisnotincluded in the analogical structure.) The three arrays can be describedbytheirrelativepositionsasouter,AandG, middle, B and F, and inner D and E. These relative positions are comparable to the three divisions of the Tabernacle. The outer array is parallel to the court, the middle to the Holy Place, and the inner to the Holy of Holies.AtthefocusisXIII(19);itisparalleltotheArkof theCovenant.ThefirstUnitofeacharrayisconnectedto thepartoftheTabernaclewhichisparalleltotheposition of the array. Unit I, the first Unit in the outer array, is made up of sacrifices at the altar in the courtyard. Unit IV, the first Unit of the middle array, includes the first entry into the Holy Place. Unit X, the first Unit of the inner array, details the entry into the Holy of Holies. Theseare the textual linksconnectingeach of thearrays with a specific area of the Tabernacle. However, each arrayalsohasabroaderconceptassociatedwithitwhich may shed light on the philosophical basis for the arrangementoftheTabernacle. Eacharrayhasitsownprincipleoforganization.The outerarrayisdiscernedbyitsplacemarkers: Mt.Sinai andfromtheTentofMeeting.Themiddlearrayistime oriented:fiveofitsUnitsincludereferencestosevenand eight days. Theinnerarray concernspersons.Five ofits six units contain personal obligations or limitations determined by familial association. At the focus, in XIII (19)isanimperativeforholinesswhichisalsoanimitatio deus, You shall be holy, for I, YHWH your God, am
Unit Triads: God I (13) IV (810) X (16) Units: Orientation: G+P II (45) V (11) XI (17) XIII (19) XV (21) XVIII (23) XXI (26) People III (67) VI (12) XII (18) XIV (20) XVII (22:2633) XX (25)

Arrays: OrganizingPrinciples: Place Time Person Outer Middle Inner Focus


Middle Outer

XVI (22:125) XIX F (24) XXII G (27) Table5.OverviewoftheAnalogicalStructureofLeviticus Inner E

Notes: 1.TheorderofUnitsXIVXXIIwithintheirrespectiveUnittriadsisreversed. 2.UnittriadC,containingUnitsVIIIX(1315),hasbeenremoved.


holy.Takingthefocalpointasthedivinesource,wecan view the movement outward (in both directions) as a series of Plotinuslike emanations: person (inner array), time (middle array) and place (outer array). This, in broad strokes, is the philosophical framework of the threearray structure that includes the Tabernacle structure as one of its parts. An investigation of the nature of the arrays and the relationships between their partswouldthusleadtoanunderstandingofLeviticusas a philosophical/theological treatise. Such a view of LeviticuswouldjustifyDouglasintimation,withwhichI principleacrossthethreecentralbooksoftheTorah,and notjustinLeviticus. The divisions of Exodus and Numbers, taken together with those of Leviticus, create a structure analogous to the desert encampment. Leviticus, with its threearray structure is like the camp of the divine presence, containing the Tabernacle and its court. The second half of Exodus and the first part of Numbers, which deal with the mechanics of constructing the TabernacleandthefunctionsoftheLevites,areparallelto the Levitical camp. The first part of Exodus and the Leviticus HolyCore(Seeabove) TabernacleEncampment

Boo k: Boo k Co nte nt: Boo k A na log ous to: Co nce ntr ic Arra ys:

Exodus1 Numbers2 Historical Narrative Israelite Encampment Array1: Israelite Encampment Exodus1

Exodus2 Numbers1 Tabernacle Narrative Levitical Encampment Array2: Levitical Encampment Exodus2 IIII Array3: Courtyard

Array4: Holy Place

Array5: Holyof Holies

Focus: Ark



openedthisarticle,thatAliterarycompositionthatisso impressive could suggest that writing a theological treatisewasthefullachievement. The organization of Leviticusin concentricarrays of inverseparallelsissimilartothearrangementofExodus and Numbers which divide into two inversely parallel sections. The first part of Exodus (ch. 124) and the second part of Numbers (ch. 1035) contain the historicalnarrative. The secondpart of Exodus(ch.25 40) and the first part of Numbers (ch. 19) contain Tabernacle related material. Therefore, we can see that organization in concentric blocks is a fundamental

secondpartofNumbers,containingthehistoricalIsraelite narrative, are parallel to the Israelite camp. So the three centralbooksoftheTorahcanbeseenasacomplexsetof concentricarrayssimilartothedesertencampment. Thetable6demonstratesthatthebooksofExodus, Leviticus and Numbers can be viewed as five concentric arrays around Lev 19 at the focus. The second row of the chart indicates the three large divisions of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers: the historical narrative, the Tabernacle narrative, and the holy core. The third row points to the encampment analogy, which is further detailed in the fourth row.


NowIwilldemonstratehowthestructureofLeviticus isdiscovered,assuggestedbyDouglas. P ART2: DIS COV ER I NGTH E STR U CT UR E Unit Tria dsA andG:T he Fram ewor k When theparts ofapuzzlehavebeenlaid outfor inspection, a person experienced with puzzles looks for the corners and edge pieces that determine the framework. This approach worked for the Leviticus puzzle as well. It, too, has four welldefined corners. The first seven chapters form a coherent block of text that contains two corners in the form of markers of physicallocation.Theonlytwoplacesinthesechapters which refer to God speaking in a specific place are foundatthebeginning(1:1)andattheend(7:3738). ThesectionbeginswithGodcallingoutfromtheTent ofMeeting:TheLordsummonedMosesandspoketo him from the Tent of Meeting (1:1). It ends with a referencetoGodaddressingMosesatMt.Sinai(7:37 38):Thisistheritualfortheburntoffering,thecereal offering, the purification offering, the reparation offering, the ordination offering, and the sacrifice of wellbeing, which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai, when he commanded the Israelites to presenttheirofferingstotheLord,intheWildernessof Sinai (7:3738).9 The seven chapters make up three literaryUnits,allofwhichdescribedetailsofsacrifices: chapters 13 describe freewill offerings; 4 and 5 link specific sins to sacrifices; 6 and 7 describe the priests shares of sacrifices. This gives us the upper border of the puzzle. If there is any doubt that we have found the upper border, it will be dispelled by the lower border. It was not necessary to look beyond a section previously identified as a triad by Douglas and Milgrom, Lev 2527, in order to determine the lower border of the puzzle.10 In this case, each chapter is a single Unit by my division. The three Units have redemption in common. The word itself, gaal, appears tens of times in chapters 25 and 27. It is the end,thefinalstageofdivinehistory,in26.Evenifch. 26 does not exactly lend itself to a redemption theme,it couldcertainlybeincludedinareckoning theme. All three units deal with reckoning payments,
MilgrommakesthepointthatintheWildernessofSinairefersto theTentofMeeting,creatingclosurewith1:1.SeeMilgrom, Leviticus116,438. 10 Douglas,Leviticus,219;Milgrom Leviticus2327,2409.

monetary payments in 25 and 27, and divine payments (rewards and punishments) in 26. This bottom row of the puzzle also has clearly identifiable placemarkersforcorners.Thesectionbothbeginsand ends with references to Gods speech at Mt. Sinai: YHWH spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai (25:1); These are the commandments that YHWH commanded Moses for the Israelites on Mount Sinai (27:34). These corners not only fix the limits of the closingsection,theyalsoverifythecornerswefound on the opening section. The redactor has linked the extremesbymeansofaliterarydevice:themarkersof physicallocationofdivinespeeches. The fact that both the opening, IIII (17) and closing XXXXII (2527) sections consist of three Units, together with the parallel use of corners, suggest that we should compare the two triads. The comparison leads to the discovery that they form an invertedparallel,orchiasm. The first Unit of the upper border, I (13), parallels the third Unit of the lower border, XXII (27). Both describe gifts given to God by a private individual. The phrase for (to) God appears over thirtytimesinthe two.Similarly,thethirdUnit ofthe openingsection,III(67),parallelsthefirstUnitofthe closing section, XX (25). Both refer to Gods gifts to men. In III (67) He gives the priests shares of His offerings.InXX(25)Hegiveslandandfreedomtothe poor and indentured. The central Unit of the opening triad, II (45) details certain sins, their associated offerings, and divine forgiveness. The parallel central Unit in the closing section, XXI (26), details Israels rewards for observing Gods commandments and punishment for sins against God. The two triads demonstrateacommonplan.Eachcontainsamanto God vector (I and XXII), a God to man vector (III and XX), and a central Unit which points to an interaction between man and God (II and XXI). The clear chiastic parallels, together with the common use of corners assure us that we are facing a well plannedbook,andapuzzlethatcanbesolved. Finally, we should note the places connected to the two Unittriads (A and G) other than the places where God speaks. All of Unittriad A is connected withthealtarinthecourtyardoftheTabernacle.Unit triad G contains laws that apply in the land of Israel after the conquest and not the Tabernacle. The distinction between these two places will become significant in the analogical reading. We will see that


Place Reference

Cor ner I(13)

1:1 The Lord summoned Moses and spoke to him from the Tent ofMeeting FrommantoGod ForYHWHappears21times


Cor ner III(67)

7:38whichtheLordcommanded Moses on Mount Sinai, when he commanded the Israelites to present their offerings to the Lord,intheWildernessofSinai. FromGodtoman 6:10 I have assigned it as their portionfrommyfoodgifts (andsimilar)

BetweenGodandman 4:2 When a person inadvertently does wrong in regard to any of the Lords prohibitive commandments 4:22 Thus the priest shall effect purgation for them that they maybeforgiven

Vector Place Reference

the reader, like the High Priest on the Day of Atonement, begins by focusing inward towards the Tabernacle.ContinuingthepathfollowedbytheHigh Priest,thereaderturnsaroundinthemiddleandfaces outwardstowardsthewaitingnation. Unit Tria dsB and F: Wit hint heFra mewor k After laying out the upper and lower borders, we will continue by trying to fit the inner pieces to the framework. The method for finding where additional pieces fit, involves looking for matching shapes, as well as utilizing the parts of the emerging picture. Now that wehaveidentified the chiasticborderrows, we are drawn to compare the first pieces within the


FromGodtoman 25:23 Furthermore, the land must not be sold beyond reclaim, for the land is mine; you are but resident aliens undermyauthority 1 YHWH spoke to Moses on MountSinai

BetweenGodandman 26:3 If you follow my laws and keep my commandments and observe them, 4 I will grant you rains in their season, so that the earthwillyielditsproduce

FrommantoGod ForYHWHappears16times

34 These are the commandments that YHWH commanded Moses fortheIsraelitesonMountSinai

Corner Table7.TheBorders


border, IV (810) on the top, and XIX (24) on the bottom.Theyhavesimilarbeginnings.

IV(Lev 810) 8:2 Take (kach ) Aaron and his sons with him, the vestments, the anointing oil, the bull of purification offering, the two rams, and the basket of unleavened bread XIX(Lev 24) 24:2 Command the Israelitestobring(kach ) youclearoil of bea ten olives 5 You shall take (kach ) semolina and bake it (into)twelveloav es

BothUnitshavecommandstobringoilandbread near the beginning. These Units include the only narrativesinLeviticus,thedeathsofAaronssonsand theEgyptians son. Mary Douglas hasidentified these narratives as turning points or milestones within Leviticussincetheymarkthebeginningandendofthe material within the framework defined by the


These Units referencestoSinai, Unit I(13) II(45) III(67) beginwithabirth; ourUnittriads(A) Triad Place:TheTent Place:Mt.Sinai continue with a A Godoriented Humanoriented and (G).11 The sevenday hiatus, IV(810) V(11) VI(12) narratives create and then a detail B Time:7and8 Time:7and8 transition points of the eighth day Priestly HumanBirth to and from the and an offering. Ceremony, framework, which Another similarity DeathNarrative is locked in place betweenthesetwo Units is their by the divine XVII(22:2633) XVIII(23) XIX(24) length. Both speechplace F Time:7and8 Time:7and8 Time:7and8 contain only eight markers. Unit IV, AnimalBirth Priestly verses, making Ceremony, containing the them the smallest DeathNarrative inaugural service, Units in Leviticus XX(25) XXI(26) XXII(27) marks the first by a wide margin. G Place:Mt.Sinai Place:Mt.Sinai Place:Mt.Sinai reference in It seems that the ForMan Betweenmanand ForGod Leviticustopriests redactor has gone God to great lengths to entering the Tent Table8.PlaceandTime createtheparallels of Meeting. Unit in order to define another section of our puzzle/text. XIX, containing the description of the permanent The emphasis on seven and eight returns us to Units display inside the Tent, marks the last reference in IV (810) and XIX (24). The investment ritual in IV Leviticus to the interior of the Tent. The talion laws consists of a sevenday preparatory period before the included in this Unit emphasize the movement away appearanceofthedivinefireontheeighthday.InXIX, from the laws of holiness to social concerns. The the showbread is left on the table in the sanctuary for transition points are associated with death; the death sevendaysuntilitiseatenbythepriestsontheeighth day. The full significance of the use of seven and insidetheTentofMeetingofthoseneartome(10:3), eight becomes clearer when we look at the current Aaronssons,andthedeathoutsidethecampofGods stateofthepuzzle. enemy,theEgyptiansson,forblasphemy. Justasthe outerrowswerelockedinplaceby the ForthemomentwewillskipthenextUnitsineach place markers in the corners, the next rows are direction, V and XVIII, to consider two Units that, as determined by the time markers of seven and eight we have already noted, bear a striking similarity, VI days.AsIhavenotedintable8,XXI(26)inthebottom (12) and XVII (22:2633). They both speak of birth, row also includes a reference to Mt. Sinai, the only reinforcingthetransitionsthemewhilebalancingthe remaining reference to Sinai in Leviticus. Similarly, XVIII(23)containsasevenandeight:thesevenday deaththemecommontoIVandXIX. festival of Tabernacles and the eighth day of VI(12) XVII(22:2633) assembly.Botharraysseemtohaveapiecemissingat 12:2whenawomanat 22:27Wheneveranoxor thesameplace,themiddleofthetoprow. childbirth bears a a sheep or a goat is
male, she shall be impureforseven days; she shall be impure as duringtheperiodofher menstrual infirmity. 3 On the eigh th day the foreskin of his member shall be circumcised 6 On the completion of her period of purification, for either son or daughter, she shall bring a yearling lamb for a burnt offering born, it shall remain seven days with its mother, and from the eighth day on it will beacceptableasafood gift o ffering to YHWH.

Triad A B I(13) Place IV(810) Time 7/8

AnomalousUnits II(45) NoPlace V(11) No7/8

III(67) Place VI(12) Time 7/8 XIX(24) Time 7/8 XXII(27) Place


XVII(22:2633) XVIII(23) Time Time 7/8 7/8 XX(25) XXI(26) Place Place Table9. Anomalous Units




The outer array, the Unit saying: Speak to the God Co nce pt ual Huma n framework, has no place triad Israelitesandsaytothem: Orie nte d Middle Orie nte d reference in II. Similarly, (Asfor) thefixed timesof A Place I(13) II(45) III(67) there is no seven and YHWH, which you shall B Time IV(810) V(11) VI(12) eight in V. These proclaim as sacred apparent missing links Huma n God occasions, these are my maybeahook createdby Orie nte d Orie nte d fixed times. (23:12) the redactor in order to F Time XVII XVIII(23) XIX(24) GodgivesHistimestothe verify that the puzzle is (22:26) Israelites (God to man) being put together G Place XX(25) XXI(26) XXII(27) who then observe the properly,sincetheyarein Table10.Orientation times by offering the same place in both sacrificestoGod(mantoGod). arrays,therebytestifyingtotheparallelconstructionof thearrays. The picture is taking shape. We have two concentric arrays so far. The outer array is place The Vectors oriented and the next array is time oriented. Each consists of two Unittriads. All the Unittriads consist Therelationshipsbetweenboththeborderrows,A of a Godoriented Unit on one end and a human and G, and the penultimate rows, B and F, are based orientedUnitontheotherend.TheUnitinthemiddle on inverted parallelism. We noted in the borders that of each Unittriad is a conceptual middle between the the basis for the chiasm was the interplay between two poles of orientation. Thus, the relationship vectorsofoppositedirections:mantoGod,andGodto between man and God is the recurring theme that man. The middle Unit of the Unittriads seemed to appearsacrossthefourUnittriadswehaveplaced. combinethevectorsoftheextremes.Thechiasmofthe penultimaterowsisevenmorepronounced.Itisbased on the parallels between the two narrative sections, whichinclude deaths,IVandXIX,andthetwobirths, VI and XVII. Let us see whether the vectors of the border rows are useful for understanding the next rows.

The narratives of the insiders, Aarons sons, and the outsider, the Egyptians son, both include the punishment of death for an offense against God. Both of these narratives are placed within Units that describe parts of the sacrificial system, so it would seem that they continue the mantoGod vector. The birth of new creatures, on the other hand, seems to continuethe Godtomanvector,as Godis considered the source of life. The central element of the second upper row (V) has two separate parts, dealing with animalsfromtwodifferentperspectives.Onepartlists the animals that are permitted to be eaten. The other part lists ways in which animals can be the source of ritualimpurity.Food,comingfromGod,indicates the Godtomanvector.Ritualimpurityindicatestheman toGod vector. So here too the middle Unit combines the vectors. Unit XVIII also mixes the vectors, as indicated by its theme: YHWH spoke to Moses,

The discovery of two chiastic arrays containing twelve of the twentytwo Units creates certain expectations regarding the remaining ten Units. If the remainingUnitsfollowthepatternthathasdeveloped, they too should form concentric chiastic arrays. However, two more arrays like the two we have identified would require twelve Units and there remainonlytentoarrange.OneoftheUnits,XIII(19), is unique collection of laws unlike anything else in Leviticus.SinceitcannotbepairedwithanotherUnit, it could be the focus of the arrays and the literary centerofLeviticus.Apossiblesignthatitisthecenter istheextremesimilarityof XII(18)andXIV(20),both of which have extensive lists of forbidden unions. Taking Lev 19 as the center divides the remaining pieces (Units) of the puzzle unequally. It leaves six Units unaccounted for before the middle, VIIXII (1318),andthreeafterit,XIVXVI(2022:25).This isaproblem.If the structureisinfact symmetrical,as the chiasms and focal text seem to indicate, how can there be six more Units to place on one side of the centerandonlythreeon theother?Before weaddress thisproblem,letushaveacloserlookattheremaining pieces and their relationship to the two concentric arrayswehavealreadydetermined.


Unit Tria dsDa nd E:TheThir d Array UnitsXII(18)andXIV(20)areobviouscandidates forpart ofachiasm sincetheyare sosimilar. Unit XII lists forbidden relationships and XIV lists the punishments for them. These two pieces must somehow fit together. If they are parts of an array of Unittriads, similar to the two that we have already identified, the Units that complete the chiasm would beXXIandXVXVI:
D E X(16) XIV(20) XI(17) XIII(19) XV(21) XII(18) XVI(22:125)

UnitX(16)describestheritualthattheHighPriest must perform when entering the Holy of Holies, in order to avoid death. The prospective chiasticparallel Unit,XVI(22:125),warnstheprieststhattheirritual responsibilitiestowardsGodandtheirfellowIsraelites arelifethreatening.This makesaverygoodfitforthe chiasm,inlinewiththeopposite orientations wehave alreadynoted,namelythefirstUnitinUnittriadD,X, and the last Unit in Unittriad E, XVI, are both God oriented. Both X and XVI warn the priests that they could die if they do not perform their duties towards God properly: The Lord said to Moses: Tell your brother Aaron that he is not to come at will into the Shrine behind the curtain, in front of the cover that is upontheark,lesthedie;forIappearinthecloudover thecover(16:2);TheyshallkeepMycharge,lestthey incur guilt thereby and die for it, having committed profanation: I the Lord consecrate them (22:9). Units XII and XIV are human oriented, limiting sexual unions.
D X(16) DayofAtonement priestlyservice lesthedie XI(17) XII(18) ForbiddenIntercourse

TheUnittriadsareinfactchiastic,creatingathird array. By comparing them to the chiastic arrays we have already identified, we can see the similarity between them. We have noted that each of the four previousUnittriadscontainsdivineorientationonone extreme and human orientation on the other. Both X and XVI discuss priestly functions visvis the sacrificial system. Units XII and XIV, on the other hand, deal with the sexual activities of private individuals. Again, we see an opposition based on Godorientedasopposed topeopleoriented. As in theprevioustwochiasms,theGodorientedUnitison theleftintheupperrowandontherightinthelower row.WestillneedtoverifythatXI(17)andXV(21)are conceptualmiddles. UnitXI(17)dealswithslaughteringanimals.Ithas two parts. The first part (vv. 112) has a ritual component missing in the second part, the altar. The bloodorfleshoftheanimalcanbeofferedatthealtar. Thesecondsection(vv.1316)relatestotheanimalas food; it has no reference to the altar. Thus, the Unit combines the two orientations. Unit XV (21) is a collection of laws regulating the personal lives of the priests.Assuch,itisaconceptualmiddlebetweenthe secularlawsofintimacyforindividualsinXIV(20)and the laws concerning holy foods eaten by the priests and their households in XVI (22:125). We are now ready to see whether the third array continues the missinglinkpatternwenotedinthefirsttwoarrays.
Triad A B I(13) Place IV(810) Time 7/8 X(16) Family AnomalousUnits II(45) NoPlace V(11) NoTime XI(17) NoFamily III(67) Place VI(12) Time 7/8 XII(18) Family


XIV(20) XV(21) XVI(22:125) Forbidden Priestsmustbecareful Intercourse lesttheydie Table11.ChiasminUnitsDandE


XIV(20) XV(21) XVI(22:125) Family Family Family XVII(22:2633) XVIII(23) XIX(24) Time Time Time 7/8 7/8 7/8 XX(25) XXI(26) XXII(27) Place Place Place Table12.CommonElementsinArrays


Ifthethirdarraycontinuesthepatternestablished bythefirsttwoarrays,thenweshouldfindacommon element in Units X, XII, and XIVXVI. This element should be missing from Unit XI. At first glance, there appeartobetwoseparatethemesinthefiveUnitsthat should have a common link: regulations concerning priests, and regulations limiting sexual intercourse. Upon closer inspection, it can be seen that the five Units all contain references to family relationships. This is obvious in XII, XIV, XV and XVI. It is less obvious in X, where the high priests household is mentioned in 16:6 and 17. His sons are mentioned in 16:1 and 32. Therefore, the third array also has a subjectthatappearsinfiveofitssixunits,family.The anomalous Unit is in the same position as in the previous two arrays, in the middle of the first triad, Unit XI. The three arrays are locked together by the missing link that appears at the same place in each array. The middle and inner arrays are more closely connectedthanthemiddleandouterarrays.Theclose connectioncanbeseenintable13. Dev elo p ingt he Analogy:t he Co urtyar dand theT ent


IV(810) DeathinTabernacle X(16) PotentialDeathin Tabernacle XIV(20) Intercourse

V(11) XI(17) XV(21)

VI(12) Birth XII(18) Intercourse

XVI(22:125) PotentialDeathfor Desecration XVII(22:2633) XVIII(23) XIX(24) Birth DeathforBlasphemy Table13.ConnectionsBetweenInnerArrays

The two inner arrays are tightly linked by birth anddeath.Intercourseintheinnerarray,XIIandXIV, isparalleltobirthinthemiddlearray,VIandXVII.A warning concerning death in the inner array, X and XVI,isparalleltoanactualdeathinthe middlearray, IV and XIX. These connections lead to two observations.First, theinnerarraysarelinkedlike the chambersoftheTabernacle.Theouterarrayislikethe courtyard, which is open to the sky, while the two chambers of the inner arrays (Tabernacle) share a single tent. This strengthens the analogy between the

structure of Leviticus and the Tabernacle. Second, the conceptual flow of the text is apparently from the middle outwards. Reading it this way, intercourse precedesbirthandthewarningagainstlifethreatening acts precedes death. This substantiates our earlier observation that the arrays point to a Plotinuslike series of emanations from the divine core. Taken together,theseobservationsindicatehowdifferentthe nonlinear reading of Leviticus is from a linear reading. The Anoma lo us Units asaK e y The three anomalous Units, II, V, and XI, verify our observation concerning the close connection between the two inner arrays, as well as providing a key to the way the redactor viewed the arrays. These three Units have a common subject, animals. In the inner array, Unit XI focuses on the blood of slaughtered and hunted animals. In the middle array, UnitVisconcernedwiththefleshofanimals.Theclose relationship between the inner and middle arrays appears in the connection between blood, inner array, andflesh,middlearray.Theouterarray,UnitII,deals with the role of animals as offerings, which is a functionofthespecificmisdeedsofthepersonoffering the animal. Thus, the three Units point to the soul or life force (nefesh) in XI, body in V and function in II, supportingourviewthatthelogicalorderofthearrays isfromtheinsideout. TheinsightprovidedbythethreeanomalousUnits presents Leviticus in an entirely new light. It is not onlyabookaboutholinessandthedivineservice;itis a book of metaphysics. The core concepts are innerness and outerness, or perhaps immanent and transcendent. The metaphysical concepts are not partofanexegesisoftheTabernacleanditsfunctions. TheTabernacleisanexemplificationoftheunderlying metaphysics,anillustrationofthenatureofbeing.The structure thatwehavebegun to discoveraccordingto the guidelines set by Mary Douglas should perforce leadtoanentirelynewexegesisofLeviticus. The new exegesis will take into account the non linear plan according to which Leviticus was constructed.Wehavebeguntoseehowthenonlinear structureisdiscovered.Iwillsummarizenowthemost significant features of the threearray structure. We began our analysis by identifying the building blocks, the Units. They combine to form substructures on


threelevels.TheprimarysubstructureistheUnittriad. The formal composition includes six Unittriads. The second level of organization combines the Unittriads in chiastic pairs, or arrays. The third level integrates the three pairs of chiastic Unittriads into a coherent threearray structure. One more element of organization must be taken into account in the new exegesis.

inUnittriadsBandDaswell.Asimilarweavecanbe seenintriadsEG. The fact that there is a chiastic relationship between the first set of three Unittriads, table x, and the secondset, tabley,indicates thattheredactorwas workingwithatleastthreedimensionsinweavingthe Units of Leviticus into a macrostructure. Each individual Unit has three positional attributes that contribute to determining its content: its Unittriad (row), its place within its Unittriad (column), and its table. Extra Parts We have discovered three concentric arrays focusedonLev19andthebeginningsofananalogical reading. Where does that leave our puzzle? Three pieces do not seem to fit, Units VIIIX (1315). We arelikethemechanicwhohasrebuiltthemotoronlyto find that he has parts left over. Where did he go wrong? How can he correct the situation? Will the motor run anyway? The motor does indeed run beautifullywithouttheextraparts;sowell,infact,that one could easily conclude that Units VIIIX (1315) aretotallysuperfluoustotheoverallplanofLeviticus. There are some indications that the redactor foresaw the predicament of a reader attempting to decipherthe structure ofLeviticus.One ofthemis the editorialcommentatthebeginningofLev16(X):after the death of the two sons of Aaron who died when they encroached upon the presence of the Lord. According to the three array structure that we have found, (without VIIIX), Unit X does in fact come afterthedeathofAaronstwosonsinIV.However,I amusingafterinthesenseofplaceratherthantime. UnitXisplaceddirectlyafterUnitIVinthethreearray table.Infact,aswehaveseen,allthreeUnitsintriadD arecloselylinkedtotheirparallelsintriadB.

Tablex Triad A B D Tabley

Triads A B D E F G

Units I IV X XIV





ThesixUnittriadsformtwotables, xandy. A,B, andDareinx,EGareiny.Eachofthesetableshas twodimensionalsense.Boththerowsandthecolumns represent rules of organization. The character of each Unit is determined by its place in the table; it is a functionoftheintersectionofitsrowanditscolumn.I willillustratethislastpointintable15. Table 15 demonstrates how the fabric of Leviticus is woven. Each UnittriadA, B, and Dhas its own character,whichisassociatedwithitsrelativeposition, outside, middle and inside. Each column has its own orientation. The left column is God oriented and the rightcolumnishumanoriented.Themiddlecolumnis a conceptual middle between the left and right. Column M contains the three Units we marked as anomalous, each focusing on different aspects of animals. These three Units function as intermediaries betweentheorientationsoftheleftandrightelements in each row. Animals are used by the redactor as intermediaries between the Godoriented and the humanoriented,notjustinthealtarUnittriad,A,but

Position/ Character Outside Middle Inside

Identifier Place Time Person

ConceptualMiddle AnimalasIntermediary L M I(13) II(45) IV(810) V(11) X(16) XI(17) Table15.IntersectingConcepts


HumanOriented R III(67) VI(12) XII(18)



Triad B IV V VI thedeath animals birth foodandritual impurity X XI XII afterthe animals intercourse death foodandritual [beforethe objects birth] Table16.LinksBetweenUnitTriadsBandD

OnceUnitXhasclickedintoplaceafterthedeath inIV,theremainingUnitsofDalsopairwithUnitsin B.BothVand XIlookatanimalsasfoodandasritual objects.XIIandVIareconnectedthroughtheircontent, intercourse and birth. The relationship between the extremes is striking. Not only are IV and X connected byarelationshipofbeforeandafter,soareXIIandVI. While X comes after the death in IV, Unit XII, intercourse comes after the birth in VI. Unittriads B andDaresocloselyknitthatUnittriadChasnoplace between them. The redactor has made it quite clear thatUnittriadCistobeseenasapartofthetextthat has to be ignored when studying the meticulously organizedthreearraystructure. P ART3:TH E A NA LOG I CAL R EA D I NG TheR ea der asHighPr iest We have finished discovering most of the formal structure ofLeviticus. In order toexplain thefunction oftriadC,I willoutlineapossibleanalogical reading. The reading is based on the connection between the locationsofthethreearraysinthetextandthelocation ofthesubjectsofthefirstUnit ofeacharray,I,IVand X,thecourt,theHolyPlaceandtheHolyofHolies. Thethreearraysareanalogoustothethreeareasof the Tabernacle; the outer array to the courtyard, the middlearray to theHolyPlace,andtheinnerarrayto theHoly of Holies.Thefocus,chapter19isanalogous to the Ark. The movement through a reading according to this structure is analogous to the movements of the High Priest on the Day of Atonement.OnlyhemayentertheHolyofHoliesand standbeforethedivinepresence.Thetextisformatted to replicate his movements inward in the first three Unittriads and his movement outwards in the last threeUnittriads.Accordingtothisanalogy,Unittriad

C would appear just before the High Priest enters the Holy of Holies. At that point, he is commanded to create a smoke screen that hides the innermost chamber. Triad C could then be seen as a literary smokescreen.Alternatively,itcouldbeunderstoodas the screen that must be lifted to enter the inner sanctum. PositingthatthestructureofLeviticusisanalogous to the movements of the High Priest on the Day of Atonement explains more than the anomalous Unit triadC.Itadsthecomponentofdirectionality:inwards fromAtoDandoutwardfromEtoG.TheHighPriest turns inward, both physically and figuratively, to stand alone before God in the Holy of Holies. After experiencing the divine presence, he reverses his direction to move away from the intimacy with God towards his fellows, both priests and Israelites. This would explain the appearance of social legislation towards the end of Leviticus. This reading invites the reader to travel the path of Gods laws by turning inwardsliketheHighPriesttothefocalpointtoaccept the yoke of holiness (Unit X, ch. 19). From this point he/shegraduallyreturnstothecommunity,ultimately toparticipateinthedivinehistoryofch.26bycreating thejustsocietyportrayedinthelawsofch.25.