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The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software environment used to develop and implement distributed control systems to operate devices such as particle accelerators, telescopes and other large experiments .EPICS also provides SCADA capabilities. The tool is designed to help develop systems which often feature large numbers of networked computers providing control and feedback. EPICS uses client/server and publish/subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. One set of computers (the servers or input/output controllers), collect experiment and control data in real-time using the measurement instruments attached to it. This information is given to another set of computers (the clients) using the Channel Access (CA) network protocol. CA is a high bandwidth networking protocol, which is well suited to soft real-timeapplications such as scientific experiments.

SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) generally refers to industrial control systems (ICS): computer systems that monitor and control industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes, as described below:

Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes. Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, wind farms, civil defense siren systems, and large communication systems. Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, including buildings, airports, ships, and space stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access, and energy consumption.

A SCADA system usually consists of the following subsystems:

A humanmachine interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator monitors and controls the process. A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process and sending commands (control) to the process. Remote terminal units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process, converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the supervisory system. Programmable logic controller (PLCs) used as field devices because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-purpose RTUs. Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the remote terminal units. Various process and analytical instrumentation

Root locus

Root locus analysis is a graphical method for examining how the roots of a system change with variation of a certain system parameter, commonly the gain of a feedback system. This is a technique used in the field of control systems developed by Walter R. Evans.

A Bode plot is a graph of the transfer function of a linear, time-invariant system versus frequency, plotted with a log-frequency axis, to show the system's frequency response. It is usually a combination of a Bode magnitude plot, expressing the magnitude of the frequency response gain, and a Bode phase plot, expressing the frequency response phase shift.

A servomechanism, sometimes shortened to servo, is an automatic device that uses errorsensing negative feedback to correct the performance of a mechanism. The term correctly applies only to systems where the feedback or error-correction signals help control mechanical position, speed or other parameters. For example, an automotive power window control is not a servomechanism, as there is no automatic feedback that controls positionthe operator does this by observation. By contrast the car's cruise control uses closed loop feedback, which classifies it as a servomechanism USES:POSITION CONTROL,SPEED CONTROL

A servomotor is a motor which forms part of a servomechanism. The servomotor is paired with some type of encoder to provide position/speed feedback. A stepper motor is one type of servomotor. A stepper motor is actually built to move angular positions based upon each possible step around the entire rotation, and may include microsteps with a resolution such as 256 microsteps per step of the stepper motor. A servomechanism may or may not use a servomotor. For example, a household furnace controlled by a thermostat is a servomechanism, because of the feedback and resulting error signal, yet there is no motor being controlled directly by the servomechanism

Control engineering
Control engineering or control systems engineering is the engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors. The practice uses sensors to measure the output performance of the device being controlled (often a vehicle) and those measurements can be used to give feedback to the input actuators that can make corrections toward desired performance. When a device is designed to perform without the need of human inputs for correction it is called automatic control (such as cruise control for regulating a car's speed). Multi-disciplinary in nature, control systems engineering activities focus on implementation of control systems mainly derived by mathematical modeling of systems of a diverse range

A proportionalintegralderivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs.