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For Continuous and Discrete Data

Variation • Don’t worry the rope is over half an inch thick on average. average • It is not the average I’m worried about! .

LSL VOC = USP .Definition • Process Capability is a measurement of how the process is performing with respect to a desired outcome Allowed Variation Actual V i i A l Variation Lower Spec Limit LSL determined by the customer determined by the process d db h Lower Spec Limit LSL Voice of Customer Voice f Process V i of P Upper Spec Limit USL Upper Spec Limit USL Rejects Acceptable Quality Products Rejects Rejects Acceptable Quality Products LCL -3s Target Rejects Lower Control Limit Target Upper Control Limit LCL UCL -3s +3s VOC = USP .Process Capability .LCL = 6s UCL +3s VOP = UCL .LCL = 6s GOOD CAPABILITY POOR CAPABILITY .LSL VOP = UCL .

Short Term (Cp) vs Long Term (Pp) Capability • Over an extended period we expect to see more variation Changes in process Time This process is short term Capable but not long term Capable Cp Val of Produ Charact lue uct teristic LSL LCL 3s -3s Pp UCL +3s USL Short term 1 cycle performance Sustained long term performance Time .

LSL VOP = UCL .LCL = 6s TL TU Note: Standard Deviation long term is usually referred to as Sigma or σ . TU)long term 3slong term Upper Spec Limit USL X Rejects Acceptable Quality Products LCL -3s Target UCL +3s Rejects Rejects Acceptable Quality Products LCL -3s Target UCL +3s Rejects VOC = USP .X 3s 3 Min (TL.LSL 6sshort term USL .LSL 6s 6 long term An off-centred process TL = TU = Cpk = Ppk = Lower Spec Limit LSL X Upper Spec Limit USL Lower Spec Limit LSL X . Ppk) A centred process Cp = Pp = USL . Pp) & Index (Cpk.Process Capability Ratios (Cp. TU)short term 3sshort term Min Mi (TL.LSL 3s USL .

Summary of Capability Metrics Short Term Performance Considers Centring Long Term Performance Cpk Cp Ppk Pp Does Not Consider Centring .

0 B 1.5 1.0 0.0 C E E F C A D F .5 2.0 B A 0.5 Cpk 1.0 Cp 1.0 D 0.5 0.Test Your Understanding Sketch the histogram and specification limits for the data sets below 2.

Z scores can be converted to probabilities in Minitab or Excel fx NORMSDIST(Z).Calculating Sigma Score (Z) Point of interest • X Z = +3 Yield Defects • • • +1s +2s +3s Target Mean X For normally distributed data the standard deviation (s) and mean ( ( ) (Xbar) ) can be used to estimate the probability of defects Point of interest X can be an USL or LSL Example with X = 25. Note Excel returns the “left tail or yield of the distribution. (X – X) Z= s (Z = the number of standard deviations from the mean. If you left tail” enter Z=3 you get 0. X=USL=26.5-25)/0.99865.5 = 3.00135 or 0. Z = 3Cp if using USL and LSL) . s =0.135% (defects = 1yield). The defects are 1-0.5 then Z = (26.99865 = 0.5.

02275 = 0. Total probability PT = 0.41%.9756.Calculating the Total Defect Rate (Zbench) X=LSL = 24.5 ZU = +3 • Yield Defects s = 0.02275 (left tail).PT.00135.0241 or 2.99865 = 0.99865 ( ) P=1-0.5 Defects The total defect rate expected from a p process can be estimated by converting y g both upper and lower Z scores to probabilities and adding them :NORMSDIST(3)=0.00135+0.0241 then YT = 0.0 ZL = -2 X=USL = 26. Z = 3Cp if using USL and LSL) • We say the SIGMA of this process is ~2! . Using Excel fx NORMSINV(0. • -2s Target Mean X = 25 +3s The total sigma score called Zbench can be found from the total yield of the process YT =1 . This represents the overall process capability:If total probability PT = 0.9759) = 1. NORMSDIST(-2)=0. 1 9756 (X – X) Z= s (Z = th number of standard deviations the b f t d d d i ti from the mean.9759.

B. Yields and PPM’s are calculated using defects at both tails of the Distribution assuming a Centred Process .Cp/Pp Relationships N.

time or late) = ‘Binomial’ (0 or 1) or the data will be Defects (e. defectives • The data will either be Defectives (e g pass/fail or on (e. dates. colours. . orders e. however you can convert the data to continuous and then use the previous method e g method. defects. categories.Capability for Discrete/Attribute Data • Discrete data has clear boundaries between adjoining values includes names categories counts and rank names. scratches or number of omissions) = ( g ) ‘Poisson’.g. e. convert defects to probabilities (%ages / 100).g.g. • Capability can be calculated directly from Binomial or Poisson distributions using Minitab or other statistical software packages.g.

• • . Try taking logs (either Log10 or Ln) by i i the data to L ) or b raising th d t t a power (called a Box-Cox transformation) e.Capability for Non-Normal Data • Normal capability analysis with non-normal d t would give l data ld i misleading results Non-normal capability can be p y found from software packages like Minitab or by transforming the data to a distribution which is Normal. data2.g.

Process Capability Summary • All processes have variation • P Process C Capability i a measurement of h bilit is t f how th process the is performing with respect to a desired outcome • Capability is defined as the voice of the customer over the voice of the process • Long term capability is not the same as short term capability • Covert discrete to continuous and non-normal data to non normal normal before analysing capability or use specialist software • The overall capability of a process can be defined by it’s Sigma value. .

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