'J¥ating to the Old Testament

Third Edition with Supplement






© 1950, 1955, 1969,











Third printing, 1974
L.C.C. NO. I.S.B.N.

78-76499 0-691-°35°3-2











Inanna's Descent to the N ether World
The Sumerian myth "Inanna's Descent to the Nether World" is highly significant for the light on the Sumero-Babylonian religious tenets, particularly those concerning death and the nether world. Moreover, as the predecessor and prototype of the Semitic myth "Ishtar's Descent to the Nether World," it provides us with an ancient and highly instructive example of literary borrowing and transformation. Briefly sketched, its contents run as follows: For some unknown reason," Inanna, queen of heaven, has set her heart upon visiting the nether world. She therefore collects all the appropriate divine ordinances, adorns herself with her queenly robes and jewels, and is ready to enter the "land of no return." Queen of the nether world is her older sister, and-at least so it seems-bitter enemy, Ereshkigal. Fearing lest her sister put her to death in the nether world, Inanna instructs her messenger Ninshubur, who is always at her beck and call, that if after three days she shall have failed to return," he is to set up a hue and cry for her in heaven, in the assembly hall of the gods. He is then to go to Nippur, the city of Enlil, and plead with the latter to save Inanna and not let her be put to death in the nether world. If Enlil refuses he is to go to Ur, the city of the moon-god Nanna, and repeat his plea. If Nanna, too, refuses, he is to go to Eridu, the city of Enki, the god of wisdom, and the latter, who "knows the food of life," who "knows the water of life," will surely come to her rescue. Inanna then descends to the nether world and approaches Ereshkigal's temple of lapis lazuli. At the gate she is met by the chief gatekeeper, who demands to know who she is and why she has come. Inanna concocts a false excuse for her visit, and the gatekeeper, upon instructions from his mistress, leads her through the seven gates of the nether world. As she passes through each of the gates her garments and jewels are removed piece by piece in spite of her protests. Finally, after entering the last gate, she is brought stark naked and on bended knees before
Because of its fragmentary state, the meaning of the passage contained lines 32-40 is altogether obscure; the renderings and the punctuation are quite uncertain throughout these lines. Note, too, the new renderings of lines 38 and 40. 28 The word "lord" was erroneously omitted in BASOR.
1 Hitherto it has been almost universally assumed that Inanna's descent to the nether world was for the purpose of saving Dumuzi (i.e. Tamrnuz), who supposedly was being held there against his will. As can be seen from note 6 (below), however, these assumptions were quite erroneous; the reason for Inanna's descent to the land of no return still remains unknown. 2 This time limit is not stated explicitly in Inanna's instructions, but cf. lines 169 ff.

Ereshkigal and the Anunnaki," the seven dreaded judges of the nether world. These fasten upon her their "eye" of death and she is turned into a corpse which is then hung from a stake! So pass three days and three nights. On the fourth day Ninshubur, seeing that his mistress has not returned, proceeds to make the rounds of the gods in accordance with his instructions. As Inanna had predicted, both Enlil and Nanna refuse all help, Enki, however, devises a plan to restore her to life. He fashions the kurgarru and the kalaturru, two sexless creatures, and entrusts to them the "food of life" and the "water of life," with instructions to proceed to the nether world and sprinkle this "food" and "water" (probably) sixty times upon Inanna's impaled corpse." This they do, and Inanna revives. As she leaves the nether world, however, she is accompanied by the dead and by the bogeys and harpies who have their home there. Surrounded by this ghostly, ghasdy crowd she wanders from city to city in Sumer," The text of "Inanna's Descent to the Nether World," is reconstructed from thirteen tablets and fragments, all of which were excavated in Nippur and are now either in the Museum of the Ancient Orient in Istanbul or in the University Museum in Philadelphia. All were actually inscribed in the first half of the second millennium B.C. but the date of the first composition
3 The Anunnaki, to judge from the available Sumerian material, are the unnamed "great gods" of the Sumerian pantheon who participated in the assemblies called by the leading deities before making final decisions; they Were conceived as begotten by the heaven-god Anu on the "mountain of heaven and earth" (d. SM, 72-3). Presumably, therefore, they were skygods, and just how the Sumerian mythographers got seven of them to the nether world to act as judges in it (d. line 63 of our myth) is as yet unknown. "This seems to be the literal meaning of the Sumerian; presumably, the stake projected from a wall and pierced the dead body which thus "hung from it." 5 Enki gave the two creatures quite a number of additional instructions, which would, no doubt, prove highly revealing for Sumerian mythological concepts and religious tenets concerning death and the nether world; but unfortunately the relevant lines (224-242 and lines 246-265) are largely destroyed. 6 To this summary, which is based on the text of the myth as reconstructed in PAPS, LXXXV (d. the paragraph following our summary) there can now be made a most important addition based on an as-yet-unpublished tablet in the Yale Babylonian Collection, which I had the opportunity of studying some time ago through the courtesy of Ferris J. Stephens, curator of the Yale Babylonian Collection, and Albrecht Goetze, his colleague. This tablet contains 91 lines of text; it begins with line 264 of the text as reconstructed in PAPS and duplicates the latter until line 323; from there on the text of the Yale tablet fills in part of the ao-line gap mentioned on p. 302 of PAPS, LXXXV. With the help of this new material, the events which took place upon Inanna's departure from the nether world are seen to be as follows: As soon as Inanna leaves the nether world with her ghostly and demoniac companions, she is met by her messenger Ninshubur, who throws himself at her feet, sits in the dirt, and dresses in mourning. The demons accompanying Inanna seem to threaten to carry him off to the nether world, but Inanna tells them who he is and how he had served her faithfully, and-this is not quite certain-that consequently they should do him no harm. They then proceed to Umma and its temple Sigkurshagga; here Shara, the tutelary deity of Umrna, threw himself at her feet, sat in the dirt and dressed in mourning. The demons accompanying Inanna seem to threaten to carry him off to the nether world, but Inanna (if the interpretation is correct) dissuades them. They then proceed to Badribira and its temple Emushkalamma: here Latarak, the tutelary deity of Badtibira, threw himself at her feet, sat in the dirt, and dressed in mourning. Once again the demons seem to threaten to carry off the god, and once again Inanna seems to dissuade them. They then proceed to a city whose name is uncertain; it may perhaps be Inanna's own city Erech, since its temple complex seems to be named Kullab, • district in, or adjacent to, Erech. And here comes what is, no doubt, the most surprising and revealing part of the text. In Kullab( I), the god Dumuzi, unlike the gods Ninshubur, Shara of Umma, and Latarak of Badtibira, does not throw himself at Inanna's feet; nor does he show any signs of mourning. Instead, he seats himself on a "high seat" totally unmindful of Inanna and her companions. Whereupon Inanna hands Durnuzi over into the hands of the demons, no doubt to carry him off to the nether world. Dumuzi bursts into tears and raises his hands in prayer to the sun-god Utu to save him from the demons. At this point our text breaks off, so that the end of the myth is still unknown.







of the myth is unknown. A first edition of the text of the myth, based on the eight tablets and fragments then available, was published by the writer in RA, XXXIV (1937), 93-134. Following the publication of several additional pieces belonging to the myth," the writer published a new edition of the text based on all the thirteen pieces in PAPS, LXXXV (1942), 293-323, Pis. I-X. A study and translation of the text based on the writer's first edition, that in RA, XXXIV, were published by A. Falkenstein in AIO, XIV (1942), II3-138. A study and translation of the text based on the writer's first edition and on the additional material published by the writer in RA, XXXVI, together with an analysis of the Falkenstein article in AIO, XIV, were published by Maurus Witzel in Orientalia NS, XIV (1945), 24-69.8

From the ["great above"]" she set her mind toward the "great below," The goddess, from the "great above," she set her mind towards the "great below," Inanna, from the "great above," she set her mind towards the "great below." My lady abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, to the nether world she descended, Inanna abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, to the nether world she descended, Abandoned lordship, abandoned ladyship, to the nether world she descended. In Erech she abandoned Eanna," to the nether world she descended, In Badtibira she abandoned Emushkalamma, to the nether world she descended, In Zabalam she abandoned Giguna, to the nether world she descended, In Adab she abandoned Esharra, to the nether world she descended, (IO) In Nippur she abandoned Baratushgarra, to the nether world she descended, In Kish she abandoned Hursagkalamma, to the nether world she descended, In Agade she abandoned Eulmash, to the nether world she descended. She arrayed herself in the seven ordinances,"

She gathered the ordinances, placed them in her hand, All the ordinances she set up at (her) waiting foot, The lugurra, the crown of the plain, she put upon her head, The wig of her forehead she took, The measuring rod (and) line of lapis 'lazuli she gripped in her hand, Small lapis lazuli stones she tied about her neck, (20) Sparkling ... stones she fastened to her breast, A gold ring she put about her hand, A breastplate which .•. , she tightened about her breast, With the pala-garment, the garment of ladyship, she covered her body, Kohl which ... , she daubed on her eyes. Inanna walked towards the nether world. Her messenger Ninshubur walked at her [side J, The pure Inanna says to Ninshubur: "0 (thou who art) my constant support," My messenger of favorable words, (30) My carrier of true" words, I am now descending to the nether world. When I shall have come to the nether world, Fill heaven with complaints for me, In the assembly shrine cry out for me, In the house of the gods rush about for me," Scratch thy eyes for me, scratch thy mouth for me," Scratch thy large ... which ... s not with man," Like a pauper in a single garment dress for me, To the Ekur, the house of Enlil, all alone direct thy step." (40) Upon thy entering the Ekur, the house of Enlil, Weep before Enlil: '0 Father Enlil, let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world, Let not thy good metal be covered with the dust of the nether world,"
possibility that "lapis lazuli" is here used for the color "blue." In line 21, "twin" may be preferable to "sparkling"; the Sumerian word is ambiguous. For "put about" instead of "gripped in," (line 22) cf. Falkenstein, loco cit., II6; for the new rendering of line 24, cf. ibid., I16-I17; "kohl" (line 25) was suggested by Landsberger, but cf, already Falkenstein, lac. cit., I r. 12 One of the duplicates has an interesting variant for lines 29-3 I, which reads as follows: "Come, my faithful messenger of Eanna, Instruction I oifer thee, take my instruction, A word I speak to thee, give ear to it." 13 "True" rather than "supporting" as in PAPS, LXXX, d. Falkenstein, lac.


d. RA, XXXVI (1939),68-80; BASOR, 79 (1940), 18-27_ d. also B. A. van Proosdij in TEOL, VI (1939), 138-147. B. Landsberger

has sent me some valuable comment on the PAPS edition, some of which will be quoted in the notes. 9 The "great above" is the space above the sky; the "great below" is the space below the surface of the earth. 10 This and the following lines mention seven important cities of Surner together with Inanna's temple in each; the order is not significant since it varies considerably in one of the duplicates. 11 For "ordinances" which attempts to render the Sumerian word me, cf. p. 43 of this work. It is to be noted that judging from our text, these "ordinances" seem to be concrete and tangible objects; note, too, that in the myth "Inanna and Enki: The Transfer of the Arts of Civilization from Eridu to Erech" (SM, 64-68), they were transported on a boat. The rendering of lines '4-25 varies to some extent from that in PAPS, LXXXV. In line 14, the new rendering is based on Landsberger's (d. note 8) note that zag-SiR is equated with kiHuru in CT, XVI, 25, 49 (Falkenstein's interpretation of the compound in AIO, XIV, 115 and ZA, XLVll, 168 f., is therefore incorrect). For "gathered" instead of "sought out" in line 14, ct. Falkenstein, A/O, XIV, 115; for "wig" instead of "radiance," in line IS d. ibid., 117-II8. For the new rendering of line '9, d. Witzel's excellent comment in Orientalia NS, XIV, 32-33; Landsberger, moreover, refers to the Burney Relief discussed by Frankfort in AIO, XII, 129 if. which actually shows the rod and line in the hands of a female deity. While, therefore, the translations "measuring rod" and "line" are reasonably certain, there is some difficulty with the words "of lapis lazuli" since "the line" should, of course, be made of rope, not of stone; Landsberger therefore suggests the


The translation assumes that "the house of the gods" (line 36) and the "assembly shrine" of the preceding line refer to places in heaven where the gods met in assembly. Perhaps, however, the two lines refer to Ninshubur's making the rounds of the gods in Nippur, Ur, and Eridu; if so, "shrine" and "house" (lines 35, 36) should read "shrines" and "houses," and "rush about" might perhaps read "make the rounds." 15 The rendering "scratch" is suggested by Landsberger. cf. perhaps, the similar practices in connection with the dead, which are prohibited in the Old Testament. 16 For the rendering "with man," cf. Falkenstein, lac. cit., 119. 11 "AI! alone" was accidentally omitted in PAPS, LXXXV. 18 For "be covered" instead of "be ground up," in PAPS, LXXXV, cf. Falkenstein, lac. cit., '20. It is difficult to see what "thy good metal," "thy good lapis lazuli," "thy boxwood," are intended to refer to; on the surface it might seem that they refer to the jewels and ornaments carried by Inanna, but if so, what does "thy boxwood" refer to? Falkenstein (lac. cit., 121) suggests that these phrases are figurative descriptions of Inanna's body; such usage, however) is as yet without parallel in Sumerian literature.

3S The new rendering is based on a collation of text A (ef. A gold ring she has put about her hand. LXXXV." Then Ereshkigal . I." open the house. a maid. 131. A breastplate which .. has placed them in her hand. LXXXV. He will surely bring me to life.. (110) With the pa/a-garment. lines 14-25. 20 The word "land" renders the Sumerian word kalam and usually refers to Sumer.. had been killed.." Neti. She has arrayed herself in the seven ordinances. Weep before Enki: '0 Father Enki. In Ur. all alone I would enter:' Neti. who knows the water of life. but note the inverted order of the last two lines of the passage." d. Neti. and d.. Small lapis lazuli stones she has tied about her neck. Note the rendering which varies somewhat from that in PAPS." The Ekishnugal" the house of Nanna. 32 For lines 100-IlI. let me speak. Ninshubur. The lugurra. the chief gatekeeper of the nether world.."24 When Inanna arrived at the lapis lazuli palace of the nether wo-kl. . [Answers] Neti. 30 The mythological implications of the statement made in this line are unknown. The measuring rod (and) line of lapis lazuli she has gripped in her hand. how hath thy heart led thee ?'>29 The pure Inanna answers him: "My elder sister Ereshkigal. Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world: If Enlil stands not by thee in this matter. upon thy entering the house of . . gatekeeper. go to Ur. Like a god . (so) Weep before Nanna: '0 Father Nanna. the chief gatekeeper of the nether world. the garment of ladyship. she has daubed on her eyes." In the palace of the nether world she spoke evilly: "Open the house. Sparkling . The door .. LXXXV. art thou?" "I am Inanna of the place where the sun rises. Answers the pure Inanna: (90) "Stay. the chief gatekeeper of the nether world. chief gatekeeper of the [nether world]. p." d. (60) Let not thy good metal be covered with the dust of the nether world. 35. Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stoneworker. she has put upon her head."23 Inanna walked towards the nether world. note 214. go to Eridu. of the land. verily 'tis SO. . let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world. 33 Pronunciation of the first syllable of the name is still uncertain. she has tightened about her breast." At the door of the nether world she acted evilly." Open the house.. . To her messenger Ninshubur she says: "Go. . the lapis lazuli mountain. Enters the house of his queen Ereshkigal (and) says to her: "0 my queen."SI Neti. 23 The rendering of this crucial line is still uncertain and should have been so indicated in PAPS. In Eridu. Falkenstein. Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world: If Nanna stands not by thee in this matter. The word which I (shall) have commanded thee. Why pray hast thou come to the land of no return ? On the road whose traveler returns not. and d. 29 Note that the word order differs from that in PAPS.. 455 of this work. "set up that which is evil. stones she has fastened to her breast. In Eanna . 122-123. the crown of the plain. the lord of wisdom. Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the woodworker. 24 For the rendering "do not neglect. pray. Inanna.. ." cf. 25 This line may perhaps be better rendered "When Inanna arrived at the palace. Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the woodworker.. 26 More literally.'?" (80) "If thou art Inanna of the place where the sun rises. (70) The word which I have commanded thee do not neglect. All the ordinances she has set up at (her) waiting foot. lCS. LXXXV.z2 Who knows the food of life. To my queen Ereshkigallet me speak. her chief gatekeeper: "Come.." (100) She has gathered the ordinances.. Answers the pure Inanna: "Who. 131. 31 Note the new rendering of this line.. the lord Gugalanna. loco cit... Neti. Let not thy good metal be covered with the dust of the nether world. and 129. Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the woodworker. . 21 For "Ekishnugal" instead of "Ekishshirgal. to my queen let me speak. do [not] ne[glect]. she has covered her body. Falkenstein. To witness his funeral rites. LXXXV. 21 28 . Falkenstein.. . Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stoneworker.54 SUMERIAN MYTHS AND EPIC TALES Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up" into the stone of the stoneworker. The wig of her forehead she has taken.. 19 "Be broken up" (line 45) and "be cut up" (line 46) are reasonably certain renderings and should not have been italicized as doubtful in PAPS. Because her husband. loco cit. Kohl which . 22 Should have been rendered as doubtful in PAPS. let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world.. open the house. .. ef. Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world: Father Enki. LXXXV. upon thy entering the house of Enki. loco cit..

the ordinances of the nether world are perfect. is a variant text in which the measuring rod and line were removed even before she entered the first gate. . Cried out for her in the assembly shrine. Like a pauper in a single garment dressed for her. At their word." o 55 Inanna." "What. o Inanna. The sick "woman" was turned into a corpse. do not [question] the rites of the nether world. the passage describing Inanna's dress preparatory to her descent (lines 17-25). the ordinances of the nether world are perfect. 126. The small lapis lazuli stones of her neck were removed. "[To the com]manded [word giv]e e[ar]." The !ugurra. the ordinances of the nether world are perfect. After three days and three nights had passed. Of the gate Ganzir.m-[li-ag]. To the pure Inanna he says: "Come. the crown of the plain of her head was removed. "What.. d.. (120) Heeded'" the word of his queen. is this?" "Be silent. cit.SUMERIAN MYTHS AND Of the seven gates of the nether world. the ordinances of the nether world are perfect. cit. the seven judges. it is neverthelessitalicized as doubtful in our translation. the chief gatekeeper of the nether world. lines 3°-39." Upon her entering the third gate. Scratched his large . "0." (170) Her messenger of favorable words. [open their locks]. Rushed about for her in the house of the gods." Inanna.. scratched his mouth for her. 42 43 EPIC TALES .. 37 A variant text reads: "Upon her entering the first gate. o Inanna. do not [question] the rites of the nether world. Of the seven gates of the nether world. the line may read [inim-a-ra-dug." (130) Upon her entering the second gate. The corpse was hung from a stake. LXXXV. Interesting. Inanna. The breastplate which . enter. the ordinances of the nether world are perfect. "All alone" was accidentally omitted in PAPS. all alone" he directed his step. loc. In G. 125. Inanna. They fastened (their) eyesupon her. "What. The sparkling . Inanna. LXXXV.. "What. is this?" "Be silent. Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stoneworker." Upon her entering the seventh gate. the word which tortures the spirit. the ordinances of the nether world are perfect... was removed. stones of her breast were removed. 308 of PAPS. n o Inanna do not [question] the rites of the nether world. the only other text available at this point. Upon her entering.. "What. on the other hand. The gold ring of her hand was removed. o Inanna. since. Upon his entering the Ekur. Bowed lou/" •.]-ga giz[zal !Je]-.." define its rules]. do not [question] the rites of the nether world. is this?" "Be silent." Let not thy good metal be covered with the dust of the nether world. is this?" "Be silent. Inanna. lines 43 If. " Neti. do not [question] the rites of the nether world. The measuring rod (and) line of lapis lazuli was removed. Of the gate [Ganzir. the house of Enlil. the eyesof death." (140) Upon her entering the fourth gate. each of which seems to describe a specific unit of apparel or ornament. . Inanna wore seven bits of apparel. . [he defined] its rules. as Witzel points out (loc. the ordinances of the nether world are perfect." 34 The implications of this phrase are not clear. Fills the heaven with complaints for her. pray. which . 303) which seems to make the following reading probable inim-a-ra-dugcga-mu gu-zu l[a-ba-Jj-}ub-bi-en]. too. Inanna. do not [question] the rites of the nether world. pray.. On the other hand. Father Enlil. cf. LXXXV. which were removed piece by piece as she passed through each of the seven gates of the nether world. o Inanna. To the Ekur. Inanna. pronounced judgment before her.. Her carrier of true words. 44-45). omitted in the later passage are the wig and the kohl.. is this ?"39 "Be silent.. *' A more literal rendering of the verb would read "have been perfected. "What. is this?" "Be silent. let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world. the house of Enlil. The pala-garment." Upon her entering. Her messenger Ninshubur.. Falkenstein." (160) Bowed low. The pure Ereshkigal seated herself upon her throne. Scratched his eyes for her." (150) Upon her entering the sixth gate. cit. (180) Before Enlil he weeps." Upon her entering the fifth gate. s not with man. the garment of ladyship of her body. the face of the nether world. d. of her breast was removed.." 38 According to the passagecontained in lines 126-160. loc. The Anunnaki. pray. 39 This phrase should not have been italicized on p.. is this?" "Be silent. consists of nine lines. 36 For this new rendering... pray. do not [question] the rites of the nether world. Inanna. [he opened] their locks. "What. pray. pray. 40 This translation which makes excellent sense is suggested by Falkenstein. the form would be expected to read si-ga rather than si-a as it appears in our text. the face of the nether world. o Inanna. 3' Should have been italicized as doubtful in PAPS.. pray.

. What has happened to the hierodule of heaven! I am troubled. "to desire.. ?" Father Nanna stood not by him in this matter. ercsu.. Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the woodworker." Father Enki answers Ninshubur: .89-190. The "demons" throughout the text refer to a type known as galla-demons. Falkenstein. loco cit." 4. Before Nanna he weeps: "0 Father Nanna. now especially lCS.. . Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world. d. let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world. the . for some possible interpretations of the pulfJu and melammu. Who is it that to their place . Verily the dead hasten ahead of her.. LXXXV. 53 Note the variant rendering of the end of the line. 56 The rendering of this line is quite uncertain and its implications are obscure. many of the broken lines end in a second person plural imperative. of the land.. the lines may also be rendered "My daughter has desired it (death?) in the 'great above. " Upon the corpse" they . is equal to at+-d».. H Note the attempted new rendering of this difficult but crucial line. cit. they sprinkled upon it. let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world." (200) Father Nanna answers Ninshubur: "My daughter has asked for the 'great above. The Ekishnugal.. In Ur. (266) The pure Ereshkigal answers the ka[laturru and kurgarru] : "The corpse . has desired it in the 'great below: " etc. Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world. sprinkle upon it. and the present evidence seems to bear him out.' has asked for the 'great below. The small demons like the spear shafts. For the suggestion that this line contains a rhetorical question.. Father Enki says to the kalaturru and kurgarru: " (nineteen lines badly damaged) 52 Upon the corpse hung from a stake direct the pu1bu (and) the melammu:a (243) Sixty times the food of life. cf.. Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world.' has asked for the 'great below. ordinances the . LXXXV. 51 This probably correct rendering was suggested by Landsberger who read the Sumerian complex dubbin-su. 51 The new rendering of the line follows Falkenstein's excellent comment.. as it stands now. .. ordinances-she has reached their place. In Eridu upon his entering the house of Enki. 52 These lines contained a number of instructions to the kalaturru and kurgarru (cf. LXXXV. Inanna ascends from the nether world. 55 "Fled" should have been rendered as doubtful in PAPS. (220) To the kurgarru he gave the food of life.. 47).' The ordinances of the nether world. the house of Nanna. 49 For this variant rendering. etc. line 27. cit." Who now of the dwellers of the nether world will descend peacefully to the nether world ." (break of approximately twenty lines) [Upon the corpse hung] from a stake. loc. I. 127-128.." From his fingernail" he brought forth dirt (and) fashioned the kurgarru. the ordinances-she has reached their place." (280) Walked at her side." Father Enlil answers Ninshubur: "My daughter has asked for the 'great above." The large demons like . Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the woodworker. it is due primarily to Lands- "What has happened to my daughter !49 I am troubled. Inanna ascends from the nether world. Let not thy good metal be covered with the dust of the nether world. 41' Note the new renderings of lines .. upon his entering the house of . he [went] toUr. he went to Eridu. note 5). Note the slightly modified rendering from that in PAPS. From his red-painted fingernail" he brought forth dirt (and) fashioned the kalaturru. 127. d. .':" Inanna has asked for the 'great above. 50 Witzel as well as Landsberger read the Sumerian sign for this word correctly. it seems to say that the incoming dead may raise difficulties.. Surely Inanna will arise.' has asked for the 'great below. sixty times the water of life.5 "Boxwood" should have been italicized as doubtful wherever it appears in PAPS.. What has happened to Inanna I I am troubled.. ordinances. . Upon the corpse hung from a stake they directed the pulbu (and) the melammu.' The ordinances of the nether world. berger's suggestion that al-i-dug. 54 Note the new rendering. s. sixty times the water of life.SUMERIAN MYTHS AND EPIC TALES Let not thy boxa/ood" be cut up into the wood of the woodworker. the judges in the nether world (cf. Inanna arose.. To the kalaturru he gave the water of life.56 When Inanna ascends from the nether world. Before Enki he weeps: "0 Father Enki.' has asked for the 'great below. d. the .. What has happened to the queen of all the lands' I am troubled. ?"'s Father Enlil stood not by him in this matter." (190) Who is it that to their place . note 3). Oppenheim's study of the words in lAOS. 58 Landsberger notes that the gi-dllh-ha-an probably has nothing to do with tablet styluses. LXIII. (210) Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stoneworker. Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stoneworker.-le-gin( I)-na. 10. (270) Sixty times the food of life. are no longer there to judge them. The Anunnaki fled.' Inanna has asked for the 'great above.. 3'-34. Akk.. Let not thy good metal be covered with the dust of the nether world. Witzel's excellent comment (loc. now that the Anunnaki.

SUM:ERIAN MYTHS AND :EPIC TALES 57 Who by his face was no [messenger]. cit. from the Emushkalamma Latarak threw himself at her feet. of the nursemaid. LXXXV. Sat in the dust.• 65 Note the new rendering of the line. 61 "Water" instead of "wine" follows the excellent comment by Falkenstein. the next line is an abbreviation for lines 192'2°5. Rushed about for me in the house of the gods." My carrier of true words. wait before thy city. Falkenstein." In Ur. the next line for lines 206-213. In Eridu. To the Ekur.. LXXXV. scratched his mouth for me. (300) Neglected not my commanded word. 135. 68 Following this line one might have expected a line in which Inanna asks the demons not to harm Ninshubur.. The demons say to the pure Inanna: "0 Inanna. carried a weapon on the loin.'?" In Umma. 69 This line seems to contain words of exhortation uttered by the dem"n! to each other. held a staff in her hand. which . [Her messenger] Ninshubur threw himself" at her feet. The demons say to the pure Inanna: 59 Note the new renderings of this line and the next. loc. is an accidental error . loco cit . in Umma to the Sigkurshagga let us accompany her. from the Sigkurshagga. s not with man. let us carry him off. lines 30 ff. Upon Inanna's ascending from the nether world. to the house of Enki. the restorations "messenger" and "carrier" are from the Yale tablet described in note 6. note 6 for the interpretation of this part of the myth. 62 Note the variant rendering of the end of the line from that in PAPS. (Who) fails not my directions. The passage recites Ninshubur's faithful services to Inanna. ciz. but unfortunately its meaning is obscure. Falkenstein. LXXXV.. 66 d. note 6. the house of Enlil." ( 290) Inanna ascends from the nether world. dressed in sackcloth. in Badtibira to the Emushkalamma let us accompany her." Who by his body was no [carrier]. let us carry him off. Fills the heaven with complaints for me. 10 "Herself" in PAPS." The pure Inanna answers the demons: (rest of the myth still unknown) 12 in PAPS. Sat in the dust. to the house of Nanna." The pure Inanna answers the demons: (three lines broken and unintelligible) 11 "Let us accompany her. 63 "Herself" "0 Inanna. dressed in sackcloth'" The demons say to the pure Inanna: "0 Inanna.. Who eat not sprinkled flour. 128: the restoration is fully confirmed by the tablet in the Yale Babylonian Collection discussed in note 6. Scratched his large . loc. who know not water. and lines 170 ff. •• "Sackcloth" or some mourning garb for "dirt. and d.. wait before thy city. 135· ." They who accompanied Inanna. (310) He brought me to lije?" "Let us accompany her. dressed in sackcloth. Like a pauper in a single garment dressed for me. the tablet in the Yale Babylonian Collection does have an added line here. 61 This line is probably a kind of abbreviation for lines 179-191. Shara threw himself" at her feet. Cried out for me in the assembly shrine. LXXXV. d. Scratched his eyes for me... (Were beings who) know not food. cf. They who accompanied her. is an accidental error. Who take away the child from the .?" The pure Inanna answers the demons: "My messenger of favorable words." (322) In Badtibira." d. Who drink not libated [water ]:1 Who take away the wife from the loins of man. Sat in the dust.. wait before thy city. let us carry him 00. 60 Note the slightly variant rendering of this and the following line from that in PAPS.

give it a timeless appeal. Today it captivates student and poet alike. All but a few of the Ak155 Akk. L. The longest of these contains over three hundred lines. the influence of the poem spread to various tongues and cultures. which was taken as usual from the opening words. "He who saw everything. 106For the concluding lines d. some of considerable size and others in relatively small fragments. and its sheer poetic power. It happens to be the so-called Flood Tablet (XI). The poem deals with such earthy things as man and nature. Orientalia. Hi/ matiiti. The work is divided into twelve tablets." The prevailing meter has the normal four beats to a line. A. XVI (1947). but with the failure comes a sense of quiet resignation. love and adventure. ends in failure. friendship and combat-all masterfully blended into a background for the stark reality of death. The scope and sweep of the epic.72 AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS The Epic of Gilgamesh The theme of this epic is essentially a secular one. is Sa nagba imuru. Akkadian title of the poem. The rest has survived in portions. In antiquity. This is the fiftieth and last name of Marduk. The climactic struggle of the protagonist to change his eventual fate. The. by learning the secret of immortality from the hero of the Great Flood of long ago. 237· . Oppenheim. For the first time in the history of the world a profound experience on such a heroic scale has found expression in a noble style. not counting the honorific identification of Ea as given in line 140. virtually in a perfect state of preservation.

9 For the various writings of the name d. and S. and especially by the studies of S. From the middle of the second millennium have come down fragments of an Akkadian recension current in the Hittite Empire. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels (1946). who brought civilization to seven of the oldest cities in the land. For this translation of Uruk-sup. N. however. Peer at the inner wall. Kramer. 5 Oppenheim. n. the introduction to Tablet XII and note 233. ] . while utilizing certain motifs which are featured in Sumerian poems. reads i·tal·lak "walk about. Campbell Thompson under the title of The Epic oj Gilgamish (1930). 7 if. as I have also from that of d. [conside [red all!' [ ] together [ . and A. ]. Orientalia. That this version was itself a copy of an earlier text is suggested by the internal evidence of the material. Schott. At length.2-5] corresponds in part with the damaged initial portion of our column ii. 19. can equal. (IO) The nobles of Uruk are worried in [their chamb ]ers: "Gilgamesh'Teaves not the son to [his] father. except for the passages that have been allocated otherwise. L. with brief notes and an extensive discussion of the biblical parallels is that of A. Of hallowed Eanna. Gilgamesh. the Gilgamesh Epic is known also from versions which antedate the first millennium B. XVII (1948). ZA. and his monumental Das Gilgamesch-Epos in der Weltliteratur (Vol. with transliteration and notes. XI. ZA. tiring and resting. The standard German translation is now that of A. which is from of old! Draw near to Eanna.. II. who all things. I have profited considerably from Heidel's treatment. E. on the other hand. [ ] of wisdom. I (1937). Thompson's arrangement and line count have been adopted in this translation. '5' if. J. does so largely in the course of developing a central theme that has no Sumerian prototype. and of the notes by A. 92 if. if not slightly earlier. Vol. 89 f. Contenau. Oppenheim. xxxv (1923). Leonard we owe a rendering into free rhythms. 126 ff. stately. XLII (1934). The sources of the texts not given by Thompson will be cited in detail in the course of the translation.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 73 kadian texts come from the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh. 1923). M. Ranke. From the first half of the second millennium we possess representative portions of the Old Babylonian version of the epic. 8 f... see H. 1906. [Who all thingJs experienced. Gressmann.. Tablet XII. Das Gilgamesch-Epos (1934)' In English we have R. [Day] and [night] is unbridled his arro[gance]. S. the dwelling of Ishtar. Ungnad and H. XVII (1948).. as will be noted in each given instance. 6 Text: im-ta-lak "take counsel. GETh. 1 Schott (see above). GETh. Unlike the Creation Epic. entitled Gilgamesh (1934). N. 1926). and Bohl. III. J. [bold. whom they endowed with superhuman size." 1 For the seven sages. Orientalia. Goetze. The original date of composition of the Akkadian work has to be placed at the turn of the second millennium." but the parallel passage. 303. 1 (1947). One cannot fail. Bohl under the Dutch title Het Gilgamesj-Epos (1941). Jacobsen. I. The epic proper. [laid bare] the undisclosed. We gather from this fragment that several gods had a hand in fashioning Gilgamesh. The temple of Anu and Ishtar in Uruk.. All his toil he engraved on a stone stela.. By the drum" are aroused [his] companions. A Hittite fragment [ef. VI.z.. The same holds true of Schott's notes. and X. [the shepherd of ramparted] Uruk? Is this [our] shepherd. lCS.' the pure sanctuary.C. and U ngnad returned to the subject on two subsequent occasions: Die Religion der Babylonier und Assyrer (1921). whose cornice" is like copper.) (ii) Two-thirds of him is god. lofty [. transliteration. . Campbell Thompson's translation into hexameters. Go up and walk" on the walls of Uruk. and the same Bogazkoy archives have yielded also important fragments of a Hittite translation. Kramer. Kramer. substantially. LXIV (1944). n. An informed translation accompanied by brief notes has been published by F. Heidel.128. however. Leonard. ]. and Gilgamesch-Epos und Odyssee (Kulturfragen. antiquated though it may be in some respects. 1900) remain useful to this day. and notes in his Assyrisch-babylonische My then und Epen (Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. and hence appears to contain some of the material from the end of the first column. Here perhaps the reference is to the abuse for personal purposes of an instrument intended 8 4 r 1. To W. L'epopee de Gilgamesh is more valuable perhaps for its general orientation than for the particular contribution of the translation.: Th. 1926) testifies to his enduring preoccupation with this subject. Of the literature on the subject only a small selection can be listed. but is instead a literal translation from the Sumerian. Tablet I (i) He who saw everything [to the end ]s of the land. Mesopotamian Mythology II. [ . and its various Sumerian analogues. XXXI (1933). The [hi]dden he saw. no man.. [one-third of him is human].. wise J ? [Gilgamesh] leaves not [the maid to her mother]. E. based on a German translation by H. published in ZA. 4/5. Of ramparted" Uruk the wall he built. The onslaught of his weapons verily has no equal. Ebeling contributed a translation to AOT (2nd ed. XXXIX (1929). Achieved a long journey. examine the brickwork: Is not its brickwork of burnt brick? Did not the Seven [Sages lay its foundations? r (Remainder of the column broken away. has been clarified in recent years thanks to the work of C. II. n. loco cit. entitled The Epic of Gilgamish (1928)..116. TAOS. The Sumerian King List (1939).iri d. To the material listed in that article add now rd. 254. by R. In other words. The latest and most dependable translation in English. see his summary in The Epic of Gilgamesh and its Sumerian Sources.. Inspect the base terrace. Friedrich. n. Gadd on the Epic of Gilgamesh. for no seholar has done more than he to bring the epic to the attention of the modern world. 23. He brought report of before the Flood. for civic or religious use. 2 For I the restoration of the first two lines ct. as well as a fragment of a Hurrian rendering of the epic. RA.15. 3. [Is this Gilga] mesh. The form of his body [ . Gilgamesh arrives in Uruk. Zimmern. Which no future king. lAOS. Das Gilgamesch-E pos (19 I 9 ). to cite the work of Peter Jensen. the first eleven tablets of the Akkadian poem of Gilgamesh constitute an instance of creative borrowing which. Important progress was made by A. which none can equal! Seize upon the threshold. HGE. which pertain to Tablets I-III. The book of G. amounts to an independent creation! The text of the Assyrian version is now available in the model edition published. (10) Behold its outer wall. The connection between the Epic of Gilgamesh as we know it in its Akkadian form. It has been demonstrated that Tablet XII is not of a piece with the other eleven tablets of the poem. LXIV (1944).. TCS. The translation. 3'46. I7 if. ] (mutilated or missing-see the Supplement) He is made fearful like a wild ox. N. a For pukku d.

" 13 Where Enkidu was to he born. 11 Lit. He is endowed with head hair like a woman. deny.r. toward Uruk set] thy face. iii. there are too many possible meanings. without a sound. 5. The warrior's daughter. 31. iii. For woe had [entered] his belly. (10) The beasts and creatures of the steppe [He has made slip through my hands]. 23 The two terms seem to be employed here often as a compound of the type used with amelu.. laying bare] her ripeness. Saying to [his father]: "My father." He knows neither people nor land. with the verb in the simple stem. A double of Anu she conceived within her." occurs as a verbal noun in VIlI. His face was like that [of a wayfarer] from" afar.. . 23. The hunter went forth [to Gilgamesh]. "evocation. so mi ]ghty is his strength! [Go.. still. . The root JamiifJlku. Garbed is he like Sumuqan. strength he has]. 11 God of cattle. essence" of Ninurta. For barimtu the meaning "(temple-)prostitute" is amply established. In the earlier edition I tried to justify for kifru the rendering "liegeman" for the several passages in question. II. Day and night [is unbridled his arrogance]. ZA. a second." His stormy heart" let him match. his face became motionless." [On the step ]pe she created valiant Enkidu. (so) (iii) The hunter opened [his mouth] to speak. in Uruk [there lives] Gilgamesh. "Essence. note 19. E. I now withdraw that sug· 12 10 A He and his beasts went into his house." Faced him at the watering-place. The correct sense.. [As soon as he sees] her. VI. essence'. As regards ki-. Offspring of . Pinched off clay and cast it on the steppe. [the noble's spouse]!" [gods hearkened] to their plaint. Furthermore. that Uruk may have peace!" When Aruru heard this. 7: the war-god Ninurta. [One] day. Create now his double. (and) wise? . is indicated bv the use of the .. overclouded his face.' "the storm of his heart. and the sky-god Anu. [Ever sets he] his feet at the watering-place. He is the might [iest in the land] . ." or some nuance of this term. [Sha]ggy15 with hair is his whole body. but the general meaning appears clear enough. 3. ICS." d.. (While) his heart [was disturbed]. image. ( 20) [When he waters the beasts at] the watering-place. EG. [No one is there more mighty] than he. 21 [He does not allow] me to engage in fieldcraft!" [His father opened his mouth to speak]. so mighty [his strength] ! [Ever] he ranges over the hills. has a well-established legal connotation. He is the might[iest in the land. he will draw near to her. I believe. Soden. Saying to the hunter: "[My son]. Let them contend. strength he has. 21 Or perhaps "he has made me forfeit." 14 The second of the four Akkadian terms used to describe Enkidu remains uncertain as to meaning. in U ruk he set [his foot] : "I . there is [a] fellow who [has come from the hills ]. Thompson. II. (Now) a hunter.. 18 Goddess of grain. Ebeling. not the beginning. ] shepherd..96. (40) With the teeming creatures his heart delights in water. Orientalia. so mighty [his strength]! 20 The verb aliiku means both "come" and "go. 15 Reading [Ju]-'u-ur with Schott. By the drum are aroused his [companions]. ] Gilga[mesh . With the wild beasts he jostles" at the watering-place. Our poet had in mind. 393-95. a trapping-man. [I am so frightened that] I dare not approach him! [He filled in] the pits that I had dug.74 The The The "Did AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS warrior's daughter. the one adopted for this passage should also apply to I. Take (her) [with thee]." With the gazelles he feeds on grass. "regard as stranger. no doubt." the causative form of a phrase which. Bold. Aruru. Enkidu. even the pronunciation of the ambiguous first sign is still undecided. didst create [the man]. Is this the shepherd of [ramparted] Uruk? Is this their [ . above. 219. . [Speak to him of] the power of the man. . 19 The epic employs a numher of compound phrases." The state here described suggests the end. then. XLII (1934). XVIII (1949). The noun means here "pleasure-girl. ct. Aruru washed her hands. [He tore up] my traps which I had [set]. Other possible translations are "drew a design upon it." term in medicinal contexts as "concentration. and a third He faced him at the watering-place. stately. IV (1950).. gods of heaven Uruk's lord [they . Gilgamesh leaves not the son to his father. 4. [Sore a ]fraid. There is a fellow [who has come from the hills]. ]. J: not [Aruru yo bring forth this strong wild ox? (20) [The onslaught of his weapons] verily has no equal. the noble's spouse!" When [Anu] had heard out their plaint. 24 Lit. i. cf. The common assumption that the author may have used in these passages the same term in more than one sense is unsatisfactory. in the sense of "he happy. and something that fell down from heaven." or "spat upon it. v. particularly with amsl« "man" as the second element. When the hunter saw him. Reject him'" will his beasts [that grew up on] his steppe!" [Giving heed to] the advice of his father. 22 ct. goddess.. [Ever] with the beasts [he feeds on grass]. . [Let her prevail against him] by dint of [greater] might. [She shall pull off] her cloth[ing. The great Aruru they called: (30) "Thou. (30) Like the essence of Anu. could well be applied to deities as well as to missiles from heaven. [Like the essence of Anu. The locks of his hair sprout like Nisaba. of a journey." Lit. [Like the essence] of Anu. some specific allusion. [Let him give thee a harlot-lass"]. ge~tion. Gilgamesh leaves not the maid to [her mother]. 18 Root fuppuru. He took the road.

their heart delighting in water. Enkidu. As his love was drawn unto her. "seeks. regard his face. And like a wild ox lords it over the folk. She laid aside her cloth and he rested upon her. 67. ZA.. the savage-man.86. 21 d. They took the road. let us go. they sat by the watering-place. as the harlot speak." ct. "breathing. my hunter. 30 Or "one who knows his heart. to the harlot: "Up. abode of Anu and Ishtar. accomplished in strength. He tore up my traps [which 1 had set]. When he waters the beasts at the watering-place. to a woman's task! Reject him will his wild beasts that grew up on his steppe. She was not bashful as she welcomed his ardor." As she speaks to him. Enkidu says to her. VIII (1929). But he now had [wi]sdom. H 28 Reading i-Ii . the savage. bared her bosom. One day. Lay aside?" thy doth that he may rest upon thee. Enkidu had to slacken his pace-it was not as before." Returning. A possible translation is also "incline. art become like a god! Why with the wild creatures dost thou roam over the steppe? Come. renounce thy presumption! (20) Gilgamesh-of him Shamash is fond. 0 lass! Free thy breasts. vigor he has. Never resting by day or by night. (10) Their ripeness [ . Enkidu... as is here assumed. On seeing him. The beasts and creatures [of the steppe] He has made slip through my hands. [to] the hunter: (40) "Go. let me lead thee [to] ramparted U ruk. J . [br]oader understanding. who rejoicest in living. St~rtled was Enkidu.''' "[Up then. (30) He looks up at the face of the harlot His ears attentive. The hunter and the harlot sat down in their places. (40) His heart enlightened. Saying to his mother: o d." Enkidu. Th. Reject him will his beasts that grew up on his steppe!" Forth went the hunter. (iv) The creeping creatures came. escort thou me. Ever with the beasts [he feeds on grass]. [The harlot] says to him. he will draw near to her. 25 26 Lit. He is radiant with manhood. Where people are re[splendJent in festal attire. (Where) each day is made a holiday." mutassiim d. ' And like a wild ox lords it over the folk. With ripeness gorgeous is the whole of his body. He does not allow me to engage in fieldcraft!" Gilgamesh says to him. n. ZA. . Descent of Ishtar (below) 42 If. B. Bare thy bosom that he may possess thy ripeness! Be not bashful ! Welcome his ardor 1'6 ( 10) As soon as he sees thee. 0 Enkidu. 101. [(He) who] was born on the steppe is mighty. Jacobsen.'?" The lass freed her breasts. that he may see] thy face. abode of Anu and Ishtar Where lives Gilgamesh. Enkidu. But as for him. She shall pull off her clothing. to ramparted [Uruk]. . accomplished in strength. Before thou earnest down from the hills. the savage. he will draw near to thee. (20) For six days and seven nights Enkidu comes forth. 29 Reading [en-] qa-ta." To the pure sacred temple. ] full of perfume. Mating with the lass. ] lads . VI. Acta Orientalia. 100. 0 Enkidu. . With the wild beasts he drinks at the watering-place.. and Ea have broadened his wisdom. . lass.z. Come then. 1 will challenge him [and will bo ]ldly address him. Ever [sets] he his feet at the watering-place. Mightier strength has he than thou. 1 am so frightened that I dare not approach [him]! He filled in the pits that [I] had dug.c-[ma u-TJa-pa-aJ ba-. "take off" 26a For the technical "lay aside. On the third day at the appointed spot they arrived. Gilgamesh will see thee in (his) dreams in U ruk : For33 Gilgamesh arose to reveal his dreams. And he possessed her ripeness. Creation Epic. he sits at the feet of the harlot.. HIS ~nees were motionless-for his wild beasts had gone. and n. Anu. 6. her words find favor. "call. as his body became taut. cit. And la[ss]es [ .i-sa. It is not entirely clear whether the girl continues speaking. l1 will show thee Gilgamesh. that the form is intransiti ve. With the creeping creatures his heart delights in waterThe lass beheld him." The barbarous fellow from the depths of the steppe: "There he is. ibid.z.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 75 [Ever] he ranges over the hills. The general parallel to Gen." he yearns for" a friend. a second day. born in the hillsWith the gazelles he feeds on grass. taking with him a harlot-lass. 31 Lit. Where [ . As his love is drawn unto thee. of figure. To the holy temple. Enlil. He set his face toward his wild beasts. Iwill show Gilgamesh." 32 Lit. (50) The wild beasts came to the watering-place to drink. Treat him. but its precise shading remains to be determined. the gazelles ran off. strength he has. As soon as he sees her. Landsberger. They drive the great ones from their couches! To thee. The wild beasts of the steppe drew away from his body. XLII. loc. to a woman's task. however. the joyful man! Look thou at him." an object phrase. and Schott. to Enkidu: "Thou art [wi] se. with Schott." 33 The particle -ma appears to introduce here a shift in the scene.. laying bare her ripeness. 3:7 is highly suggestive. n. Where lives Gilgamesh. going straight on the(ir) way. (v) [I will] shout in Uruk: 'I am he who is mighty! [I am the] one who can alter destinies. It is plain. She treated him. The general connotation of the verb is clear. After he had had (his) fill of her charms. take with thee a harlot-lass. use of mussiim XLII (1934). where J he is 1 know well.

[as though to a woman]. XVIII.' When thou seest him. knowledge. which is witnessed on the Dr Standard and is still practiced in modern Iraq. 42 If ina e-li-e may be read and so interpreted. Like the essence of Anu... Acta Orimtalia.j. so mighty his strength. are by no means identical. ZA. so mighty his strength.' lonian Version as found on the "Pennsylvania Tablet. OLD BABYLONIAN VERSION [ . I raised it and brought it to thee. I have a [frie ]nd and counsellor. The beginning of this tablet [Beloved and wise Ninsun]. 38 cf. who is versed in all goes back to Tablet I. (in agreement with Bohl and Heidel) is that of the Old BabyThou didst make it vie with me. I felt joyful and I walked about [He is the mightiest in the land]. 102 and n. Says to her son: The no~les will kiss ~is feet. which affects the line count but does not alter the meter. I sought to lift it. LlII (1959). 40 To press the carrying strap against it. EG. n.AKKADIAN MYTqS AND EPICS Gilgamesh speaks to his mother: 'My mother. ] . n. [And to him] shall I be a friend and counsellor. also GETh. . it was too heavy for me! (10) [Means that he will never) forsake [th lee. Thou Wilt lead him to me. above. [I loved it] and was drawn to it as though to a woman." but I could not [Thus did Gilgamesh re ]veal his dreams. is a counsellor descended. it was too stout for thee. I) saw another dream: As I set my forehead. VIII (1930). (10) The mother of Gilgamesh. In the midst of the nobles. v. an arrangement Which descended upon thee like [the essence of Anu). [Thou didst] make it vie with me.. The resultknowledge. . Orientalia. 24. for this method. XLII (1934).6. ] my companions were kissing its feet. I sought to lift it. their An Old knowledge. There was a gathering round it.." It was [The wise mother of Gilgamesh. The stars assembled" in the heavens. Thou w:lt embra~e him an. above.27. strength he has. by Enlil's command. remove it. but couldst not remove it. Gilgamesh arose to reveal the dream. IV. ing repetition of some of the incidents should not prove to be Says to Gilgamesh: unduly disturbing in an epic. The populace jost[led towards it]. one like thee (I] placed it at thy feet. who knows all. Heidel. Thou didst love it and wert drawn to it as though to He lay down and saw another [He] arose and said to his mother: a woman. cf.' r One of the stars? 86 Reading ul-tab-la1(-ki-iHu (from blkt). 84 35 cf. to a woman 1(vi) "My mother. [as (over) a woman] The wise mother of Gilgamesh. Jacobsen. cf. strength he has. I saw a dream last night: '[To me]. 387. There appeared the stars in the heavens. particularly since the two accounts 'Thy [rival]. as See von Soden. [Thou didst seek to lift it 1. 41 For mi-in-di ct. Was born on the steppe. Beloved and wise Ninsun. They gave me support. I sought to move it. [Thou didst love it and] wert [drawn] to it [as though Saying to his mother. few disjointed and mutilated fragments. n. who is versed in all knowledge. x. 31 cf." Babylonian Version of the Giigamesh Epic (1920. 67. [As they] sat. Jastrow and A." [In ramparted Uruk] lay an axe. [My mother). [Like the essence of Anu].? [ . ZA.14. Langdon in UM. [Of] broad-marred Uruk He is the mightiest in the land. [And thus] did the lass narrate the dreams of Uruk-land was standing about [it]. with Ungnad and Landsberger. And the hills have reared him. I saw another And I shall make it vie with thee(20 ) [ . L That thou didst love him and] wert [drawn] to him The handiwork" of Anu descended towards me. T. [It was I who made] it vie with thee. "Forsooth. Gilgamesh to Enkidu.210. in the time of night A stout com ]rade who rescues (a friend is come to thee].z." Gilgamesh. It will be noted that many of the lines on the present tablet contain only two beats. [Again Gilgamesh says] to his mother: While the nobles kissed its feet. Th.. 3 (I9I7). Says to Gilgamesh: [The populace jostled] towards it. [The land was gathered round it]. Tablet II has come down in only a [I loved it J and was drawn to it" as though to a woman. [Thou wouldst drive it off]. abbr. move it I could not! [This is the mean Jing of thy dream.-the star of heaven. 3). Says to her lord. of Anu it" descends upon me. I (1947). The text here followed And Iplaced it at [thy] feet. cf. 62-68. it was too stout for me. fCS. him. n. and was revised in transliteration by M.' Uruk-land was gathered about it. 1 in the conjusion:" In the street A stout comrade who rescues a friend is come to thee.322. In the Assyrian Version. (i) [Thou didst place] it at my feet.. Clay. YOS. [The land was gathered] round it. Like the essences. 25 of the Assyrian Version. Tablet II [The nobles] thronged about it. the two (of them). 20-24. who is versed in all thou wilt rejoice. '[My mother. ct.' " I sought to drive it off." [Uruk-land] was standing about it. Says to Gilgamesh: 'The axe which thou sawest is a man. who] is versed in all published by S.

" 41 Reading f"brim. He says to the harlot: "Lass. 48 See CAD." While Gilgamesh reveals his dream. Drink the strong drink. The two of them" make love together. XLII. arise from the ground. Which is set aside" for the people. He beheld a man. 46 cf. As soon as I saw it. "decreed. (several lines missing) ( iii) The milk of wild creatures He was wont to suck. I loved it. fetch the man! Why has he come hither? His name let me hear. ] he said: (several lines missing) (iv) (some eight lines missing) He made merry. and as though to a woman. . Until he was sated. thou art become like a god. See above. accomplished] in deeds. the abode of Anu. His heart exulted (20) And his face glowed. 105. 16 (line IS). 520: i-ku!-ul-fu-ma i-ta-u/al-lu. Saying to En [kidu ]: "Into the meeting-house he has [intruded]. Became human." The place of the sheepfold. whither hastenest thou? What is this thy toilsome course?" The man opened his mouth. He forgot the s [step ]pe where he was born. Enkidu. He gagged." Enkidu ate the food. Saying to Enkidu: (10) "As I look at thee. The shepherd's bed!" He hearkened to her words. 49 The hair of his body. Reading kil-la!-al-Iu-un. OLZ. Carefree became his mood (and) cheerful. ]. To drink strong drink He has not been taught. v (G). The designation Uruk-ribitim "Urukof-rhe-broad-placets)" in the Old Babylonian Version alternates with Uruhsupuri "Uruk-of-the-enclosure" in the Assyrian Version. Jacobsen. approved's her speech." The ~other of Gilgamesh. 29843 H Food they placed before him.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 77 There lay an axe. Reading lu-ul-mei with Bohl. strange was its shape. he gaped And he stared. He captured lions. I rejoiced. And thou. 49 50 (10) (20) Reading [ma-li)-i.70 If. li[ke . EG. He is like a groom! He took his weapon To chase the lions. When he lifted his eyes. She leads him like a child" To the shepherd-hut. 51 Reading with Schott. I was drawn" to it. arise. "accepted. The unique hero! To [ . and They were gathered round it. Enkidu is their watchman. With the other garment She clothed herself. I will lead thee To broad-marred Uruk. 1933. For six days and seven nights Enkidu came forth Mating with the l[ ass]. . (30) Holding on to his hand. Schott. The chief cattlemen could lie down."?" The harlot called the man. . HGE." To the holy temple. She pulled off (her) clothing. With one (piece) she clothed him. with Schott. The bold man." For the nature of the offense see Th.27. He put on clothing. Thompson.. Enkidu. ZA. VIII (1929). Round him the shepherds gathered. who knows all. cf. Enkidu. 46 Lit. [Says to Gilgamesh] : (small break) (ii) (30) "Because I made it vie with thee.. Going up to him and saying to him:" "Sir. I will lead thee To Eanna. 52 Lit. Nothing does Enkidu know Of eating food. Of strong drink he drank Seven goblets. (30) He caught wolves. Up. The harlot opened her mouth. as is the custom of the land. That shepherds might rest at night. 104. 123. The woman's counsel Fell upon his heart. (20) Wilt love [him like] thyself. the abode of Anu. ZA. Enkidu sits before the harlot. Wherefore with the wild creatures Dost thou range over the steppe? Up. XLII. n. Acta Orientalia. Where lives [Gilgamesh. He rubbed [the shaggy growth]. !IB and AHw. (IO) Saying to Enkidu: "Eat the food. That axe. I took it and placed it At mv side. Then the harlot opened her mouth. As is life's due. Anointed himself with oil.

. ]. which continues the account of the "Pennsylvania Tablet. 55 56 (I3) 60 For the form of wrestling to which this episode refers d.. The milk of wild creatures ( 20 ) He was wont to suck. The populace gathered about him. But if pukku is to be given here the same meaning as in I. 57 Reading i-ri-qu.. the godlike. comes after. (some three lines missing) (vi) (some five lines missing) Gilgamesh [ ] On the steppe [ ] Sprouts [ . "decreed. but is unsuccessful. La pdleur d'Enkid« (1931). The people were gathered. Gilgamesh has decided on an expedition against monstrous Huwawa [Assyrian HumbabaJ.60 His fury abated And he turned away. PIs. [Enkidu] stands in the street To bar the way 53 If the sign before -lu-tim is to be read kaJ-. ] Before him. As the wall shook. With the cutting of his umbilical cord It was decreed for him!" At the words of the man His face grew pale. Not allowing Gilgamesh to enter. As he stopped in the street Of broad-marred Uruk. Gilgamesh. For the king of broad-marred Uruk The drum" of the people is free for nuptial choice.. Holding fast like bulls. 3. XVII (1948). The drum of the people is free For nuptial choice.. The wild cow of the steer-folds. Gilgamesh and Enkidu Grappled each other.. under B.) "[Why] dost thou desire To do [this thing] ?" occasion." The nobles rejoiced: "A hero has appeared For the man of proper mien! For Gilgamesh. IV. (30) For Gilgamesh. As he approaches. See von Soden. As the wall shook. The older text is that of the "Yale Tablet" (YOS. In the Assyrian Version. In Uruk (there will be) a constant (clatter of) arms.. His equal has come forth. 51 (some three lines missing) To Gilgamesh [ . By the counsel of the gods it has (so) been ordained. J. to their husbands. cit. ] in his might. At night . king of broad-marred Uruk. The husbands.. this tablet is extant only in fragments. C." For Ishhara" the bed Is laid out. When he had turned away. Ninsunna! Raised up above men is thy head.. They shattered the doorpost. and Oppenheim.. lNES. VII (I948).. For the end of column 111 and the whole of column iv cf. He rose up and [ . Gordon. 10 and XII.. 54 Very obscure. They grappled each other. They met in the Market-of-the-Land. Enkidu barred the gate With his foot."" On the city he has heaped defilement. . [ . 012. Orientalia. Dossin. as goddess of love. When he entered broad-marred U ruk. (10) [He is the strongest in the land] . 30. 1-7)." (i) (Mutilated or missing. Imposing strange things on the hapless city. 59 A form of Ishtar. Saying about him: "He is like Gilgamesh in build!" Though shorter in stature. then one must seek here a reference to some such instrument whose sound could summon the listeners to a given task or [ . Holding fast like bulls. loc. Enkidu tries to dissuade him. [ . I if. ]. to Gilgamesh: "As one alone thy mother Bore thee. I933~ 521. ] .. As Gilgamesh bent the kneeHis foot on the ground. 264. G.. He is stronger of bone.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS . Kingship over the people Enlil has granted thee I" Tablet III OLD BABYLONIAN VERSION (IO) (v) (some six lines missing) [Enkidu] walks [in front J And the lass behind him. strength he has. which will be translated below. Reading mu-tumf with Schott. H." i." . as may be gathered from the following verses. who resides in the Cedar Forest. That with lawful" wives he might mate! He is the first.. for wedlock. 58 Read: pa-da-tam . The literal meaning would be "brideship. Enkidu to him Speaks up. They shattered the doorpost. Lit.e. ii.

(30) Axes of three talents" each they cast." (the Old Babylonian Version continues) Gilgamesh opened his mouth. 64 LIt.. published III GETh. [My hand] I will poise And [will fe]ll the cedars. 107. numbered are their days. "[Thus calling] to me. As a terror to mortals has Enlil appointed him. thou hast grieved my heart. Mighty adzes they cast. ]. in the sense of "female companions. . v. in the hills. fear nod' Should I fall. Wer [ . my friend. PI. ] Adad [ ] He [ ] (iv) (30) To safeguard [the Cedar Forest]. The knobs on their sheaths. As for mankind. Saying to Enkidu: "[The cedar]-its mountain I would scale!" (mostly destroyed) (28-35) Enkidu opened his mouth. "men. The talent had sixty minas.II) Enkidu opened his mouth. As a terror to mortals has Enlil appointed him. [Ill was] his heart. He is mighty. [Yea. The context. my friend can scale he[aven]? Only the gods [live] forever under the sun. 108) from Assvrian Version . Whatever they achieve is but the wind! Even here thou art afraid of death. [Gilgamesh]. [As bitterly thou sigh Jest?" En[kidu opened his mouth]. Huwawa. 12. [Who is there] that would go down into it? [Huwa ]wa-his roaring is the flood-storm. Thompson. two talents each. Reading it-ta-al-qu-ti-ma.. Huwawa. 63 The noun ta-ab-bi-a-tum is generally derived from tappil and taken to 61 62 Saying to [Gilgamesh]: "How can we go To the Cedar Forest? Its keeper is Wer. For this idiom d. Saying to Enkidu: (iii) (some four lines missing) "[In the forest resides] fierce Huwawa..." (Her:: fits i?. III . ZA. (3) Saying to [Enkidu]: "Who. the smith I will commission. Weakness lays hold on him who goes down to the forest. "to wail.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 79 They kissed each other" And formed a friendship. The artisans sat down to discuss (it). bearing with him. As I was roaming with the wild beasts." my friend." lac.. Chokes my throat . 140-43. Mighty swords they castThe blades. 'cit." Gilgamesh opened his mouth.. For ten thousand leagues" extends the forest. (5) [Let us." 65 Restored (with Schott." [ . "To safeguard the Cedar Forest. 20. [As bitterly J he sighed. [That all evil from the land we may ban ]ish 16• (too fragmentary for translation) (8. II. my friend.55. me and thee. lac." My arms are limp. "double-hours. (40) 18-21 mutilated) refer. never res[ting]. 66 Lit. [Weapons] they shall cast in our presence. His breath is death! (20) Why dost thou desire To do this thing? An unequal struggle Is (tangling with) the siege engine." [Says] to Enkidu: "[My friend. His mouth is fire. Heidel. As a terror to [mortals" has Enlil appointed him]. XLII (1934). 107." a measure of distance as well as of time. 17. thirty minas each.the fragment of the Assyrian Version." Gilgamesh opened his mouth. Schott. however would seem to favor Schott's derivation as based on nubbi. (remainder missing or mutilated) (ii) (some twenty-five lines missing or mutilated) The eyes [of Enkidu filled] with t [ears]. lNES. A [name] that endures I will make for me! [ . why] do thine eyes [Fill with tear]s? [Is ill] thy [heart]. XI (1952)." (obscure. sJlay [him]." d·leS. Humbaba-his roaring is the storm-flood. His mouth is fire.. [As bitterly] he sighed..1 (1947). cf. ] the smith they commissioned. ii. [Ill was J his heart. 'Advance. cit.. his breath is death! At sixty leagues he can hear the wild cows of the forest: Who is there that would go down to his Forest? ' To safeguard the cedars. Saying to Gilgamesh: "A cry. top. I shall have made me a name: 'Gilgamesh'-they will say-against fierce Huwawa Has fallen!' (Long) after My offspring has been born in my house. x. "has bound my neck veins. 67 Lit. Saying to Gilgamesh: "I found it out. 8 1. Let thy mouth call to me. And my strength has turned to weakness." to "Enkidu's sorrow at the loss of his Love". En [kidu's eyes filled with tears. Line 4 of this text is restored from a Nee-Babylonian fragment published by A. EG. What of thy heroic might? (10) Let me go then before thee.

7°d.. 0 Shamash. When Gilgamesh heard this speech Huwawa. What thy mouth has spoken may he show thine eyes! (30) May he open for thee the barred path. Gilgamesh and Enkidu were each laden with ten talents. I know not. saying to Gilgamesh: "[ Since] contend thou wilt. When the text again becomes intelligible." Lit. Let his [ey ]es be clear... ]. May it henceforth be well with my soul.. Assyrian Version. thirty minas gold each. XLII (1934). ZA. thus [ . in thine own strength! Let thine [eyes] be clear:" guard thyself! Let Enkidu go before thee.. [ ] the populace gathered. ] " . [ . mayest thou attain thy wish! After the slaying of Huwawa. my friend. [ . The sense of [. [let him guard himself].. Who is there that would go down into it? Huwawa-his roaring is the storm-flood. his breath is death! Why dost thou wish to do this thing? An unequal struggle is (tangling with) the siege engine." of his counsellors. He knows" the [way]... bul-lip-lu. would be close to our "look sharp!" d. Establish [over me] (thy) protection!" (40) Gilgamesh called [his] friend [And inspected] his omen.) 69 A district in Elam. ] Gilgamesh (40 ) [ . 3." (Rest of the speech destroyed. ] they could start on their journey. ] with joyful heart. Who is there to face his weapons? For ten thousand leagues extends the forest. And be thou ever mindful of Lugalbanda!" [Enkidu] opened his mouth. (v) "Him of whom they speak. And may Lugalbanda stand by thee In regard to thy wish. Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh had bid adieu.. The mountain unclose for thy foot! May the night bring thee things of thy delight. thy heart has carried thee away. ] of broad-marted [Uruk]. As they counsel Gilgamesh [about] the journey: (20) "Trust [not]. . [May he lead thee] on the road back in safety. [He J took the adzes. [Bow] and quiver (10) They placed [in] his hands.-naJ-ka lu lu-iou-ra.. Lit. I. all the passes Of Huwawa let him penetrate!" [He who goes] in front protects the companion. ] mayest thou return to the city!" [The elder]s pay him homage.. [ . ] of the swords. Gilgamesh. i. n.. [The populace] presses close [to Gilgamesh] : "[ . [The bow] of Anshan. Landsberger. Wash thou thy feet! At rest time at night dig thou a well. III. (10) That which thou wouldst achieve thou knowest not. Childlike. smiling. my hands [raised up in prayer]. Gilgamesh. (This appears to have been unfavorable. 71 72 Akk.. be on (thy) way. [ . ]: H[ . We hear that Huwawa is wondrous in appearance. [ ... The road unclose for thy treading. [And also the road] which Huwawa travels. whose bolts are seven. Follow me! [ . A name that endures I will make for me!" The elders of broad-marred Uruk Said to Gilgamesh in reply: "Thou art yet young. Bring me back to the landing-place at [Uruk].. Let thy heart be [un ]afraid.. His mouth is fire.80 AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS [ ." His sw [ord he placed] in his girdle.. "make him slip through.. At whose name the lands are ever in terror. Schott. The words which he speaks [ . for which thou strivest. ." (one line missing) "[ [ ] a road I have never traveled. I will conquer him in the Cedar Forest! How strong is the offspring of U ruk I will cause the lands to hear! Myhand I will poise and will fell the cedars. has traveled the road. ]: "I go. ] his quiver. towards [his] friend: "Now. [ ] I should fare well. 1Il. (20) He looked round. ZA...• ] sat down before him. [In the] gate of Uruk. would see. 73 Reading ta-na-qi. "has seen. May Shamash [grant] thee thy desire.z. ] I know his dwelling place. XLII . lIO. [ ] in the street of broad-marred Uruk. [ ." (Mutilated or missing. [Sp leaking [ .." [They brought him] his gear. . . ] mighty [sw lords. To the landing-place at Uruk [may he bring thee back] l'' Gilgamesh kneels down [before Shamash]. ] of broad-marred [Uruk]. continues after a small break:) (vi) Tears run down [the face] of Gilgamesh: for the text [ ] thrones. [ ] . [Within] the forest.." (1934). (40) Ever pure shall be the water in thy waterskin! Cool water offer thou 13 to Shamash. the elders are addressing Gilgamesh:) (23-31) "May thy god [protect] thee.

And may she [commend] him to the watchmen of the night!" (long break) (iv) She put out the incense. Will lend reasoned steps to our feet. Saying [to Gilgamesh] : "My friend tu[ rn .." (remainder of the tablet destroyed) Tablet IV For this tablet.. Gilgamesh and Enkidu go to Egalmah. ] the ground . Saying to Enkidu: "Up. hateful to Shamash]. [ . with two of the copies (d. saying to Gilgamesh] : "Trust not... II 3 fl. He has seen battle. the votaries. May thy god [be at thy side].. ZA. in all thine own strength. He who goes in front saves the companion. to Shamash offered incense. [ ." Enkidu opened his mouth [to speak]. ]. An uncertain battle" [I am about to face ]. let us go to Egalmah." 79Cf. who is versed in all knowledge. I make boler [ .. ZA.70. Schott.. Gilgamesh came forward as he entered [the palace]: "0 Ninsun.) (vi) "Let [Enkidu] pr[ otect the friend. . Ascended the [roof]. 78 Reading. having given me Gilgamesh for a son.. XLII ( I 934). Until he reaches the Cedar Forest. [She put on an ornament] as beseems her breast. 1 . entrust the King to thee. the sequence of the extant texts is at times uncertain since the context must be pieced together from scattered Assyrian fragments and from such additions as have come to light elsewhere." I. she placed round the neck of Enkidu.. 11 Lit. A small portion of the missing record of the journey to the Cedar Forest is preserved on a fragment from Uruk. XLII. is versed in combat. ].. They sent [off] the hero upon his way: "Go.. Until he has slain the fierce Humbaba. . For the meaning. safeguard the companion. n. Let Enkidu go in front of thee. (15) She then called Enkidu to impart (this) message: "Mighty Enkidu. ZA.. to the place of Humbaba." . published by A. ]. hand in hand. the great Queen. "a battle I know not. Ninsun. Let thine [eyes] be sated. And has banished from the land all evil thou dost hateIn day time. entered [her chamber]. the whole of column v. No existing fragments can be assigned with certainty to any of the first columns of the Assyrian Version.. I I 2 n. The priestesses. iv. ] A far journey.) (ii) [Ninsun] She d[imbed the stairs].. to Shamash she raised her hands: "Why." make trust[worthy] thy stroke. [Until I reach the Cedar Forest]. Over the pitfalls [let him carry his body] ! We. (The remainder of this column. Over the pitfalls he shall carry his body! (IO) We. He who knows the path protects his friend.j. 46. the first word should be (iJ -na-ka. pro [nouncing the spell]. [entrust the King to thee 1. and the cult women]?" (20) . the Assembly. Oppenheim. Gilgamesh... (8) [ . particularly at Bogazkoy (in Hittite as well as in Akkadian). The smoke-offering set up. my friend. d. He knows the way to the Cedar Forest.... fearlessly" remind thee. Orientalia. and for several of the following. [Pray thou to Shamash on my behalf]!" (The above restorations are based on column ii 12 ff. May Aya. with Landsberger." (four lines mutilated) ASSYRIAN VERSION: Tablet III The beginning of this section links up with column vi 19 of the preceding so that there is only a slight overlap. To face an uncertain battle. Gilgamesh. The remainder of the break cannot be restored. Hin accordance with Landsberger's reading (cf. the wise. mounted to the parapet. I) Ii-i' a-a i-dur-ka "may she not fear thee. XVII (1948). Enkidu shall protect the friend. [She put on a garment] as beseems her bo [d y]. the D-form ugdaJJaru "who lords it. thy bride. Deliver thou back the King unto us!" Gilgamesh opened his mouth to speak. The arrangement here followed has been adopted from A. (IO) With a restless heart didst thou endow him? And now thou didst affect him to go On a far journey. [And banish from the land all evil." Grasping each other. the great Queen." To the presence of Ninsun. above) and a personal suggestion by Goetze. (20 ) To the presence of Ninsun. n. To travel an uncertain road! Until the day that he goes and returns.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 81 [When the elders heard] this speech of his. [Until the day that I go and return]. An uncertain [road 1 am about to travel]. XLII (1934)' II I. 15 "The Great Palace. may [ . when thou . safeguard the companion]. the Assembly. to the pi [ace of Humbaba]. (i) [The elders opened their mouths. thou not my womb's issue.33 f.. I read the last word of this line tuk-k (il]. and the first seven lines of column vi are missing or too mutilated for translation. cf." 16 Reading ag-da-Iir.• J and donned her tiara. A way not [ . I herewith have adopted thee With the devotees of Gilgamesh. Del[iver thou] back [the King unto us].

six are still off [ . let us go [ ." From the face of the mountain The cedars" raise aloft their luxuriance. F. On the ground he set [my] feet." Enkidu said to this god [ . [his] friend: "If thou didst not arouse me... GETh. sleep [departed] from him.85 they themselves stood still. To Gilgamesh: "My friend." A dream he tells to Enkidu. I must have seen a dream! Didst thou arouse me? Why [ . ].. [ ] before us [ . with Schott. There is cover in their brushwood.. They looked at the entrance to the forest.. ibid. .. S4 . 39· At twenty leagues they broke off a morsel. 83 Schott suggests [libl-nu-ub 0). his grace [ . 48-helps to fill in some of the gaps while duplicating other parts. They beheld the cedar mountain. Gil ]gamesh.. my friend. ]. [The distance of a mon]th and fifteen days they traversed in three days. full of delight. Let thy heart [lux ]uriateaa in combat. 12.. (23) [Saying to Gilgamesh]: "[Let us not go] down [into the heart of the forest] ! [In open]ing [the gate my hand] became limp." [When Gilgamesh] heard the words of [his] mouth. Humbaba. loco cit. He was inspired with confidence. . The fairest in the land was he. GETh. like weaklings [ ].) "[Bethink thee of what] thou didst say in Uruk! [Arise] and stand up [that thou mayest slay him]." 85 Reading [i-na mi-iit-qd-ti-Iu-nu. When he goes [in front]. why [am I awake] Enkidu. Literarischc Keilschrijztextc aus Uruk (1931).. ]? (5) (v) (The beginning is missing. a second [dream] I saw: In my dream. taking hold of my feet [ .. PI. my friend. [ we] have traveled. [ . ac[complished] in battle. " ]. ]... (unintelligible) That the limpness may depart from thy arm. 81 Text has singular. At midnight.. my heart qui[eted]. No.) They grasped each other to go for their nightly rest. 82 Adopting Schott'. ].. Throne-seat of Irnini. a mountain [toppled]. which is guarded by Humbaba's watchman. step up to him. The glare was overpowering! A man [appeared]. he guards himself And safeguards the companion. my friend. . [Do but] stand by. reading ir-[te-iq?l. numbers the lines 39 and ff." Like a raging wild ox he [ . probably in a collective sense. 34) gives the line count as I If.." [GilJgamesh opened his mouth to speak... KUB. 117. and Pi. . who art versed in combat. (40) Their words were [silen ]ced ... n. Forget death and do not [ ]. (The remainder of the column is missing or mutilated. Reading [sa-ak]-ta. ]. The watchman of the forest calls out [ . From under the mountain he pulled me out. Sleep overcame [them I-the surge of the night. . Gave me water to drink. IS.. 8S Gilgamesh. Fifty leagues they walked all day. Good is their shade.I3. ]. And the weakness pass [from thy hand].. At thirty (further) leagues they prepared for the night." they have made a name.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS Falkenstein.. Tablet V (i) They stood still and gazed at the forest. ]. It laid me low. IS. (30) Touch but my [garment].. Straight were the tracks and good was the going.. lIB. ]. A man. 81 d. 89 Reading r sa J -pan-ni. and thou wilt not fear [death]. [Even though] they faj ll]. [Before Shamash] they dug [a well]. ibid.. he departed ." [At the] green [mountain] the two arrived. My [friend].. [One] he has donned. XLI! (1934)." "[Hur ]ry. IV [1922]. PI. 86 A form of Ishtar. An Akkadian fragment from Bogazkdy-« published by E. (40) [ . Saying [to Enkidu] : "[ ]. all of them [ ]. Weidner. ZA. p. cover in their [ . but his transliteration (ibid. resolute (yet) discreet. and the same applies to column ii and most of column iii.. 116. ]. Gilgamesh appears to need encouragement from Enkidu. 80 ? (10) Aside from my first dream. ]. like [ . my friend. that we may go down together [ ..." The two friends have arrived at the gate of the forest. [ ]. the offshoot of Uruk. Where Humbaba was wont to walk was a path." (remainder fragmentary) (iii) "[The other] dream which I saw: [In] mountain gorges" [ ] [A mountain] toppled [ ] Like small reed flies we [ ]. abode of the gods. that he may not de [part V2 [Go] down to the woods and [disappear]! He is wont to cloak himself with seven cloaks. They looked at the height of the cedars.. ibid. (50) (vi) (beginning missing) [Enkidu] opened his [mouth] to speak. ].

Then Huwawa let up. favorable is [thy] dream. ]. The hot wind. The braid of his hair he shook out against his back. ]. Sleep.. Gilgamesh. XXXIX [I929]. [And shall cast] his corpse on the plain. with Schott." But Enkidu [said] to [Gilgamesh]: "To the word which Huwawa [has spoken] H[ark] not [ . [come]. A further fragment implies that things had not gone well with the two friends." Heavenly Shamash hearkened to the prayer of Gilgamesh.. He said to Gilgamesh. [ . Thou shalt be my husband and I will be thy wife.. [is Humbaba]. Lightning flashed. [The clouds] swelled... [Gil]gamesh plants his chin on his knees. Tablet VI He" washed his grimy hair.. Nor is he able to move back. On the morrow [ . 93 (his) hand] noise.. Friedrich.. The mountain. sh[ all kill him].. ]." At twenty leagues they br] oke off a morsel]. And against Huwawa mighty winds Rise up: the great wind.. Furnish for him [ . (10) had been grown in my For ni-bu-tu. Before Shamash they dug a well [ .. His fine-meal he offered up [ ." (Remainder of fragment mutilated. [ . and [ ] March. The An .. GET h. darkness came. as long [as ] Into (his) house he does not [enter . PI. the tem[pestuous] wind. fell on him. ]: "Mountain. And he is unable to move forward.. for) His tears [came down in] streams. [explaining] the dr] earn] : "My friend... He cast off his soiled (things). Assyrian Dictionary 01 Chemistry and Geology (1936).. which] mountains... ]. loc. And the dream that I saw was wholly awesome! The heavens shrieked.... ]. cf. ]. Glorious Ishtar raised an eye at the beauty of Gilgamesh: "Come. ]. Enkidu... ] and like mountain barley [ .. [ . thou [wilt be] my [master]. The dream is most precious [ . (Enkidu's reply is lost. said to his friend. which ends [line 47 J with these words:) [ ••• J the head of Humba[ba they cut down . I saw a third dream.. it rained death! Then the glow" [vanished].. ZA. 120." Oilgarnesh.. saying to his friend: "My friend." [When] Enkidu [heard]" the dream he had brought him. my friend.. polished his weapons. A cold shower passed over [ . It furnished for him [ . [But when Huwawa] heard the [He] became angry: "Who has [Has slighted the trees. cf.) [Gilgamesh] seized [the axe in [ . It made him lie down [ ... Gilgamesh went up to [the mountain]. ]. And I shall be thy servant. ]... the earth boomed. which thou sawest. be thou (my) lover! Do but grant me of thy fruit. At thirty (further) leagues they prepared [for the night]. In the middle watch he ended his sleep. 8 ff.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS [He] who was born on the st[ eppe . J Let not Huwawa [ . didst thou not call me? Why am I awake? (10) Didst thou not touch me? Why am I startled? Did not some god go by? Why is my flesh numb? My friend. ]''' (The sequel seems to be found in the mutilated Assyrian fragment. ]. ]..... This idiomatic sense appears to be more suitable here than "steppe. cit. and] felled [the cedar]. Wrapped a fringed cloak about and fastened a sash.. The subsequent break in the Assyrian version is made up in part by the Hittite recension.. ( IO ) Whose wheels are gold and whose horns are brass." Supplying [il. bring me a dream [ .. (20) Thereupon Huwawa replied to Gilgamesh: "Let me go.. The storm wind. [And all that] had fallen was turned to ashes.. put on his clean ones. reasons for thus rendering elmelu are listed in C... Thompson.. 9. ]. Fear you not. the chill wind. eight winds rose up against him and Beat against the eyes [of Huwawa]. ] Strong . And Gilgamesh [said] to heavenly Shamash: (two lines fragmentary and obscure) (6) "But I have [come] to heavenly Shamash (10) And have taken the road assigned [ . (40) [We] shall seize Humbaba. [Day]light failed... I will harness for thee a chariot of lapis and gold. ibid. ] Cut down and houses [ . He started up.. And has felled the cedar?" 90 91 92 [Then] down from heaven spoke to them Heavenly Shamash: "Draw near. the fire went out. Gilgamesh. ]. the north wind. ]. which is shed on mankind. 76 f. And of [the trees] Which I have grown. 120. (20) Let us go down! Outside" we can take counsel.. a flame shot up. I shall [ . ] !" (50) (iv) [The mountain] brought a dr[ eam for Enkidu]. I9. When Gilgamesh had put on his tiara.

100 Var. ad loco The metaphor has common Semitic analogues. Thou smotest him." accords with the cultural background of the passage. and the lash thou ordainedst for him. Albright.. Oppenheim. Who ash-cakes ever did heap up for thee. znd ed. That I should taste the food of stench and foulness ?105 Does reed-work afford cover against the cold ?"06 As thou didst hear this [his talk]. ] . have I not eaten. Saying to glorious Ishtar: "Art thou the father? Didst thou not quarrel with king Gilgamesh? And so Gilgamesh has recounted thy stinking deeds. Pitch which [soils] its bearers. r03 (1946). thou ordainedst wailing! Then thou lovedst the keeper of the herd.. Who baskets of dates ever did bring to thee. 183. 91 Reading mu-na-Ji-kat [lip 1 be-li-la. Heidel. Orientalia. "01 If thou shouldst love me. A.. Thine eyes raised at him." When Ishtar heard this. Then a stallion thou lovedst." Ebeling. ( mutilated) (29-31) [ . AssurThe banipal. d. kappi. I will raise up the dead eating (and) alive. (40) A shoe which pinches [the foot"] of its owner! Which lover didst thou love forever? Which of thy shepherds" pleased" [thee for all time] ? Come. 107 For suggestions about the meaning of the terms which have been left untranslated. For Tammuz. her father. Descent of Ishtar. the spur.... And daily did brighten thy table. A waterskin which cuts its bearer. [ ] drink fit for royalty. A siege engine which des[troys] the enemy land. HGE. (20) [Thine ox] under yoke shall not have a rival!" [Gilgamesh] opened his mouth to speak.." see Goetze. 105 present translation of piltiti u crriti follows Th.. Daily slaughtered kids for thee. XVII (1948). 52. ] . thou wouldst [treat me] like them. A palace which crushes the valiant [ .. Thou hast ordained wailing year after year. her mother: "My father. please give me the Bull of Heaven that he smite [king] Gilgamesh . I will smash [the doors of the nether world ]. d. Thy goats shall cast triplets. Oppenheim. and princes! The yield of hills and plain they shall bring thee as tribute. Thy stench and [thy] foulness. thy sheep twins. plainly a word play on the cry of the bird. F. He cannot go up . [ ." 101 Akk. ].. famed in battle. 17-20. Having loved the dappled shepherd-bird. and clothing? [Should I give 1 bread and victuals? [ ] food fit for divinity. So that the dead shall outnumber the living!" (100) Anu opened his mouth [to speak]. Thou smotest him and turn[edst] him into a mole. E. "to make turbid (and) drink. Thou placedst him in the midst of . that I may take thee in marriage? [Should I give oil] for the body. Read [at-ti-ma ki-nu-nu bi-lu-u J. In the fragrance of cedars thou shalt enter our house. rather than the generally supplied "oven."02 For his mother.. also. 98 d. (60) Yet thou smotest him. 261. I (r947). n. obv. Zu... (1949). cf.. ]. Ishullanu said to thee: (70) 'What dost thou want with me? Has my mother not baked. A back door [which does not] keep out blast and windstorm. Gilgamesh has heaped insults upon me! Gilgamesh has recounted my stinking deeds. lords. So that the dead shall outnumber the living!" (100) Anu opened his mouth [to speak]. A turban" whose cover [ . let us taste of thy vigor! Put forth thy "hand" and touch our "modesty!" lIO. XVI (1919). nor can he come down . n. I will raise up the dead eating (and) alive. Bohl. thou didst go to him: '0 my Ishullanu. n. perfect in strength. The whip." (91) Ishtar opened her mouth to speak. Bauer. if I] take thee in marriage? [Thou art but a brazier which goes our"] in the cold.. (80) Forth went Ishtar to w[ eep] before Anu. 104 d. "stands. 106 This appears to be a proverbial expression. [ .':" crying 'My wing l":" (50) Then thou lovedst a lion.'os I will pia [ce those above] below. ICS. Thou decreedst for him the muddied to drink . 99 Reading i-tib-«. And his dogs bite his thighs. When our house thou enterest. [Saying] to glorious Ishtar: ["What am I to give] thee. "who died of the bite of a shoe. 102 103 ct.. . Threshold (and) dais shall kiss thy feet! Humbled before thee shall be kings. 37.. Thy he-ass in lading shall surpass thy mule.. thy father's gardener. "Elephant" would surely not be appropriate. GE. II. . So that his own herd boys drive him off. 95 This. 78. 33. the lover of thy youth." Anu opened his mouth to speak. Thy chariot horses shall be famed for racing. Thompson. d. My stench and my foulness.':" Then thou lovedst Ishullanu. W. Her tea [rs] flow in the presence of Antum. Addenda lIO. breaking his wing. ]! If thou [dost not] give me [the Bull of Heaven]. Silili. For an omen based on the death of Bur-Sin. and I will na[ me for thee] thy lovers: Of . Tod und Leben (1931).. 12-13. in his home. RA.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS Thou shalt have storm-demons to hitch on for mighty mules. EG.. 103.j. '34. her father: "My father..a. Saying to A[nu]. Limestone which [springs] the stone rampart. Seven pits and seven thou didst dig for him. In the grooves he sits. [And J fill Gil[gamesh . n. turning him into a wolf.6 d. 108 For lines 96-100 d. C. Lit. Ishtar was enraged and [mounted] to heaven. BASOR. Thou decreedst for him to gallop seven leagues.r .

48." (mutilated) Gilgamesh in his palace holds a celebration. 505.. [Saying to A ]nu. hence neither tuppulu (cf. "[ . but the course of the battle is made plain by the following:) Between neck and horns [he thrust] his sword. . therefore'-said Anu-'the one of them Who stripped the mountains of the cedar [Must die!]' But Enlil said: 'Enkidu must die. they tore out his heart. 118 Text "thy. Enkidu's dream. n. Oppenheim. not servant girls. He threw the right thigh of the Bull of Heaven. For this meaning of tal. However. Heb. The two brothers sat down. n. [I have ga ]thered [grain for the people]. MAOG.. The people of Uruk are gathered to gaze [upon them]. however.. are missing. GE.) AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 85 his'12 The artisans admire the thickness of horns: Each is cast from thirty minas of lapis. Sprang on the battlements. however. For lines u7-I31 see p. cit. Ea. Gilgamesh to the lyre maids'" [of U ruk] Says (these) words: (180) "Who is most splendid among the heroes? Who is most glorious among men?" "Gilgamesh is most splendid among the heroes. 114 The gur-measure was the equivalent of about 250 quarts. the armorers. nebel "psaltery" suggests an excellent semantic and morphobackground. Friedrich in ZA. 16-19. her father: "[ Grain for the people] I have stored. Over the right thigh of the Bull of Heaven she set up a wail. Comparison with Arab. Then Ishtar mounted the wall of ramparted Uruk. n. Tablet VII The first two columns of this tablet are missing in the Assyrian Version. His entrails I would hang at thy side!" (Thereupon) Ishtar assembled the votaries. (ISO) When they had slain the Bull.Saying to glorious Ish[ tar ] : "If thou dost desire of me the Bull of Heaven. which contained the rest of Ishtar's speech. VIlI. 40. They embraced each other as they went on. and Huwawa They have slain. [There will be] in the land of Uruk seven years of (barren) husks. [Gilgamesh is most glori]ous among men. (190) Saying to his friend: "My friend. Landsberger. n. xr :1937). Also Enkidu lies down.) harlots. But Gilgamesh called the craftsmen." (Lines 135-49 mutilated. Enlil. Tossing it in her face: "Could I but get thee. Up rose Enkidu to relate his dream." [And] Enkidu answered Gilgamesh: " [He] ar the dream which I had last night: Anu.amm. !fI "little" may be suggested in further support. Down lie the heroes on their beds of night.'vfAOG." See. Gilgamesh. He brought (them) and hung them in his princely bedchamber. 116 The context calls clearly for musicians or singers. The singular is common in the Nuzi texts. 46-47. Riding through the market-street of Uruk. 45. Saying [to Gilgamesh] : "My friend.a. however. 505.. XXXIX (1929). (uo) [If there should be seven] years of husks. Hast thou gathered [grain against the (years of barren) 1 husks? Hast thou grown grass [for the beasts) ?" [Ishtar opened her mouth] to speak." (Lines r ra-r ni.. [Grass for the beasts] I have provided.299.r . (160) 1 would do unto thee. we have gloried [ . 112 113 These footnotes have been deleted. All (of them). Then daylight came. The coating!" on each is two fingers (thick). B. shall not die!' (10) Then heavenly Shamash answered valiant Enlil: 'Was it not at my"a command The Bull's.z. is the subject of KUB. And Anu said to Enlil: 'Because the Bull of Heaven they have slain. Schott. Placing it before Shamash. Catch-line of the following tablet. tuppulu in this sense cf. He offered as ointment to his god. (170) Six measures'14 of oil. ]. uttering a curse: "Woe unto Gilgamesh because he insulted me':" By slaying the Bull of Heaven!" When Enkidu heard this speech of Ishtar. a dream beholding. Meissner.. IV (1928/29).ll5 In the Euphrates they washed their hands. and this Hittite text has been dealt with by J.) lasses and the (temple. the capacity of the two.iti cf. ] . [I have grown] grass [for the beasts ]. 115 For this meaning of ina urli I.r r I) nor mbalu can underlie the present term.loc. 109·110 111 For . They drew back and did homage before Shamash. why are the great gods in council ?"1l1 Enkidu opened his mouth to speak. The (pleasure. Lugalbanda. like unto him. and heavenly Shamash [Were in council]..(a)batu d. See p.

[May his home be emptied]. II5..21 The episode of the gate (K 3588. ] thy feet. Koschaker. ct. my dear brother! Me they would Clear at the expense of my brother!" Furthermore: (20) "Must I by the spirit (of the dead) Sit down...64 if. One of his curses. There is no counterpart of thy wood [in the land].' " Enkidu lay down (ill) before Gilgamesh.u-mil-lu. Schott.. He addresses himself once again to the girl:) "Come.21 is directed against the gate that lamed his hand. [May he be paid] back who defiled thee. PIs. 23.. ] lifted up [his eyes]. the seat at the left. Descent of Ishtar.. (20) [ .86 AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS That they slew the Bull of Heaven and Huwawa? Should now innocent Enkidu die?' But Enlil turned In anger to heavenly Shamash: 'Because.. Iraq. 1" would seem to have the force of our "Has not now . And made thee have fair Gilgamesh for a comrade? And has (not) now Gilgamesh.. Has placed thee on the seat of ease. [The besotted and the thirsty shall smite] thy cheek !'25 (mutilated) (23-30) Because me [thou hast .. his heaped-up storehouse.. when thou art gone... ZA.127 He will his body with uncut hair invest. preserved in an Assyrian fragment. "Has now . [A fa] te that shall not end for all eternity! Text "his.. cursing the successive steps in his fated life. rev. much like One of their!" comrades. II (1948/49).. lass. notes 19.) Enkidu [ . Governors and nobles shall love thee. 225 if. Who made thee eat food fit for divinity. "after him. (40) (Long) before Ibeheld the lofty cedar. 128 In admiration.. 123 Perhaps u-sar-ki-b[a] "made ride upon. my note in lCS. J. May [the beasts he would trap 1 escape from before him. (36) Speaking with the door as though [it were human]: "Thou door of the woods. germane" see P. Who clothed thee with noble garments. which is over people shall not be . and thy polc-knob''" [ .23 (See the Supplement. 1. ] the road shall be thy dwelling place. two dozen thy breadth I will curse thee with a great curse. 125 126 . Lines 40-41 have been interpreted in an interrogative sense. Forthwith he called down to him [from] heaven: "Why. Enkidu changes his curse into a blessing. Thou shalt not build a house for thy charms. however. (Short break. lapis. And. .... Six dozen cubits is thy height. Friedrich. ] And because [ .. (10) (See p.l2S He who is two leagues away shall shake his hair." 124 Reading . ibid." When Shamash heard [these words] of his mouth. Will fill [joyful] people with woe over thee. thy bosom friend.. Iwould have lifted the axe. XLII (1934). GETh. 505. Gadd. uncom[prehending]. .. Taking ib-n ta-li-me-Fa as the type of compound that is not uncommon in this epic.. See. [ . ]." [When J Enkidu [heard] the words of valiant Shamash. Never again [to behold] my dear brother with (mine) eyes ?" (The remainder is lost. would have [ . in thy house.. Thy pole. And gave thee to drink wine fit for royalty. 1.) (II-18a) .. 122 For the meaning of the terms employed in this line d. that this [would come to pass] And that this [thy] beauty [ . 129 Oppenheim. For talimu "intimate.126 ( 40) Made thee lie on a noble couch? He has made thee lie on a couch of honor.. (he said): "0 my brother. (iv) My mouth which cursed thee shall turn and bless thee. carnelian. I will decree (thy) fate. 0 door. 24-28. C. ] his vexed heart grew quiet. and gold. And as his'20 tears were streaming down. ?a 127 Lit. The missing verb might be a form of gullubu. I will decree thy fate. ] upon me.. ]. thy pole-ferrule.. the young] shall unloose his girdle. XXVlII (1966). XL! (1933). [Let not] the hunter at[tain] the fullness of his heart!" [Then his] heart prompted (him) to curse [the harlo [tlass: "Come. Will don a lion skin and roam over the steppe. 0 Enkidu.. see above. [ . 14-15) was assigned by Thompson to the beginning of Tablet IV. II3 if. 51. Had I known. ZA. 119 r r ] With the last three lines cf. lass.. He who is one league away shall smite his thigh. ]. Enkidu seems to bemoan the events that had led up to this sorry state. Relenting. Not endowed with understanding! At twenty leagues away I found choice thy wood. That [the prin ]ces of the earth may kiss thy feet! He will make Uruk's people weep over thee (and) lament." an idiomatic use of ark]. With great speed let my curses attack thee..i" diminish his power! May his [way be repugnant] before thee.) (iii) Destroy his wealth. I would have set a reed frame upon [thee] !"." 120 Referring to Gilgamesh.. A master-craftsman in Nippur built thee [ . In a deathbed review of his life. thou didst daily go down to them. cf. [The shadow of the wall] shall be thy station. [ . loco cit. at the spirit's door. cursest thou the harlot-lass. in view of the lengthened penult vowels at the beginning of the clauses.!" [To the presence of] the gods [the priest] shall let thee enter.

137 For qutdnu d. (GETh. The following fragment [GETh. which I entered. [Lifting] up her head. the Huwawa of the Old Babylonian and Bogazkoy texts. XLII [1934J.'30 While I was standing between them (There was) a young man whose face was dark. obv. No. one day. a ninth. [and a tenth day]. the panther of the steppe! We who [have conqu] ered all things. 320 VI (I900) 464- Lines 33-39 are paralleled in Descent of lshtar. PIs. (10) Who seized the Bull [and slew him]. il-[ .. [increasesJ. with transliteration. verb lapiitu offers a close semantic parallel to Heb.. XI (1937). A fifth day. in ICS.. 136 The dirk in my belt. the panther of the steppe! Enkidu. j in 79-7-8. scaled the mountains. Moaning bitterly like a wailing woman. ] lies down all alone. pl. Restored from the Sultantepe fragment. They are clothed like birds. [ . (40) I looked at [rulers]. Reside incantatory and ecstatic. Like unto Zu was his face.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS [On thy account] shall be forsaken the wife. [ ] he submerged me.. 51... kneels before her. now. 138 139 The 65· .. [She holds a tablet] and reads out to her. II f.. thou who chasedst The wild ass of the hills. translation and textual notes. [ . VI.... 27) and ir(?)-(muJ-ma in VET..':" on his bed. below. ]. she beheld me: [Saying: 'Who J has brought this one hither?'" (The remainder of the tablet in the Assyrian Version is missing.. 7. 133Legendary king of Kish who was carried to heaven by an eagle. That night [he pours out] his feelings to his friend: ". Meissner. Reside the laver-anointers of the great gods. VIII (1954). those (born to) the crown. as argued by Schott. 24 read: [iJI-[sju-u. To the house which none leave who have entered it.) "Remember all my travels [with him J! (4) My friend saw a dream whose [portents J were un [favorableJ: 32 The day on which he saw the dream was ended.:" who [dwelled] III the Cedar Forest! What. Enkidu's [sufiering]. Who had ruled the land from the days of yore. But as for me.. EnkiJdu... thou chasedst The wild ass!" of the hills. R...i" In the House of Dust. For I feared the battle [ . 34. recorder of the nether world. [increases]. They contain the lament of Gilgamesh uttered before the elders of Uruk at the deathbed of Enkidu:) (ii) "Hear me. [These doubl]d of Anu and Enlil were serving meat roasts. (50) [And Belir-]Seri. [a second day]. IS. (IO) An eighth. P. Reside High Priest and acolyte. my friend. pg' "touch. and a seventh.. with wings for garments. ] he overpowered me. Brought afiiictiorr" on Hubaba." 140 Variant of Humbaba.U. which I entered. 15-16J may be relevant. God of cattle. In the House of Dust. Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. 4-10. F nkidu' s suffering.. (though) a mother of seven. Cf. J has cursed me! (Not] like one [fallen] in battle [shall I die]. II3 ff. If [di-n Ja-an may be read." (10) [ . 131 132 On I1kkannu see B. the earth responded . Iensen. my hand's trust. The reverse duplicates for the most part the Nineveh material for column ii and has therefore been incorporated in the lines which follow.!" resides Sumuqan. line I!... Gurney. An eleventh and a twelfth day [ . that I weep. The abodeofIrkalla. a sixth. Looking at me. On the road from which there is no way back. whose mood is bitter. a fourth day [ .. my younger friend. 136 130 In CT. 135 cf.' " Tablet VIII (The extant texts of the Nineveh version contain only a few fragmentary lines of: the first column of this Tablet. A third day. Queen of the nether world. They were serving bake [meats] and pouring Cool water from the waterskins. on his bed. ]. [ .90-95. published by O. he leads me to the House of Darkness. ] like those of a bird. 0 elders [and give ear] unto me! It is for Enkidu. The axe at my side. he transformed me.. My festal robe. ).. like] the talons of an eagle were his claws. ]. Resides Erana. ZA. the shield in front of me. My friend. (mutilated or missing) (23-30) [ . their crowns put away.!" Ereshkigal [lives there]. ] . So that my arms were [ .. [ . I [saw princes]. And see no light. Stricken is Enkidu. (20) [ ] heleaps. The gap has recently been filled in part by the Sultantepe text S. XLVI. My friend. [Stricken J is Enkidu on his bed [of pain] I At length he called Gilgamesh [and said to him J : 'My friend... [ . MAOG. residing in darkness. my richest trimmingAn evil demon rose up and robbed me! o my younger!" friend. I saw a dream last night: The heavens shouted. Where dust is their fare and day their food. 394:61. afflict. is this sleep that has laid hold on thee? Thou art benighted and canst not hear [me J !" But he lifts not up his head. he who [is slain] in battle [is blessed]. To the house wherein the dwellers are bereft of light.

When [he arrived] at the mountain range'? of Mashu.) (ii) The name of the mountain is Mashu. Orientalia.. Jacobsen. ]. To the setting of the sun [ ]. As though] unc[lean] !In With the first glow [of dawn]. cit. (45) Tablet IX (i) For Enkidu." The scorpion-man opened his mouth [to speak]. Filled with honey a bowl of carnelian. Which daily keeps watch over sun (rise and sunset]Whose peaks':" [reach to] the vault of heaven (And) whose breasts reach to the nether world belowScorpion-men guard its gate. (IO) Dense is the darkness and [light there is J none. [ . n. A scorpion-man calls to his wife: "He who has come to us-his body is the flesh of the gods!" His wife answers the scorpion-man: "Two-thirds of him is god. Gilgamesh. he approached them. [There were . 144 On this name see Jacobsen. [ .j. 66. I roam over the steppe. He smote [them] and hacked away at them. [As at night] he lay. When Gilgamesh beheld them. Anatolian Studies. Like an ar[row] he descended among them. He raised his axe in his hand. Gilgamesh replies:) "On account of Utnapishtim. he awoke from a dream.. with fear (10) And terror was darkened his face... To Utnapishtim. it is treated in the text either as singular or plural. his friend. n.. Lewy. [Gilgamesh] Loosened his band [ . 75~i6. When he next appears. with the exception of the following lines: ) (v) With the first glow of dawn. For twelve leagues [extends its] interior. appears to read a-sal k-kiJl] "like a thing proscribed. RUCA. v11. ]. XVI! (I943). [have 1 come]. in search of life ].34. "he seized sense and." 142 cf..142 1 placed thee [on the seat of ease. That the princes of the earth [might kiss thy feet] ! Over thee 1 will make [Uruk's] people weep (and) [lament]. (The remainder of the tablet is missing or too fragmentary for translation. I saw lions and grew afraid. Gilgamesh had arrived before a mountain. op. 145 The moon-god.88 AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS He touched his heart. CE. To the rising of the sun [ ]. [I shall roam over the steppe] r With the first glow of dawn. Lit.. He paces back and forth before [the couch]. [I shall invest my body with uncut hair ]. ]. Tearing off and flinging down (his) finery. Mesopotamian hero of the Flood-Sumerian Z i U s U d r a and Greek Xisourhros+-cf. my father.i" Ubar-Tutu's'" son. Th. I lifted my head to Sin'45 to pray. ] preserve thou me!" 141 (IO) The new Gurney fragment. 76-77." [The scorpi ]on-man calls to the fellow. When arriving by night at mountain passes. Fearing death. and J. 141 Since the name means "twins" in Akkadian. n. Who joined the Assembly [of the gods.. . Whose terror is awesome and whose glance was death.. shall I not be like Enkidu ? Woe has entered my belly. taboo. one-third of him is human. ]. r . Joyful people [I will fill with woe over thee]. 148 cf. And. H. ] he decorated and exposed to the sun. Heidel. Filled with curds a bowl of lapis. Gilgamesh Weeps bitterly. And..151 The mountain's trail no one [has traveled]. (20 ) Pulling out (his hair) and strewing [it •. 143 For Utnapishtirn (Old Babylonian Utanapishrim ).. mutilated or broken) For this passage d. the seat at the left]. Oppenheim. ]. but it does not beat. Saying to [Gilgamesh 1: "Never was there. 4 I if. XVII 46. About death and life [1 wish to ask him].. Gil(gamesh . Regaining'49 his composure. The Sumeria" King List (1939).141. ] of the gods went out my orisons. as he ranges over the steppe: "When I die. Their shimmering':" halo sweeps the mountains That at sunrise and sunset keep watch over the sun. [a mortal who could achieve that ]. Then he veiled (his) friend like a bride [ . n. Storming over him like a lion. I have taken the road to proceed in all haste. iii.. (20) [Traversing seas ]150 whose crossings are difficult? [The purpose of thy com ling 1 would learn.j z. Like a lioness deprived of [her] whelps.. clad in a [lion] skin... Addressing (these} words [to the offspring] of the gods: "[Why hast thou come on this] far journey? [Why hast thou arrived] before me." (remainder 146 r (long break) (iii) "On a couch [of honor I made thee lie ]. 149 Reading if-bat. Gilgamesh fashioned 1.. rejoicing in life. '3 f. 151 ibid. He drew [the dirk] from his belt. II. To [ . (The remainder of the column is broken away. 27.." 150 For the restoration cf. when thou art gone. Brought out a large table of elammaqu wood." (remainder of the column broken away) ( iii) (Lines 1-2 destroyed.

d. too. Nine leagues [he has traveled and he feels J the north wind [ . 133 ff. obv.s Lit. the dawn breaks. The gate of the mountain [is open to thee]!" When Gilga[mesh heard this]. Substantial portions are available. [When ten leagues] he [had attained]." Gilgamesh says to him.. ZA. 0 Gilgamesh. Oppenheim. which writes this name with (line 4). cf. On seeing the grove of stones. 38.':" as he eats flesh. Along the road of the sun [he went] . is a Hurrian term for "young woman" used to describe Hebat. Supplying [il-ta-ha-af). fan Jning his face/54 [Dense is the darkness and] light there is [none]. 47. MVAG. To Gilgamesh he [says J: "Go. ]. X (Old Babylonian Version). What little remains suggests a further account of the marvels to be seen in this garden of jewels. .. 8. Eight leagues he has tr[aveled J and he cries out. e.156 The carnelian bears its fruit. ]. a form of Ishtar in the Hurrian texts. Dense is the dark [ness and] light there is none. Two of these. ] . I would not give him up for burial155 156 157 ibid. II. Who with me underwent all hardshipsHas now gone to the fate of mankind! Day and night I have wept over him. (30) He can [see nothing ahead or behind]. When five leagues [he had attained]. ISS [And when he attained twelve leagues].. When seven leagues he had attained. Gilgamesh is addressing Siduri. iv."" When two leagues [he had attained] (so) [When eleven leagues he had attained]. The mountains (and) ranges [ . Dense is the dark [ness and light there is none] . He says to Gilgarnesh: "Gilgamesh. He can [see nothing ahe Jad or behind. which has not happened As long as my wind drives the waters... ] . are extant only in fragments that are too slight for connected translation. loco cit. as he betook himself to him. (40) In safety may [ .the Hittite (cf.. [When six league]s he [had attained].. xxxv [I9241. the .). whom Gilgamesh encounters in the course of his present journey. "It permits him not [to see the frJont of it or his back". (vi) (This entire column is mutilated or lost. 20 ff. The Old Babylonian material was published by B. ZA. He can [seenorhing ahead or behind]. The mountains of Mashu [ .AKKADIAN MYl'l':{S AND EPICS (iv) (top missing) "Whether in sorrow [or pain J. (top broken away) s "He who with me underwent all hard [ships ]Enkidu. Now [open the gate of the mountain]!" The scorpion-man [opened his mouth to speak] .. ]. iv. Sighing [or weeping-I will go). restored from col. VII (I902). [ . 154 For the entire passage cf.152 When one league [he had attained]. he heads for [ . bears fruit lush to behold. Dense is the darkness and [light there is none]. Dense is the dark [ness and light there is none]. whither rovest thou? The life thou pursuest thou shalt not find.." Shamash was distraught. Ir. It is hung with vines good to look at. 152 Apparently (i) "[ With their skins [he clothes himself]. He can [see nothing] ahead or behind. (23) Dense is the dark [ness and light there is none]. Gilga[ mesh . vnr. (So) It. The lapis bears foliage. 23_ Note also the Hurrian fragment of the epic. May one who indeed is dead behold yet the radiance of the sun!" (ii) (Beginning ale-wifer) lost. (40) [He can see nothing a [head or behind.. XXVIl. To the word [of the scorpion-man he gave heed]. Meissner. .. (IO) Must I lay my head in the heart of the earth That r may sleep through all the years? Let mine eyes behold the sun That I may have my fill of the light! Darkness withdraws when there is enough light. which traces further the successive stages in Gilgamesh's quest of immortality.) and theHurrian (cf.) Tablet X This tablet. it had grown bright.. 42. in the Old Babylonian and Assyrian recensions. KUH. [ ] is near. v. 34 and 4 I. OLD BABYLONIAN VERSION (v) (top broken) When four leagues [he had attained].. XXXIX[I929]. however. thus confirming Jensen's old suggestion that Siduri and ~iduri should be equated.g.... on the other hand. (33) In cold or [heat]. ibid. KUB. He can [see nothing ahead or behind]. J. til. to valiant Shamash: "After marching (and) roving over the steppe. [ ] of the league. happens to be represented by as many as four separate versions.. whom I loved dearly. Dense is the darkness and [light there is] none. In favor of this direction may be cured the fact that the ale-wife Siduri. from east to west.. ]. He can [see] nothing ahead or behind.

it has to present each separately..r. [Why then are] thy cheeks [wasted]. ZA. Pay heed to the little one that holds on to thy hand. (20) (The remainder of the column is badly mutilated. 168 169 (See the Supplement. x. ZA. Friedrich and H. she locked [the door]. n.5 n. 167 See above. [who dwells by the deep sea] And sits [ . ]. with W. [hast secured the bolt]? I will smash [thy] door. also Heidel. For a suggested value zur as a reading of the first syllable in the Assyrian form of the name cf. 8. When the gods created mankind. he goes up to him.. Zimmern.':" Who have traversed" the mountains. '35. Hast barred thy gate. Let me not see the death which I ever dread. I32 f. with Landsberger. 2) "life thou shalt not find. Gilgamesh is my name. XLII ('934). [Brought affliction on Humbaba who dwelled in the] Ce] dar Forest]. . Thou.!" Sursunabu?" his eyes behold. ale-wife. Day and night dance thou and play! Let thy garments be sparkling fresh. Gilgamesh [says] to her. 166 Reading Ia as-bu-ra-am. [Sle]w the lions [in the mountain passes ]." The ale-wife said to him. The Urshanabi of the Assyrian Version. (10) Speaking in her own heart [she says] (these) words. Thy face be like [that of a wayfarer from afar ]. n. 54.r. from the repetitious sections of the succeeding columns and from a fragment [Sp. thou.. Schott. A. But he. XXXIX (1929).72-3·) [Gilgamesh says to her. 42." [The ale-wife said to him]. as the sun rises?" Sursunabu. lines Addenda. (10) I have roamed like a hunter in the midst of the steppe. Of each day make thou a feast of rejoicing. Gilgamesh. which would explain the Akkadian genitive as referring to the whole. what sawest thou [that thou hast locked thy door]. my friend should rise at my plaintSeven days and seven nights. whither rovest thou? The life thou pursuest thou shalt not find. [With J cold and heat be seared thy countenance. to Gilgamesh: "Tell me. (he) of Utanapishtinr " the Faraway. on hearing [the sounds]. Sursunabu says to him. This time the entire phrase seems to be treated as a grammatical compound. in contrast to the warning baldtam Iii tuttii (i. 164 Assyrian Utnapishtim.. Gilgamesh comes up to her and [ ]. ZA. is sunken thy face. 299]. (10) Thy head be washed.!" With a veil she is covered and [ ].AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS THE ASSYRIAN VERSION In case's. are worn thy features? [ (Why) should there be woe] in thy belly. PI. Poebel.a." (in a somewhat anomalous grammatical construction). Until!" a worm fell out of his nose. ZA. Perhaps "I have found life. what is thy name? I am Sursunabu. See the the two versions overlap in several instances. Reading mu-na-'-(i-ruJ. who didst slay the watchman. n. [to the ale-wife] : "Ale-wife. Restored with J.) (iv) In his wrath he shatters them. ]. unless.. 159 Reading a-dis 160 Interpreting bi-ta·at. For the beginning of this the Hittite fragments. iii. also A. 134.. cf. [Bring affliction on Hum ]baba who dwelled III the Cedar Forest. ] ?" As the ale-wife saw him. 53. published in GET h. however. Held up his point(ed staff) and pla[ ced . XLII [1934]. now that I have seen thy face. 162 163 29· . to Gilgamesh." cf. ]. Life in their own hands retaining. She barred her gate. Let thy spouse delight in thy bosom! For this is the task of [mankind]!" (See the Supplement." Gilgamesh said to him. to Gilgarnesh: o Although seemed best account d. Since his passing I have not found life. whose restorations and numbering of the lines have here been adopted. Gilgamesh. cf. Slay the lions in the mountain [passes]. let full be thy belly. shat[ ter thy gate] !" (iii) "Gilgamesh. 9 if.. (40) [Is so sad thy heart]. to Sursunabu: "As for me. securing [the bolt].r 52.. cf. ii. XXXIX (1929) 22. (10) A distant journey. (i) The ale-wife Siduri. They made for her [a mashing bowl of goldj. to the ale-wife]: (3I) "[I slew the watchman of the forest]. this one is a ki1l[er] 1'69 Whither is he heading [ . His face is [like] that ofa wayfarer from afar. He is clad in skins [ . o GE. 158 To the boatman. [Seize and] slay the Bull that came down from heaven." with which Gilgamesh is confronted. The ale-wife gazes afar off. n. ZA. Who have come from Uruk-Eanna.. lAOS. an error is to be assumed. XLII ('934). to Gilgamesh: "[If thou art Gilgamesh]. Death for mankind they set aside. bathe thou in water. ZA. of course.) For this approximate meaning of the particle -man." Sursunabu [says] to him.tu as the imperative form bitaddu. Make thou merry160 by day and by night. von Soden.22. As she [takes counsel] with herself: "Surely. now that I have seen thy face. The flesh of the gods is in [his body]. LVII (1937). Show me Utanapishtim the Faraway.. XL (1931)."" When he returned. For her they made a jug. Assyrian Version. There is woe in [his belly]. 161 Apparently the mysterious "Stone Things. 200. Much can be restored.

Further see A. And in between are the Waters of Death that bar its approaches! Where then. XXVI (1964). the sea I will cross. AIO. 82. (ii) [Who seized the Bull of Heaven and slew him]. 175 The stone images. puff. slipped into (the forest). Landsberger. why should my] cheeks [not be so wasted]. [whom I loved so dearly]. scaled the mountains]." lit. [Who chased the wild ass of the hills. [Him has overtaken the fate of mankind]! [Six days and seven nights I wept over him]. The matter of my friend [rests (heavy) upon me].':" In the woods he picks a 'urnu'-snakes. Drew the dirk [from his belt]. [So sad] my [heart]." When Gilgamesh heard this. [Who chased the wild ass of the hills. (50) [Not be so seared my countenance with cold and heat]. [Brought· aflliction on Humbaba who dwelled in the Cedar Forestj-« [My friend. With him are the Stone Things. Jine" and pp. [Who chased the wild ass of the hills. Only valiant Shamash crosses the sea. to [Urshanabi]: "[Urshanabi. the panther of the steppe]. now J. If it be not seemly. "deposit. [We who conquered all things. [Not to rise] again for ever and ever ?" [Gilgamesh] also says to her. Is so sad thy heart. (10) The matter of Enkidu. (30) If it be suitable. [H?w can T be silen ]t? How. [As in quest of a wind-puff] thou roamest over the steppe" [Gilgamesh] said [to him]. lay me down. 59-60." ct. proposes 'mirage. [Who underwent with me all hardships]. 123. xxxrx ('929). 63. [my friend. He raised the axe in [his hand]. [So sunken my face }. can I be still ? [My friend.f" boatman to Utnapishtim. Fauna (1934). the panther of the' steppe]. Sursunabu in Old Babylonian. points out that the urnu-snake has long been supposed to be a favorite with sailors. rests (heavy) upon me]. whom I loved. draw thou back. If it be not suitable. 47 f. why should my cheeks not be so wasted}. and. And went down to them.. Gadd. [Enkidu. 26. XVII (1948). to Gilgamesh: (20) "Never. xxxnr. 171 For this passage see the rendering of Leonard. [Enkidu. And none who came since the beginning of days could cross the sea. creation of the wind. Very toilsome the way thereto. the panther of the steppe]. a give me. whatever the meaning of the term may be in the present connection. to judge from the relevant Hittite fragment. the panther of the steppe]. to Gilgamesh: "Why are thy cheeks wasted. much the same sense by translating "wind . J. too. XII. [So sad my heart. rr8-2I. (See the Supplement. ale-wife. 35. [My face not be like that of a wayfarer from afar]. like J him. d.l74 Go! Let thy face behold. which is the way to Utnapishtim? [What are J its markers? Give me. [My face not be like that ofa wayfarer from afar]. 30 and 33. The Jut abnif "those of stone" are apparently stone figures of unusual properties. what wouldst thou do? Gilgamesh. 105 and KUB. [And in quest of a wind-puff should I not roam over the steppe pl7l [My younger friend]. whom I loved so dearly] . its properties seem to be on a par with those of the Stone Things. has there been a crossing. Gilgamesh. [Who chased the wild ass of the hills. I roam over the steppe]. [Thy face be like that] of a wayfarer from afar." \Ve obtain." E. [Until the worm fell out of his nose J. there is Urshanabi. my younger friend]. At all events. ZA. [Brought affliction on Humbaba who dwelled in the Cedar Forest]My friend. my younger friend]. With cold and heat be seared [thy countenance]. its markers! If it be seemly.) (iii) Urshanabi said to him. [So sunken my face]. to the ale-wife: "[Now]. [are worn thy features] ? (Why) should there be woe in [thy belly]. 172 173 a 170 For likit Jiiri Oppenheim. to the ale-wife} : "[0 ale-wife. Iraq. Orientalia. who can cross (it) ? Toilsome is the place of crossing. [We who conquered all things. so worn my features? (10) [(Why) should there not be] woe in [my belly]. [Who seized the Bull of Heaven and slew him]. Tad und Leben (1931). so worn my features]? [(Why) should there not be woe in my belly]. the ziqiqu-amcliau "windpuff people. 49. below. to clay! [Must I. [And in quest of a wind-puff should I not roam over the steppe] ? [My younger friend]. Gilgamesh.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS [As in quest of a wind-puff?"] thou roamest over the steppe?" [Gilgamesh says to her. scaled the mountains]. wouldst thou cross the sea? On reaching the Waters of Death. is sunken [thy face]. over the steppe I will range!" The ale-wife said to him. Gilgamesh. xv (1945-51».!" Like a spear he descended among them. Iraq. Millard. 103-05 and C. . has turnJed. [Fearing death. IHIn referring to this passage. Not be so seared [my countenance with cold and heat J. (20) [Who underwent with me all hardships]. Other than Shamash. Friedrich. cross thou with him. however. [On faraway paths] I roam [over the steppe] . Ebeling. XXVIII (1966).

50.. When my clothing was used up. I filled my joints with misery. The same holds true of the first part of his reply. Apply the bitumen and attach [errulesi:" Then bring (them) [to me]!" When Gilgamesh [heard] this. Ipeer." U rshanabi said to him. Tiger. A run of a month and fifteen days they left behind by the third day." (The remainder of this column is too mutilated for translation. A fifth. XXXIX . a twelfth pole take thou. [On] distant roa [ds] 1 [roam over the steppe] . Ipeer. I roam over the steppe]. He applied the bitumen and attached the ferrules. 176 For the remainder of the column d. to [Gilgamesh]: "Thy hands. since not a drop of the water must touch the hand." (20) (The remainder of this column and the beginning of the next are lost. (and) ibexThe wild beasts and creeping things of the steppe. ( IO ) With his hand he holds it aloft as a sail. ]. lion. cf. Gilgamesh. Urshanabi. The concluding part follows:) (v) Gilgamesh also said to him. ].!" hyena. [to Gilgamesh J : "Press on. He raised the axe in his hand. 179 Reading a-[duJ-ka a-sa. the Hittite (1929).. Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh pulled off [his] cl [oth . ]. raise the axe in [thy handj. 180 For qilippu ct. 85. And I crossed all the seas! My face was not sated with sweet sleep. Who underwent with me all hardships] [Him] has overtaken [the fate of mankind] t Six days [and seven nights I wept over him].r: OLZ. 48. is greeted with questions that are exact duplicates of those previously put to him by Siduri and Urshanabi. (But) let thy hand not touch the Waters of Death. whom I loved. I had not reached the ale-wife's house. to judge from the available fragments. Thompson. An eighth. ]. to Utnapishtim: (23) "That now 1 might come and behold Utnapishtim. Gilgamesh. the 'urnu' is not [in the woods ]. ZA. and a tenth pole take thou. Gilgamesh.. Until [the worm fell out of his nose]. lay me [down]. a ninth. (30) I [sl]ew bear. GET h. Gilgamesh and U rshanabi boarded [the boat]. The beginning of the last column is broken away. but I [cannot ]. Fea[ ring death. Utnapishtim peers into the distance. have hindered [the crossing] ! Thou hast broken the Stone Things. except for the conclusion of the sage observations ofUtnapishtim:) (vi) "Do we build a house for ever? (26) Do we seal (contracts) for ever? Do brothers divide shares for ever? Does hatred persist for ever in [the land] ? Does the river for ever raise up (and) bring on floods? The dragon-fly [leaves] (its) shell'" (30) That its face might (but) glance at the face of the sun. to [Urshanabi]: "Now. its markers] ! If it be seemly. Gilgamesh..178 Then he ungirded his loins. XVII (1948). stag..307. [over the steppe I will range]. [take a pole ]. The Stone Things are broken. my friend. [ .. panther. and a fourth pole take thou. [Not to rise again forever and ever] ?" Gilgamesh (further) says to him. 171 ct. Gilgamesh!" At twice-sixty Gilgamesh had used up the poles. On [faraway] paths [I roam over the steppe]. [The matter of my friend rests (heavy) upon me]. 0 give [me. And rides [in her] one who is not her master? He who has come hither is not of my men. whom 1 loved so dearly. Gilgamesh meets U tnapishtim and. n. How can I be sile[nt? How can 1 be still]? My friend. n. recension. (50) (iv) U rshanabi [said J to him. And [ . J! A second. Orientalia.i" (40) Go down to the woods and [cut down twice-sixty] poles Of sixty cubits each.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS Enk[idu. 24-25. the sea 1 will cross. Went down to the woods and cut [twice-sixty poles] Of sixty cubits each. hast picked [the 'urml-snakes ]. 178 Each pole was good only for a single thrust. If it be not seemly. Iranged and wandered over all the lands. a sixth. although his precise interpretation has not been followed here. . a third. EG. I traversed difficult mountains. . Whom they call the Faraway. has turn [ed to clay]! (30) Must Itoo. Urshanabi arrived thus at the Waters [of Death]. An eleventh. but [1 cannot ]. Gilgamesh. Ifretted myself with wakefulness. And he brought [ (them) to him]. like him. As [he takes counsel] with himself: "Why have [the Stone Things] of the boat been broken. [ . They launched the boat on the waves and they [sailed away]. Drew [the dirk from his belt]. which is [the road to Utnapishtirn]? What are its markers? Give me. [he says] (these) words. and a seventh pole take thou. Their flesh 1 ate and their skins I wr[apped about me]. but [ . The mat[ter of my friend rests (heavy) upon me]. Speaking to his heart. Oppenheim. 1940.j. I peer.

. Three sar of asphalt [I also] poured inside. Nor set my f[ 00 Jt in Enlil's territory. That they might feast as on New Year's Day. Utnapishtim. My heart had regarded thee as resolved!" to do battle. line 52. XXXIX (1929). EC. 181 l$Z Ea opened his mouth to speak. with them the fate decrees: Death and life they determine. d. See A. n.t'" I saw to the punting-poles and laid in supplies. seek thou life. (30) Like the Apsu thou shalt ceil her. EG. applying (it) to my hand. even as I art thou. Her"86 dimensions shall be to measure. For niq qti cf. [He who at dusk orders] the husk-greens. how alike they are! Do they not compose" a picture of death. [Yet] thou liest indolent upon thy back! [Tell me. Equal shall be her width and her length. d.. Thou art not strange at all.] how joinedst thou the Assembly of the gods. explanation of the plugs d. (But) of death. 138. in the History 0/ Culture (I942)~ Utnapishtirn would signalize the impending deluge. XXXVI (1935). 193 The ship was thus an exact cube. I provided her with six decks. (60 ) Dividing her (thus) into seven parts. And for the factitive force of the intensive conjugation d. oil. reflect! Man of Shuruppak. red wine. a hidden matter And a secret of the gods will I tell thee: (10) Shurippak-a city which thou knowest. Huitiem« campagne de Sargon (1912). F."" I understood. 192 Schott and ZA. n. ] ointment. their assistant.. the dwelling place of Utnapishtirn. my lord: '[Behold]. the people and elders ?>188 Lit. Heidel. [The choicest] birds. ZA. 82. [But what] shall I answer the city. and I said to Ea. "outside shape. One (whole) acre'91 was her floor space.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 93 Since the days of yore there has been no permanence. reed-hut! Wall. '70. "three Jar." Tablet Xl Gilgamesh said to him. the great gods." "Contours." 195 For 0. 185 Line I I has the uncommon form Shurippak instead." Creation 184 Presumably.173. (too fragmentary for translation) (50-53) The little ones [carr lied bitumen. I op[ ened . So that 1 cannot reside in your city. even as I art thou. a hiding of fishes. C. Creation IV. 186 The Akkadian for "ship" is feminine. To dwell with my lord Ea. The literal sense would be "[A choice of] birds. cf. although without the grammatical feminine ending. Ennuge. Poebel. Tear down (this) house. wall! Reed-hut. Will shower down upon you a rain of wheat. Wily Ea on this ambiguity: To the the statement would be a of rsrosrv-r-irv. 196 Lit. 62. Must. XLII (1934). I hammered water-plugs into her. Their words he repeats to the reed-hut :"84 (20) 'Reed-hut. what thou hast thus ordered. Marnmetum. [(And) which on Euphrates' [banks] is situateThat city was ancient. Ten dozen cubits each edge of the square deck. 137. I will be honored to carry out. and p. Saying to me.n. in accordance with Semitic usage. Heidel. maker of fate. its days are not revealed. When their heart led the great gods to produce the flood. "draw. (70) And I killed sheep every day. And the two sar of oil [which] the boatman stowed away. Fa him through the barrier of the wall. [The land shall have its fill] of harvest riches. n. Ninurta.'. my lord. design. Die Wasscriahr zeug« in Babylonicn (1939)." '190 (40 ) With the first glow of dawn.I64. To the Deep I will therefore go down. Heidel. remarks in Studie. EC. Heidel.:" son of Ubar-Tutu. While the grown ones brought [all else] that was needful. More specifically. Valiant Enlil. 149. 90. their counselor. Gilgamesh. Three sar of oil the basket-bearers carried. II. Thureau-Dangin. Frank.000 gald. to Utnapishtim the Faraway: "As I look upon thee. n. 218. cf. xr." lit. .193 I laid out the contours (and) joined her together . each Jar about 8. Once they are near to (their fate] ? The Anunnaki. to Gilgamesh: "I will reveal to thee. The ship that thou shalt build. hearken ! Wall. [There] were Anu. The resting and the dead. the rarest'S" fishes. their irrigator. The land was gathered [about me]." For the sense of tagmir libbi d. A." The Jar was the number If the measure understood with it was the stitu (sean). as though river water.i'" Ten dozen cubits the height of each of her walls. In thy quest of life?" Utnapishtim said to him. 187 For the description of subterranean waters of the Apsu ct." 190 Restored from lines 87. ZA. Thy features are not strange. 189 I take these genitive forms to denote the superlative. "the 197 Var. Forswear (worldly) goods and keep the soul alive! Aboard the ship take thou the seed of all living things. As has long been recognized. and white wine':" [I gave the] workmen [to drink]. his servant: 'Thou shalt then thus speak unto them: "I have learned that Enlil is hostile to me. n. foregather.7. ZA.183 Ninigiku-Ea was also present with them. Aside from the one sar of oil which the calking'98 consumed. "inspector of canals. (as were) the gods within it. Her floor plan I divided into nine parts. build a ship! Give up possessions. [But upon] you he will shower down abundance.178.':" Six 'sar' (measures) "'7 of bitumen I poured into the furnace. Bullocks I slaughtered for the [people]. The commoner and the noble. On the fifth day I laid her framework. 194 Or "fashioned. EC. their father. these lines feature word plays in that both kukku and kibiiti may designate either food or misfortune.

Nor can the people be recognized from heaven. lines 19-20. I looked about for coast lines in the expanse of the sea: In each of fourteen?" (regions) There emerged a regiom-mountain)." 20. with Salonen. cit. I52. cf." instead of "evening. and J. line 131. for nagii see H. When it is I myself who give birth to my people! Like the spawn of the fishes they fill the sea!' The Anunnaki gods weep with her. (120) Ordering battle for the destruction of my people. VllI (1926/27). With the first glow of dawn. I looked at the weather: stillness had set in. Since no resting-place for it was visible.?" Will shower down a rain of blight.20. Then I sent forth and set free a swallow. Allowing no motion. 7. The sweet-voiced mistress of the [gods] moans aloud: 'The olden days are alas turned to clay. And. however. The Anunnaki lift up the torches. [The wide] land was shattered like [a pot] ! For one day the south-storm [blew]. as the south-storm sweeps the land. Ishtar cried out like a woman in travail. A third day. II-IS. the flood ceased. The gods. For this reading of the names of the two heralds d.. Oppenheim. the wild creatures of the field. I take the sense to be. that the weight had to be shifted around (ultabbalu) on the upper and lower decks (elil u lap/il) to make the launching possible. Shamash had set for me a stated time: 'When he who orders unease at night."! On Mount Nisir?" the ship came to a halt. . A black cloud rose up from the horizon.. Bowing low. a second day. This expression seems to mean here "to put the finishing touches to. Which it had fought like an army." d.' (90 ) I watched the appearance of the weather. So that they had to shift the floor planks?" above and below." 203 Lit. Gathering speed as it blew. the tempest was still. as in line 95.. all humbled. the boatman. Orierualia. Consternation?" over Adad reaches to the heavens. Allowing no motion. CT. I sent forth and set free a dove. Whatever I [had] of gold I laded upon her. Allowing no motion. showers down a rain of blight. "twelve." but "stark stillness. When the seventh day arrived. and light fell upon my face. When the seventh day arrived. 200 Read ge-er-md-di«. 54. 201 Because of the masculine suffix (finipat-su)." 211 ct. [Until] two-thirds of [the structure Y01 [had g lone [into the water].o. a fourth day.. A fifth. my report in AASOR. Because I bespoke evil in the Assembly of the gods. Who turned to blackness all that had been light. How could I bespeak evil in the Assembly of the gods. the antecedent cannot be the feminine eleppu "ship. sit and weep. One day. consternation.e. with the dative dement 1~. Setting the land ablaze with their glare. lilali as "night. Allowing no motion. The landscape was as level as a flat roof. I opened a hatch. and a sixth (day). dusk. cit.?" The gods cowered like dogs Crouched against the outer wall. op. 212 For the identification of Mount Nisir with modern Pir Omar Gudrun. below. ( I 10) No one can see his fellow. Whatever I had of all the living beings I [laded] upon her. I boarded the ship and battened up the entrance. Forth comes Ninurta and causes the dikes to follow. And all of mankind had returned to clay. The beasts of the field." cf. ( 140) Mount Nisir held the ship fast. All the craftsmen Imade go aboard. [submerging the mountains]. xxxv. she turned round. bewilderment. but came back. 93. 209 Var. The flood(-carrying) south-storm subsided in the battle. Board thou the ship and batten up the entrance!' That stated time had arrived: 'He who orders unease at night. XVII (1948). (100) Erragal'" tears out the posts ." Perhaps ekallu.94 AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS [On the sev]enth [day] the ship was completed. [The launching] was very difficult. they ascended to the heaven of Anu. Their lips drawn tight. 202 The true bearing of the word plays mentioned in lines 46-47. to Puzur-Amurri. [Whatever I had] I laded upon her: (80) Whatever I had of silver I laded upon her. Tears running down on my face. Six days and [six] nights Blows the flood wind. While Shullat and Hanish?" go in front. god of the nether world. All my family and kin I made go aboard the ship. 206 Of the world dam. Lewy. [ . I handed over the structure together with its contents. "to calk. op. shrinking back. Mount Nisir held the ship fast. The weather was awesome to behold. (130) The sea grew quiet. I sat and wept. Salonen. which the two halves of this line contain-perhaps to bring out the proverbial contenr+-I have translated here The gods were frightened by the deluge. does not mean "rage. "covered. Inside it Adad thunders. Mount Nisir held the ship fast. Nergal. 201 The term }u!Jarratu. Mount Nisir held the ship fast. In order to reflect the rhyme of the Akkadian. ] one and all. 205 i. XVII (1943). The dove went forth. HUCA. To batten down?" the (whole) ship. Overtaking the [people] like a battle. 20$ The highest of several heavens in the Mesopotamian conception of the cosmos. 17-18. Moving as heralds over hill and plain." 210 Var.

And mark on the wall the days he sleeps. 7:18. How couldst thou. he touched our foreheads to bless us: 'Hitherto Utnapishtim has been but human. and turns not round. Would that a lion had risen up to diminish mankind! Instead of thy bringing on the deluge. For Iadddu in the sense of "heed. To add to the difficulty. Be patient.' Ea opened his mouth to speak. (190) He took my wife aboard and made (her) kneel by my side.' When at length as Enlil arrived.212ashe turned round. Gilgamesh says to him. The CrUSe21 the fourth has turned white. caws. And marked on the wall the days he slept. Enlil was wroth. seeing that the waters had diminished. That he may return safe on the way whence he came." For raggu: ruggti d.i" lest he be dis [lodged] ! Instead of thy bringing on the deluge. he will seek to deceive thee. who will for thy sake call the gods to Assembly That the life which thou seekest thou mayest find? Up. Utnapishtim says to her. "Exceeding Wise. ZA. 169. "Mankind being wicked. in view of the repeated Ishtar. The gods smelled the sweet savor. unreasoning. Saying to valiant Enlil: 'Who. ( 180) On the transgressor impose his transgression! (Yet) be lenient. cedarwood. XLII." and the like. he will seek to deceive thee. (160) The gods crowded like flies about the sacrificer. An allusion to one of the common epithets of Ea." Utnapishtim says to her. brought on the deluge And my people consigned to destruction. but came back. She lifted up the great jewels which Anu had fashioned to herliking: 'Ye gods here. Lit. That through the gate by which he left he may return to his land. ana ittiJu (1937). The gods smelled the savor. 212& Would that pestilence?" down] mankind! It was not I who disclosed the secret of the great gods. as has long been recognized (cf. Upon their pot-stands I heaped cane.22Othe third is soggy. bring on the deluge? On the sinner impose his sin. Seven and seven cult-vessels I set up. But now. cognate kawwan. Then I let out (all) to the four winds And offered a sacrifice. n. Now then take counsel in regard to him!' Thereupon Enlil went aboard the ship. The sixth (still) is fresh-colored . Holding me by the hand. The entire episode. the term for the sixth stage-haH/l -is ambiguous in that it may mean either "cooked." an epithet of Utnapishtim. 219 By asserting that he had not slept at all. other than Ea. my remarks in lAOS. VII (1923). I shall be mindful of these days. as surely as this lapis Upon my neck I shall not forget. put (them) at his head. ci. unreasoning. freshcolored..AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS The swallow went forth. cf. especially. see XII. I let Atrahasis?" see a dream. Saying to valiant Enlil: 'Thou wisest of gods. stages 4-6 would be judged by the color. can devise plans ?215 It is Ea alone who knows every matter." As he sits there on his haunches. of The fifth has a moldy cast. (150) Since no resting-place for it was visible. The raven went forth and. The heavenly gods. Utnapishtim shall reside far away. Would that a wolf had risen up to diminish mankind! Instead of thy bringing on the deluge. at the mouth of the rivers !' Thus they took me and made me reside far away. Henceforth Utnapishtim and his wife shall be like unto us gods. (170) And saw the ship. 14r." In the latter instance.35. from '(w)apu. lie not down to sleep For six days and seven nights." the god of pestilence. to his spouse: "Behold this hero who seeks life! Sleep fans him like a mist.r ). For 13. 221 For the Heb.222 The seventh-just as he touched him the man awoke. put (them) at his head. Landsberger. ripe" or "light-. At the mouth of the rivers. and myrtle. Let the gods come to the offering.g. The technical problem is how this was indicated. to Utnapishtim 217 218 95 had risen up to smr[te the Faraway: writing 213 214 215 216 More exactly "appeared. His first wafer is dried out. He was filled with wrath over the Igigi godsr'" 'Has some living soul escaped? No man was to survive the destruction!' Ninurta opened his mouth to speak. B." His spouse says to him. 222 ballu in reference to color d. Would that a famine had risen up to I[ low] manay kind! Instead of thy bringing on the deluge. The second is gone bad. bake for him wafers. thou hero. ." with p. "Erra . Lit. Then I sent forth and set free a raven. 220 e. 233. I poured out a libation on the top of the mountain. forgetting (them) never. to his spouse: "Since to deceive is human. Ludlul. Standing between us. circles. to Utnapishtim the Faraway: "Touch him that the man may awake. He eats. depicts the progressive deterioration of the bread wafers (not loaves) day by day. And he perceived the secret of the gods. For he. LXVII! (1948). he took me aboard. (200) Sleep fans him like the whirlwind. 32. Babyloniaca. (But) let not Enlil come to the offering." She baked for him wafers. When at length as the great goddess'" arrived. Landsberger. lest he be cut off..?" (210) Up. [er.

count thy What wilt thou give (him) that he may return to his land?" ( 260 ) At that he. and bring him to the washingplace. That he might ar[ rive in his city]. lac. line 298. Gilgamesh says to him. where 1 the Faraway: XLI Reading an-ni. (220) 'When straightway thou dost touch and rouse me!" Utnapishtim [says to him]." (270) No sooner had Gilgamesh heard this. have my hands toiled? For whom is being spent the blood of my heart? I have not obtained a boon for myself. 16r. 230 An allusion to the serpent? 231 See Albright. 226 Reading ni-sih-ti. may the landing-pi [ace not rejoice in thee]. the sea carried (them) away. raised up (his) pole. tails remain obscure. [The cloak had not a moldy cast. with W. A serpent snuffed the fragrance of the plant." Gilgamesh says to him. 175 f. ]. ! Its name shall be 'Man Becomes Young in Old Age. the boatman: "[For] whom. n. ] the gear. I will take it to ramparted Uruk. He cut the heavy stones [from his feet]. . (280) Will cause [ . 229 For man-ni-ya cf. XV! (1919). the third is soggy. deny thou its shore! The man thou hast led (hither). That he may arrive in his city. Than he opened the wa[ter-pipe ]. He washed off his grime in water clean as snow. The sixth (still) is fresh-colored. [He took the hand]?" of Urshanabi. Bohl. to Utnapishtim the Faraway: "[What then] shall I do.j. The [s ]ea225 cast him up upon its shore. If thy hands obtain the plant. Gilgamesh. this plant is a plant apart. to Urshanabi. That he might achieve his journey. Soden. also L 271). tube. for which see \V. there is death!" Utnapishtim [says to him]. Note. HGE. 199. Let him wash off his grime in water clean as snow. ] to eat the plant . (240) Let him cast off his skins. however the Eridu Creation Story. 129. Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh saw a well whose water was cool. It came up [from the water] and carried off the plant. 227 Note that the process is one of rejuvenation. Going back it shed [its] slough. Urshanabi. [to] Gilgamesh: "Gilgamesh." Urshanabi took him and brought him to the washingplace. ZA. May the place of crossing renounce thee! To him who wanders on its shore. That he may achieve his journey. And [a secret of the gods I will] tell thee: This plant. [thou wilt find new life]. a hidden thing. II. They pulled him down into the deep [and he saw the plant]. toiling and straining.226 Whereby a man may regain his life's breath. RA. That the fairness of his body might be seen.. thou hast come hither." apparently took place in connection with Gilgamesh's dive (cf. Let not (his) cloak have a moldy cast. (230) Whither shall I go. toiling and straining. Let him put on a cloak to clothe his nakedness. let the sea carry (them) away. [The second is gone] bad. He took the plant.' I myself shall eat (it) And thus return to the state of my youth. 224 See below... (250) He renewed [the band] round his head.. to Urshanabi.. the boatman: "U rshanabi.?" Urshanabi. The grace of whose members skins have distorted. to Gilgamesh: "[ Go ]. XL (1932). The crust of the fourth has turned white. What shall I give thee that thou mayest return to thy land? I will disclose.. Albright. the boatman: "Urshanabi. [The fifth] has a moldy cast. Utnapishtim. [The seventh ]-at this instant thou hast awakened. to Utnapishtim 223 "Gilgamesh has come hither. 22S Reading [tJam-tum. For the earth-lion 230 have I effected a boon! And now the tide?" will bear (it) twenty leagues away! When I opened the water-pz"pe232 and [ . Its thorns will pr[ick thy hands] just as does the rose. (290) His tears running down over his face.. v. His spouse says to him. not immortality. von Soden.. 228 d. After thirty (further) leagues they prepared for the night. (1933). cit. Let him renew the band round his head. ZA. Let it be wholly new. 232 The opening of the rdtu (normally "pipe. F. whose body is covered with grime. He went down into it to bathe in the water. 0 Gilgamesh. like the buckthorn is [its . To bring the boat nigh to the shore. [They launch] ed the boat on the waves (and) they sailed away..AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS "Scarcely'?" had sleep surged over me.?" Thereupon Gilgamesh sits down and weeps." After twenty leagues they broke off a morsel. [That the days thou hast slept] may become known to thee: Thy [first J wafer is dried out. He put on a cloak to clothe his nakedness. Take him. That the fairness of his body may be seen. though it pr[icked his hands]. He cast off his skins.22' He tied heavy stones [to his feet]. 176. And wherever I sejt my foot]. [Now] that the Bereaver has laid hold on my [members]? In my bedchamber lurks death. Gilgamesh and Urshanabi boarded the boat. Utnapishtim [says] to him. but] was [wholly] new. But the de.

redii. 55) is not part of the main portion of the tablet. Gadd (RA. In the translation given below. ZDMG.?" 233 Kramer (fADS. 22. nekelmii. Since the beginning is essential as an introduction to Tablet XII. Lastly. cit. If correct. Smith.. we the same count as is given in GET/I. to a pipe connecting miraculous plant. XLVI.. After thirty (further) leagues they prepared for the night. 124. line 55. By incorporating the verse. If its brickwork is not of burnt brick. it might represent a somewhat free rendering. 144. The Akkadian version of the present tablet is a translation of the second part of a Sumerian legend. Kramer and I have adopted from him several new observations which will be pointed out in the footnotes. but a duplicate (as shown. Moreover. 234 This line is found only in the corresponding Sumerian passage and CT. to Urshanabi. AASOR. 236 For afir(tu). apparently a Drumstick of similar magic potency." Tablet XII Contents and circumstantial evidence mark this tablet as an inorganic appendage to the epic proper. ibid. examine its brickwork. Thy wife whom thou lovest thou shalt not kiss. Thy son whom thou hatest thou shalt not strike! The wailing of the nether world would seize thee!""She who rests. cit. Inanna made from the base of the tree a pukku. The mother of Ninazu. the remaining tablets-as pointed out by Kramergive every indication of creative borrowing and independent formulation. Deimel. a fact witnessed by the catch-line at the end of Tablet XI. VI!. queen of the nether world. Kramer. the last lines of Tablet XI are the same as the final lines of the introduction to the entire work (1.235 My admonition (s) 236 [heed thou well] : Clean raiment [thou shalt not put on] ! As a sojourner?" they would rna [rk thee]. Sum. the associated terms maodru. Die akkadiscllc Namengebung (1939). Gadd. Gilgamesh sought to retrieve them but could not. [(When) the carpenter's wife was verily like my mother who bore me]. n. . known to us as Tablet XII." Gilgamesh [says to him. One day both these precious objects fell into the nether world. cit. to J Enkidu. [his lord]: "My lord. probably a magic Drum. And if the Seven Wise Ones laid not its foundation! One 'sar' is city. 238 Reading u-a-ai d-du-ka]. 0 my mikkii. n. 45. 153 ff. In gratitude. XVI (1935/36). And leave the boat on the shore!" (300) After twenty leagues they broke off a morsel. 210 and S. as follows: Shortly after the creation of the universe. Gilgamesh says to him. loc. but the precise import is now lost. LXIV [1944]. 239 For the verb ct. J. [who will bring up] the Dr[ urn from the nether world] ? [Who will bring up] the Drumstick [from the nether world] ?" Enkidui" [says to him. i. XXXI [1933]. one sar orchards. When several hostile beings interfered with Inanna's plan.. and J. with Kramer. 235 This line occurs only in the Sumerian text." It is at this point that the Akkadian translation. Inanna (Ishtar) took the floating trunk and planted it in her garden in Uruk. 264. walk on the ramparts of Uruk. For the translation of pukku and mi/ekkii cf.. 21. Line I is. 34. why criest thou (and) why [is so ill] thy heart? Lo. Inspect the base terrace. sets in. lac. [his servant J : (10) "If [thou wilt go down J to the nether world.II3) and to Gadd we owe the further recognition that the small fragment containing the beginning of the first eight lines in Thompson's edition (GET h. Thy son whom thou lovest thou shalt not kiss.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 97 I found that which has been placed as a sign for me: I shall withdraw. note 120. and gave them both to Gilgamesh. Stamm. on the basis of the Sumerian passage. when corresponding to Sumerian bu. n.'?" she who rests. 237 For ubiiru d. the boatman: "Go up. LXXXVlII (1934). i .'?" [To his lord's admonitions Enkidu gave no] heed. a tree growing on the bank of the Euphrates was uprooted by the south wind. take my word] . [I will speak a word to thee. 79 (1940). The basic theme is concluded with the hero's failure to attain his quest. The current restoration e-z [Ib J makes excellent sense. note. Landsberger. One sar margin land. given by the catchline. Thy wife whom thou hatest thou shalt not strike. of course. 241 These three lines are repeated in 47-49. which taken to the semantic range "observe. 16-19). Lamenting his loss. as timber for her bed and chair. d. PI. 22-23 and n. A throw stick into the nether world thou shalt not hurl! Those struck with the throw stick would surround thee. to J Gilgamesh. it may be summarized briefly. I will bring [up] the Drum from the nether world. she who rests. have demonstrated that Tablet XII is a direct translation from the Sumerian. Three sar and the precinct comprise Uruk.) and Kramer lAOS. among other things. RA. d. and from the crown a mikkii. with a source of sweet "That time when I verily ha[ d]""3 the Drum in the carpenter's house. follow. xxx (1933). 238 With sweet oil from the cruse thou shalt not anoint thee! At its fragrance they would gather about thee. 126 ff. Creation Epic. When they arrived in ramparted Uruk. I had the opportunity to talk over the whole problem with Dr. The first part-disregarded by the Akkadian translator-is fortunately extant and has been published by Kramer in his monograph Gilgamesh and the Hulup pu-Tree (1938). I will bring [up] the Drumstick from the nether world. What Thompson mistook for the beginning of the tablet is in reality line 4. in due time. 7 if. To Kramer (loc. BASOR. 242 For Iadad«. A staff into thy hands thou shalt not take! (20 ) The spirits would tremble?" on thy account. 25. by the fact that no proper join has been made). VI. r i . restorations based on the Sumerian text will be indicated by square brackets. Sandals to thy feet thou shalt not fasten.25. Her holy shoulders are not covered with raiment. restored Kramer. 240 Husband of Ereshkigal. They appear to constitute J: refrain. LXIV (1944). n a. [(When) the carpenter's daughter was verily like my younger sister] ! Lo. and Creation Epic.II3) restores the end of the catchline as e~}[ti-u]. A sound against the nether world thou shalt not make.I05. She intended to use it. Gilgamesh came to her rescue. corresponding to line 48 in Gadd's Sumerian text. give heed". Urshanabi. he cried "0 my pukku. d. (30) Her cruse-shaped breasts are not wrapped with cloth. (further) the precinct of the Temple of Ishtar.

Sumerian As i g. Her holy shoulders are not covered with raiment. 219. but the Assyrian text has evidently Nergal in line 82. Ne[ rgal . ]. Kramer has called to my attention the fact that the Sumerian (which is to be pieced together from texts already published and others which he expects to utilize for a connected publication of the whole tale) has here i n i m . the latter hal ves of lines 37 and 39 have been transposed. 21-22 and n. AfO. The nether world [seized him]! The[n] my l[ord). Na[mtar did not seize him. Andrae. 10. my Drum fell into the nether world]. My Drumstick [fell into the nether world] . 251 This important change in the usual restoration of the text is demanded by Kramer's material which yields the reading in i m . 245 i.r ori. 246. and the space available on the Weidner fragment leave little doubt that Ur is to be supplied. With [sweet J oil from the cruse [he anoin] ted himself: At the frag[ ranee of it they gath ]ered about him. On the battlefield of men [he did not fall]. 528 f. XLI (1933). i. On the [battle ]field of men he did not fall.'?" [To UrY'9 he went: 243 In the Akkadian copies of the text. dl: • gub ." In view of the evidence of the Sumerian. Kramer. The nether world seized him. "She who rests. Fever did not [seize] him. [The nether world seized him]. 171.) "conversed. e) . bib a . Scarcely had he opened a hole in the earth. lAOS. in the sense of ida Qpalu "to intercede for. Fever '" did not seize him. The nether world seized him!" Father Enlil did not intercede (or him in the matter . 35. A/O. The nether world seized him. Went all alone to [Ekur]." ct. 252 The Sumerian clearly reads U t u. [Nergal'sJ unsparing deputy did not seize him." which Heidel has adopted (CE. He str[ uck his] hated [son]: The wailing of the nether world seized him. The correct sequence is indicated by lines 18-21. [He struck his] hated wife. (60) The nether world seized him. Namtar did not seize him. bin u . sighing at each otherr'" "Tell me. she who rests. de . The nether world seized him. Nergal's unsparing deputy did not seize him. cf. ibid. 363 fl. Her cruse-shaped breasts are not wrapped with cloth. The nether world seized him!" [Father Sin did not intercede for him in the matter]. The mother of Ninazu. ] I will sit down and weep. [He hurled] the throw stick in [to the nether world] : [Those struck] with the throw stick surrounded him. my Drum fe1l246 into the nether world. 10.. 255 In view of the corresponding Sumerian k til (Kramer). Tell me the order of the nether world which thou hast seen.!" They exchanged counsel. I shall not tell thee! (But) if I tell thee the order of the nether world which I have seen." It is noteworthy. On the battlefield of men he did not fall. whom (I sent] to bring them up. (70) [My Drumstick fell into the nether world]. XL (1940). (90) Sit thou down (and) weep!" "[ . 69) proves right as against Ebeling's suggested ul-ta-an-na-at (Joe. The nether world [seized] him. [Open] forthwith a hole253 [in the earth." relevant instances. W. the nether world seized. the nether world seized]. No. my friend. When the spirit of Enkidu. " "I shall not tell thee. cit. she who rests. not amatam. 246 Lit.. my friend. F.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS [He] put (on clean raiment] : [They mar ]ked him as a soj[ ourner]. Namtar did not seize him. see Kramer." Nergal. the temple of Enlil: "Father [Enlil]. also. VIII (I932/33). gub "in this matter he did not stand by him.. 254 Reading ul-ta-Ia-qti. Enkidu. (40) A sound [against the nether world he ma )de. tell me. 139) may have been intended for just such a purpose of allowing the spirit of the dead to issue forth." She allow [ed] not Enkidu to ascend from the nether world. Gilgamesh. cf. ihid. x (1935/36).i" Weeping over Enkidu.?" Fever did not seize him. [The nether world seized him]. My Drumstick fell into the nether world. [To Eridu250 he went]: "[Father Ea. 244 cf. Kramer.i" A staff [he took into his] hand: The spirits trembled (on his account].e. that the noun is amat." 241 Lines 59-68 can now be almost completely restored with the aid of the fragment published by E. . personified. loco cit. "the pukku fell for me. 253 For takkahu "hole" d. But the analogy of the two other "Father Sin. whom I sent to bring them up.!" the valiant hero: "0 valiant hero. the entire clause meaning "did not intercede for him in the matter. Nergal's unsparing deputy did not seize him. with E. his servant. 10. [hearkened to Ea]. Keilschriitlich« Bibliothek VI. 248 Dr. . Weidner. Thompson's reading ul-ta-an-na-b[uJ (CETh.e. . [Enkidu. like a wind-puff." The corresponding Akkadian phrase amat ul ipul-lu (preserved on the Weidner fragment) has hitherto been rendered "answered him not a word. 250 cf. 251 [He said] to [Nergalj. Ebeling. (80) That to his brother [he might tell the ways of the nether world]. or better still. above. Die akkadische Namengebung (1939). They embraced and kissed each other. however. Das u/icdererstandene Assur (1938J. Stamm. I now suggest that apdlu should be taken in its common legal sense "to satisfy. 100). my Drum fell into the nether world. [The nether world seized him] !" Father Ea [did intercede for him in the matter]." the whole yielding thus "gave him no satisfaction in the matter". the valiant hero. On [the battlefield of men he did not] fall. A hole in the lid of the gigantic sarcophagus of Ashurnasirpal II (d. 232. the son of Ninsun. Fever did not seize him]. J. ZA. Issued forth from the nether world. J.] That the spirit of [Enkidu may issue forth from the nether world]. The nether world seized him. Jensen. Sandals to [his feet he fastened]. m u (." 249 The Sumerian omits this stage. [He kissed his beloved] wife. (so) Nam[ tar did not seize] him. Nergal's unsparing deputy [did not seize him]. [He kissed his be ]lov[ ed son]. in a predicative and not in an objective sense: "in what the matter was.

" "Him whose corpse was cast out upon the steppe hast thou seen?" "I have seen: His spirit finds no rest in the nether world. Reading Ia-mu-ti fur-[ri i-mu-tuj. x...) ] ~" "I h ave seen: ] weeps over (it).. n. Heidel. loc. cf. cit.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 99 "[My body •. AIO. GE." "Him [who died] a sud[den] death!" hast thou seen?" "[I have seen]: He lies upon the night couch and drinks pure water." "Him who was killed in battle hast thou seen ?" "I have seen: His father and his mother raise up his head. ibid. [ •." (Lines r00-IOI mutilated." He cried "[Woe!]" and threw himself [in the dustj.. offals of the street he eats.. Although Heidel's restorations from the Sumerian [Heidel. ]..244.?" [Gilgamesh] cried "[Woe!]" and threw himself [in the dust].. crumbs of bread. has thou seen]?" "I have seen." "[ . . "[ . ] ~" "I h ave seen: [ ] eats bread. which thou didst touch as thy heart rejoiced. 363. and II9-144 in Thompson's edition lost except for two signs." "[ ] hast thou seen?" "I have seen: Like a beautiful standard [ .." (10') "[ ] hast thou seen?" "I have seen: [Like that of a] good [scribe] is his arm bared." "Him whose spirit has no one to tend (it) hast thou seen?" "I have seen: Lees of the pot.. 257 258 For this and the following line ct. 100-01] are probable. CE. it seemed advisable at this time to render only what is available in Akkadian. with Ebeling.. ] the pegs are pulled out. which thou didst touch as thy heart rejoiced. ] is filled with dust." "[ hast thou se]en?" "I have seen: [ ] his heart rejoices. Probably before line IIB belongs the reverse of the Weidner fragment.?" [ ] he enters the palace." "I . roo." (IIB) [ (twenty-six lines destroyed) "Him who [tell down] from the mast hast thou seen?" (145) "[I have seen]: Scarcely [ . which supplies the concluding parts of twelve lines [numbered 2'-13' in the following translation]. ] ~" h ave seen: "I [ ] drinks water. (ISO) And his wife [weeps] over him.. ]." 256 "[ . Vermin devour [as though] an old garment. [My body ••. Heidel. ].. 102-117.

31 (K. XL (1932)..' They will glance at each other And will smile. This Operation 2 The south wind b[lew and submerged him]. He steers the ship.. the sage from Eridu. Heidel. 92-IOI. If should be added that Adapa's purpose was plainly to catch fish for Ea's temple. which employs this motif as a reason for the rise and fan of dynasties (and. Selected translations: P. 5 ct. and D) derive from the library of Ashurbanipal. The Epic of Gilgamish (1930). is the instruction to the dentist.. 5 A good word they Will speak to Anu." When Anu heard this speech.. Jensen. His command was indeed . It is extant in four fragmentary accounts. VS. B. AOT. [ . Knudtzon. in those years. The blameless. 1 (1900). In those days Adapa. hence that god's primary interest in Adapa. A. 194.. 3 For lines 19-21 d. He cried. ] Ea . T. For seven days The [south win ]d blew not upon the land. (D) S. Strong. Wide understanding he had perfected for him to disclose' the designs of the land. caused him to wear (his) [hai]r unkempt. See especially H. Tad und Leben.20. and gave him (this) [ad]vice: "[Adapa]. Gurerbock ZA. With the bakers he does the baking. When they offer thee bread of death. G. J. [ ..' 'Who are the two gods who from the land Have disappeared?' "Tamrnuz and Gizzida.. Iii ii[liz riddi "unprincipled. applied here as an epithet and not as a proper name.4. (10) Adapa.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS lOl Daily did attend to the sanctuary of Eridu.. Campbell Thompson. 14 In the sense of "something to be followed. x. For the sake of uniformity. PI.. op. E. Clay. an unpublished syllabary equates a-da-ap with "man" (hence "Adam"?). xxv (1928).. the one of Eridu. R"1. the Quay of the New Moon.. With his clean hand (s) he arranges the (offering) table. At the holy quay.C. No.. 143-46. The order of presentation is contextual.. T. While [ . XII (1915). ] upon the wide sea. mentions Adapa). XLI! (1934). The oldest and longest of these (B) comes from the El-Arnarna archives (fourteenth century B. ] like the command of [Ea]. PIs. (remainder destroyed) B4 . To him he had given wisdom. (C) R. the wing of the south wind Has broken. The wing of the soujth wiJnd was broken. the king. • This text lacks the normal metric form. Z. [ . UM.. a mourning garb [He made him put on]. ]. Ebeling.. YOS. For the importance of fishing to the temple economy d. C. created him as the model" of men. In those days. Salonen. by A. he who knows what pertains to heaven. thou art going [before Anu].. As thou stand est before Anu. [ . A. 17a. for whom Art thou clad with mourning garb?' 'From our land two gods have disappeared. IV. whereasthe orher three (A. the observer of rites. Ilabrat. however. The sage-his command no one can vitiateThe capable. VI. Die Wasserjahrzcug« in Babylonien (1939). the so-called Weidner Chronicle. Clay. the son of Ea. XVI(1894). eternal life he had not given him.... "Mercy I" Rising from his throne: "[Let] them fetch him hither I" At that..95 fr. I (1915). When to J heaven [Thou hast] go[ ne up and] hast [approached the gate of Anu]. the clean of hands. [Adapa]. took hold of him. (B) O. J. the most wise" among the Anunnaki is he.. Hence I am thus. they will [as] k thee: 'Man. VI. KB. Langdon. his vizier: "Why has the south wind not blown over the land these seven days?" His vizier. and A. as pointed out dentaire en Babylonie. incidentally. S.8743). (and) Anu's benign face They will cause to be shown thee. Schroeder. 965-69. J . . When they see thee. Ea. [The road to heaven thou wilt take. I will break thy wi[ ng]!" Just as he had said (this) with his mouth. v. answered him: "My lord. 274 f. [Tammuz and GizzidaJ at the gate of Anu (20) Will be standing. Without him the table cannot be cleared. 1 Reading kul'-/u-mll. 147-153. A. BG2. A [WisJdom .. Ebeling. Anu Calls [to] Ilabrat. Ea." cf. me all thy venom . Sources: (A) A. except that C is roughly parallel to parts of B. upon the couch. Bread and water for Eridu daily he provides. David. 51 II. atrabiifisa.). For whom dost thou look thus? Adapa. ( IO ) With the bakers of Eridu he does the baking.. Then a wind blew thither and his boat drifted. • According to E. 42-43 and 46-48. [ ." 2 Akk. cit.297-98. 3 (1922). 40-41. J Adapa The story of Adapa" shares with the Epic of Gilgamesh the motif of man's squandered opportunity for gaining immortality. each line has been treated in the translation as a verse of poetry. Die ElAmarna-Tajeln (1915). [Causing him to go down J to the home [of the fish J : "South wind.. the ointment priest. (20) [With the 0 Jar he steers his boar' [ . he boarded the sailboat. PSBA. he does the prescribed fishing for Eridu. Landsberger. A.

Rendering him distinguished and making a name for him? As for us. 18. [ ] unkempt hair he caused him to wear. To reach [ of Ea]. [Neglect not my advice]. When they offer thee a garment. and to heaven he went up. what shall we do about him? Bread ~~ (~ Fetch for him and he shall eat (it). ( 10) His [pri]esthood to glorify in the future he [decreed] as destiny. Anu laughed aloud" at the doing of Ea. wherefore the south wind's wing Didst thou break?" Adapa replied to Anu: "My lord. relating the form to ti'u "dizziness" or di'u "depression.. [He gave him advice]. Do we have here ta-a-[a·]ti (pl. [ ].' elitum "they cried out aloud. For the household of my master. . 12 Eridu. 1 For a suggested reading ct." When the bread of life They brought him. xll3 (1937). 11 For liiqil.7 "Why did Ea to a worthless human of the heaven And of the earth the plan" disclose. Th." "Who are the two gods who from the land have disappeared?" "Tammuz and Gizzida. ].. the king. the human offspring. and he was clothed. thou shalt not drink' " "Take him away and return him to his earth." (remainder missing) D [ . the words That I have spoken to thee. n.. Who [ever] gave such a command. Bauer. Commanded me: 'Thou shalt not eat. Put (it) on. (30) Thou shalt not drink (it)." Speaking up at [his] side. hold fast!" The messenger Of Anu arrived there (saying as follows): "Adapa the south wind's Wing has broken. per [ocr ]se" mankind!" "Ea. XLII (1934). The sea was like a mirror. [ in the wr lath of his heart [ ] he dispatches a messenger. . For [the city] of Ea 12 he decreed release. [ ] . When they offer thee water of death. "heart. the wise.. when oil They brought him..). and he an[ ointed himself]..? The other possibilities that come to mind e. destroyed) Tammuz [And] Gizzida to Anu [a g]ood word Addressed. Drew near and Anu saw him. Adapa. when the water of life They brought him.. [Th len Anu imposed on Adapa [ .') are even more dubious. in the sense of "corrupt. lit. In the wrath of my heart I cursed the [south wind]. F. 168. my master. for whom dost thou look thus? Adapa. as for Adapa. [A ga ]rment he commanded for him. His heart quieted as he was .. the king. who knows the heart of the great gods [ ] heaven . [ . (10) [ ].r. he called: "Come now.." (remainder C When [Anu] heard th[is].. "Mercy! (40) Man.102 AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS Thou shalt not eat (it). niche. (This) advice that I have given thee. ad loc." cf. III." . Heidel. When a garment They brought him. Adapa! Why didst thou neither eat nor drink?' " e Apparently pleased because Adapa mourned their loss. ] . he saw its awesomeness. So as to make his own command exceed the command of Anu?" As Adapa from the horizon of heaven to the zenith of heaven Cast a glance. When he had ascended to heaven and approached the gate of Anu.. But the south wind came blowing and submerged me. he did not drink. 10 For lutiibulu amiiti cf. ZA. therefore with mourning garb I am clad. 125. ] he [ . Tammuz and Gizzida were standing at the gate of Anu.. he anointed himself (therewith)." erc. bring him before me!" He made him take the road to heaven.. MAOe. he put (it) on. the king.. The release in question signifies freeing from feudal obligations." They glanced at each other And smiled. who] knows the heart of the great gods.. ] [Oil] he commanded for him. in the midst of the sea (so) I was catching fish. S Lit.a-?ti. iss. When they offer thee oil. As Anu looked at him.. When they saw Adapa. [Tammuz and Gizzida] will be standing [at the gate of Anu]. saying to him (these) [wor [ds: ["Adapa. That he [ ] . [ . Causing (me) to go down to the home of the fish. the king. M. For whom art thou clad with mourning garb?" "Two gods have disappeared from the land. "The attributive element which here accompanies ni-Ii "mankind" is preserved as d/ta. they cried. he did not eat. BOhl.. Th.g. he laughed at him: "Come now." [ ] to Ea. in the third position there is room at most for a short sign.. my words hold fast! [When thou hast gone up to heaven and] hast approached the gate of Anu." As Adapa before Anu. neglect not.] thou art going [before Anu]. [saying]: "Of the gods of heaven and earth. as many as there be.. d. "highly. anoint thyself ( therewith) . and clad him with a mourning garb. [ ] he discussed the matter. Thou shalt not have (eternal) life! Ah." Creation Epic.

. [Upon] this [ .. . Went up to heaven-and so forth[ ..AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 103 [Who ." let disease turn aside. These Ninkarrak" will allay. t And] the disease that he brought upon the bodies of men. [ .. ] let horror fall.. .. ]. . Let him [in] sweet sleep not lie down. [Let] malady be lifted.. ] what ill he has brought upon mankind. (remainder broken off) . broke the south wind's wing. joy of human heart(s). ] . lord-like.

Yet [it is thou] who hast created us. his lord: "0 lord.37.. (As) the broad plain brought forth potash.106 AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS [Fever was placed upon the people]. [Filled were . Below let the flood be dammed up. . the man AtrahasisHis mind alert [to] Ea. (20) Atrahasis opened his mouth. Opposite the river he places his bed. (For column iv. CE.. ]. saying To Ea.'s [ . his [lord]Converses with his god. The daughter seeks [entry J to the mother. [When the third year] arrived.. [Because of] their clamor I am disturbed.. [Ab Jove let Adad make scarce his rain. no grain sprouted. ] his rain . the fever!" [Ea opened his mouth to s]peak. The context. 113. dizziness. Let it not rise from the source. chills.. [E]a. [Their wide ." indicating a blank space in the original. but mankind presently reverted to its earlier ways. the dizziness. The pestilence [prompt ]ly put an end to their clamor." [ . ] became too narrow. Landsberger.. 15 At this point the tablet contains the scribal notation la-hi "there is not. mankind groans. [ . During the nights let the fields turn white. His [lord].. which has been treated with another myth. ] the stores. (and) fever. Above Adad made scarce his rain. Upon the people was placed fever. The pestilence shall [promptJly put an end to their clamor! ( 10) [Like] a storm it shall blow upon them Aches.. [Let] the fig tree be [cut] off for the people. . d. 16 Arrahasis evidently sought to obtain rain for his fellow men by means of some magic practices. In their bellies the greens became too few. no grain sprout. ] there developed chills. [The people] have not diminished. [Say]ing to the gods. [Because of their] clamor I am disturbed. The mother watches [the balances of the daughter]. The land withdrew its yield. [(But) the mother op]ens [not] her door [to the daughter]. (and) fever.'6 ("iii" = iv) (beginning destroyed) [Because of] their clamor he is disturb [ed]. Akkadian Ishtar-in the realm 17 To judge from the sequel. (30) [ ] pray to your goddess. Your [an ]ger consumes the land. [The people] lived [with bated] breath. The Earth's womb's revolted. [En]lil set up [his] Assembly. Their [places] became cramped. [In] their bellies let the greens be too few. [Let there clease the aches. Evidently he succeeded. Ea." (mutilated}" (32-36) [Enlil] set up his Assembly. [His lord. [ . 16. converses with him.. (2) [Because of] their uproar [sleep] cannot seize him. (60) The womb was bound and issued not offspring. his lord][Converses] with his god. [They prepared] the daughter for a meal. ] do not arrange for them. [Downcast the people wandered] in the streets. . converses with him. E [a. see the introductory remarks. II3. [When the fifth year arrived].. n. Speaking to the gods. his sons: "Oppressive has become the clamor of mankind. (40) [When the fourth year arrived]. however. the plagues were halted once again. . Let the broad plain bring forth potash. (40) [Because of] their uproar sleep cannot seize me. So that it rose not from its source. [Endowed with wis[dom. It turned the breast of Nisaba. [Because of th ]eir [up Jroar sleep cannot seize me.) Descent of Ishtar to the Nether \V orId This myth has as its central theme the detention of the goddess of fertility-Sumerian Inanna. [ .. IS See B. the man AtrahasisHis mind alert [to Ea. WZKM... (50) Let [the womb] be bound that it issue not offspring!" They c[ u]t off the fig tree for the people. [Let] it turn the breast of Nisaba. [Like] a storm it blew upon them Aches. ] [When the second year arrived]. . [Endowed with w [isdom. the chills. Let fever be placed upon the people. Below was dammed up the flood. Heidel. J. [Let] the land withdraw its yield. [The daughter] watches [the balances of the mother]. LVI (1960). [The child] they prepared [for food]. [Like ghosts of the dead their facesJ were veiled. [ . During the nights the fields turned white. ] the gate of his god.. chills.. (50) One [house] devoured the other. mankind cries out. They are more numerous than before. Addressing Atrahasis: "[ ] let there appear in the land.. 0 lord. That no plant come forth.. [The anger] of the gods consumes the land. n. [The people] became hostile [in their . but only temporarily. ] let there be chills. is not interrupted. Let the earth's womb" revolt. [When the sixth year arrived]. dizziness. So that no plant came forth. . his sons: "[ . [The womb was bound so that it could not issue offspring].

didst thou take the chains round my neck?" "Enter. Kramer." I will go to announce thy name to Queen Ejreshkjigal. 15." When the third gate he had made her enter. 321. It may well correspond to our mutiJfii. He stripped and took away the ornaments on her breast. 206 ff.) Its text has been published in KAR. pp. Who stirs up the deep before Ea. Geller." ibid. KB. Heidel. (obverse) To the Land of no Return. To the house wherein the entrants are bereft of li[ghtJ. 45-48. residing in darkness. 123. 52-57. No. CE. 0 gatekeeper. and p. She said (these) words to the gatekeeper: "0 gatekeeper." Forth went the gatekeeper (to) open the door for her: "Enter." 5 A reads: "So that the living will outnumber the dead. ] stillness is poured out. cf. (For a fragment of a still older recension-which comes from Ashur and dates from the end of the second millennium B. 8 A reads mul-ki-il-tu. But although the Semitic version has various points of contact with the older source." When the second gate he had made her enter. The present translation is a composite one in that it makes use. of both the Nineveh ~d the Ashur version. and Heidel. iii. [set] her mind! Yea. that Cutha" may rejoice overthee. 1 This meaning of annltu in N is indicated by A's annii." (50) When the fourth gate he had made her enter. with wings for garments." (30) "What drove her heart to me? What impelled her spirit hither? Lo. The older of these (A) comes from Ashur. Ebeling. XVII! [1949]. Its text is found in CT. 12. 33-39. my lady. the Akkadian city-name Kutii. thus are the rules of the Mistress of the Nether World.c.'" (20) The gatekeeper opened his mouth to speak." "The door. 41 If. my lady. the realm of [Ereshkigal]. I will raise up the dead. already. 0 gatekeeper.-d. didst thou take the great crown on my head?" "Enter. Hear. this older version represented an independent formulation." When the fifth gate he had made her enter.AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 107 of the dead and her eventual return to the land of the living. S. 80 If. in common with all the renderings subsequent to the publication of A. The other recension (N) comes from the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh. it is by no means a mere translation from the Sumerian. "Why. Ereshkigal would have cause for weeping if all these occupants of the nether world should be liberated by Ishtar. VII. (the first translation of recension A). in AOT." ( 10) (And where) over door and bolt is spread dust. (N only). for which cf. the kjing]. "Why." Ereshkigal. 396.. The Semitic version has come down to us in two recensions. saying [to] Eresh[kigal]: "Behold. didst thou take the pendants on my ears?" "Enter.. Word play Iaba: "bruised": sapat-I[a] "her lips. 0 gatekeeper. The translations include those by Jensen. xx (1917). Jensen. The gatekeeper entered. Lit. Gilgamesh. 1 2 Her face turned pale" like a cut-down tamarisk. 13 A name of the nether world. I (Pis. Saying to exalted Ishtar: "Stop. the abode of Irkal[la J/ To the house which none leave who have entered it. 14 The form mUf'" "spread out" (clothing). thus are the rules of the Mistress of the Nether World. I will shatter the bolt. the daughter of Sin. KB. • This half of the verse in A only.' When Ishtar reached the gate of the Land of no Return. the recension here followed will be explicitly indicated. eating the living. PIs. do not throw it" down! . Where dust is their fare and clay their food.. 0 gatekeeper. my lady. as in Gilgamesh.' thy sister Ishtar is waiting at [the gate]. He stripped and took away the girdle of birthstones on her hips. 10 11 . cf. To j~dge from this small piece. my lady. the daughter of Sin set [her] mind To the dark house. iv. the eleven initial lines published by Ebeling in Orientalia. thus are the rules of the Mistress of the Nether World. From A. open thy gate. gatekeeper. Treat her in accordance with the ancient rules. 4 A adds: "[ . (40) That the palace of the Land of no Return may be glad at thy presence. To the road from which there is no way back. open the gate for her. is paralleled by sabaru "strip.e. "Why. VI. drink muddied water for beer? Should I bemoan the men who left their wives behind? Should I bemoan the maidens who were wrenched from the laps of their lovers? (Or) should I bemoan the tender little one who was sent off before his time ?12 Go. didst thou take the ornaments on my breast?" "Enter. 121 If. While her lips turned dark like a bruised k uninu-reed. VI. The cuneiform material is extant in Sumerian and Akkadian formulations. d.37." 12 i." When the first door he had made her enter. 1-4). (Where) they are clothed like birds. He stripped and took away the pendants on her ears. Ishtar. GE. should I drink water with the Anunnaki? Should I eat clay for bread. n." When Ereshkigal heard this. my lady. I will move the doors. my lady. in OLZ.70. So that the dead will outnumber the living. I will smash the door. 18. He stripped and took away the chains round her neck. Queen of the Nether World. "Why. also the analogous construction <'sip tabal. She who upholds" the great festivals. I will smash the doorpost. 43. He stripped" and took away the great crown on her head. The Sumerian version is obviously primary. I. thus are the rules of the Mistress of the Nether Wodd. iv. Open thy gate that I may enter! If thou openest not the gate so that I cannot enter. S d. Where the difference between the two IS more than stylistic. (Where) they see no light.32. cols.

iii.. He returned to her the breechcloth for her body. the maiden lies on her side]. Ereshkigal shall see thee and rejoice at thy presence. flew at her. "I will decree for thee a fate not to he forgotten. 11 A reads "Shamash. "Why. seated (them) on thrones of gold. Orimtalia. Bring forth the Anunnaki and seat (them) on thrones of gold. [brJing her back. Orientalia. Forth went Papsukkal" before Sin his father. Namtar. Let her utter the oath" of the great gods. reads Amamer throughout. 171. 26 "Palace of Justice. A reads instead: or derision. The bull springs not upon the cow. didst thou take the clasps round my hands and feet?" "Enter.. didst thou take the breechcloth on my body?" "Enter. [But ijf she does not give thee her ransom price. Sprinkle Ishtar with the water of life and take her from my presence!" Forth went Namtar. Misery of the head ag[ainst her head]Against every part of her.j. [ . knocked at Egalgina. A has e-pi-it. the vizier of the great gods." does not recover until it is too late. A fate will I decree for thee. Lady. Ereshkigal saw her and burst out at her presence. He was clad in mourning. XLI (1933). l]ies [ ." When through the first gate he had made her go out. [ta lke [Ishtar ] away. lock [her] up [in] my [palace)! Releaseagainst her." d. "Why." When the sixth gate he had made her enter. He returned to her the birthstone girdle for her hips. the ass impregnates not" the jenny. XIX (1950)' 138. Landsberger. 22 23 1 ' 15 N 16 228. The sewers of the city shall be thy drink." ( 10) Ea in his wise heart conceived an image. thus are the rules of the Mistress of the Nether World. the king: "Ishtar has gone down to the nether world. The threshold shall be thy habitation." 27 There appears to be at this point a lacuna in N." As soon as Ishtar had descended to the Land of no Return. Since Ishtar has gone down to the Land of no Return. Not to be forgotten throughout eternity. When through the third gate he had made her go out. against [her whole body] !" After Lady Ishtar [had descended to the nether world]. [against) Ishtar. r And created Asushunamir. his face was [clouded J." bit her finger: "Thou didst request of me a thing that should not be requested. (40) He returned to her the clasps for her hands and feet. 19-22. The besotted and the thirsty shall smite thy cheek !"" Ereshkigal opened her mouth to speak.. Gilgamesh VII. Oppenheim. A reads explicitly ne-el "oath. In the street the man impregnates not] the maiden. (80) (reverse) The countenance of Papsukkal. weeping. Adorned the thresholds with coral-stone. for which cf. The bull springs not upon the cow." Narntar [r look her away and [ . long hair he wore. adds "the king. ].." Causative form of I11"U "to conceive. she has not come up. She smote her thigh. her vizier: "Go. set thy face to the gate of the Land of no Return. Saying (these) words to Namtar. Soden. The shadow of the wall shall be thy station. Asushunamir. distracted hy the beauty of A{iiJunamir "His Appearance is Brilliant. Misery of the heart ag[ ainst her heart]. 0 gatekeeper. The maiden lies down on her side. A gesture of annoyance. (70) Misery of the sides ag[ ainst] her [sides]. Sprinkled Ishtar with the water of life and took her from her presence. her vizier: (30) "Up. I will curse thee with a mighty curse!" The food of the city's gutted' shall be thy food. XVI (1947). 0 Narntar. my lady. didst thou take the girdle of birthstones on my hips?" "Enter... The man lies [in his (own) chamber." a eunuch: "Up. Misery of the feet ag [ainst] her [feet]. her mood is happy. In the street the man impregnates not the maiden. thus are the rules of the Mistress of the Nether World. Ishtar. let them give me the life-water bag That water therefrom I may drink. 25 For lines 24-28 d." 2. The man lies down in his (own) chamber. the sixty mis [eries) : Misery of the eyes [against J her [eyes]. He stripped and took away the clasps round her hands and feet. When her heart has calmed. [His] tears flowing before Ea. A adds: "f . J. When through the second gate he had made her go out. 0 gatekeeper. n. ].. . Come. paying mind to the life-water bag:" "Pray. up. v. [the ass impregnates not the jenny]." Akk. 0 gatekeeper. (60) He stripped and took away the breechcloth round her body." ZA. The seven gates of the Land of no Return shall be opened for thee. unreflecting. thus are the rules of the Mistress of the Nether World.108 AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS "Why. my lady. Ereshkigal opened her mouth to speak. 18 A 19 20 21 The scheme evidently succeeds as Ereshkigal. my lady." When the seventh gate he had made her enter. Brought forth the Anunnaki. Saying (these) words to Namtar. (Then) lift up thy head." Adorn the thresholds with coral-stone. Namtar. Was fallen. balziq( q)u. knock at Egalgina. For the meaning d.."?" As soon as Ereshkigal heard this. Asushunamir.

"If she does not give thee her ransom price. The mention of Tammuz is likewise startling in this context. It is by no means certain. No. Nedu."?' On hearing the sound of her brother. . fifteen gods were present." the boatman of the nether world... When with him the lapis flute (and) the carnelian ring come up to me. ] (had) the head (and) hands of men. (reverse) [Kum}ma lay down and beheld a night vision in his dream: "[ . When through the seventh gate he had made her go out. Soden's 41. Babylonian Epic of Creation. (his) concubine. • A demon pictured as a sphinx." 6 Akk. 1934. accompanied by photographs. There is no indication in the Sumerian versioncontrary to earlier assumptions-that Tamrnuz had gone down to the nether world. Campbell Thompson. Zimmern. 5 ff. cit. ] So that the "eye-stones" filled [ . the hair of his head he held in his left.. 29 This seems required by the context... 'The Upholder of Evil" (had) the head of a bird.. (had) the head (of) a lion. The evil Utukku (had) the head (of) a lion. and so on. Ebeling collected in his Tad and Leben (1931) there are several that bear on the subject of myths and epics... and the discussion by S. Let courtesans turn [his mood. I and 37---'1:hefirst and last in the book-are directly relevant to the present section and hence have been utilized. 30 d.132-136. As for Tammuz. Klasse.C. A speaks of the ransom before Ishtar is led away (see the preceding note). When through the sixth gate he had made her go out. I prayed [to them]. 8 Akk. I beheld.-bird. Wash him with pure water. [ ." Such understanding of NO. Ebeling came back with a new transliteration in MADG. Pall is.. who creates the decrees. I. ]. When with him the wailing men and the wailing women come up to me. The line count follows the count of the reverse. v.1 as we now enjoy is due primarily to W. A Dictionary of Assyrian Chemistry and Geology (1936). in his left [ . in his left [ . introduction. 1-31). the vizier of the nether world.. He returned to her the pendants for her ears. 37 d. ]. (his) hands (and) feet were human.. 5 The term itself (a loan word from the Sumerian) means a "hunting net. but its mundane allusions are enigmatic and are further obscured by the mutilated character of the obverse. [Ma]mitu (had) the head (of) a goat. The other was provided with a human head. Wlssenschajten. The Babylonian Akltu Festival (1926). Mlmma-lemnu. [And her] lap was filled with "eye-stones. . who in ZA. 1915. as recorded on the reverse of the tablet. ]. 221-34· 2 For No. The concluding part of the myth. 'Remove Hastily. pp.. was provided with the head of a kuribu. XLIII (1936) produced a thoroughly revised transliteration. his hands were human. . V. ] (had) the head (of) an ox. It is in the form of a prose poem whose lines average over fifty signs each.. Oppenheim. Clothe him with a red garment. which adds a few further improvements... The background of the story is political. (her) hands (and) feet were human. . however. xl. op. who is called Kummdx=-evidently a pseudonym-is so presumptuous as to desire a view of the nether world. Mukil-re1-lemutti. Two godsI know not their names-one (had) the head. and brief commentary (pp.. ] I held and I saw his awe-inspiring splendor [ . four human hands (and) feet. with his left foot he trod on a crocodile. bring her back. feet (of) a bird. Soden (OLZ. Langdon. the lover of her youth. the headgear was a crown. his feet were [ . Soden's lines 41-75) is given also by Heidel. ]. What does emerge is that an Assyrian prince. LXX (1918). 3 The full form of the name is given in obverse. Belili struck the jewelry on [ . translation. as regards the N version.. The death-god was provided with the head of a serpentdragon. v. Shulak was a normal lion stand(ing] on his hind legs. 'All that is Evil'S (had) two heads. Soden.. therefore. His desire is at last granted and the realm of Nergal and Ereshkigal is revealed to him in a dream. 2 (1937). human hands. line I corresponds to v. hands (and) feet (of) the Zu-bird . Alluhappu" (had) the head (of) a lion.." Either view would seem tenable. see also S..•. 142. 7 Akk. 414) calls attention to the analogous "Speed spoil. the gatekeeper of the nether world. . 143) which deals with the passion and eventual triumph of Bel-Marduk: cf. four human hands (and) feet. Creation of Man by the Mother Goddess. He returned to her the ornaments for her breasts.. ]. "My only brother. j-i-lu of A goes with [kabittu J. anoint him with sweet oil. the pertinent material is introduced indirectly.. that the final [ . the feet were (those of) a . He returned to her the great crown for her head." Only Nos. [Na [mtartu. his four hands (and) feet [ .AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS 109 When through the fourth gate he had made her go out. hands (and) feet (of) the Zu-bird. [Na]mtar. 28 This continuation of Ereshkigal's instructions appears to be out of place here. 33-59. Humut-rabal. A translation of the reverse of the text (v. 27 as 1 Ku-um-ma-a. I-52. phil. Berichse der siichsischen Akademie de. In all. pp. human hands (and) feet. In the following translation each line of the original is presented as a brief paragraph. Soden as "Kumma. while in his right [he held} a sword [ . n·7· 31 Interpreted as "beads" by R. (had) three feet. When I saw them. in connection with specific ritual processes... in his right he carried a Mace. He returned to her the chains for her neck. (had) the head (of the) Zu-bird.. his headgear was a crown. the two in front were (those of) a bird. GE. dating from the middle of the seventh century B." and by Heidel as "Kurnmaya. A. one head was (that of) a lion. ]. x. For the most part.-hist. bring no harm to me! On the day when Tammuz comes up to me." (so) [When] Belili was stringjing]" her jewelry. the other head [ . the hind one was (that of) an ox." 28 The text is inscribed on a large tablet from Ashur. let him play on a flute of lapis. The evil [ .. the study by H. ] ... 1 The same is true also of the large text (KAR. he was possessed of an awesome brilliance. [ . ]. 99'100. May the dead rise and smell the incense. This is normalized by v. Haste prey" in Isaiah 8:3. When through the fifth gate he had made her go out. however.. r A Vision of the Nether W orId Among the thirty-seven texts which E. will remain obscure in its allusions so long as additional material is not available. ]. his wings were open as he flew to and fro. a man stood before him.

broad and wise in spirit. [ . in Orientalia. When [I] saw him.235-38." which was used in the preceding lines. IV." because of their fierce uproar sleep shall not engulf thee. Soden repeats (loc. in the Garden of Plenty. KAR. but add. until I bethink me of thee!' As he spoke to me. when I stood up.. his headgear was the crown of royalty. with v. 30. who had helpfully stood by this prince. 32. is that of the exalted shepherd to whom my father..ii "scourge. the form iktummiiJiima in our verse cannot be derived. 2. from kamii." Here katamu is parallel to It:'ii "prevail. 31. but must be connected with katamu." saying. The nether world" was filled with terror. 31). and so forth. d) and v. also. he was clad in a red cloak. 8. [ . 2. is in itself obscure in some respects. whom [thou] hast seen in the nether world. Soden. the one experienced in matters. A. X. D. [It is that of him] who all the lands from east to west fattened like . 20 The Sumerian equivalent of this phrase. thou doe ugh ]ty ruler of the nether world! Let the subjects of all the land ever hear [ . from [ . "Woe. the reference cited by v. he poignantly praised. loc. the e[ min lent. ]." the Image of Lebanon. he soothed like clear water of the well. which befits his divinity. granted all that was in his heart.. [Of him to whom] Ashur. L. who wanders alone in the marshes. in his two hands he held two wrathful Maces.. one which is full of terror. before the subjects of Ashur the valor of Nergal (and) Ereshkigal.debu). nevertheless. who loves truth. Of special importance in this connection is a passage from the Erra Myth. in his left he carried a bow. the scepter. Oppenheim. Ishum. rev. the Queen of the Nether World?12 [A]t her exalted command. speaking thus inside him: "In order that the pacts for evil draw not close to me nor press upon me.. 6): Httu rabit muli. XLllI. owing to the clever understanding which Ea had imparted to him. cit. who vanquishes the evil ones." And like a man who has shed blood. 9. And as for that scribe who had previously accepted bribe ( s) as he occupied the post of his father.. XIV (1945). PI. in stylistic contrast to ersetum.el(?) bir-ki i-la-'-a is followed by a-ku-u bel e-mu-ql i-kat-tam "the weak shall overcome the mighty. 11 d. 44. 12By being so presumptuous as to enter her realm. with v. shall entrust thee to Lugalsula. rev. Soden. 8. ] of his arms lightning was flashing. "Woe! Ah me! Why hast thou decreed this for me?" (Thus) calling. who ponders's the designs of the earth mass.. 23 Lit. he looked at me. (yet) at the command of Shamash. 11 For these three Elarnire deities d. the material collected by A. 15 d. I awoke. like a viper. 22 For bel birki cf. which Ebeling cites (Tad und Leben.. v. W.. 30.29. ]. 41. (Who). shall distress. cit. the great gods. ] the celebration of the holy New-Year's-Festival9 in-the-Plain.. Accordingly. I kissed the feet of his [great] godhead as I bowed down." while his heart pounded. where e. With a fierce [c]ry he shrieked at me wrathfully like a fur rio Jus storm. shaking his [head]. 169. the Anunnaki. ZA. "earth. XLlII (1936). sealed his mind to his's speech.. XII. 20." hence "everywhere. to the celebration in the Country Temple at Ashur." and bel emiiqi to an apparent synonym of bel birki. Brblu/8 the slaughterer of the nether world. the gatekeeper.. ] shall together blow thee down. who has mounted on his mate-his insides constantly tumescing -he ejected dire" from his mouth and behind. my heart!" Flying into the street like an arrow. 18 For this as a possible nuance of ba. the king of the gods. He emitted a lamentation.. (and) Naprushu" protected.." 16 A reference. the almighty. Soden. 18 Reading highly uncertain. as he ruled over all. (The Assyrian Laws) KAV.. whose seed they preserved. He drew [tow] ards me in order to kill [me]." 24 For the reading sil-pit-tu cf. and note 242. Nergal delivered this his statement: 'Why didst thou slight my beloved wife. I VI. "clay. who partook of the forbidden and trampled on the consecrated-you (two) will the fearsome brilliance of his majesty overwhelm speedily coerytoherc:" May this word be laid" on your hearts like unto a thorn! Go (back) to the upper regions. line '5.. ca. Das toiedererstandene Assur (1938).. v. 174. XLII. (30) Or like a young boar just matured.. and disorders [ . in view of his priesthood. and whose body Yabru. may perhaps mean "as far as the wind (can penetrate)." Or perhaps "beyond trace.. GiIgamesh. Ebeling reads 14 Reading lid-dib-ba-ni-ka-ma (root .. thy begetter. (20) [For]get and forsake me not. before the prince lay utter st[ill]ness. for which d. ] took me by the locks of my forehead and dre[ w me] before him. with the left fo [ot] he trod on a serp [ent ]. (and) whom a catchpole has overcome.. ] they were cast down.. arallii (a Sumerian m-u-s« . 15 This [spirit of the dead]. Reading me-i-ti! loan word). 3. Andrae.. valiant Nergal was seated on a royal throne. [And h ]e. Atrabasis. I will carry out the deeds [that Nergal] has commanded I" He went forth and repeated it to the palace. his face was like that of Zu. The Akk. ibid.37-39.IIO AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS (10) A man (also). spoke up: 'Put not the fellow to death. Humba. stood bowed to the right (and) to the left [ . V (Boghazkoy fragment.u d. No. III) the sign is damaged and ambiguous. his body was black as pitch. 19 Referring to some unnamed deity. 2. would be the derivation of the verbal form from na. On the photograph (ZA. lit. Soden. whose army (and) camp they rescued. of wide understanding. MAOG. p. that he may lead [thee] out through the Ishtar-Aya gate." [ •. saying: "This shall be my expiation. [ . as he kept sounding the fearsome cry. for the verbal root d. [ . which is not to be altered. for syntactic reasons.9 two heads [ ." 21 Less probable. 'S For this force of !adtidu cf. iii. so that in battle no charioteer came near him. He heeded'" in his heart the w[ ord]s of praise. 10 Akk. Soden. ZA. my legs trembled as his wrathful brilliance overwhelmed me. obviously. he scooped up the dust of the road (and) market place into his mouth. KAR. ]. Ebeling.. in his right he[ld] a sword. 214-15. ] of thy fame!' The heart of the all-powerful. ] forever [Decr]eed. KUB... line 25. 12. the intercessor who spares life. his counselor. loc. oppression. and I will not impose the death sentence. When I moved mine eyes. Gilgamesh." ct.

making a man sad.. defend me. so that the soul need not fear its standing among other souls. as soon as the builders have become gods. It is taking a man out of his house. but his soul refuses to support him in this escape.19-32. For a similar thought of the same period. who propitiates the gods. as though he were a man of means and position. (but) 1 do not listen to it.. (whence) thou shalt never go up above that thou mightest see (60) the suns.' I shall make a shelter [over] thy corpse. My wretchedness is heavy . for lack of a survivor. 7 The man is not entirely without relatives or friends who will do what is necessary for his funerary care. or. more probably... by R.C. so that he may prepare the bed (55) of the cemetery?" My soul opened its mouth to me. A transcription of much of the text into hieroglyphic appears in K. Scharff. Let Thoth. (Then) I shall make it reach the West like one who is in his pyramid. that my soul no (longer) talks with me. in German in SBAW. Berlin Papyrus 3024 was published by A. The translation starts with the man's answer to a previous argument by his soul. that 1 might answer what it had said: "This is too much for me today.. XLV (1946). he who will make offerings and will stand at the grave on the day of burial.. the West is home . 6 The argument seems to be that even a poor man can contrive a burial of adequate dignity. Erman. If my soul. The text dates from the Middle Kingdom. de Buck in Kernmomcnten. 0 my soul. first agrees. It has been studied by A.. "Ultimately the kings and nobles who were able to build themselves pyramids were no better off than the poor men abandoned as dead on the dykes and half immersed in the water. (So) be [patient]. will listen to me (40). and finally agrees to remain with the man in any case.. the guide of the heart. and the fish of the water-banks talk to them. and the sunlight as well. Trample down wrongs-(yet) my wretchedness endures. Wilson) OVER SUICIDE This remarkable text carries the argument between a man who is weary of this life and his own soul. (so that) thou mayest scorn another soul which is hungry. (Leyden. 43-46. 1896. Behold. 4 Death takes any man. whether he has prepared for it or not.. Aegyptische Lesestucke (end ed. who writes in truth. whilst thou livest? What is thy goal? Thou art concerned with [living] like a possessor of wealthl'" sounds as though the soul had refused to continue the argument. Sethe. the man contemplates suicide. for thy (fate) is still death. which is innocent. . who pilots the sun barque. 89-154. (so that) thou mayest scorn another soul (45) as inert. the dead on the dyke-(65) the waters take hold of an end of him. The beginning of the manuscript is lost. He makes the journey by towing (the boat). (though) thy name may live. as (those of) the weary ones. see the Song of the Harper (p. Let Isdes .). 1928). He then longs for the advocacy of the gods and conceives of himself as pleading his case before a divine tribunal. it is good for men to listen. H the soul will only agree.2). (yet) drioest me to death ere I come to it..7. one should give himself up to pleasure. Since he finds life unbearable.9. and in Dutch by A. (like) any criminal saying: 'I shall carry thee off. that it might answer what I had said: "If thou art thinking of burial. (because) his feast day is apwith the proprieties of funerary observance. (15) May it be near to me on the day of misfortune and wait on that side . Behold. at whose burial a survivor has stood. . that is heart's distress. and draws me on toward death before (I) have come to it and casts (me) upon the flame to burn me up ." their offering-stones are as bare. Gesprdch. Let Khonsu. thou wilt not find a place where thou canst settle down in the West. "Ex Oriente Lux"-Mededeelingen en Verbandelingen. 1937. They who build in granite and who hew out chambers in a pyramid. His soul vacillates. in French in BIFAO. it will be fortunate. judge me.. then the death will effectively be like a normal death.. Weill. my soul wrongs me. without (35) caring about thee. Let [not] my soul go away. .Fables and Didactic Tales Egyptian Didactic Tales (Translator: A DISPUTE John A. . Leipzig. I shall make a shelter-now it must not be (too) cool-( so that) thou mayest scorn another soul which is (too) hot. 2 The soul makes the sharp retort that the man seems to be concerned 2 1 This 1 said: "I have not departed as long as these things are neglected. when the established order of life had broken down and men were groping for new values. make (20) the West pleasant for me! Is that (so) bad? Life is a circumscribed period: (even) the trees must fall. then proposes an abandonment to a life of careless pleasures. The man wishes to seek death by fire. because of the uncertainties of death. Pleasant would be the defense (30) of a god for the secrets of my body. it should wait for me because of . 8 That is. (so that) he is left on the hillside. . (25) Let Re. It is like abandoning me.:" What my soul said to me: "Art thou not a man? Art thou . He who carries (men) off forcibly will take." If thou delayest (50) me from a death of this fashion.' It is really too great to be exaggerated.. hear my speech." (But) yonder is a place for settling down. are dead. 86-92. Pursue the happy day and forget care! "The poor man plows his plot of ground and loads his harvest (70) into a ship's hold. It is a bringing of tears. 1947). . the Song of the Harper urges that.. NO." 1 opened my mouth to my soul. who art too stupid to subdue wretchedness over life. In the same way. 467 below). and its heart agrees with me. defend me. cines Lcbcnsmiiden mit seiner Seelc (APAW. I shall drink at the watering place and shall . It was translated in Erman. until my heir has appeared. good men in good work. from the disturbed times between the Old and Middle Kingdoms (end of the third millennium B. then fears that suicide will entail the danger that the man will have no mortuary service from his survivors. It will not (IO) thereby succeed in escaping from the day of misfortune. LAE. my soul and my brother." Listen to me.

treacherous (75) with crocodiles in the night. 12 His wife. Behold. my name will reek through thee" More than the stench of bird-droppings '* On summer days. my name will reek through thee More than the stench of fishermen. To whom can I speak today? Men are plundering. More than sitting in the assembly among the crocodiles. my name will reek through thee More than the stench of crocodiles. (though) there is no coming forth from the West for her. 12 (But) 1 am concerned about her (unborn) children. One has recourse to strangers for uprightness of heart. is presented in four poems consisting of rristichs of uniform theme and structure: (a) the man's name will be in evil odor. Perhaps the rebellious town shows a peaceful exterior while it is plotting within" 19 "I speak to whom today?"-with whom can I have any friendly and satisfactory contact in times like these?" 20 There is disregard for the lessons of the past. Behold. including grateful response for good services. when the sky is hot. To whom can I speak today? No one thinks of yesterday. 18 Uncertain. The soul's implication would then be that a poor man cannot ask for the luxury of death with an elaborate funeral. with whom one worked." At last he sits down. Of which (only) the outside can be seen. Behold. "He belongs to his rival!"l1 Behold. if he follows the advice of his soul. he tows his boat for greater speed. a prey to crocodiles. To whom can I speak today? The foul fiend is an intimate. when the sky is hot. 11 Before he reaches home a storm comes up. To whom can I speak today? There are no righteous. (c) death is a release from such miseries. (but) his wife says to him: 'It's for supper!' He goes out-ofdoors to grumble for a while. More than a covert of reeds with waterfowl. No man has a heart upon which one may rely." To whom can 1speak today? (One's) fellows are evil. To whom can I speak today? (IIO) (Though) a man should arouse wrath by his evil character. To whom can I speak today? Hearts are rapacious. No one at this time acts for him who has acted. he is vigilant in the ship when Re retires. who saw the face of the crocodile-god (80) before they had (even) lived 1>13 "The poor man asks for an afternoon meal. To whom can I speak today? Faces have disappeared: Every man has a downcast face toward his fel(120) lows.'° When he sees the forthcoming of an evening of high water. (b) the people of his day are wholly hostile and unscrupulous. has become an enemy.?" I opened my mouth to my soul. that 1 might answer what it had said:" Behold. and his wife and children are lost. To whom can I speak today? Hearts are rapacious: Every man seizes his fellow's goods. More than the stagnant pools which they have fished. 13 This parable of the poor man who loses his children by accident is probably meant to persuade the man that the only proper death is the normal death. most of which have to do with fetid smells.FABLES AND DIDACTIC TALES proaching. with his wife and his children being lost on the lake. my name will reek through thee (More than) a treacherous town. when he can take part in speech. 16 "Behold. my name will reek through thee More than a (married) woman Against whom a lie has been told because of a man. He (only) stirs everyone to laughter. Goodness is rejected everywhere. Behold. (85) unresponsive to communications. 15 The man's argument. his wife is (still) experienced in him: that he does not listen to her (but) grumbles. saying: 'I am not weeping for that mother. (so) wicked is his sin. (To whom can I speak today?) The gentle man has perished." It is whispered of the boy that he is the child of his father's rival. for another (time) on earth. To whom can I speak today? (Men) are contented with evil. my name will reek through thee (More than) a fish-handler On the day of the catch. (But) the violent man has access to everybody." plots To whom can I speak today?" (One's) fellows are evil. One has recourse to an unknown to complain to him. Behold. The land is left to those who do wrong. To whom can 1 speak today? There is lack of an intimate (friend). 17 "To his hated one. If he comes back into the house and is like another man. by dying in this way. Every man seizes his fellow's (goods). which rebellion. cannot "come forth by day" to enjoy continued contacts with this life. as do those who die normally and are given normal funerary service. by which he finally wins over his soul. (and so) comes out (safely). broken in the egg. It seems to say that a poor man cannot expect to eat in the late afternoon and also in the evening. my name is overllooded (with bad odor) from thee"followed by a series of comparisons. my name will reek through thee (100) More than a sturdy boy of whom it is said: 10 Because he is in a hurry to reach home for his feast. . my name will reek through thee More than the stench of bird-droppings. 14 This parable is not clear. (90) Behold. (But) a brother. To whom can I speak today? There is no one contented of heart. (d) the dead have access to the gods. The friends of today do not love.

FABLES AND DIDACTIC TALES 407 to its That man with whom one went. After he has spent many years held in captivity. 21 22 .5 They who live on in the realm of the dead will share in the privileges of the gods. 26 Death by /ire is likened to a burnt offering. Causing that the choicest (offerings) therein be given to the temples. whatever it may be. Like a man fowling thereby for what he knew It has come (to its end).'?" "Death is in my face todav'v=-in such times. (155) its beginning end. 23 Obscure. "Verily. my brother! (Although) thou be offered up on the brazier. Thus we shall make a home together. Like sitting on the bank of drunkenness. Death is in my sight today" (Like) the recovery of a sick man." (150) (still) thou shalt cling to life. Death is in my sight today Like the odor of myrrh Like sitting under an awning on a breezy day. Not hindered from appealing to Re when he speaks. not. as found in writing. or whether it be desirable that thou reach the West and thy body join the earth. Death is in my sight today Like the clearing of the sky. he who is yonder" Will be a living god. To whom can I speak today? The sin which treads the earth. Why surely.. Whether it be desirable that I (remain) here (because) thou hast rejected the West. Death is in my sight today Like the odor of lotus blossoms. 21 The soul is successfully won over to the idea of suicide and will share the man's fate. There would be no more obloquy to this than to its modern counterpart: going on a picnic to the beach. 23 (140) Death is in my sight today Like the longing of a man to see his house (again). he who is there will be"-he who is over there in the realm of the dead. Like the return of men to their houses from an expedition. he who is yonder Will stand in the barque of the sun." Death is in my sight today Like the passing away of rain. 2. It has no end. he who is yonder Will be a man of wisdom. he no (longer) exists. To whom can I speak today? I am laden with wretchedness For lack of an intimate (friend). thou who belongest to me. 2. Why surely." Why surely. Like going out into the open after a confinement. I look upon death as--. Punishing a sin of him who commits it. I shall come to rest after thou hast relaxed (in death). as thou sayest. What my soul said to me: "Set mourning aside. Perhaps unexpectedly good weather permits a man to go fowling.

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