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The Effects of Drama Exercise on Stress

Ivan Christopher C. Albano

Stress is a result of different stressors. This paper aims to deal with stressors in order to feel relief due to the pressure and the tension of stress. Although the stress level did not change for the experimental group and the control group the sense of relief is very apparent to which the experimental group obtained a very high sense of relief compared to the control group. The Cronbachs alpha of the stress test is 0.881 and the Cronbachs alpha of the relief test is 0.874. The t-test scores are [(t(58)=-.162, p>.05)] for the analysis of the stress level pre-test, [(t(58)=.282,p> 0.05)] for the analysis of the stress level post-test both the analysis used independent sample t-test.[(t(29)=3.313, p>0.05)] for the analysis of the pre-test and post-test of the control group and, [(t(29)=1.313, p>0.05)] for the analysis of the pre-test and the post test of the experimental group both of these analysis used paired sample t-test. [(t(58)=-15.265, p<0.05)] for the analysis of the relief of both groups independent sample t-test was used. According to this data there is no significant difference between the stress levels of the participants but the sense of relief experienced by the participant there is a significant difference.

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High school years should be a great experience, but many demands and rapid changes can make them one of the most stressful times of life. Students today face increasing amounts of schoolwork, rapidly changing curriculum, assignment deadlines and exams. They also have to worry about selecting careers and post secondary programs, and they must balance schoolwork with sports, hobbies and social life. They have conflicts with parents, friends, and siblings. They also have to cope with unpredictable moods, concerns about appearance, fitting in with a peer group - and also handle love relationships and sexuality. Money is always a worry, as is dealing with issues of alcohol and drugs - and now there's a new fear of violence in and around schools. As if that wasn't enough, they have to deal with all this while undergoing rapid physical and emotional changes - and without the benefit of life experience (Rainham 2011). Stress is something that needs to be managed if not it can cause sickness, irritability, sleeping disorders, muscle pain, eating disorder, anxiety, overusing stimulants, and many more (www.stress.org, 2009). This research aims to help manage stress by the use of drama exercises. The research problem is does drama exercises reduce stress.. The present study was designed to help students in the high school level with the use of drama exercises to reduce their stress levels. The alternative hypothesis for this research is that drama exercises lessened the stress level of an individual who participated during the researchers seminar and workshop.
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Conceptual Framework Lessens/ increases stress/ gaining a sense of Relief

Drama exercises

Stress is any factor that can cause tension or pressure to an individual, stress is a force which is repressed most of the times. Upon the application of drama exercises the stress level might change there might be an increase or decrease and drama exercises could also cause a sense of relief or temporary decrease in stress.

Review of Literature Managing the level of stress in your life is important because it not only can make you happier and more productive, but healthier as well. Studies show that high stress levels can take a big toll on the body that can catch up with you later in life. (www.healia.com, 2009). Drama therapy uses the healing aspects of drama and theater as a therapeutic process and using drama therapy helps with an individuals motivation, selfesteem, confidence, creativity and specially managing stress. Drama therapy uses drama exercises which will be the main focus of this research. Can drama exercises help with the management of stress? Stress Stress is any factor that can cause tension or pressure to an individual. Stress is constant. Everybody experiences stress. Stress can be good but too much stress becomes bad. A good level of stress happens when you experience the pressure to do your work or task at the allotted time. In this case, it can be bad stress when you dont have enough time to finish your task or when youre bombarded by the work that needs to be accomplished. Stress is apparent in everybodys lives. As we grow up, however, the type of stimulus that initiates stress changes dramatically. These stressors are relationship stress, career or job stress, school stress, health and welfare stress. All of these seem to increase as we pass different stages of development (Saskatchewan, 2004). On the positive side, these stimuli that cause stress are perfect for developing (EQ) Emotional Quotient which is more important than (IQ) Intelligence Quotient as many experts would claim in predicting the future success in work of a person. The EQ includes the awareness your own emotions, strengths, limitations, self esteem, responsibility, empathy, self-control, and setting high standards as you face the obstacles in your future line of work.

The body has a similar set of responses to many different kinds of trauma or demands. Physical and psychological stresses trigger the same kinds of response (Hyde and Forsyth, 2008). This research will be concentrated on the stress that the high school students experience. Stress is a reaction to a certain change that needs a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. Stress can come from any situation which makes you feel frustrated, angry, nervous, or anxious. Stress is caused by an existing stress-causing factor or "stressor according to Morrow (2011) there are two categories of stressors external and internal stressors. External stressors are the environment such as heat or cold, stressful psychological environment, such as working conditions and abusive relationships, while internal stressors is the condition of the person, such as sickness like infection or inflammation, or psychological problems, such as worrying about something. (Chapman, 2006) Stress is proven beyond doubt to make people ill, and evidence is increasing as to number of ailments and diseases caused by stress. Stress is now known to contribute to heart disease; it causes hypertension and high blood pressure, and impairs the immune system. Stress is also linked to strokes, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ulcers, diabetes, muscle and joint pain, miscarriage during pregnancy, allergies, alopecia and even premature tooth loss (Chapman, 2006). Stress significantly reduces brain functions such as memory, concentration, and learning, all of which are central to effective performance at work (Chapman, 2006). Why is stress relief important? Stress can cause sickness and it lessens brain functions. Stress relief would increase our abilities, options, solutions, resources or the time we need. It is experienced when there is an imbalance (Himmelrich, 2010). Drama Exercise as stress reliever According to a news report in Russia, the playback theater uses drama exercises in order to relieve stress. Playback is a mixture of art and therapy. It will not lessen your stress level straight away, but as a method, it helps people overcome emotions and it gives you a sense of relief. Its spontaneous, creative and inspiring stated by Alexander Metilov, an actor and a psychiatrist, who underwent the therapy. The intervention in this program is the usage of impromptu acting and the story line is someones life. (rt.com, 2007) The art of drama has lots of effect on a person. First, it develops confidence; it helps you trust your own ideas and abilities. Next, it stimulates our imagination; it helps us be creative in making our choices. It also induces empathy. In this case, it develops your compassion and tolerance towards other people. Another thing is that it helps us in cooperating with others. This is where you are able to collaborate with other people and share your creative ideas. It improves concentration. It also involves the improvement of focus, alerting the mind, proper movement of the body, voice projection and communication. Drama enhances verbal and non-verbal expression, as well as problem solving being able to be quick in thinking up of a solution. (ex. When the scene partner forgets lines) The last two most important effects of drama which is very much related to the researchers topic, is emotional outlet and relaxation Emotional outlet because drama allows you to release a range of emotions in a safe controlled environment, and
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relaxation because many drama activities reduce stress which is the main purpose of the study. Drama helps in the reduction of mental, physical, and emotional tension. Other Benefits includes trust, fitness, memory improvement, and aesthetic appreciation (Project, 2004). Drama exercises are part of drama therapy which initiates the expression of experiences that are difficult to talk about. Drama therapy allows people to reduce isolation, and enjoy a safe space and receive emotional support. (Jennings, 1994) It is often used for acting out and finding a safe space to express oneself. (Lamb, 2009) Drama therapies are also used to assist the patient in the expression of themselves either by acting out how they feel about certain events or issues that they are experiencing (Lamb, 2009). It is active and experiential, giving opportunity to explore inner experience and life roles through dramatic representation and to develop interpersonal relationship skills. (Douge, 2003) Drama exercise can decrease stress hormones' like cortisol, and increase endorphins, your body's feel-good chemicals, giving your mood a natural boost (stressabout.com, 2011). Overall, these articles indicated that stress is constant and apparent to everyones life and stress has positive and negative effects but most of the time stress elicits negative effects. The articles also indicated that drama therapy is used for the relief of stress. But it does not Identify which activity in drama therapy reduces stress. Therefore the researcher wanted to identify if drama exercises is the part of drama therapy which reduces stress.

Methodology Research Design The researcher used an experimental design to see if the drama exercise had an effect on the reduction of stress. The independent variable is the drama exercises and the dependent variable is the reduction of stress/ relief of stress. In order to deal with cause and effect relationship a researcher must use experimental method/ approach to control the environment which the experiment will be held. The experimental group received the workshop after the seminar about stress while the control group received the workshop after the relief test. Participants and Sampling The participants of this study are the students of the school Our Lady Of Pilar Montessori Center 30 students from the 4th year Vatican and 30 students from the 3rd year Ravena, participated in the experiment. They were selected because the majority of the drama enthusiast is in this year and they will be able to use this exercises as a tool in order to improve their skills in the drama department and it will help the fourth year students will be able to use this technique in order to deal with their upcoming thesis as stated by the directress. There are 60 participants. The participants were grouped into 2
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with 30 members. Group A and group B they both experienced the seminar/workshop but the time varied in order to have a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group will be the first ones to experience the workshop afterwards the control group will be experiencing the workshop after the last test. After the experimental group receives the stress test, the workshop and the relief stress the control group will receive the workshop. The experiment concluded after the control group and the experimental group received the relief stress and the event afterwards is for the control group to learn what the experimental group learned beforehand. Instruments During this experiment the researcher used a projector and a laptop that aided him in his presentation. Then the researcher conducted a pen and paper test where in their stress level and the participants level of relief were measured and. the researcher used different drama exercises. The stress tests Cronbachs alpha is 0.88. This would show that the stress measurement has a high reliability, the test has 41 items. The range of the scores falling under a category was calculated by the researcher. The researcher started at 41 because the lowest score that a test taker can get is 41 then he calculated if all the answers has a value of two what would be the starting point, then if all the answers were 3 on what point would the researcher start, if all the answers has a value of 4 what would be the starting point and if all the answers were 5 the researcher would identify the highest possible score. The scoring would identify the level of stress of a person. If the score is between 41-82 you have a relatively low stress which would not motivate you to do your task in other terms it will not stimulate you if your score is between 83-123 you have experienced the manifestation of stress sometimes and your stress level is on reasonably safe level your experiencing just the right stress level not unstimulating and not too much to handle, if your score is between 124-164 youre at risk of having too much stress you must manage it develop new strategies to reduce it and if your score is 165-205 you are already experiencing too much stress your physically drained and you need to seek professional help because it is un healthy and it could cause you to get sick stress can have lots of negative effects. The relief test has a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.87, the test has 10 items. If your score is 11-20 you have a very low level of relief if you have a score that ranges from 21-30 you have a low level of relief if you have a score between 31-40 you have a good level of relief if you have a score of 41-50 you have a high level of relief. The reliability was done using SPSS. To validate the test the researcher used content validity the researcher searched for the manifestation of stress then created subtopics such as physical, emotional and cognitive then after formulating the questions the researcher gave the made test to an expert for checking. Content validity was also used in validating the relief test the researcher searched for the manifestation of relief and then created question which was checked by an expert.

Procedure The researcher gave a letter to the directress and the principal in order to propose what the researcher wanted to do in relation to their school. After approval the researcher and the directress of the school set the date when the seminar/workshop will take place. On the event, the researcher conducted the seminar about stress as the first part of the event to serve as an introduction to the event for both group A and B. The researcher conducted a seminar so that the participants would have a background on the topic at hand which is stress management. After the seminar, the researcher grouped them randomly into two groups (group A and group B) and then the researcher gave a pen and paper test a stress leveling test in order to indicate the level of their stress and also to have a baseline on how stressed they are. Group A stayed in the same room while group B proceeded to another room. In group As room the researcher started the seminar with simple breathing exercises but after this they used the same principles of the exercises in to a more complicated exercise after which the next exercises about their attention to their environment had 2 exercises here. After which they experienced delivering line exercises there are also 2 exercises here (see appendixes drama exercises). These exercises helped the drama organization to reduce stress and to prepare the actors for an upcoming show. After the workshop for group A the researcher gave a different test which identified the sense of relief in order to see if the drama exercises did relieve the participants. After which group A was dismissed but group B stayed for their part of the workshop they also experienced the same workshop but the time of the administration of the workshop was delayed. After a week another test was conducted the post test of the stress leveling in order to see if there is a difference After the event the numbers were calculated and were interpreted to show if there is an effect to the reduction of stress by using the drama exercises. Statistical Analysis The researcher used t-test because the researcher used two sets of quantitative data which were collected independently from one another. It is used to identify the means of the test scores in order to identify the most common score and its average as well to be able to generalize the numbers given. Paired T-test is also used to establish a relationship between the post-test and the pre-test, if there is a difference with the leveling of stress. And 2 independent sample t-test were used to identify the difference of the test of the control group and the experimental group both the pre-test and the post test.

Results

101 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 control group experimental group

pre-test

The mean of the pre-test of the control group is 95.8 for the experimental group its 99.33. for the post test the mean of the control group is 100.47 while for the experimental group its 95.8. all of the mean falls under the scale of 83-123 which means that they have experienced the manifestation of stress sometimes and their stress level are on a reasonably safe level. The mean of the relief test for the control group is 26.7 which falls under the scale of 21-30 which means that they have a low level of relief while for the experimental group mean is 44.8 which falls under the scale of 41-50 which means that they have a high level of relief. The results of the mean of the pre-test of the stress level are 95.8 for the control group and 96.5 for the experimental group. They had no significant difference [(t(58)=.162, p>.05)]. The mean of the post-test of the control group average is 100.47, while the mean of the post-test of the experimental group is 99.33 they had no significant difference according to [(t(58)=.282,p> 0.05)]. The mean of the control group pre-test is 95.8 while the mean of the post test of the control group is 100.47 they had no significant difference according to [(t(29)=3.313, p>0.05)]. The mean of the experimental group pretest is 96.5 while the mean of the post test of the experimental group is 99.33 they had no significant difference according to [(t(29)=1.313, p>0.05)]. The researcher used mean as a measure of central tendency to identify the results. The stress level of both groups increased but there is no significant difference in their score. Although the stress level of the control and experimental group is almost the same they had no significant difference, the level of relief of the experimental group is relatively higher than the level of relief of the control group. After the experiment, the experimental group obtained a mean of 44.8 while the control group obtained a mean 26.7 they had a significant difference of [(t(58)=-15.265, p<0.05)] which shows that the experimental groups relief level is significantly higher than the level of relief of the control group.

Discussion As the seminar went on, the researcher asked the students to share their thoughts on stress. They stated that they get stressed because of scary professors, their exams and most especially school activities and schoolwork when they simultaneously happen. They also get stressed with relationship problems, not only romantic relationships, but also their relationship with their parents, peers, siblings and teachers and puberty is also a problem for them. Stress was apparent in every participant. Although their stressors are different from each other they all experience stress (Saskatchewan, 2004). After the work shop the students were asked What did you gain from this workshop?. The answers were repetitive their answers were: creativity, cooperation, presence of mind, proper breathing, confidence, stress management, projection of voice and alertness (Project, 2004). Majority of them enjoyed the researchers workshop. They told the researcher that they became more confident in speaking in public. They also claim to acquire new things that would be helpful for their future performances in the drama field. They were energetic after the workshop and majority of them do not want the workshop to end. They wanted the researcher to stay and continue with the exercises because they enjoyed it and they learned a lot.

Conclusions and Recommendation The researcher recommends that you should use drama exercise in order to increase the feeling of relief and to resort to drama exercises instead of other ways to relieve yourself from different factors. The researcher recommends using standardized test in order to measure relief and stress accurately. The researcher recommends that the drama exercises should be done at least 1 to 3 times a week in order to have better results in the reduction of stress. Although the drama exercises that was done in the experiment elicited a sense of stress relief towards the experimental group its effects the effects were temporary. As a conclusion drama exercise did relief stress (reduction of stress) but its effects are not permanent.

References

Chapman, A. (2006). Poor work place health. stress management , 1. David Rainham M.D., C. (2011). High School Stress. SelfGrowth.com. Douge, G. (2003). Healing the soul. ABC compass. Himmelrich, N. (2010). The Importance of Stress Relief. ezinearticles.com. Jennings, S. L.-5. (1994). The Handbook of Dramatherapy. london: routledge. Lamb, P. (2009). The Arts and Psychotherapy. ezinearticles.com. Margaret O.Hyde and Elizabeth H. Forsyth, M. (2008). Stress 101. Minneapolis, minnesota 55401 U.S.A: Twenty -First Century Books. Morrow. (2011). definition of stress. new york: about.com. Project, Y. A. (2004). The Benefits of Drama. Malibu: http://www.youngactorsproject.ca/www.youngactorsproject.ca/Benefits_of_Dram a.html. Saskatchewan. (2004). Adulthood Stress. saskchools.ca/~psychportal/index.htm.. rt.com. (2007). Muscovites turn to drama to relieve stress. hectic,russia: http://rt.com/news/prime-time/muscovites-turn-to-drama-to-relieve-stress/.

stressabout.com. (2011). stress relief. new york: new yourk times. www.healia.com. (2009). Why is stress managing important. Meridith corporation. www.stress.org. (2009). effects of stress. New York: stress.org.

Single Mothers in Makati: Their Parenting Style and Relationship to their Income
Joie Anne Cabalteja

The study is about the parenting style practiced by Makatis single mothers. The researcher selected respondents for this study with the use of purposive sampling method. A total of 50 respondents were gathered for this study. The data were collected using the parenting style scale by Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen and Hart (1995) of Brigham Young University in Utah. The result of this study shows that only two parenting styles that single mothers practice in Makati. These are authoritative and authoritarian. None of them uses permissive parenting style. Most of the authoritative admit that they are receiving high income of their salary while on the other hand, most of the single mothers that practice authoritarian as a parenting style said that they belong in a low income.

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A love of a mother cannot be compared with anything else. A tender love of a mother is one of a kind. Mothers are provided by God to guide and to take care their child. Even though their child will destroy their most precious thing, they will still accept and love their child. They can erase all of the bad things that their child made to them but that would not be a vice versa. One of the hardest things a good mother must be willing to do is to show disapproval when she feels that the child has done something wrong, even though by doing so she may risk rejection from her child. Hearing a child say, "I hate you," is very difficult, but it is also important that children learn to follow the rules. Being a father and a mother at the same time is very hard to do. It takes a big heart to do this responsibility. Single mother nowadays are increasing. This are due to death, early pregnancy and some have their own reasons such as separated, their husband are in prison, relationship did not worked and other more. No one knows if these situations are unfortunate or only is these things are Gods plan. It is very interesting on how those single mothers raise their child or children on their own. Do they have the control or they give the authority to their child. Are they very strict or are they very cool mothers. This is where parenting styles comes in. Creating their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. Parenting style is affected by both a parent and children's temperaments, and is largely based on the influence of ones own parent and culture. Most parents learn parenting practices from their own parents wherein some they accept, some they discard. It shows that most of the single mothers who took the survey are authoritative. More than half belong to this category. Furthermore, these single mothers admitted that they received high income with their current job. Authoritative mothers are equal to their child; they give rules in which a child should follow however they are responsive to their
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childs feeling. They still give and take and give reasons regarding the rules that they are establishing unlike authoritarian mothers they only say I said so. On the other hand, authoritarian mothers are said to be strict and tend to favor punitive whenever the child cant obey towards the set of rules that was been set. Most of the single mothers that are authoritarian belong to low income. They seem to value money that is why they are very strict to their child. They normally set standard rules to their child and forcefully followed to it. If not they focus to punish in order to mold their child to accept all of the words that came to her. The researcher chose Makati as the location to conduct the study. Makati is known as the business center in the Philippines. These is where the main offices of banks, real estate, merchandising, shipping, embassy, electronics, information technology and many more. Moreover, most of the executive villages are in here and such as prestige shopping malls are located in Makati. Basically a lot of people work in the said location. A big percentage of gathering the respondents (single mother) will be quite easy. This research aims to find out what parenting style does single mothers practice, furthermore to know if the respondents belong to high or low income. And lastly the researcher wants to know if there is a significant relationship between salary and parenting style. And if there is a significant relationship the researcher can prove that income may affect on what parenting style does single mothers will do.

Review of Related Literature Single mother McEntire (2011), there are many mothers in the world, such as good and there are bad. Good mothers treat each child as an individual. A good mother realizes that each child is different from others. She understands that children are not just an extension of or born to be a helper for their parent, but that each child is an individual in their own right. They are allowing the child to follow that path, regardless of the mother's desires. Yet at the same time being there for the child to fall back on when that path seems too hard to follow. Often, they are willing to listen. One of the hardest thing a good mother must be willing to do is to show disapproval when she feels that the child has done something wrong, even though by doing so she may risk rejection from her child. Hearing a child say, "I hate you," is very difficult. But it is also important that children learn to follow the rules. Based from the article of Gardner (2010), a mother will give everything to her child even if it is not important to them but not to the extent that thing will do harm on her child. Mothers will always be there for their children because their children is made from their own flesh and they cared for their child so much that they are willing to sacrifice their own life to save their child. They, who are the offspring from a woman should always respect and never hurt the mother that they have because if they did not sacrifice their nine months in nurturing us, they would not be here in this world that we live in. Love your mothers because they are the only person that knows you best.
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From Hawks article in mother and child (2011), moms from conception on worry about their kids, and wants the best for them, and tries to give them the best they can. Kids are very satisfied with attention and affection from moms: however, moms always to seem to want to do more and give more. Unconditional love and physical wellbeing are how kids are happy and satisfied. The physical care for children seem the easiest to figure out: shelter, clothing, medical care, rest and exercise etc. Kids are happy to have the warmth and security of the home and family. These tasks are not always as simple as it seems. Rodenhiser (2007), stated, they may be divorced, widowed or had an early pregnancy and never been help by a husband or partner since then. A lot of aspects being a single mother do such as monetary, emotionally, physically and morally. Being a single mother is tough. Any single mothers out there have their own reasons for raising their child or children on their own, whether by personal preference or by being abandoned by a father who really just turned out to be a sperm donor. As a single mother, you will discover that the whole experience has its painful moments and its joyful ones. For sure they wanted to bring the best for their child. They do not want to repeat the things that happened to them. White (2011), divorce is probably the number one reason why someone becomes a single parent and delves into the waters of single parenting. It is said that the number one cause of divorce in the United States is a no fault divorce or irreconcilable differences. What this basically means is that the two parents could not get along, were not compatible, or just simply did not want to be married anymore. While this may sound like an easy way out, rest assured that almost everyone who goes through a divorce (especially when children are involved), think long and hard about it. It is a very difficult decision to make, and knowing that the children will no longer be the same is a huge factor in deciding to divorce and become a single parent. However, divorce is probably the easiest single parenting to do. Instead of being completely alone, you will most likely have child support and possibly alimony. You also still have the other parent in the childs life and you can begin a new stage of co-parenting instead of just single parenting. Andelin (2001), a single parent family is defined as a family which consists of one parent who is caring for his or her children in the home. This task poses great challenge, because of problems arising in raising children. Being a single parent has a lot of enjoyment but it is also often very difficult. There is essentially no buffer between the single parent and his/her children. Words like broken home devalue their family form. Children hear that their family is somehow different. Therefore, children of single parents are impacted in other ways, too. According to a study by Dr. Marion Lindblad-Goldberg (2001), these children are at significantly higher risk for teen pregnancy acting-out behaviors, substance abuse and idleness. Children are not impacted negatively, however, when mothers coping skills and sense of control/mastery over her life are well-developed and strong social and community supports are maintained. Beaubien (2009) said that there are some disadvantages of single parenting, however there are ways to surpass these with thought, planning and organization. There
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are various types of single mothers; those who were widowed or had an early pregnancy, and never been helped by a true husband or partner since then. One of those disadvantages are lack of support such as monetary and emotionally support. If they lucky they will have family nearby who supported them, but if not what do they do? A good source of help can often be single mothers local library; they will likely be able to give you information about statutory provided support for parents, and voluntary organizations. According to Parron (2008), single parents often worry that their children will somehow be damaged from living in a single parent family. While a single parent family may not be the ideal situation for raising children, many two-parent families are also less than desirable. Kids can actually benefit from living in a single parent family. Results of studies have indicated that a home filled with conflict is the least desirable home environment for children. When the child's prior two-parent household included frequent fighting and discord between the adults, the child can benefit from living in a one-parent home provided that the conflict is stopped. A parent who is no longer devoting time to warring with a partner may have more energy to give to the kids. According to Mark Mather (2011), in the United States, the number of children in single-mother families has risen dramatically over the past four decades; causing considerable concern among policymakers and the public. Researchers have identified the rise in single-parent families as a major factor driving the long-term increase in child poverty in the United States. The effects of growing up in single-parent households have been shown to go beyond economics, increasing the risk of children dropping out of school, disconnecting from the labor force, and becoming teen parents. Although many children growing up in single-parent families succeed, others will face significant challenges in making the transition to adulthood. Children in lower-income, single-parent families face the most significant barriers to success in school and the work force. Here in the Philippines, according to Ortigas (2002), the number of single parents or mothers in the Philippines has grown rapidly through the decades that have passed and this growing sector in the Philippines will continue to rise as society grows and changes through time. Because solo-parent families are now so prominent in society, they have become a vital subculture that will have to be accepted as a legitimate and valid unit of society There are at least three million single parents in the Philippines, or 4 percent of the country's total 76.5 million population as of 2000, based on statistics collated from various official sources. That means there is a single parent in every group of 25 people, or in practically every medium-size office, or in every three or four households in a village. Assuming that every single parent has at least one child that brings to at least six million the number of citizens who may experience various degrees of prejudice because of their status. Based on the 1995 surveys of the National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO), there were 2.28 million Filipinos who were either widowed or separated from their spouses. The NCSO surveys do not show if those registered as single have children or may have regained their status after an annulled marriage. According to estimates by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), there were almost 700,000 unwed mothers as of 2000. (Ortigas, 2002).

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Ortigas (2002), said that this problem is more common for single mothers with sons, when their son reaches puberty the mother is unable to relate to her son especially in the subject of sex and the changes in his body. A young adolescent boy going through puberty is often in need of a fatherly figure to find his own identity as a man and when the father is absent, the child is more withdrawn from his peers and has difficulties in developing his own positive personality. This is when the need for a father figure must be recognized back into the family or in the rearing of the child, in the event that there is no father figure to guide the child, alternative models of men of good moral and good stature can be a substitute to help the child in finding his identity Based on the interviews conducted by the researcher with daughter's of single mothers, she can say that the need for fatherly advice with daughter's is sometimes more of the mother's need, the single mother finds trouble when her daughter, because of the absence of a father will most likely be more engaged in relationships with boys/men in trying to find the father figure in them, so in turn the need for the fatherly advice to come in is crucial and the love of a father felt by the child. (Ortigas 2002). Parenting style According to Baumrind (2004), there are many ideas about how to rear children. Some parents adopt the ideas their own parents used. Others get advice from friends. Some read books about parenting. Others take classes offered in the community. No one has all the answers. However, psychologists and other social scientists now know what parenting practices are most effective and are more likely to lead to positive outcomes for children. The authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of the child in accordance with a set standard of conduct, usually an absolute standard, theologically motivated and formulated by a higher authority. She (the parent) values obedience as a virtue and favors punitive, forceful measures to curb selfwill at points where the child's actions or beliefs conflict with what she thinks is right conduct. She does not encourage verbal give and take, believing that the child should accept her word for what is right. The second parenting style is the authoritative parent attempts to direct the child's activities but in a rational, issue-oriented manner. She encourages verbal give and take, shares with the child the reasoning behind her policy, and solicits his objections when he refuses to conform. Both autonomous self-will and disciplined conformity are valued. She enforces her own perspective as an adult, but recognizes the child's individual interests and special ways. Uses reason, power, and shaping by regime and reinforcement to achieve her objectives, and does not base her decisions on group consensus or the individual child's desires. And lastly, the permissive parent attempts to behave in a no punitive, acceptant and affirmative manner towards the child's impulses, desires, and actions. The mother consults with him the child about policy decisions and gives explanations for family rules. She makes few demands for household responsibility and orderly behavior. She presents herself to the child as a resource for her to use as she wishes, neither as an ideal for her to emulate, nor as an active agent responsible for shaping or altering her ongoing or future behavior. She allows the child to regulate her own activities as much as possible, avoids the exercise of control, and does not encourage her to obey externally defined standards. She attempts to use reason and manipulation, but not overt power to accomplish her ends.
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Income Regarding to those single mother that is in a low income level, Washington make study examined the problems and support systems of 64 single mothers living in Whitman County, Washington -those with an income below 125% of the nationally established poverty level. This study involved interviewing single mothers in their homes and asking questions about some selected problems they have, their relationships with friends and relatives, community support, agency services, and interest in taking various educational courses. The sample was obtained from the Whitman County Regional Planning Council (WCRPC), the county agency administering the programs of rent subsidy, energy assistance, weatherization, and community services provided through the Community Services State Block Grant (Gladow, 2005). According to Prof. Dooley (2011) from McMaster University, Canada, a positive relationship between income and parenting style outcomes has been observed in data from numerous countries. A key question concerns the extent to which this association represents a causal relationship as opposed to unobserved heterogeneity. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Mother to implement a series of empirical strategies for estimating the existence and size of the effect of income on behavioral-emotional outcomes. We also examine the role of parenting style. Our results indicate that there is a huge evidence of an effect of income on behavioral-emotional scores. The exclusion of parenting style from the models was found to not bias the estimated income effect, but parenting style was found to have a consistent impact on child outcomes regarding them if they are rich or poor. Synthesis Mothers are made to take care and guide their child. They will give everything to their child but not to the extent that will harm their child. Unfortunately, there are cases that mothers raise their child alone. They become single mother because of death of a partner, due to early pregnancy and others. With this kind of situation, single mothers are facing hardship when it comes to raising their child. There are a lot of single mothers but they have one goal and that is to raise their child in their best own way. Here in the Philippines, based from the statistics of NCSO numbers of single parent itself is growing over 4 decades. Last 2000, roughly 700,000 unwed mothers are estimated by this organization. It is very evident that single mothers, has a huge number in Philippine population. Regarding to income it has a significant relationship from parenting style. According to Prof Dooley, parenting style has a consistent impact on child regarding if they are rich or poor.

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Conceptual Framework

Income (high and low income single mother)

Parenting style

Figure 1 Fig. 1 shows that parenting style is dependent to income of the single mothers.

Methodology Research Design The researcher used descriptive design. Frequencies percentages and cross tabulations were used in the data analysis. Descriptive design is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. This design aims to summarize a data set, rather than used the data to learn about the population that the data are thought to represent. Participants Out of 62 single mothers, 50 of them took the survey. These are single mothers, currently working in Makati. 16.66% or 10 single mothers belong in shipping industry, 10% or 5 single mothers belong in Service industry, 16% or 8 single mothers belong in Manufacturing industry, 10% or 5 single mothers belong in Transportation industry, 2% or 1 single mother belong in Embassy, 6% or 3 single mothers belong in Electronics industry, 10% or 5 single mothers belong in Merchandising industry, 10% or 5 single mothers belong in Entertainment industry, 4% or 2 single mothers belong in Health and industry, 4% or 2 single mothers belong in Cosmetics industry and lastly 8% or 4 belong in Insurance industry. Out of 50 single mothers 64% or 32 of them admitted that they received high income and on the other hand 36% or 18 of them said that they received low income.

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Type of Industry: Shipping Service Manufacturer Transportation Embassy Electronics Merchandising Entertainment Health and Medicine Cosmetics Insurance Total

Death 3 1 3 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 12

Early Pregnancy 3 3 4 1 0 2 3 1 0 1 2 20

Others 4 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 18

Total 10 5 8 5 1 3 5 5 2 2 4 50

These respondents are single mothers due to death of a husband or widowed 24% (12), early pregnancy 40% (20) and others 36% (18). There is no age requirement but at least they should be 5 years of being a single mother. (see appendix) The researcher used descriptive design for this study. Its role is to gather data that would make this study more comprehensive and to figure out all of the information and facts that are needed. The researcher used survey as a tool to fill up all necessary information that this study requires, moreover, descriptive design will be applied in this study. Descriptive design aims to summarize a data set, rather than use the data about the population that the data are thought to represent. Instruments Parenting style questionnaire was used by the researcher. The scale was based from C. Robinson, B. Mandleco, S. Olsen and C. Hart. This scale is about parenting style and is categorized by authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practice. All data were measured by the scale that the researcher used. For authoritative there are 13 questions, for authoritarian there are 13 questions also and on permissive there are 4 questions. Scores range from Never to Always on a 5-point scale. At the end of each section, researcher added up the scores and divided it by the number of questions in that section. The calculated score is the total score for that category. The highest score indicates the preferred parenting style.

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Procedure First the request letter is presented to different companies for the researcher to have an access to those single mothers that are working in the said location. This request letter is passed to the administrative office which allows the researcher to inform those possible respondents to agree to answer the survey. When the participants replied positively, the researcher then sent the questionnaire through email. It is much easier for the respondents and researcher as well to gathered data that are needed. It is due to the problem of time that respondents have to answer the survey. Most of them prefer answering the survey when they are not at work. Researcher used kwiksurvey.com as a tool for the survey. Regarding with the single mother (family member or friend) all of them also took the survey through online.

Results Results of the survey showed that single mothers in Makati had only 2 types of parenting styles. These are authoritative and authoritarian. Majority 84% (42) of mothers practiced authoritative parenting style while only 16% (8) practiced authoritarian parenting style. More than half of 71% (30) of those who practice authoritative said that they receive high income in their salary, while 29% (12) of them received low income. For authoritarian single mothers, 75% (6 of 8) said that they received low income and only 25% (2) tells that they think they have high income. None of the surveyed mothers reported to have permissive parenting style. Types of parenting style: Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Types of parenting style: Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive High Income 71% (30) 25% (2) 0 High Income 71% (30) 25% (2) 0 Low Income 29% (12) 75% (6) 0 Low Income 29% (12) 75% (6) 0 Total 84% (42) 16% (8) 0 Total 84% (42) 16% (8) 0

With this result, it shows that majority of single mothers in the said locations are authoritative. Whereas it shows the relationship of the income to the parenting style that single mother practice. Like for authoritarian single mothers which most of them admitted that they receive low income, with this they tend to be strict by setting rules and favor punitive because they only have limited regarding in financial. It shows that their income has a relationship towards on what parenting style that they are practicing. On the other hand, authoritative single mothers which most of them admitted that they receive high income, with this they tend to be lax and more responsive to their child compare to authoritarian single mothers.
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Discussion The result of this study showed that 84% of the respondents are authoritative, 16% of them are authoritarian and none of them are permissive. The percentage of the low paid single mothers was dominant in the authoritarian parenting style. This may signify that since single mothers who belong to a low income are strict to their children to teach them responsibility. A woman who works hard for a living will not suit in letting their children fail so they must have their way on their children. On the other hand, there is a high percentage of high paid mothers on the Authoritative parenting style. This may convey that well paid mothers tend to listen to their children and ask their opinion because they can afford to let their children experiment on what they want. Since their monetary issue is not much of a problem, Authoritative single mothers tend to be a little bit more lax than authoritarian single mothers. Based from Diana Baumrind, authoritative parent attempts to direct the child's activities but in a rational, issue-oriented manner. She encourages verbal give and take, shares with the child the reasoning behind her policy, and solicits his objections when he refuses to conform. Both autonomous self-will and disciplined conformity are valued. She values both expressive and instrumental attributes both autonomous self-will and disciplined conformity. Therefore she exerts firm control at points of parent-child divergence, but does not hem the child in with restrictions. She enforces her own perspective as an adult, but recognizes the child's individual interests and special ways. The authoritative parent affirms the child's present qualities, but also sets standards for future conduct. She uses reason, power, and shaping by regime and reinforcement to achieve her objectives, and does not base her decisions on group consensus or the individual child's desires (Baumrind, 2008). According to Beaubien (2009), he said that there are some problems that single mother are facing, however there are ways to surpass these with thought, planning and organization. There are various types of single mother; they may be divorced, widowed or had an early pregnancy and never been help by a true husband or partner since then. One of those disadvantages is lack of support such as monetary and emotionally support. (Beaubien, 2009) This is where authoritarian comes in. Based from the results most of the authoritarian are low paid single mothers. It turned out that there are more high paid participants in the study. 36 of the 50 participants or 72% belong to the high paid single mothers. This may be because the study was conducted in the Legaspi, Makati area where there are more high paying companies like shipping, electronics, merchandising, trading and embassy.

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Conclusions and Recommendation Based on the results of this study, most of them practice authoritative as their parenting style. Respondents average age are 33 years old and most of the respondents occupation were employee. These mothers show that they are very understanding to their child or children when they are upset. Furthermore, even planning for family they still consider their childrens preferences. These mothers are supportive to their children; they respect their childs opinion and encourage him or her to express them. 16% of the respondents are authoritarian; it shows that out of 50 there are only 8 mothers that practice this kind of parenting style. These mothers are very strict to their child. Authoritarian mothers set rules to their child; if they get angry they yell and bring back the past behavior of her child so that their child will not do it again. And lastly, permissive mothers, none of the respondents are like this. This parenting style shows that they spoil they child and also ignore the bad behavior of their child. The researcher suggests that future study like this should have pick locations such as squatters area, executive villages, call center establishments, governments offices and living in a typical houses, so that the study would provide more information regarding single mothers that are in a different social level. Probably there are differences about the parenting style that they do whether they are rich or poor and working or nonworking.

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References

Andelin, H. (2001). Single Parents and Single Parenting. Single parent. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.jpsimbulan.com/2008/02/10/single-parents-andsingle-parenting/ Baumrind, D. (2008). Parents. Prototypical Descriptions of 3 Parenting Styles. Retrieved, September 10, 2011from http://www.devpsy.org/teaching/parent/baumrind_styles.html Beaubien, C. (2009, July 3). About motherhood. Disadvantages of single mother. Retrieved, July 5, 2011 from http://www.all-aboutmotherhood.com/disadvantages-of-single-parenting.html Cherry, K. (n.a). Parenting Styles. The Four Styles of Parenting. Retreived, August 1, 2011 http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/parentingstyle.htm Gardner, H. (2010, January 12). All about mother. Mother. Retrieved, June 12, 2011 from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-4246252.html Hawk, L. (2011). Relationship Advice. Mother and Child. Retrieved December 20, 2011 from http://www.essortment.com/relationship-advice-mother-child-37342.html Ianneli, R. (2004, December 13). Parenting Styles. Find Your Style Of Parenting. Retrieved July 3, 2011 from http://pediatrics.about.com/od/infantparentingtips/a/04_pntg_styles.htm Jesri, T. (2011, March 11). Essay Forum. A Good Mother. Retrieved July 3, 2011 from http://www.essayforum.com/writing-feedback-3/definition-essay-good-mother28001/ Mather , M.(2011). Population Reference Bureau. U.S. Children in Single-Mother Families. Retrieved, October 4, 2011 from http://www.prb.org/Publications/PolicyBriefs/singlemotherfamilies.aspx McEntire, T. (2011). Parenting Advice. Characteristics of a Good Mother. Retrieved from September 2, 2011 from http://parenting.families.com/blog/characteristics-of-agood-mother Ortigas, K. (2011, April 11). Solo Parents. Single Mothers. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from http://effectivepapers.blogspot.com/2011/04/research-paper-on-singlemothers.html Parron, A. (2008, July 25). She Radiance. Single parenting. Retrieved, July 25, 2011 from http://www.ayushveda.com/womens-magazine/single-parenting/

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Robinson, C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H. (1995). Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports, 77, 819-830. Retrieved August 15, 2011 from http://www.comprehensivepsychology.com.au/PARENTING%20STYLE%20QU ESTIONNAIRE.pdf Rodenhiser, Y. (2007, June 20). Associated Content. Life as a Single Mother: Why You Should Never Give Up or Inadequate. Retrieved June 10, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/279349/life_as_a_single_mother_why_ you_should.html?cat=2 White, C. (2011). Single Parent. Various reasons for single parenting. Retrieved December 20, 2011 from http://www.singleparentcenter.net/singleparenting/reasons-for-single-parenting.html

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Psychosocial Factors that Affect Employee Happiness In the Rural Bank of Mt. Carmel
Kevin Cadiz

Businesses drive the economy of the country, but what drives these businesses? They are the employees. For every business to succeed, it is important for the management to value its employees and make sure that they are happy within the organization. A happy employee will always be productive and productive workers produce better results. The rural banking industry of the country is of no exception. In this study, the researcher used the pakikipagkwentuhan method of Filipino Psychology to find out the psychosocial factors that affect an employees happiness in a rural bank office environment. The researcher has found that having a good boss, maintaining close relationships, amongst coworkers, their work responsibility, and financial matters played the biggest part in the employees happiness. And these factors are what made some of the employees stay with the Mt. Carmel Rural Bank until today.

________________________________________________________________________ The rural banks of the Philippines were established by the Rural Bank Act of 1952. The government defines rural banks as Government-sponsored or assisted banks (which are privately engaged and largely privately-owned) that provide credit facilities on reasonable terms to farmers and merchants, or to cooperatives of farmers and merchants, or in general, to the people of the rural community. They are classified into those with and without authority to accept demand deposits. Presently, there are 711 rural bank branches in the Philippines. Rural banks are still businesses and as such, it is important that the management take into consideration the backbone that drives and keeps this industry together: the employees. In a rural banking setting, the researcher had experienced first-hand the kind of working environment it had to offer as the researcher had once worked part-time in the said environment. The whole eight hours of repetitive approving, signing, withdrawing for clients is very monotonous and unrewarding. An employee of the lowest rank in a rural bank, a teller, only earns 8000 php per month (Gonzales, 2011). According to a document provided by the human resource department of a certain rural bank; improper turn-over which resulted in confusion of work duties caused the employees to be demoralized, add to that the lack of communication between manager and employee which caused recurring problems such as the amount of money given during the employees salary day are just some of the many problems that this rural bank faces (Gonzales, 2011). Despite these problems, the researcher had observed that most of the employees are wearing smiles. Their state of happiness helped them finish their work quotas for the day, with some even finishing ahead of time. The researcher pursued this study for this reason: what factors make these employees happy in this environment that others may find vexing?
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In every office environment, it is the employees that will always contribute to the organization, without the employees, production for income will cease and the organization would have been reduced to dust. It is important for an employee to be happy, especially in the grueling environment of a rural bank and finding out which factor will contribute the most to a happy employee will make the rural banks focus more on developing that factor to make a productive workplace. There is a saying: If you are happy with your work, then you are not working at all. The Mt. Carmel Rural bank started out as a small rural bank in Lipa by the name of Lipa Public Bank. This rural bank is privately owned by the researchers family and has since then expanded into more than 12 branches within the Southern Tagalog Region. As a future member of the board of directors of this rural bank, the researcher conducted this study to find out the psychosocial factors that make the employees of this rural bank happy. The researcher will be able to improve management of the bank by developing programs for the employees with the help of this data collected in order to maintain the same level of happiness amongst the employees or perhaps even improve on it.

Conceptual Framework

Psychosocial Factors

Co-Worker Relationships
Financial Healthy Management Work responsibility Happiness

The framework shows the researcher has identified the above as psychosocial factors that affect the employee happiness of this rural bank. The researcher used the Filipino Psychology method of kwentuhan amongst the employees of different positions from the different departments of the bank. The quality of work life affects employees. This includes the environment the employee is in. Environment may mean the people around him and overall physical surroundings. If the work environment of a person promotes happiness, then the worker would absorb that happiness (Zelenski, Murphy, & Jenkins, 2008). With the help of these kwentuhan sessions, the researcher has found out which aspects of the employees work environment affects their happiness in the organization. According to Gould (2000), the key to maintaining a healthy and productive office environment is for the employees to be happy. The researchers aim is to find out which of these factors affect the happiness of the employees.
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Review of Literature Psychosocial Factors Psychosocial factors encompass the environment in which a person was raised, the belief system in which they were raised, their level of self-confidence or self-esteem, their level of optimism and self-reliance or resiliency (Braun, 2010). Happiness indicators such as job satisfaction, quality of work life, and life satisfaction were all analyzed to further strengthen the fact that happiness does indeed make for productive employees (Zelenski, Murphy, & Jenkins, 2008). Negative social factors in the workplace such as envy, a weak management, strong and forced competitions influenced the employees to engage in brutal tactics to belittle their co-workers which in turn created a hostile work environment (Vartia, 1996). Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory states that there are two motivators which drive man, maintenance or hygiene factors and motivational factors. Hygiene factors cannot be ignored as man seeks them in the workplace. Included in these hygiene factors are mans necessity in the work environment such as pay co-worker relationships (Newstrom, 2011). Happiness, Employees and Productivity In Thailand, a study was conducted on how the economic growth of a country affected employee happiness which in turn made them work harder in achieving and maintaining that economic growth. The happiness index of the employees was tested, using macroeconomic values as affecting factors of it. These macroeconomic values helped identify the weight of the different factors that affected an employees happiness. The study concluded that as the industry flourished, more and more employees became happier as they were seeing the fruits of their labour (Chareonwongsak, 2007). A company in the USA has skyrocketed and has even landed in the Top 100 list in a prestigious business magazine in the year 1998 because of having happy employees. Aside from pay, the main reason for such productivity is the respect the institution gives to its employees. 98% of the employees found friendship and belongingness within the company and have even committed to be part of it for as long as they could work (Gavin & Mason, 2004). Employee happiness can impact substantially on an organization's performance. This happiness can affect an employees desire to stay in the company and work performance (Gould, 2000). Productive workers are what drive businesses and these businesses provide healthy contribution to the economy. Happiness produce productive workers and this happiness is produced not because of an employees happiness does not come from his work, rather from personal development and interpersonal relationships (Lenhardt, 2010).

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Friendship opportunities in the workplace are often perceived by the employees the moment they step into the organization. It is a good idea to open friendship opportunities as this is a factor for an employees happiness and productivity (Riordan & Griffeth, 1995). Based on the articles gathered by the researcher, psychosocial factors are major contributors on the performance of an employee in an organization. An employees attitude towards his job will affect his performance; happiness has been proven as a major factor in affecting that attitude. If an employee is happy with his job, then he will certainly be productive. It is up to the researcher to know if the employees of the rural banks are happy with their jobs via the kwentuhan sessions and would be able to focus on developing these factors once he has formally joined the board of directors.

Methodology Research Design This paper used the qualitative research design. This type of research design was chosen by the researcher because the results that were acquired required the use of interviews, observation of employee behavior. The type of interview to be used is based on the Filipino Psychology research style of pakikipagkwentuhan. Through this method, the researcher became part of the community and gathered the data needed to complete the research. The researcher had also chosen this method in order to form a bond with the employees and when the time comes that the researcher will take the helm of the bank, he would be delighted in working with them and so will the employees. Participants In the rural bank branch that the researcher conducted the study, there are a total of 52 employees, the researcher wishes to get input from at least 25 employees. Their genders are a mix of male and female. The researcher selected the employees in random, using the flow of the conversations developed from the employees as a way to initiate an interview from one employee to another. Procedure Since the researcher used the method of pakikipagkwentuhan, the researcher did not use any form of recording medium. After every session, the researcher would have to recall the events that have taken place in the field and take note of the important events during his stay in the bank. Upon arrival at the main branch, the researcher was introduced to a human resource department employee, he was then toured around the building. After the tour,
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the researcher began his kwentuhan sessions with the employees. The participants were interviewed in their respective offices but some of them were found mingling with the other departments. The researcher returned to the main branch for three days, each session lasted half a day. After every session, the researcher input the events in a transcript and analyzed to be used as data.

Results and Discussion The researcher conducted three trips to the main branch from August 22 until August 24. The purpose of these trips was to establish rapport to the employees in order to obtain the data needed for the research. Sessions from August 22 to 23 lasted 8:00 am to 12:00 noon. The August 24 session lasted from 1:00 pm until 3:00 pm. The reason for the half-day sessions was so that the researcher will not hinder the normal operation of the bank employees. Based on the sessions of the researcher with the employees, four psychosocial factors were identified: Co-worker relations, healthy management, work responsibility, and financial. Co-worker relations Co-worker relations in the rural bank environment contributed greatly to the happiness of the employees. Aside from the kwentuhan sessions of the researcher with the employees, the researcher noticed the rather strong bond they have developed with one another, even when one of their own has already left, this particular person still remains in contact with them. Sayang nga si *name withheld* Masaya pa naman yun makasama. Pero nangangamusta naman siya from time to time. (Appendix p.19, Respondent G). The researcher also took note on how the co-workers interacted with each other, (Appendix pp.17-18) the researcher felt the respect they have for one another despite their rather casual tones. Lenhardt (2010) stated that employees seek friendship the moment they step into an organization, the need to establish friendships will determine whether or not they will be productive. The researcher felt that the friendship the employees have in the bank created a productive yet casual approach in terms of their work it has even become part of their system to see each other and fears of them being separated when consolidation began would break this system (Appendix pp. 19-20). It is this bond that has served as a reason why most of the employees in the branch are still the same ones even after all these years. The researcher felt that aside from the camaraderie that the employees in the rural bank have developed, they are also approachable The researcher was greeted with a warm smile by the head. (Appendix p.17), oftentimes it was even the employees who approached the researcher Ahh! Sir Kevin! Kamusta na? (Appendix p.17, Respondent E). This opens up friendship opportunities which according to Lenhardt (2010) will help in developing a productive employee.
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Gavin & Masons study (2004) concerning happiness in the workplace concluded that 98% of the employees were happy due to the fact that they had a sense of belongingness within the company, they have established within themselves the drive that kept them going, the happiness that developed friendships bring. Based on the data observed and collected by the researcher, it is evident that, in this rural bank branch, the co-workers relationships with one another helped established their happiness. The way they interact with one another is like one big happy family and because of this, they continue to work, refusing to leave one another. The best example of this strengthened bond was when they set up their chairs and some tables to create one big table from which they placed their food and shared it (Appendix p.21). Based on this fact and the observations of the researcher, co-worker relationship is the number one factor driving the employees happiness in this branch. Healthy Management The managements duty is to ensure that the employees are happy and motivated enough to accomplish work. Though not really a manager per se, the vice-president of the bank handles management of the main branch and has been ever since it was established. The respondents have pointed out that the management is very friendly and approachable. Kahit sila manager at daddy mo mabait talaga (Appendix, Respondent E) and the employees expect the same from the researcher when he becomes a member of the board of directors in the bank. It is the managements openness and kindness towards the employees that make them feel happy and as such continue working for such good people Kasi mabait si manager, wala na akong ibang maiisip na pwede maging manager kasing bait niya. (Appendix p.25, respondent A). Some of them are even friends with the manager. Management is still prone to mistakes as the researcher found out from one of the employees that an incident regarding a new HR employee attempted to change the way things are being run in the bank (Appendix p.20-21). The employees did not appreciate this change and made it known to the manager, action was taken and the HR employee was removed from the bank. The researcher felt that events like these cannot be avoided, especially once he begins work in the bank, the management is human as well and makes mistakes. But it is also part of the management to be able to learn from their mistakes and use the lesson learned from this mistake to strengthen the bank. A healthy management is a big factor in empowering an employee. When a manager is friendly, chances are the employees are friendly too. When a manager is happy, chances are the employee will be happy as well, it is a chain reaction, if one promotes friendliness and happiness chances are the rest of the workplace will be affected by it (Zelenski, Murphy, & Jenkins, 2008). The respondents have always looked up to the manager and the researchers father as capable and friendly people, this in turn developed some sort of understanding between them, a sense of trust that the management will know that the branch is doing a good job.

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Financial The researcher found out from three of the respondents that financial security is what makes them happy. However two of these respondents only see this particular factor as secondary namely, respondents A and B. Respondent C from the HR department however, sees this as a primary concern Kung naisip ko yung iba na walang trabaho, swerte na ako dito kahit hindi ako major ng psychology, at least may trabaho na ako dito sa HR department (Appendix, Respondent C). Three of the respondents stated that financial security is one of their reasons as to why they are happy. This is because they have insured their family a lease in life Kaya naman,napapa-aral naman sila, hindi kulang, hindi sobra, tama lang. (Appendix p.25, Respondent A). Respondent C stated that the only reason why she took the job in the HR department was because it was hard finding a job for her. She considers herself lucky to even have a job compared to the others living their lives off in the streets. Herzbergs Two-factor Theory states that financial opportunities are part of mans hygiene factors, they cannot be ignored as they are part of mans necessities (Newstrom, 2011). Like what Herzberg had stated, money is something that humans need in this world to survive. Money drives the world it is a necessity that buys mans necessity and the only way to get money is through work. The researcher understands that some employees are just in the bank for the money for them to continue on living but simply working in a position with a salary of only 8000 php (Gonzales, 2010) will eventually make the employee quit from the job. Work Responsibility The researcher found that Respondent Bs primary reason for being happy in the company was because he helped establish it. He built its network not necessarily from the ground up but his contribution is what made its system today. Kasi ako mismo ang gumawa ng mga ibang software dito para sa bangko, hindi ko lang siya basta-basta pwedeng iwanan. Kumbaga may isang parte sa akin na gusto na umalis, pero may parte sa akin na manatili dito sapagkat tumulong ako sa pag-unlad ng bangko. Hindi ko pwedeng iwanan ang isang program na hindi kumpleto (Appendix, Respondent B). Respondent B gave a rather interesting answer as to what makes him happy. This is his responsibility as an IT technician for the bank. Though hes been having second thoughts as to leaving the bank, he cannot leave his work undone. Possibly being the only man to have setup a proper software managing system and network for the bank, he has become attached to it and feels that leaving his work to another technician might just make all his hard work in vain. He is happy for long as the system he had built and grown to be a mainstay in the bank help the bank flourish. In a way, he contributed in building what the bank is today. The researcher was amused by the answer of this particular respondent because it is a prime example of hard work that pays off. The satisfaction of building an object from the ground up relates with the researcher too well, especially with the kind of hobby the researcher has (collecting). Simply leaving work unfinished is like throwing away all the effort poured into it. When workers see the fruits of their labor, they feel that they are empowered to work harder and thus became happy (Chareonwongsak, 2007).
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Conclusion Based on the data compiled by the researcher, a strong co-worker relationship, a healthy management, their responsibilities in their work, and solving their financial problems are the psychosocial factors that affect employee happiness in this particular rural bank environment. The employees relationship combined with the friendly management developed a casual yet professional atmosphere. The researcher still found that some of the employees were working for financial reasons but most of them are still happy for just having a job. The researcher also found that one of the employees was happy because of his responsibilities, it is understandable because one should always be happy to see the results of his hard work come into fruition.

Recommendation The researcher was only able to conduct his kwentuhan sessions to one branch of the rural bank. It is recommended that those who would attempt to conduct this study broaden their data gathering by dividing the sessions among different rural bank branches. Another recommendation is as much as possible, to have whole-day sessions with the employees especially if one does not have any connection with the rural bank. It is also recommended to use a different method of data gathering aside from pakikipagkwentuhan such as focused group studies. There are more psychosocial factors out there that contribute to an employees happiness, it would be better for one who would attempt this study to identify more of these factors especially if more branches are involved since not all of these share the same work culture.

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References

Braun, D. (2010, June 10). Psychosocial Factors Mental Health. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from Natural Hollistic Health: http://www.natural-holistichealth.com/psychosocial-factors-mental-health/ Chareonwongsak, K. (2007). Happiness and Economic Development Targets in Thailand. Gavin, J. H., & Mason, R. O. (2004). The Value of Happiness in the Workplace. Organizational Dynamics , 379-392. Gonzales, D. (2010). MCRB EMPLOYEES w/ Salary & Allowances. Gould, B. H. (2000). Strategic Planning for Employee Happiness: A Business Goal for Human Service Organizations. American Journal on Mental Retardation , 377386. Lenhardt, M. (2010). Happiness and its Effect on Economic Development and Business Profitability. Illinois Business Law Journal . Newstrom, J. W. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. Singapore: McGraw-Hill. Riordan, C., & Griffeth, R. (1995). The opportunity for friendship in the workplace: An underexplored construct. Journal of Business and Psychology , 141-154. Vartia, M. (1996). The Sources of BullyingPsychological Work Environment and Organizational Climate. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology , 203-214. Zelenski, J. M., Murphy, S. A., & Jenkins, D. A. (2008). The Happy-Productive Worker Thesis Revisited. JOURNAL OF HAPPINESS STUDIES , 521-537.

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Predictors of Premarital Sex among Father-Absent Daughters


Bernadette S. Calaod

The purpose of this study is to determine the present factors that predict the absent-father daughters to refrain from doing sexual activity. Family Relation, Peer Relation and Religiosity are the predictors. The participants were 100 daughters whose father are absent or more absent at home than present due to work, separation of parents, or even death. The participants are ranging from 1522 years old. The data was analyzed using the Multinomial Logistic Regression through SPSS. The result of the study shows that only family relationship is a predictor of premarital sex (=-.086, p <.05). This implies that how a girl relates with her family affects her decision to engage in premarital sex. The two other predictors which are religion (=.052, p <.05) and peer relationship (=.119, p <.05) have no significant relationship on the decision of the respondents to engage in premarital sex.

________________________________________________________________________ In recent years, most of the adolescents all over the world are sexually active. Premarital sex is sexual intercourse engaged in by persons who are unmarried. There are rising number of adolescents that are at risk of pre-marital sexual activity especially whose father is not present. The absence of the father are due to separation of parents, death of the father, in the military, remarrying other woman, or because of traveling for businesses or quietly disappear so that they will not be held accountable for the child support payments. Those are fathers that are more absent at home more than present or they are not totally involved in the development of his children. According to UNICEF (2007), around 6 million Filipino children put up with the burden of parent/s who work overseas (Subida, 2011). These absences of the father have different impact in the development on his offspring. Children in families that the fathers are absent are more vulnerable than the children in families that the fathers are present. They are prone to exhibit problems in the area of sex role, gender identity development, school performance, psychosocial adjustment and self-control. One of the major effects of the absence of the father is that they are at risk of sexual activity. Early father-absent girls had the highest rates of both early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy, followed by late father-absent girls, followed by father-present girls (Ellis, et al., 2003). In a study by Lee, it was found out that youth living with one parent have a higher rate of sexual activity than those living with both parents (Lee L K, 2006). Attitudes towards sex have been changing rapidly and presently, the attention of the researchers is looking at how the sexual issue has become more accepted within the society. In the Philippines, according to the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study by the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) and the Demographic Research and Development Foundation, 26 percent of our Filipino youth nationwide from ages 15 to 25 admitted to having a premarital sex experience (Singson,
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2008). Even though there is an increase in percentage of teens that are engaging to premarital sex, there are some absent-father daughters that can avoid sexual activity or can engage to abstinence. This study questioned the different factors that influence the daughters with fathers that are not present to avoid sexual activity or characteristics that affect the daughters sexual behavior. Is it the religion, peer relation or behavior of friends regarding sexual activity, family relations or values and norms of family member? The main argument this study posited is that the fatherless adolescent daughters can avoid pre-marital sex through these factors. This study is created because there is no attempt has been made to quantitavely describe which predictors affect the decision of the fatherless daughters to not engage to pre-marital sex in the Philippines. Thus, this study may promote the factor(s) that help the teens to refrain pre-marital sex and this information is essential to understand the role of family, religion and peers with regard to pre-marital sex provided that the main objective of this study is to determine the present factors that predict the father-absent daughters to refrain from doing sexual activity.

Conceptual Framework

Family Relation
Father-absent Daughters

Religion Peer Relation

Decision to not engage to Premarital sex

The framework proposed that the independent variables which are family relation, religion and peer relation can determine the decision of the absent-father daughters in engaging to pre-marital sex. It is recognized that any in the three predictors; whether one or all of them can influence the decision of the teens to refrain pre-marital sex. This study limits to three categories of predictors only which are family relation that refers to parent-child communication on sexual issues and values and norms of family, peer relation that represents communication with friends about premarital sex and their activities together, and religion includes the belief and faith of the individual. These categories are chosen because some studies found that family and peer characteristics had the main effect on premarital sex among adolescents (Algaa, 2004) which can be also influenced the decision of the teens to engage abstinence of sexual activity and lastly, is the religion because it is a large contributor to the condemnation of premarital sex (Novotny, 2004).
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Review of Literature The fatherlessness results of missing the key element of a male perspective in the family that fallout into difficulty of the daughter in growth process. A father's absence early in life may cause doubts in girls about male reliability that hasten sexual activity and reproduction (Ellis, et al., 2003). Nevertheless, some of the daughters whose fathers are absent can wait for the right time to have sex which is when they got married. Many factors can affect the father-absent daughter to avoid in doing the premarital sex. The authors predicted that girls with higher school interest, family cohesion, religiosity, and behavioral self-esteem would endorse less risky sexual attitudes (Belgrave, F.Z, Marin, & Chambers, 2000). It is generally accepted that the earliest social influence on an individual comes from the family (Algaa, 2004). The family is one such social institution since an intact family with both parents raising the child was found to be correlated to less risk taking behavior by teens and those who left home early or were raised by separated parents were noted to engage in sex early and other risk taking behaviors (Singson, 2008). There is a raise in premarital sexual activities that are initiated at an earlier age especially to those whose family structure are disintegrates because of parents working or the father absent and perhaps working overseas. On the other hand, this risk can be less through family supervision. Family Relation Monitoring of adolescents activities by parents or family member has been reported to be significantly associated with lower expectations to have sex (Sieverding, Adler, Witts, & Ellen, 2005). Good relationship with parents, including perceived parentadolescent relationship is generally a protective mechanism that keeps adolescents from sexual risk-taking (Podhisita, 2009). Good parental care with correct upbringing as recommended having positive values in reducing premarital sex activity even you are a single parent. Their supervision discourages the adolescent sexual activity like regulating their movements and can communicate to them regarding to sexual restraint (Algaa, 2004). Although they are not comfortable talking to their children about sexual matters, they should provide them the right information or the peers perform this duty and may give the wrong information. Study have found that 91 percent of teens ages 15 through 17 who have not had sex said they were influenced by what their parents taught them about sex (Gallier, 2011). In other study, more than 90% of mothers said that parents should begin talking to their children about sex in early age (Hollander, 2000). The increased parental communication decreases the likelihood of young Filipinos to engage in sexual risktaking activities. It has been found that the mother, in particular, has a special role because their monitoring as well as open communication lines with their daughter were found to be associated with less chance for the teen to engage in intercourse or have fewer sexual partners (Singson, 2008). Adolescents whose parents are more aware of whom they are with when not at home are less likely to have sex by age 16. For example, only 22% of girls who reported
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that their parents knew everything about whom they were with when they were not home had first sex before age 16, compared with 43% who reported their parents knew little or nothing (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 2009) and adolescents who took part in family activities more often had sex less frequently, less unprotected sex, and fewer sex partners, Dr. Rebekah Levine Coley of Boston College and her colleagues found (Harding, 2008) like going for a vacation together or simply having dinner as one. There is a study shows that three-quarters of teens who reported having dinner with their family at least once a week said the interaction and the togetherness were the best part of the meal. Those who spent seven hours or less per week with their parents were twice as likely to use alcohol and twice as likely to say they expected to have risky behavior compared with teens that spent 21 hours or more per week with their parents. (abc news website) Religion Many people, not just the adolescents believe that premarital sex is a sin and against Gods will. Over 80 percent of the 502 teens in a September poll told researchers that religion is important in their lives. The survey results revealed that teens who attend religious services frequently are less likely to have permissive attitudes about sex and orienting them with the proper values early helps them imbibe it in their lives and keeps them from succumbing to peer pressure (Singson, 2008). In addition, the study done by Lefkowitz, Gillen, Shearer, & Boone shows that sexually abstinent youth reported attending religious services almost weekly compared to less than once a month for the sexually active youth (Lefkowitz, Gillen, Shearer, & Boone, 2004). The religion will reorient the moral values which influence the adolescents not to initiate in premarital sex and keep them spiritually and morally grounded. In addition, those who have a healthy, productive faith in God are more likely to have deeply rooted reasons to respect and preserve the gift of sex and to respect rather than to exploit others (Reisser, 1999). Peer relation Peers influenced were one of the major factors leading to initiation of premarital sex (Algaa, 2004). It is commonly seen that, for adolescents information on sexual matters comes from either from their peers who may be equally uninformed or incorrectly informed and the barkada has a more profound influence than parents do and they exert pressure and expect the adolescents to conform them. For that reason, they can also influence in a positive way. If they did not perform PMS they can help their friend not to initiate it. Female adolescents whose friends engage in sexual behavior were found to be more likely to do the same compared to those who do not associate with such peers because peer pressure usually depends on the kind of peer group an adolescent hangs out with (Bernstein, 2005;Singson, 2008). If the teen perceives her peers to look negatively at premarital sex, she was more likely to start sex at a later age (Singson, 2008). Results from the above seem to validate that there is a relationship between religion, peer relation and family relation to the decision of the fatherless daughter in not engaging to pre-marital sex. It shows that if the daughter is close and has good relationship with the family such as the mother and siblings, they are less likely to engage
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to pre-marital sex and if the daughter spent time with peers that are good model for them, they are influence to refrain PMS and lastly in religion, the more they are active in participating in church activities and have a strong faith in their God, the more they engage to abstinence.

Methodology Research Design The study is a descriptive correlational research for the reason that this study describes and determines how one variable may predict another (Heffner Media Group, 2004). The researcher would need to determine which of the variables (Family relation, Peer relation or Religion) predicts the decision of the fatherless daughter to not engage to premarital sex. Participants and Sampling Out of the original 113 participants, the researcher excluded the 13 with incomplete data on the outcome and key predictor from the analysis. 100 participants remained for the analysis. Purposive sampling was used in finding respondents for this study since the desired population is father-absent daughters for the purpose of this study. Respondents comprised fatherless girls between the ages of 15-22; the mean age is 18 with a standard deviation of 2. 013. The sample included 31 fatherless girls who engage in premarital sex and 69 fatherless girls who did not engage to premarital sex (See Appendix V). Through the survey questionnaire, the participants answered a yes or no question that asked if they ever had sex to distinguish the teens that had already sex or not. In this study, fatherless girls defined as girls whose fathers are not involved with the development of their daughters or fathers that are more absent than present. This could have occurred due to death, separation of parents, or work of the parents. Premarital sex is a sexual intercourse engaged in by persons who are unmarried. Instruments The material used in this study is self-made questionnaire. It is Relationship-PMS Inventory that is 47-item questionnaire regarding the respondents family relation, peer relation and religiosity of the respondents. These questions will help to determine in which of the three variables is the predictor that helps the fatherless daughters to avoid premarital sex. The result of the reliability of this test is alpha=.8614. This quantitative research was successfully conducted on 100 females. Demographic information was gathered for the purposes of this study. They were requested for their age, religion that was scored as 1=Catholic and 2=Non-Catholic. The status was scored as 1=single and 2=in a relationship. They were also asked about the reason of the absence of the father by checking the choices which are death=1, separation of parents=2, work=3 and others=4. The last question for demographic data if the respondents is already had sex and their answer are scored as 1=yes and 2=no
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The females were requested to encircle their answers on a five point Likert-type scale to determine which factor helps them to avoid premarital sex. The scores ranging 1=strongly disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Undecided, 4=Agree, 5= Strongly Disagree. The questions are derived from comprehensive study of literature that associated with premarital sex. The questions has 3 subscales that are arranged randomly, each of which measures some aspect of not engaging to premarital sex, with higher score representing greater levels of not engaging to premarital sex and lower scores representing the tendency to engage to premarital sex. The subscales include: 1.) Family Relation: involves the communication with the family, attitude towards PMS, parents discipline and their values and norms. There are 17 questions that are under the Family Relation and this includes the following: 1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 21, 22, 24, 29, 32, 34, 38 and 39. 2.) Peer Relation: involves the communication with friends about premarital sex and their activities together. In Peer relation, there are 16 questions that are consist of nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 19, 23, 25, 27, 28, 31, 33, 37, 43, 44, 47. 3.) Religion: involves the religiosity of a person. Nos. 2, 11, 14, 16, 18, 26, 30, 35, 36, 40, 41, 42, 45, and 46 addressed this subscale. Question nos. 34 and 47 are negative in scoring, so that the researcher to determine whether the respondent is reading the questions or not. Procedure The participants asked to give their informed consent before participating since the topic is sensitive. The respondents were asked if they know someone who is fatherless and explain to them the meaning of fatherless. If they are fatherless, they volunteer to answer the survey and if they know someone who is fatherless they give the questionnaire to their friends. The researcher asked to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Some of the questionnaires are sent through email. To identify any potential problem in the comprehension of the survey by the target population, it was pilot-tested using 32 female students from school and to check the reliability of the questions. The researcher did not eliminate any of the questions since the reliability is high (alpha=.8614) (Appendix II). The researcher collected the surveys upon completion of the subject and the data transferred into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for further processing and analysis. Statistical Analysis Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with Pre-marital sexual intercourse of the fatherless females. Multinomial logistic regression is used to predict the probabilities of the different possible outcomes of a categorically distributed dependent variable, given a set of independent variable. This statistical tool was used given that the dependent and independent variables are both categorical. The dependent variable was whether the fatherless girls had ever engaged in sexual intercourse (yes/no) while the independent variables are family relationship, peer relationship and religion.

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Results The result of the study shows that only family relationship is a predictor of premarital sex (=-.086, p <.05). This implies that how a girl relates with her family affects her decision to engage in premarital sex. The two other predictors which are religion (=.052, p <.05) and peer relationship (=.119, p <.05) have no significant relationship on the decision of the respondents to engage in premarital sex. The result supports the hypothesis that the family is significantly associated with lower expectations to have sex. When the responses for the family relationship, peer relationship, and religion scales were averaged, it shows that family relationship has the highest mean (FR=3.45, PR= 3.41, and R= 3.17) (Appendix III). This also supported that the family relation is significantly associated with engagement of premarital sex while the peer relation and religion is not related to premarital sex. The daughter whose father is absent due to work is more likely to not engage in pre-marital sex than the other reasons like death and separation (See appendix IV).

Discussion The purpose of this study is to find out which of the independent variables predict the sexual activity of the fatherless daughters. This study assumes that if one of the factors is present, most likely they will not engage to PMS. These three variables are the family relation that comprises the values, closeness and communication with their family, the second variable is the peer relation which covers the relationship and communication with their friends and lastly, is the religion that involves the religiosity of the respondent. According to the result of this study, it found out that the family relation is the predictor in the decision of the respondents to not engage to premarital sexual intercourse. In family relation, it includes the other family member such as siblings and mother. The more they spent time together and the more the mother is involve in her daughters activities , the less likely that they will not engage to pre-marital sex. This study was supported by the study that the teenagers who feel incomplete, inadequate, and unappreciated are more likely to seek comfort in a sexual relationship. However, with a life rich in relationships, family traditions, activities, interests and most of all the consistent love and affirmation of family are less likely to embark on a desperate search of fulfillment that could lead to unwise sexual decision (Reisser, 1999). The present study also supported this findings that the supervision discourages the adolescent sexual activity like regulating their movements and can communicate to them regarding to sexual restraint (Algaa, 2004). On the other hand, some of the respondents that are have a high score in family relation already had also engaged to premarital sex. One of the possible reason for this finding could be peer pressure. Previous study stated that the impact of peer group plays a significant role in influencing views, attitudes, and sexual behavior of individuals (Adhikari & Tamang, 2009)

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The results revealed that the peer relation and religion have no significant effect on the avoidance of the absent-father daughters to sexual activities. Maybe for the reason that their friends are also engaging to premarital sex. According to Singson, friends who engaged in sexual behavior were found to be more likely to do the same compared to those who do not associate with such peer (Singson,2008) and in religion, even they are religiously active it doesnt show that they have a lot of guidance to not engage to premarital sex. The current study observed that older fatherless girls aged 18 above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with the younger absent-father girls aged 17 below (Appendix III). This outcome imply that maybe they already lack of supervision since they older. This paper seeks to fill the gap of knowledge by providing findings on premarital sex among fatherless daughters and to develop the upbringing of the family since it is one of the factor that helps the daughters to refrain from sexual activities. The findings in this study suggested that it is necessary to be involve in the childrens activity in order to guide them and to provide them a open relationship that will help them to understand the possible effects of premarital sex and this involvement will help to shape them to be a better person. There is a need to provide a proper upbringing in order to make them responsible with their actions and healthy decision making to protect themselves. The generalizability of the findings is also limited by the small sample size and unequal number of participants who engage and not engage to premarital sex. Sampling procedures for this study may be problematic because the researcher depended upon referrals from other participants in the study, thus rendering the sample on representative of the larger population and the independent variables are limited in three variables only. Conclusions and Recommendation From the gathered data and analysis of this study, the researcher concluded that a good relationship in the family is an important factor to assist the girls whose father are absent to not engage to premarital sex. The open-communication, trust, and time together with their family especially mother will help the girls to decide intellegently about premarital sex. The result of the study stated that family relation influenced the decision of the absent-father daughter regarding the premarital sex and both religion and peer relation have no relationship with the premarital sex. It is further recommended that a qualitative research should be conducted in order to design appropriate intervention that address the problems and needs of the youth. It is suggested to use more independent variables so it is not limited to three variables and to recruit more participants since it is a regression, it is better to have a lot of participants. I also recommended to find a same number of participants who engage to premarital sex and to those who did not.

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References

Abc news website : http://abcnews.go.com/WN/mailform?id=14586062 Adhikari, R., & Tamang, J. (2009). Premarital Sexual Behavior Among Male College Students of Kathmandu, Nepal. Pubmed Central . Algaa, S. (2004). THE FACTORS AFFECTING PREMARITAL SEX AMONG INSCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN MONGOLIA. p.4. Belgrave, F.Z, Marin, B. V., & Chambers, D. B. (2000). Cultural, Contextual, and Intrapersonal Predictors of Risky Sexual Attitudes among Urban African American Girls in Early Adolescence. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology vol. 6 , pp.309-322. Bernstein, N. (2005, Jan 26). Sex and peer pressure. Pobrano March 13, 2011 z lokalizacji msnbc.com: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6867362/ Bureau, U. C. (2004). "Household Relationship and Living Arrangements of Children Under 18 Years, by Age, Sex, Race, Hispanic Origin. Current Population Survey Reports . CliffsNotes.com. (brak daty). Pobrano Oct. 4, 2011 z lokalizacji CliffsNotes Website: <http:www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/topicArticleId-25438,articleId-25309 Ellis, B. J., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Pettit, G. S., i inni. (2003). Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy? NIH Public Access , 17. Gallier, L. B. (2011, March). Focus on the Family. Pobrano Oct. 4, 2011 z lokalizacji Thriving Family: http://www.thrivingfamily.com/Family/Stages/Teen%20Phases/2011/sextalk.aspx Harding, A. (2008, August). More family meals mean less risky sex for teens. Journal of Adolescent Health . Heffner Media Group. (2004, March). Heffner Media Group, Incorporation . Pobrano Oct 4, 2011 z lokalizacji All Psych Online: http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/correlation.html Hollander, D. (2000, July/August). Thttp://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3219900.html. Pobrano Feb. 28, 2011 z lokalizacji guttmacher institutel: Thttp://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3219900.html Lee L K, C. P. (2006). Premarital sexual intercourse among adolescents in Malaysia: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey. Singapore Med J , 476.
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Lefkowitz, E., Gillen, M., Shearer, C., & Boone, T. (2004). Religiosity, sexual behaviors, and sexual attitudes during emerging adulthood. The Journal of Sex Research . Novotny, E. ( 2004). Attitudes on Premarital Sex Proposal. Podhisita, C. (2009). PARENTING PROCESS AND PEER INFLUENCE IN THE CONTEXT OF SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIORAMONG YOUNG ADULTS. Pobrano March 13, 2011 z lokalizacji www.ipsr.mahidol.ac.th/IPSR/Contents/Books/FullText/2009 Reisser, P. C. (1999). The Focus on the Family Complete Book of Baby and Child Care. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. . Sieverding, J., Adler, N., Witts, S., & Ellen, J. (2005). The influence of parental monitoring on adolescent sexual initiation. Archives of Pediatric Adoloscent Medicine , 159. Singson, R. B. (2008). Teen pregnancies in the Philippines. Philippine Daily Inquirer Filed Under: People, Lifestyle & Leisure . Subida, A. (2011, April 4). Healing about OFW families. Pobrano Oct 3, 2011 z lokalizacji drsubida web site: http://www.drsubida.com

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Early Fatherhood and Forgiveness and its Effects to Parent-Child Relationship


Ma. Angelica Dominique J. Custodio

The aim of this study was to explore the process of forgiveness between the male child and their parents after the occurrence of an offense, in this study specifically, early fatherhood. This study involved six male participants ages 1821 years old from the cities of Las Pinas, Makati and Muntinlupa. The study used qualitative design in which an interview was conducted to gather information from the respondents. This research made use of a questionnaire as a guide for the interview. The responses then revealed that the respondents experiences of forgiveness and restoration of relationship followed Augsburgers Steps to Interpersonal Forgiveness and Restored Relationships which was the process of the forgiveness process itself and the re-affirming of relationships. This paper then concluded that the respondents parents had different ways of attaining forgiveness from their parents; in addition, this also revealed the process of restoration towards the parents and their male children.

________________________________________________________________________ Nowadays, teenagers are getting more and more aggressive. They tend to do things that are out of their hands. They get into a relationship, try to get into things that they thought won't bring them harm and sometimes, its endpoint is delinquency or for those in a relationship, early pregnancy. This is now very common in all countries, that everywhere we look, there are young parents here and there. Being a young dad could bring negative effects on the male childs life like their socialization, academic status and family relationships. Parents of the male child could have some conflicts with their child because of their expectations from them. Male children could feel that they let their parents down in a way thats why they would ask for an apology sooner or later. The research conducted showed different reactions amongst parents and on how we could relate them to our own experience of forgiveness amongst our parents. This paper aims to find out how teenage fathers coped up with their responsibilities as early fathers and how they gained their parents' forgiveness after they told them their transgression. When we have been deeply hurt by another person, anger, fear, and other negative emotions tend to dominate our lives. Every part of our lives is taken over and ruled by the pain. Any attempt to recover must address more than the way we think about the event or the person that hurt us. Forgiveness is a vital and crucial element in parent and child relationships. This study also aims to show how the restoration of relationships occurred between parents and the child after the process of forgiveness and at the same time out the process and experiences of forgiveness in the relationship of parent and child. Did this cause their relationship to weaken or strengthen? In addition, this research reveals
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how parents accepted the offspring of their child through forgiveness. Following Augsburgers Five Steps to Interpersonal Forgiveness and Restored Relationship Diagram, the researcher aims to apply those steps on how the parent and the respondents were able to follow these steps from the first process through the last process of restoration of relationships.

Theoretical Framework

Forgiveness 5 Steps to Interpersonal Forgiveness and Restored Relationship Restoring of the attitude of love Releasing the painful past Reconstructing the Relationship Re-opening the Future Re-affirming the Relationship ParentChild Relationship

The independent variable for this research is forgiveness while the dependent variable for this research is the childs relationship with their parents. Forgiveness in this study could be measured depending on how the male child and their parents approach the situation at hand; if the parents of the male child are slowly accepting the situation that their sons are in, then the forgiveness process is slowly taking place. On the other hand, if the situation is not as favorable for the child, we would see that the forgiveness process for both parties isnt taking hold. The parent-child relationship however remains constant, because like all parents, the parents on this study chose to stand by their sons. David Augsburger (2000), the proponent of the Five Steps to Interpersonal Forgiveness and Restored Relationships described how from a transgression could an individual attain forgiveness and restore their relationship with the transgressor. The framework above shows the different elements of each stage and how an individual reacts to it. The first step, which is the Restoration of the attitude of Love, is not forgiveness itself. Forgiving cannot begin until love has been re-extended to the offender. Releasing the painful past is to accept another is to meet them as the person they really are. This is the first step of forgiveness in which we would see the person on who they really are and not in what they did wrong and by affirming ourselves the freedom of the hurt.
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Reconstructing of the relationship is where the real work of forgiveness begins. This is where we work through our anger and pain while we review where they came from. This step is risky, it involves trusting and risking; but towards the end, we would come to recognize the genuineness of each other's intentions. Re-opening of the according to Augsburger may lead to two effects: either the relationship may return to a civil participation in community with mutual respect, or to a new level of friendship resulting from the depth of encounter that has taken place; or it may mean a return to or the beginning of profound trust and willingness. Finally, the last step in David Augsburgers Steps to Interpersonal forgiveness and Restored Relationships; Re-affirming the Relationship. This stated that reconciliation must end in celebration, or the process has not ended. This is the period in which we are renewed and affirmations between the two parties are now achieved and restored and would allow us to meet new meanings to our relationships.

Review of Literature Forgiveness Childrens willingness to forgive someone who has treated them unfairly or otherwise may have hurt their feelings. A total of 82 children between the ages of 8 and 11 schools were individually assessed in a scenario-based interview session. 53 parents of these children completed a questionnaire about their approach to childrens common misbehaviors and the degree to which they encouraged forgiveness in their children (Yamaguchi, 2009). The relationship between a parent and a child is precious and one of the most important connections in human existence. In a best-case scenario, there is always trust between the parent and the child but sometimes the reality of behavior creates rifts in that relationship. When a child or a parent violates that trust, there is a need for forgiveness so that the relationship can move on (Pheifer, 2009). Parents would be far more willing and able to forgive a child's error in judgment if the child would acknowledge mistakes, apologize and seek for forgiveness. Children model their parents' behavior. Children who are unwilling or unable to forgive are very likely emulating a parents inability or unwillingness to forgive. When there is a lack of forgiveness, lack of trust also develops but by agreeing to leave the past and past hurts behind, and by focusing on creating a future filled with positive, forgiving, trusting, and loving relationships, the past can be forgiven (Einarson, 2009). Teenage Fatherhood and Delinquent Behavior Teen fatherhood has many negative educational, financial, social, health, and other developmental consequences for these young men and their children (Lerman and Ooms, 1993; Furstenberg, Brooks-Gunn, and Chase-Lansdale, 1989; Furstenberg, Brooks-Gunn, and Morgan, 1987). International surveys have indicated that somewhere between 2 and 7 percent of male teenagers are fathers. In some cases, the father of the child is the husband of the teenage girl. The conception may occur within wedlock, or the
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pregnancy itself may precipitate the marriage (the so-called shotgun wedding). Being a young father in an industrialized country can affect one's education. Research has shown that when teenage fathers are included in decision-making during pregnancy and birth, they are more likely to report increased involvement with their children in later years. Research found that teenage fathers were not always as keen to avoid responsibilities as it is generally thought by the society (Speak, 1997; Rivara, 1986). Teenage fatherhood could be considered an offense when a form of conflict that include quarreling, expressions of disapproval, nagging, scolding, and threatening occurs between the parent and the child that shows disappointment of the parent on the child. Parent-Child Relationships According to McClure (2004), parent- child relationships consist of a combination of behaviors, feelings, and expectations that are unique to a particular parent and a particular child. The relationship involves the full extent of a child's development. The relationship between parent and child is among the most important. The quality of the parent-child relationship is affected by the parent's age, experience, and self-confidence; the stability of the parents' marriage; and the unique characteristics of the child compared with those of the parent. During adolescence, parents need to recognize the continued importance of their relationship with their adolescents. Although the parent-child relationship undergoes transformation during adolescence, the adjustment of adolescents depends in good measure on the quality of their relationship with their parents (Doyle, 2004). The parentchild relationship consists of a combination of behaviors, feelings, and expectations that are unique to a particular parent and a particular child. The relationship involves the full extent of a child's development. As the child enters adolescence, biological, cognitive, and emotional changes transform the parent-child relationship (Brendgen, 2004). The child's urges for independence may challenge parents' authority. Many parents find early adolescence a difficult period. Adolescents fare best and their parents are happiest when parents can be both encouraging and accepting of the child's needs for more psychological independence. Although the value of peer relations grows during adolescence, the parent-child relationship remains crucial for the child's psychological development. Authoritative parenting that combines warmth and firmness has the most positive impact on the youngster's development. Adolescents who have been reared authoritatively continue to show more success in school, better psychological development, and fewer behavior problems (Linwood, 2004).

Methodology Research Design Qualitative method was used in the study. The researcher used this method to further gain insights and to further understand the respondents behaviors, concerns and reactions towards the given research. The researcher believed that by using qualitative method, she could enhance the quality of the responses and disseminate and compare the measures her results, as well as describe her respondents reactions. This study also
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attempted to describe patterns of parents reactions to their adolescents delinquent behaviors. This study reduced bias and retained objectivity by interviewing the participants and then analyzing the data from those interviews. Purposive sampling was administered in this study in which the researcher carefully chose her respondents according to the purpose of her study, in this case, only those who experienced being an early father were chosen. Participants Originally, there were 10 respondents, but since four of them declined, there were only six who agreed to participate. The youngest of which is eighteen years old. Most of the participants were still studying when they became fathers and their partners were also students. One was a fresh college graduate when he found out about his partners pregnancy while the girl was still a student. The participants ages ranges from 18-21 years old. Three of them are living with their respective partners, one was separated from his partner and child but is giving financial support for his child and two were single fathers raising their children with the support of their parents. Instruments The researcher made use of an interview for the participants focusing on three areas, which were the occurrence of offense, coping up with the offended and the manner of forgiveness. They were asked on how they told their parents about the offense and what their reaction was, they were also asked on what they think is the factor that the offended party took credit for forgiveness. They were also asked on how they regained trust and how they restored their relationship with the offended party. The researcher chose those questions for the respondents to further get a legitimate response that she thought would relate to the framework. One of the questions given was if the respondents were afraid to tell their parents about their offense. The respondents were then asked if their relationships were strengthened after the process of forgiveness. Procedure The main objective of the interview was to determine the genuineness of the participants responses. An interview was conducted in various locations where the participants were located. Three of the respondents were from Muntinlupa City, one was from Makati City, and two were from Las Pinas City all were of legal ages. The researcher first introduced herself, informed that their participation in the study was voluntary and that they could choose not to take part in the interview and that they could choose to withdraw from the interview anytime they want. The researcher also informed them about the purpose of her study. A questionnaire was used as a guide and the researcher recorded the respondents answers by making use of a voice recorder. The interview lasted for about 30-45 minutes depending on the availability of the respondents. The researcher also informed the respondents that their identity would not be divulged and will be kept confidential.

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Results Demographic Profile Age Respondent A Respondent B Respondent C Respondent D Respondent E Respondent F 19 20 21 19 18 20 Status Married Single Married Single Single Single Parents Income 50 thousand 50 thousand 60 thousand 50 thousand 50 thousand 60 thousand Location Makati Muntinlupa Muntinlupa Las Pinas Muntinlupa Las Pinas Economic Status Middle Class Middle Class Middle Class Middle Class Middle Class Middle Class

Six male respondents took part in the study and the ages range from 18-21. All of them reported that they belong to the middle class. The reported monthly income ranges from 50-60 thousand. Three of the respondents are living with their partners; of the three, two were married and one is just cohabiting with his partner. The researcher modeled the results from the framework to further study if the respondents went through the same steps with their parents after they told them of their offense. Following the Steps to Interpersonal Forgiveness and Restored Relationship by David Augsburger this is what the researcher gathered: The existence of respondents misbehavior The researchers respondents reported that they were all afraid to tell their parents about their offense because they knew that it would be a big deal for them especially given the fact that their parents expected so much from them. But respondent A, who reported that he was not afraid to tell his parents about it, was worried how to approach them instead, he stated that my parents understood what its like being a teenager, and that all I needed was guidance and discipline. In the case of respondents B and D, they reported that their parents were both shocked when they told them and quoted that parents have their different ways of handling pain. Some cry, others just accept it and move on. My parents were somewhere in between stated Respondent B. Respondent C agreed saying hindi ko alam kung paano umpisahan sabihin sa kanila dahil natatakot ako. Because they all were the ones looked up to amongst the siblings. Amongst all the respondents, respondent A was the only one who was able to tell his parents about it without feeling afraid compared to the other respondents and he stated my parents understood what its like being a teenager, and that all I needed was guidance and discipline.
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Occurrence of transgression leads to two reactions: Anger and Resentment and the stated statements below explains the reactions of the respondents parents The researchers respondents differ but somehow had similarities. Like with respondents C, D and F whos parents were shocked when they told them and respondent C stated Umiyak pa si mommy because he was the eldest and his parents were counting on him to support his younger siblings. Like what respondent C went through, respondent D stated that he had a similar situation with his parents, but this time, his father was also disappointed in him and he quoted mahirap magsabi ng totoo lalo na pag alam mo na big deal. In the case of respondents B, his parents were very disappointed in him because they looked up to him to support his younger siblings like respondent C, and especially because he was graduating at that time. He reported that his mother cried and he knew that it was because of her expectations on him. Similar to the situation of respondent C, respondent E reported that he also had the same reaction from his mom. As he stated my mom didnt talk to me." In the case of respondent A who reported his parents to be surprised, he said that his parents understood what it is being a teenager, thats why they were able to accept it. Parental Conflicts Respondents A, B and C reported that they were not treated differently by their parents although in the case of respondent B, he reported that there were instances that they seem distant to him, but nevertheless, he stated that they still tried to be the best parents for him and still supported him on everything he needed. Respondents A, B, and Cs parents after hearing the offense, still supported their sons. Respondent B summed up the best response for the three of them saying: parents have their different ways of handling pain, but they taught me to be a man and accept the consequences of my actions. Their parents after hearing their sons confessions were still able to support their sons on what was going through with their lives. Respondents D, E and F stated that they were all treated differently after they told their parents. Respondent D reported that his mother didnt talk to him for a week and his father showed signs of disappointment. Respondents E and F reported that they both received the cold treatment from their parents especially respondent E who did everything to get his mothers attention but failed many times. Respondent F said hindi ako sanay sa ganito kasi parati sila mabait sa akin. Amongst the researchers respondents, respondent As parents were the ones who were able to handle the situation quite well because in the case of respondent A there was no pain, instead, they were teaching him how to be a responsible father and that all he needed was guidance and discipline. The other respondents parents however like with respondents C and F who admitted that their parents experienced pain after they told them stated that their parents handled their pain like real adults by accepting it, not minding the offense, but instead, helped them through all their needs. Like in the case of respondent C who reported that his mother cried when he told her, he said that after he admitted to it, his mother was now accompanying his girlfriend to pre-natal check-ups and buying clothes for their baby. Respondent B said that his parents way of handling the pain was somewhat in the middle. Respondent B said that his parents was able to take the pain but at the same time was still disappointed in him. They were still there and
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they were helping me survive. He said. Respondents D and Es parents showed different ways of showing their pain, which was disappointment in the case of respondent D that his mom didnt talk to him and on the case of respondent E; his mother gave him the condition to finish college before she could completely forgive. On Asking for Forgiveness Respondents A and C tried to be as obedient as they can so that they could gain their parents trust back. Respondent A reported that he tried to give back all the support his parents gave him saying, to let them know how much we appreciate them. Respondent C reported that he tried to do everything he was telling them, be it from the smallest things to the most difficult thing to do. He said that it was his way of getting his parents complete trust again. Respondents B and D stated that they used communication as their tunnel for forgiveness even though they admitted that it was hard at first, respondents B and D said that communication was a very useful tool for them as they promised to be responsible with what was coming. As respondent B stressed out: communication is a very important part in a relationship, if you dont communicate your issues, it cannot be resolved. Respondent E reported that he studied very hard to prove to his mother that he could still graduate even though he has a new responsibility on the way. He tried to show his mother that he could still be the top student she knew though he committed something he was not ready for and that he knew his mother would be angry about. Respondent F said that his persistence was the factor his parents saw. He said that they saw his sincerity thats why they reconsidered.

On Forgiving and Restoration of Relationship: The Forgiveness Process: All of the researchers respondents reported that they were forgiven by their parents after they told them their offense. All of the respondents had different ways of asking their apologies but on the succeeding paragraphs, this research would show that some of their parents responded quite similarly and that their parents factors for reconsideration was somewhat similar to most of the researchers respondents. The respondents reported to be forgiven by their parents by various ways; some parents reacted slowly through the process while the other parents had similar basis that they considered to see beyond what their sons did. In this study, this research would show that all the respondents were all given reconsideration and a chance to redeem themselves. But on the case of respondent A who reported that he did not have a hard time telling because his parents wasnt mad in the first place; to be forgiven by his parents was very easy for him. Respondents A, B, D and F believed that the factor their parents considered for forgiveness was the fact that they were their son. That they just needed understanding despite the situation theyre in and acceptance, that they just needed to be taught on how to be responsible for the consequences of their actions. The said respondents parents saw that their sons were sincere and have grown due to what have happened so the said respondents stated that they believe that was the factor that made their parents reconsider.
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Respondent F also said that one of the factors that he saw was that they were still his parents. He said that nakita nila na kailangan ko sila, parents would after all be parents. In the case of respondent C, he was being obedient to everything his parents were saying thats what he believed his parents considered as a factor for forgiveness. They saw my sincerity respondent C stated. Respondent E reported that he worked really hard to prove to her mom that he could juggle the responsibility of being a father and studying at the same time, to gain his mothers trust; he tried to show his mom that he could still graduate with flying colors when his mom didnt believe he could do both. He proved to his mother that she was wrong. When his mom saw this, slowly, he regained his mothers trust. On Restoration of the attitude of Love: On respondent As case, he reported that there was no restoration that happened because there was no difference in treatment in the first place. He said alam nila na responsable ako, at handa ako harapin ang mga consequences ng actions ko. Respondents B and E reported that they promised their parents that they would finish their studies despite of their new responsibilities and still be an effective brother to their younger siblings. Respondent E summed up for both of them: kailangan ko ipakita sa kanila na kaya ko pa rin makagraduate kahit may ganitong sitwasyon. They tried their best to finish their courses and graduate to regain their parents forgiveness and complete trust back. In the case of respondent C; he reported that he promised his parents that he would take care of his child then look for a job after so he could support his kid, which he eventually did after he told his parents. He said that when his parents saw this, even though there was no difference in treatment from the beginning, his parents saw the drive in him to be a better man and to be an effective dad to his baby thats why they supported him even more. Respondent D and F proved to their parents that they could be effective fathers and often visits them bringing their child over for their parents to see. Respondent D shared that his parents and him are now helping each other on raising his daughter. On Reconstructing the Relationship and Re-opening of the Future: All the respondents reported that their relationship with their parents grew stronger after attaining forgiveness, specifically respondent E who reported that his mom gave him a condition to finish college first before he could attain her full trust and forgiveness. He was able to graduate with flying colors despite being a father, because of this, he grew closer to his mom and she lends a helping hand in raising her grandchild. All of the respondents parents are helping them raise their child and as Respondent F quoted that child is the cause of our joy. Respondent C also said that after the birth of his child, his parents saw him as a more responsible man as he quoted my baby brought our closeness back. All of the respondents reported to have attained forgiveness from their parents and were able to gain their parents complete trust back. The respondents in this study said their relationship grew stronger with the presence of the additional member to their family, a baby. The respondents all said that their babies were the ones that brought their parents back to them.

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Discussion The first stage of Augsburgers Interpersonal Forgiveness and Restored Relationship is the occurrence of transgression that causes people to have two reactions, which is anger and resentment. From the framework, this may lead to conflicts and loss of trust. This also causes parental conflicts and this is where the loss of trust occurs between the offended party; and this happened to most of the respondents. Based on the responses, conflicts caused by the transgression lead to different reactions. Studies showed that struggles between parent and their children are common manifestations of family life (Yamaguchi, T, 2011). One of the most rudimentary features of conflict management is whether an issue is engaged or avoided. Engagement involves overt verbal confrontation, however, avoidance can take many forms including withholding complaints, evading discussions of sensitive issues, and defensively withdrawing from a conflict discussion. Children are driven by curiosity, wanting to learn and explore the world and themselves in the world while Every parent wants to hold their child close to protect them and keep them safe; every child wants to break free of their parents hold, going out to the world to discover, explore and learn. Each is pulling the other on opposite directions. The parents on this research exhibited a similar behavior and situation that of the previous studies conducted, in which like in the cases of respondents whose parents showed different types of reactions when they told them what had happened. All of the respondents chose to engage to face the conflict they had and they experienced similar situations with their parents. Meanwhile, all the respondents in this study just wanted to break free from their parents over protectiveness that was why they chose to engage in such act. The art of peaceful parenting is honoring children's need for freedom and exploration while teaching children to be safe (Buck, 2011). The parents in this research showed different way of handling their teenage sons. It was stated peaceful parenting is honoring their childrens need for freedom. The results of the research showed that some of the parents had successful peaceful parenting styles that lead their sons to have no difficulty in telling them, while the others had difficult time telling their parents because of their fear of what their reactions might be and what would be if they told them. Previous studies on teenage fatherhood stated that it has many negative educational, financial, social, health, and other developmental consequences for these young men and their children and that teenage fathers demonstrate the same characteristics as young men who engage in delinquent acts; in every instance it was significantly related to young fatherhood, it was also related to delinquency (Thornberry, Wei, et.al). As stated, teenage fatherhood increases involvement in subsequent delinquency. Many of young fathers on the previous study proved this. The young fathers on this research however showed less of those results. Because contrary to the researchs results, the respondents on this study showed no prior acts of delinquency; this was their first major misbehavior towards their parents for they just wanted to explore their freedom, which for the researcher is not a form of delinquency. The respondents were not involved on any law breaking offenses of some kind, which is the definition of delinquency. Also contrary to the previous study, the young men in this research did not have the consequences that the previous study stated. The young men in this research
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were still able to continue their studies and have enough finances to support the coming of their children. The young men in this study were still able to have harmonious relationships with their children and their parents. Forgiving a child is a normal thing for a parent to do. But what parents would do when children reject moral, social, and spiritual wisdom and choose a life that is totally unacceptable is another story (Bly, 2010). Parental actions could affect the reactions of their children. The parents on this study showed different approaches on how to forgive their sons. Some of the parents gave them conditions; some just accepted them. Also just like as stated, actions of parents could affect how children would react to them. In this research the respondents showed different reactions on their parents attitudes towards them, which further supports the previous study. The parents and their children in this research had different approaches that towards the end lead to forgiveness. Based on Augsburgers Diagram, the respondents followed his Five steps to Interpersonal Forgiveness and Restored Relationships, in which it stated that forgiveness requires steps to regain restored relationships, we saw that all of the respondents went through the forgiveness process which starts with the releasing of the painful past. The young fathers on this study underwent the first step, which was the restoration of love that was when the respondents were trying to win their parents back. On the other hand, their parents who were the ones hurt, followed Augsburgers steps to see beyond what their sons offenses and regain their trust in them back. The respondents relationship with their parents strengthened after the process of forgiveness, which supports the last step of Augsburgers diagram. This showed one of the effects of the final step; which was the rebuilding of the relationship. The respondents on this diagram exercised hat Augsburger proposed as letting go of the pain and beginning to heal.

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Conclusion and Recommendations The results gathered followed Augsburgers diagram of the Steps to Interpersonal Forgiveness (2000) because all of the respondents went through the process of apologizing to their parents after the occurred transgression. They all went through the process of forgiveness and were all reconsidered by their parents after the process of releasing of the painful past and re-affirming the relationship. The interviews conducted suggested that the young fathers felt closer to their parents after the forgiveness process occurred between them and that their relationships with their parents would grow stronger with the presence of their child. All of the respondents acknowledged the fact that communication is the best way to solve any conflicts and that sincerity may be the best way to strengthen a broken trust or relationship. With regards to the siblings being involved, the respondents suggested that a person should not let any conflict affect their responsibilities in their families especially if theyre the eldest. Fighting fears and facing up to the truth is one of the best ways to save whatever relationship you want to be saved. It also is the best way to give the other person the chance to see your honesty and sincerity. Being a young father is a big responsibility that requires sacrifices that all the respondents went through. Saving for their childs future instead of spending on whatever they like is one of them, with these things, they could become not only responsible fathers but sons and brothers as well. The researcher recommends a more in depth interview for future researchers who wish to delve on the same topic. Future researchers may explore other factors of parentchild relationships other than the conflict between the two parties. The researcher also recommends that future researchers would also explore different social classes so that they could compare and contrast the parents reactions towards their childrens behaviors.

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References

Agnew, R. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control. Augsburger, D. (2000). Five steps to Interpersonal Forgiveness and Restored Relationships from http://journeytowardforgiveness.com /mapping/article1.asp Bottke, A., Setting Boundaries with your Children: What Happens after the Boundaries have been set? , Harvest House Publishers, 2008 Brendgen, M.; Moretti, M., Technical Report to Division of Childhood and Adolescence. Public Health Agency of Canada, 2004 Buck, N., Peaceful Parenting. Creative Insights; Greenmeadow Park, Columbia, 2011 Cohen (1993) The Parenting Trap: Forgotten Fathers from http://www.fatherandchild.net.nz/Papers/teendads.html Dallas, Wilson, Salgado. Gender Differences in Teen Parents Perceptions of Parental Responsibilities. Doyle, A., (2004) Parent-Child Relationships and Adjustment in Adolescence. Eaves, L., (2003) The Causes and Effects of Forgiveness: A Twin Family. Ereaut, G., from http://www.qsrinternational.com/what-is-qualitative-research.aspx, 2011 Fletcher,Wolfe: The Effects of Teenage Fatherhood on Young Adult Outcomes. WileyBlackwell; China, 2010 Forgiveness Process Common Materials: Why do we need forgiveness process? from http://iloveulove.com/forgiveness Goodhue,G. (2009). Teenage Fatherhood Limits Educational Growth. Hargrave, T.D. Families and Forgiveness: Healing the Wounds in the Intergenerational Family. Hutchinson, AD., How important is forgiveness to Trust between parent and child. Helium, 2009 Irons, K.R. (2007) Forgiveness in the Parent-Child Relationship from http://parenting.families.com/blog/forgiveness-in-the-parent-child-relationship Klatt, J. The Inner and Outer Transformation: Thoughts Behavior and Feelings from
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http://journeytowardforgiveness.com Linwood, A., (2004) Parent-Child Relationships from http://www.answers.com/topic/parent-child-relationships Linwood, A., (2004) Parent-Child Relationship from http://www.healthofchildren.com/P/Parent-Child-Relationships.html Mayo Clinic Staff. Forgiveness: How to let go of grudges and bitterness Mc Clure. 10 Tips to Strengthen Families Build/Maintain a Positive ParentChild Relationship McEntire, T., (2006) Characteristics Of A Good Parent from http://parenting.families.com/blog/characteristics-of-a-good-parent Pettitt, G., (1997) The Heart of Healing: The Process of Forgiveness. Pfeifer, T., Einarson, N., (2009) How important is forgiveness to trust between Parent and Child. Rainey, L. Parent Involvement. from childcare.about.com/od/volunteerism/tp/relations.html Slansky, A., The Importance of Forgiveness and Trust in A Parent-Child Relationship. Orlando, 2009 Sofaer, S., from http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/14/4/329, 2002 The Healing Journey of Forgiveness from http://www.iloveulove.com Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ehrhard, Susan. Teenage Fatherhood and Involvement in Delinquent Behavior. University of Chicago Publications from http://harrisschool.uchicago.edu/about/publications/workingpapers/abstract www.roxbury.net/issg/jdc2/chapter14/outline.html Yamaguchi, T. Exploring Origins of Forgiveness in Children: An Analogue Experimental Study.

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Predictors of Nurses Tenure Intention in Hospitals


Aliza Marie Gerardo
The purpose of this study was to investigate if job satisfaction and work commitment determine tenure intention. Data was collected from nurse employees working in 4th level hospitals around Las Pias and Manila (N = 180). This study examined the predictors of tenure intention through the use of Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave Questionnaire by Price & Mueller (1981) and Work Commitment Index by Dr. Gary Blau (1993). Multiple regression was utilized to predict the criterion, tenure intention, in using two predictors, work commitment and job satisfaction. Results of the study showed that work commitment is a predictor of tenure intention (p < .01).

________________________________________________________________________ Nursing has been an in-demand college course in the Philippines since the year 2000 and up to the present. According to Aiken, Buchan, & Nichols (2004), the 2001 2004 Medium Term Philippines Development plan views overseas employment as a key source of economic growth. In 2001 the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Ireland, Singapore, and United States were the most common destinations for Filipino nurses. In 2003, the US started adding 20,000 to 65,000 working visas available to foreign professionals per year including nurses from the Philippines. In the year 1993, the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA), reported the departure of 6,744 Filipino nurses to 31 countries. As of year 2007, a total of 117,954 Filipino nurses are working in abroad. Overall, nowadays, many students take up nursing simply because they want to be able to work abroad and support their financial needs. In spite of these, there are still people who choose to remain working in the hospital. Migration and turnovers of nurses are rampant in the Philippines nowadays due to different needs and wants of an individual. Tenure intention is defined as ones behavioral intention to stay in the hospital while turnover intention is ones behavioral intention to quit or withdrawal from an organization. Intention to quit is a manifestation of the actual turnover. It is used as a predictor to the action of real turnover because the theory of planned behavior by Ajzen (1991) suggests that behavioral intention is a good predictor of an actual action. The predictors, job satisfaction and work commitment, which are labeled as the independent variables are defined. Job Satisfaction is the degree to which an individual experiences pleasure in his or her work (Price & Mueller, 1986). Several studies have shown that job satisfaction reflected the strongest correlation on turnover. Work Commitment is characterized as the belief or feeling of loyalty of a person toward his work. Studies show that when satisfied with their jobs and pay and feel committed to the organization, the odds of turnover decrease. This present study was designed to investigate whether job satisfaction and work commitment predict the tenure intention of Filipino nurses in 4th level hospitals.
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Conceptual Framework

Work commitment Tenure intention Job Satisfaction

This conceptual framework illustrated that the predictors of tenure intention are work commitment and job satisfaction. Several studies have revealed that job satisfaction is a good predictor of nurses of tenure intention in the hospital (Decker, Harris-Kojetin, & Bercovitz, 2009; Sourdif, 2004; Alam & Mohammad, 2009; ElJardali, Dimassi, Dumit, Jamal, & Mouro, 2009; Hasun, Makhbul, & Rahid, 2010; Salmon et al., 2000; Shields and Ward, 2001; Chen-Chung, Samuels & Alexander, 2003; Stanz & Greyling, 2010). Significant predictors of nurses intent to remain were organizational commitment and occupational commitment which was found by Meyer and Allen (1991). Taken as a whole, job satisfaction and work commitment, which includes organizational commitment, occupational commitment and job involvement, are factors which influence tenure intention of employees (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002; Narimawati, 2007; Beecroft, Dorey, & Wenten, 2007; Li et al., 2010).

Review of Related Literature Turnover is a serious problem since it involves costs due to termination, advertising, recruitment, selection, and hiring (Abbasi and Hollman, 2008). There are many studies on tenure intention and it involves factors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job involvement and work commitment. Job satisfaction and intent to leave Job satisfaction was the most consistent predictor of nurses intentions to remain employed (Sourdif, 2004). According to Decker et al. (2009) overall satisfaction is the best predictor of intention to leave. Several studies have supported these. Particularly, the study of Alam & Mohammad (2009) showed that because of perceived low level of job satisfaction, it is highly likely that some nurses in the hospital would intend to leave in the future. Researches of Hasun et al. (2010) and El-Jardali et al. (2009) were similar to the two studies wherein job dissatisfaction and fatigue are associated to employees intention to quit.

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43% of nurses who reported high levels of burnout and dissatisfaction intended to leave their jobs within one year. Thus, direct positive relationships have been found between job satisfaction and nurses intentions to remain employed (Aiken, Clarke, Sloane, Sochalaski, & Silber, 2002). Similarly, Shields and Ward (2001) found that nurses who reported overall dissatisfaction with their job had a 65% higher probability of intending to leave than satisfied nurses. Supported by the study of Chen-Chung, Samuels & Alexander (2003), findings showed that as nurses job satisfaction continues to deteriorate, the likelihood of leaving their employment settings increases. In connection to the satisfaction of the employees, extrinsic rewards are included. The study of Wiener, Squillace, Anderson, & Khatutsky (2009) revealed a similar result with El-Jardali et al. (2009), which indicated that dissatisfaction in extrinsic rewards such as training and organizational culture predicts turnover intention. With relevance, nurses were least dissatisfied with the hospital benefits offered and implemented policies as well as recognition of their achievements. As indicated by Shader et al. (2001), job stress, a stable work schedule, and weekend overtime influence job satisfaction and anticipated turnover among nurses. From the result of Omolayo & Owolabi (2007), it is evident that in any organization, monetary reward is a yardstick in determining the level of employees commitment. Thus, inadequate monetary reward system is seen as a major setback of employees commitment and this can bring about increase in absenteeism, lateness, low performance, feeling of grievances and employee turnover. Results showed that in addition with the second paragraph, salary discontent predict turnover as well Stanz & Greyling (2010). Also, when employees feel satisfied, pay and feel committed to the organization, turnover intention decreases (Beecroft et al. (2007). With regards on intentions to leave, research showed that with the aid of the theory of planned behavior, people act in accordance with their intentions and perceptions of control over behavior (Murrells, Robinson, & Griffiths, 2008). Therefore, results revealed that intentions are a better predictor of turnover than job satisfaction. Likewise, the study of Strachota, Normandin, OBrien, Clary & Krukow (2003) demonstrated that the main reasons RNs leave organizations are unsatisfactory work hours and better job opportunity elsewhere. Work Environment Work environment is the surrounding wherein a nurse-employee would work. It incorporates the nurse's premises and other locations where nurses are engaged in workrelated activities or are present as a condition of their employment. Work environment includes health and safety, professional practice and working relationships and have shown to be positively related to job satisfaction and retention (Ulrich, Buerhaus, Donelan, Norman, & Dittus, 2005). Similarly, Salmon et al. (2000) found that when wages and the working environment are not satisfying, turnover is predictable.

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Nurses expected to find an environment where they would be socialized into the role of a nurse with mentoring from experienced nurses who would share their wisdom. Those who felt their expectations of the work environment were met, indicated higher likelihood to remain in nursing (Banks & Bailey, 2010). Another study by (Beecroft et al., 2007) determined that higher scores on work environment and organizational characteristics contributed to likelihood that the employee would not be in the turnover intent group. On the other hand, the research of Joshua-Amadi (2002) found that having a bad working environment, getting low salary, having a constant feeling of tension and a belief that no one cared for them are the basis why nurses leave their jobs. Generally, there is a strong relationship between enjoyment and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and a nurses intent to remain in the profession. Thus, job satisfaction is related to work outcome and serves as a factor in encouraging nurses to remain in their job (Wilson, 2006). Organizational Support, Commitment and Satisfaction Perceived organizational support is an employee belief that the organization cares for and values his or her contribution to the success of the organization (Kaufman et al., 2001). Behavioral outcomes of perceived organizational support would include decreases in stess and withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism and turnover. Heightened perceived organizational support are found out to increase organizational commitment, job satisfaction, positive affect, task interest, task performance, and intentions to remain with the organization (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). Consistently, employees who perceive high levels of organizational support have been found to increase citizenship behaviors, and tenure (Cropanzano, Howes, Grandey & Toth, 1997). Commitment to an organization and perceived organizational support are factors that stimulate a persons thinking about resigning or staying in the hospital they are working in. Research of AL-Hussami (2008) indicated that organizational support was most strongly related to job satisfaction using multiple regression analysis. The results suggested that organizational support was the greatest predictor of job satisfaction r = .93, p < .05. In support with the previous study, job satisfaction and perceived organizational support were most strongly related to nurses commitment to their organizations (Al-Hussami, 2009). Deciding on a choice of work for life may preclude job satisfaction and organizational commitment which was implicated (Bowen, Radhakrishna, & Keyser, 1994). The research of Li et al. (2010) depicted a wide range of psychosocial factors at work in particular, increased emotional demands, decreased meaning of work, decreased commitment to the workplace, and decreased job satisfaction were associated with intent to leave. Likewise, findings revealed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment had negative effect on turnover intentions and perceived alternative job opportunities are positively correlated with turnover intention (Rahman, Naqvi, & Ramay, 2008).
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Correspondingly, the influence of work satisfaction and organizational commitment towards turnover intention is significant and negative which revealed that the work satisfaction and organizational commitment are main factors influencing turnover intention (Narimawati, 2007). Commitment, Job Involvement and Satisfaction Occupational commitment is defined as the identification with, and involvement in, ones occupation. Research of Nogueras (2006) found that occupational commitment is a significant predictor of an RNs intent to leave the nursing profession. Results of the study of Wang, Tao, Ellenbecker, & Liu (2011) showed that job satisfaction and occupational commitment were significantly related to intent to stay. Indeed, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between occupational commitment and job satisfaction. In relation to occupational commitment, the study of Allen, Carswell, & Lee (2000) depicted that occupational commitment was positively related to job-focused constructs such as job involvement and satisfaction, suggesting that attitudes toward the job itself may be a central concern in committing to one's occupation. In addition with the previous work, occupational commitment and organizational commitment were positively related. Also, through the use of Pearson Correlation, Uygur & Kilic (2009) found that r = .44, a moderate correlation between organizational commitment and job involvement. Organizational commitment relates to the characteristic of the relationships between employees and the organization. It has implications for an employees decision to leave or stay with an organization (Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993). A direct relationship has been found between nurses organizational commitment and nurses intentions to remain employed (Ingersoll, Olsan, Drew-Cates, Devinnery, & Davies, 2002; Sourdif, 2004). According to the study of Ingersoll et al. (2002) in the United States of America, a closely positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment was found (r = .63, P < .001). In relation to the research by Redfern et al. (2002), a strong relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment was found (r = .60, P < .001) in a study of the health care staff in the United Kingdom. Similarly, a strong positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment with a sample of registered nurses in Saudi Arabia (r = .59, P < .01) (Al-Aameri, 2000). Analysis of the data by Joiner, Therese A., & Bakalis, Steve (2006) showed that job-related characteristics such as supervisor support, co-worker support, role clarity and resource availability and job involvement characteristics all impact on organizational commitment. As predicted by Steenbergen & Ellemers (2009), their study revealed that organizational commitment predicted organizational turnover intentions and actual turnover. As support of these numerous studies, a study was developed by Meyer and Allen (1991) to describe the psychological link between an individual and the decision to continue in his or her current occupation. They found that organizational commitment and occupational commitment are significant predictors of RNs intent to leave their job.

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Synthesis Overall, several studies from United States, United Kingdom, China, Miami, Perlis, Pakistan, Malaysia, Lebanon, Nigeria, Gauteng, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and Turkey have examined the factors that affect tenure intention. Results show that when employees feel satisfied with their jobs, with the work environment they have and feel supported by the organization and feel committed in their work and organization, there is an increase in tenure intention among nurses. When not committed, dissatisfied and when an alternative or an opportunity is opened to them, possibility of tenure intention decreases. This study determined the predictors of turnover intention of nurse employees in the Philippines to be able to aid in establishing loyalty.

Methodology Research Design The purpose of this study is to examine the predictors of nurses tenure intention with job satisfaction and work commitment as predictor variables. In line with this, a descriptive-correlational method was utilized to describe a set of observations/data collected and to investigate the relationship between the three variables, job satisfaction, work commitment and tenure intention, in this area of research. Participants and Sampling Table 1: Distribution of Subjects Hospitals A Respondents Total 60 B 30 C 40 D 25 E 25 180 N = 180 Total

Table 1 shows the sample population of this study which comprised of 180 employed nurses in 4th level hospitals around Las Pias and Manila. Convenient sampling was also used in distributing the questionnaires through nurse friends but was chosen regardless of age, gender and tenure in the hospital. Instruments The Work Commitment Index by Dr. Gary Blau (1993) contains 31 statements wherein the respondent must indicate ones feelings or beliefs regarding each item. It contains four scales namely: Occupational Commitment Scale (OcC) which consists of 11 items, Job Involvement Scale (JI) and Value of Work Scale (VW), each has 7 items and Organizational Commitment Scale (OgC) which comprises of 6 items. Six-point Likert scale was used and was coded: 6 = strongly agree, 5 = agree, 4 = somewhat agree, 3 = somewhat disagree, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree. Specific items were coded
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reversely. Reliability analysis using Cronbachs coefficient alpha showed that this scale is generally acceptable ( = .69). This test was utilized to examine the work commitment of the nurses in the sampled hospitals. Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave Questionnaire by Price & Mueller (1981) was measured by 7 job satisfaction statements and one item for intent to leave. These questions have been modified from a five-point to a four-point Likert scale, thus reducing the possibility of a less discriminatory central response (Price & Mueller, 1981). Using the SPSS Software, the four-point Likert scale was coded: 4 = strongly agree, 3 = agree, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree. Items C and E were coded reversely. Intention to quit was used as the dependent variable and was coded: 1 = definitely will leave, 2 = probably will leave, 3 = probably will not leave, 4 = definitely will not leave. Reliability assessment using Cronbachs coefficient alpha demonstrated adequate internal consistency for overall job satisfaction ( = .87). One item measured intent to leave and the reliability for this scale yielded ( = .85). Procedure Through an electronic mail, permission to use the Work Commitment Index was sent to Dr. Gary Blau and was granted (Gary Blau, personal communication, June 22, 2011). Permission for the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale was no longer possible. After the permission was granted, a letter, together with the sample questionnaire, was given to the hospitals immediately (see Appendix G). The letter served as the way to obtain the permission to distribute the survey questionnaires. Upon approval, the questionnaire was brought to the hospital and was distributed randomly to the nurse employees. Also, convenient sampling was used to disseminate the questionnaires. Nurse friends were given questionnaires and were asked to distribute and let their co-workers answer. Nurse associates and the hospitals who agreed to distribute the questionnaire were given a week to accomplish the Work Commitment Index (WCI) and Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave Questionnaire. After the given amount of time, the researcher went back to the specific hospitals and met with the nurse friends to collect the answered questionnaires. Statistical Analysis The general purpose of multiple regression is to predict a criterion in using two predictors. The criterion measured in this study is turnover intention and its predictors are job satisfaction and work commitment. Regression is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable and tells us how strongly the two independent variables, work commitment and job satisfaction, are related to the dependent variable, tenure intention. The closer to 1.0 the regression value is, the better the model. The closer the regression value is to 0, the worse the model. Analysis of Variance is applied to determine a statistically significant portion of the variability in the dependent variable, tenure intention, from variability in the independent variables, work commitment and job satisfaction. Statistical data analysis illustrates that the level of significance is p < .01. In addition, beta standardized coefficient is used to ascertain which of the independent variables have a greater effect on the dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis.
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Results Descriptive statistics section showed the mean, standard deviation, and number of observations (N) for each of the variables tenure intention, job satisfaction and work commitment. Data showed that with regards to tenure intention, respondents will probably leave the organization (M = 2.22, SD = .953). In view of job satisfaction, nurse employees perceived dissatisfaction in their job (M = 2.6151, SD = .25764). The respondents somewhat disagree that they are committed in their work, thus work commitment revealed (M = 3.8050, SD = .41070). There were N =180 observations for each of the variables (see Appendix C). A multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive values of work commitment and job satisfaction on the nurses tenure intention in the hospitals they are working in. The regression in the model summary table (R = .393) showed that there is a low positive correlation between the two independent variables, work commitment and job satisfaction to tenure intention (see Appendix D). Both independent variables revealed a significant relationship with tenure intention (p .01) (see Appendix E). The coefficients table demonstrated that work commitment is a predictor of tenure intention (p < .01) while job satisfaction is not a predictor of intent to stay (p > .01) (see Appendix F). It was found that work commitment predicted tenure intention (Beta = .365, p < .01) on the other hand, job satisfaction did not predict tenure intention (Beta = .077, p > .01). Discussion The objective of this study was to investigate whether job satisfaction and work commitment determine tenure intention of nurses. Some statements in the Work Commitment Index comprise of Most of my interests center around my job, I can see myself in my current occupation for many years to come, Work should be central to everyones life, I would be glad to spend the rest of my days with my organization and The most important things about my life involve my job. Statements in the Job Satisfaction Scale include I am fairly well satisfied with my job and I find real enjoyment in my job. The item for Intent to Leave Questionnaire was Which of the following statements most clearly reflects your feeling about your future in the hospital? Present research found that there is a significantly low positive correlation among nurse employees who are less committed and dissatisfied with their job which then resulted to their probability to leave the hospital (see Appendix D and E). This showed that the respondents perceived dissatisfaction toward their job and felt not committed to their work somehow which lead to their answer of probably will leave the hospital in the future. The studies of (Beecroft et al.,2007; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002; Narimawati, 2007; Li et al., 2010) supported this finding. When dissatisfaction was perceived by the nurses in the hospital, probability of intent to leave was higher than satisfied nurses (Alam & Mohammad, 2009; El-Jardali et al., 2009; Hasun et al., 2010; Aiken et al., 2002; Shields and Ward, 2001; Chen-Chung,
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Samuels & Alexander 2003; Wiener et al., 2009; Shader et al., 2001; Stanz & Greyling 2010; Strachota et al., 2003). In line with the studies of (Banks & Bailey, 2010; Salmon et al., 2000; Ulrich et al., 2005; Joshua-Amadi, 2002; Wilson, 2006), they indicated that when the expectations on work environment were met and were satisfying, tenure intention was likely to dominate among the nurse employees while a bad working environment was predicted to lead to turnover. As backbone of this study, the researches of (Cropanzano et al., 1997; AL-Hussami, 2008; Al-Hussami, 2009) indicated that organizational support and job satisfaction were strongly related to nurses commitment to their organizations and intent to remain in the future. Overall, the study concluded that the nurse respondents have low intent to stay in the hospital which was predicted by the Work Commitment Index (see Appendix F). This research showed that work commitment significantly predicted tenure intention while job satisfaction which was also expected to be a predictor, did not predict tenure intention of nurses. The study of Nogueras (2006) found that occupational commitment is a significant predictor of turnover intention among nurses, which supported this present finding. Another study by Steenbergen & Ellemers (2009) revealed that organizational commitment predicted organizational turnover intentions and actual turnover. As support, organizational commitment and occupational commitment are significant predictors of nurses intent to leave their job (Meyer and Allen, 1991). However, this present finding was in contrast to numerous studies regarding overall job satisfaction as the best and most consistent predictor of intention to remain in an organization (Sourdif, 2004; Decker et al., 2009). Furthermore, research of Wang et al. (2011) which depicted that job satisfaction and occupational commitment were significantly related to intent to stay was inconsistent to this study. This research demonstrated that job satisfaction is not anymore enough to retain nurses in the hospital unlike other previous studies. The study by Murrells et al. (2008) may explain why job satisfaction was not a significant predictor. It stated that people act in accordance with their intentions and perceptions of control over behavior. Thus, whether a nurse employee is satisfied or dissatisfied with ones job, as long as the employee has the intention to leave, the employee would leave the hospital he or she is working in. The research of Rahman et al. (2008) stated that when an employee perceives the alternative job opportunity as high, his turnover intention increases. On the other hand, when one perceives no better job opportunity, the employee might decide to stay with the organization longer.

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Conclusions This study focused on two independent variables, job satisfaction and work commitment, in predicting the dependent variable, turnover intention among nurses in hospitals. The findings of previous studies regarding job satisfaction as the best predictor of tenure intention were in contrast with the results of this present study. This present research found that tenure intention of Filipino nurses working in 4th level hospitals was predicted by work commitment while job satisfaction did not. Thus, anticipated turnover among nurses is due to a variety of factors beyond job satisfaction. When an organization is not supportive or the nurses feel that their future in the hospital is not promising, though employees are satisfied with their salary and other factors, intent to remain in the organization is low. We can conclude that high work commitment is a significant predictor of nurses intent to remain in hospitals and those with low work commitment will likely leave the organization they are in. In commitment, employees think more collectively and in totality. Thus, it is not insightful to disparities and transitions on work conditions. When employees feel committed to an organization, it is most probable that they will remain in the hospital.

Implications and Recommendation Further research is needed to explore and examine the reason behind job satisfaction as no longer a predictor of tenure intention. Also, it would be better to validate whether work commitment nowadays is the best predictor for tenure intention since several previous studies revealed that job satisfaction was the best one. This present study might be open to errors since the Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave Questionnaire was from 1981 thus, flaws are inevitable. A different or new job satisfaction scale to be employed on future research would be better to validate the trend of job satisfaction being not a predictor of tenure intention among nurse employees. Overall, it is alarming that nurses feel not that committed to the organization they are in. Findings of this research indicate that those managing the employees must deliberately think and consider more ways on how nurses will be able to perceive commitment to the specific hospital in order to improve their tenure intention.

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El-Jardali, F., Dimassi, H., Dumit, N., Jamal, D., & Mouro, G. (2009). A national crosssectional study on nurses' intent to leave and job satisfaction in Lebanon: implications for policy and practice. BMC Nursing , 8 (3). Hasun, F. M., Makhbul, Z. M., & Rahid, M. R. (2010). WHAT MADE THEY GO? Ingersoll, G., Olsan, T., Drew-Cates, J., DeVinnery, B., & Davies, J. (2002). Nurses job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and career intent. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32(5), 250-263. Joiner, Therese A., & Bakalis, Steve. (2006) The antecedents of organizational commitment: the case of Australian casual academics. International journal of educational management, 20 (6). pp. 439-452. Joshua-Amadi, Mabel. (2002). Recruitment and retention: a study in motivation. Nursing Management, 9(8), 17-21 Li, Fu, Hu, Shang, Wu, Kristensen, et al. (2010). Psychosocial work environment and intention to leave the nursing profession: results from the longitudinal Chinese NEXT study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health , 69-80. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-98. Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551. Murrells, T., Robinson, S., & Griffiths, P. (2008). Is satisfaction a direct predictor of nursing turnover? Modelling the relationship between satisfaction, expressed intention and behaviour in a longitudinal cohort study. Human Resources for Health , 6 (22). Narimawati, U. (2007). The Influence of Work Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention Towards the Performance of Lecturers at West Javas Private Higher Education Institution. Journal of Applied Sciences Research , 3 (7), 549-557. Nogueras, D. J. (2006). Occupational commitment, education, and experience as a predictor of intent to leave the nursing profession. Nursing Economics, 24(2), 8693. Omolayo, B., & Owolabi, A. (2007). Monetary Reward: A Predictor of EmployeesCommitment to Medium Scale Organizations in Nigeria. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology , 4 (1), 42-48. Price, & Mueller. (1986). Rahman, A., Naqvi, R., & Ramay, M. I. (2008). Measuring Turnover Intention: A Study of IT Professionals in Pakistan. International Review of Business Research Papers , 4 (3), 45-55.

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Redfern, S., Hannan, S., Norman, I. and Martin, F. (2002). Work satisfaction, stress, quality of care and morale of older people in a nursing home. Health and Social Care in the Community, 10(6):512-517. Rhoades, L. and R. Eisenberger. 2002. "Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of the Literature." Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (4): 698-714 Salmon, J. R., Crews, C., Reynolds-Scanlon, S., Jang, Y., Weber, S. M., & Oakley, M. L. (2000). Nurse Aide Turnover:Literature Review of Research, Policy and Practice. Florida Policy Exchange Center on Aging . Shader, K., Broome, M. E., Broome, C. D., West, M. E., & Nash, M. (2001). Factors influencing satisfaction and anticipated turnover for nurses in an academic medical center. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(4), 210-216. Sourdif, J. (2004). Predictors of nurses intent to stay at work in a university health center. Nursing and Health Sciences, 6, 59-68. Stanz, K., & Greyling, J. (2010). Turnover of nursing employees in a Gauteng hospital group. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology , 36 (1), 1-11. Steenbergen & Ellemers. (2009). Feeling Committed to Work: How Specific Forms of Work-Commitment Predict Work Behavior and Performance Over Time. Human Performance, 22(5), 410-431. Strachota, E., Normandin, P., OBrien, N., Clary, M., & Krukow, B. (2003). Reasons registered nurses leave or change employment status. Journal of Nursing Administration, 33(2), 111-117. Ulrich, B. T., Buerhaus, P. I., Donelan, K., Norman, L., & Dittus, R. (2005). How RNs View the Work Environment. JONA , 35 (9), 389-396. Uygur, & Kilic. (2009). A Study into Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: An Application Towards the Personnel in the Central Organization for Ministry of Health in Turkey. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences , 2 (1), 113-125. Wang, Tao, Ellenbecker, & Liu. (2011). Job satisfaction, occupational commitment and intent to stay among Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Wiener, J. M., Squillace, M. R., Anderson, W. L., & Khatutsky, G. (2009). Why Do They Stay? Job Tenure Among Certified Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes. The Gerontologist, 1-13. Wilson, C. (2006). Why stay in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management, 12(9), 24-32. Perceived Organizational Support. (n.d.). Retrieved September 20, 2011, from http://www.psychology.uh.edu/POS/theory.asp

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The Color Wheel Model of Love: Love Styles of Airline Cabin Crew and Non Cabin Crew
Julia Alexia B. Gonzalez

The study is based on John Lees Colors of Love. The researcher administered the Love Attitude Scale on cabin crew and non-cabin crew. The study compared the love styles of 114 individuals who were purposively chosen to participate for the research. Results show that individuals were highly erotic, storgic and agapic lovers; and less likely to be ludic, pragmatic and manic lovers. The researcher compared the results of the study to past studies which showed some differences regarding their findings. The present study concludes that individuals were more agapic lovers which was said to be the rarest love style.

________________________________________________________________________ Cabin crews are provided by airlines for the safety and security of the travelling public. It is their primary job to ensure that security and safety regulations are followed. They make flights comfortable and enjoyable for the passengers. Working as an airline cabin crew is very tiring and difficult. Most of the time, Cabin crews stand during the flight and it is still their duty to remain pleasant and efficient. Cabin crews are always away from their home. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, Cabin crews typically fly from 75 to 85 hours a month. In addition to their flight time, they have about 50 hours a month duty time between flights. They also require airlines to provide cabin crews 9 consecutive hours of rest following any duty period. Usually cabin crews suffer from jet lag, disorientation and fatigue. This happens to those who have international routes where they have to fly into different time zones. Cabin crews are also at risk to injuries because they are asked to work in a moving aircraft. Common injuries occur when opening overhead compartments or while pushing heavy service carts. High risk to their health is also a big problem for cabin crews because they have no regular sleeping and eating patterns. As a cabin crew, one main qualification is to be always available for work. Airlines operate around the clock and year round so this means cabin crews are always on call. They may be working at nights, holidays, and weekends. Some are also required to work away from home. Cabin crews must be flexible and be willing to relocate. Thus, it is common to find cabin crews spending a great deal of time away from home. With the nature of their career, it would be difficult for them to handle a love relationship. Most studies that have been done about cabin crew only refer to their stress, health and work schedules. Cabin crews have a hectic schedule therefore the researcher would want to explore what love style would most likely fit their occupation. The
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significance of the study is to give awareness to cabin crew and non-cabin crew individuals on their said love styles. Cabin crews would benefit to the study because it would be helpful for them to know their love style in regards to their line of career. Airlines would also benefit to the study because they can use this research to further improve their requirements in choosing individuals who would want to pursue a career in the airline industry. This study aims to explore the love styles of the cabin crew and compare it with those of the non-cabin crews.

Conceptual Framework Figure 1

Job

Gender

Love Style

As shown in figure 1, the independent variables of the study are occupation that is, being a cabin crew and non-cabin crew and gender. The dependent variable is love style which an individual respondent possesses. Based on the review of related literature, it is assumed that respondents occupation, that is, being a cabin crew or non-cabin crew and their being male or female influence their love style. Love styles in this context are based on John Lees Colors of Love. These colors of love may either be erotic, ludic, storgic, manic, agapic and pragmatic. Eros lover literally means they are characterized by passion that is more than just the physical one. An individual whose love style is erotic would tend to love an ideal person. Ludus lover plays it with different people, qualities, activities, with no one person or relationship taking superiority over another. An individual with ludic love style treats love as a game. The storge lover is someone who will build a love relationship with a strong base of friendship. An individual with strogic as a love style tends to see love as friendship. Pragma lover is when realistic and practical love is present. Individuals whose love style is pragmatic are more driven by their head and not with their hearts. Mania lover are more on the obsessive love where individuals tend to be anxious or insecure and can be really jealous at all times. Agape lover which is the rarest type is when selfless is present. An individual with agapic as a love style thinks about their partners needs and sacrifice their own needs. Each respondent is expected to have one of these love styles.

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Review of Literature

A recent research examined the service offering within the conventional airline industry which has been shaped by managerial initiatives aiming to deliver quality service. The study focused on the gendered consequences of such to reshape. Based on the original empirical research, there were three specific arguments: First, the competitive pressures and accompanying managerial initiatives are becoming intensively demanding on female employees - production of emotional labor, subjective commitment to organizational aims and sexual difference within parts of the airline industry. Second, despite the enormous power of such managerial demands, the spaces for female employees to comply with consent and resist remain open within the aspects of the industry studied. Lastly, the power of the gendered managerial prescription investigated here is related to the way it is embedded within the structural and inequitable capitallabor relation (Taylor & Tyler, 2000). Another research was made on Taiwanese flight attendants who illustrate a female-dominated occupation in the Asian context. The study contributes to the current dialogues which are dominated by a number of Western literatures. The researcher explored how the occupation changed the lives of women, how female flight attendants incorporated doing gender and emotional labor at work and how femininity was constructed. Methods of the study included interviews, participatory observations and textual analysis. These methods were used to understand womens experience at work (Chang, 2008). A cross-cultural research explored the relationship between love types and subjective well-being. Participants of the research were college students from an individualist culture (USA) and a collectivist culture (Korea). The study showed that two love types are related to subjective well-being in a different way: life satisfaction was more strongly predicted by companionate love than by passionate love, whereas positive and negative emotions were more accounted for by passionate love than by companionate love. No culture and gender difference was found in this overall relationship, but gender difference was found in the extent of the association between companionate love and satisfaction with life, and between passionate love and emotional experiences, respectively (Kim & Hatfield, 2004). The research examined Sternbergs Triangular Theory of Love to identify the structure of the psyche implied in that theory. Sternbergs theory posits three components of human functioning to explain the phenomenon of love in close relationships: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Analyses of these three components indicate that they align with a neoclassical model of the human psyche. Sternbergs commitment component relies on the capacity for cognition (and conation), the passion component is derived from conation (and affect), and the intimacy component is derived from emotional investment or the capacity for affect (and cognition). The study concluded that overall, Sternbergs Triangular Theory of love ontologically presupposes a neoclassical structure to the psyche (Diessner, Frost, & Smith, 2004).

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A study examined how adult attachment styles (anxious, avoidant), love styles (eros, ludus, storge, mania, pragma, agape), relationship variables (satisfaction, investment, commitment), and an environmental variable (perceived alternatives) predicted infidelity. Sampling of the study comprised 243 women and 69 men between the ages of 18 and 60 years and who were currently in a romantic relationship of at least a year or who had recently been in such a relationship. The current findings of the study indicated that various sexual and emotional behaviors carried out with someone other than ones primary partner were considered unfaithful while fantasy and flirting behaviors were generally seen as acceptable. The results of the study suggested that individuals most likely to engage to these behaviors were those with an avoidant attachment or a ludus love style, more perceived alternatives to their relationships, and most unexpectedly, higher levels of investment in their relationship. On the other hand those least likely to engage to these behaviors were those with an eros love style and greater levels of commitment to their relationship (Fricker, 2006). Another study focused on the issue concerning the relationship between age and love. First issue: The age generalizability of the factor structure produced by responses to the Love Attitudes Scales. The data presented in the study indicated that the factor structure of responses to the Love Attitudes Scale is highly similar in college-aged and middle-aged participants. Second issue: The relation between age and actual scores on the sub-scales of the Love Attitude Scales. The data indicated that age is related to responses on the Mania and Agape sun-scales, particularly for females. All together, these data suggest that general structural conceptions of love remain relatively constant into the middle-age, but that there is a relation between age and some specific love styles (Butler, Walker, Skowronski, & Shannon, 1995). Theories of Love Psychologist and researchers have made numbers of theories about love. According to psychologist Elaine Hatfield and her colleagues, there are two basic types of love. The first type is the companionate love which mutual respect, attachment, affection and trust are characterized. It is usually developed out of feelings of mutual understanding and shared respect for each other (Hatfield & Rapson, 2009). Companionate love is the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined. It is achieved only between partners who are able to positively reinforce each others intimate behaviors (All About Love - Types of Love, 2003-2006). Companionate love is the affection for those who we are close to. In this love, both partners must have the same feelings towards each other for the love to work and to be positive (Stuckey & Arpaio, 2005). Companionate love is the affection and tenderness men and women feel for those with whom their lives are deeply entwined. It is a complex functional whole including appraisals or appreciations, subjective feelings, expressions, patterned physiological processes, action tendencies, and instrumental behaviors (Hatfield & Rapson, 1994). The second type is the passionate love which intense emotions, sexual attraction, anxiety, and affection are characterized. Hatfield said that when these intense emotions are reciprocated, people feel elated and fulfilled. It will lead to feelings of despondence
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and despair when not reciprocated (Hatfield & Rapson, 2009). Passionate love is defined as a state of intense longing for the union with another and a state of profound physiological arousal. It is believed that passionate love is a powerful emotion that can be both blissfully positive when love is reciprocal and despairingly negative when love is unrequited (All About Love - Types of Love, 2003-2006). Passionate love is the longing part to be the other and is physiologically aroused. This kind of love can be positive, if both individuals feel the same way, or negative, if one disagrees (Stuckey & Arpaio, 2005). Passionate love is a state of intense longing for union with another. Reciprocated love (union with the other) is associated with fulfillment and ecstasy. Unrequited love (separation) is with emptiness, anxiety, or despair. It is a complex functional whole including appraisals or appreciations, subjective feelings, expressions, patterned physiological processes, action tendencies, and instrumental behaviors (Hatfield & Rapson, 1994). Most individuals try to combine the delights of passionate love with the security of companionate love in a single relationship which actually is impossible to do so (All About Love - Types of Love, 2003-2006). Hatfield expressed the idea of companionate love verses passionate love. It may be impossible to have passionate love and companionate love exist in the same relationship (Stuckey & Arpaio, 2005). Psychologist Robert Sternberg proposed a triangular theory of love. He suggests that there are three components of love. These are intimacy, passion, and commitment which when combined results to a different type of love. Example for this is when intimacy and commitment is combined; it will result to compassionate love. As for the combination of passion and intimacy, it will lead to passionate love (Diessner, Frost, & Smith, 2004). Intimacy includes the sharing of thoughts, emotions, stories and communication. Intimacy is the process in which couples, who feel close and who trust one another and, as a consequence, come to feel cared for, known, and validated (Hatfield & Rapson, 1994). Passion is being sexually aroused and attracted to your partner. Commitment is when individuals maintain the relationship and nourishes the loving feeling (Stuckey & Arpaio, 2005). Commitment refers: in the short term, the decision of a couple that they love one another; in the long term, their commitment to maintain that love (Hatfield & Rapson, 1994). According to Sternberg, it is more enduring when relationships are built on two or more elements rather than just on a single component. Sternberg also said that the combination of intimacy, passion, and commitment is the consummate love. For Sternberg, consummate love is the strongest, most enduring, and rare type of love (Diessner, Frost, & Smith, 2004). Sternberg founded his triangular theory of love. When all these components are present, it will make consummate love which hardly ever happens. Usually only one or two components are strongly emphasized in a relationship. Sternberg also said that some components may become weaker and others may be stronger to change the type of relationship or love (Stuckey & Arpaio, 2005).

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Social Psychologist Zick Rubin pointed out that love and liking are both attitudes that a person holds toward another person. Both are invisible packages of feelings, thoughts, and behavioral predispositions within an individual. He said that even with this mutual definition, the content of love is not the same as that of liking. According to Rubin loving is composed of three elements. First element is the attachment which refers to the powerful desire to be in others presence, to make physical contact, to be approved of, to be cared for (All About Love - Types of Love, 2003-2006). Attachment is the desire to be with each other, physical contact and approval (Stuckey & Arpaio, 2005). Second element is the caring which refers to the willingness to sacrifice oneself for the sake of other person (All About Love - Types of Love, 20032006). Caring is when an individual puts the other person before themselves. They sacrifice for the sake of the other person (Stuckey & Arpaio, 2005). Third element is the intimacy which is the union and bond between two individual (All About Love - Types of Love, 2003-2006). Intimacy is the bond between individuals and with connection. Rubin said liking is only when we think the person earns our respect and good morals (Stuckey & Arpaio, 2005). Rubin's book, Liking and Loving, explains the similarities and differences between the two emotions. He developed a scale with two questionnaires to measure liking and loving. His scale attempts to measure the degree of liking that one individual has for another. The results show that respect, similarity, and favorable evaluation were important for liking and caring while attachment and intimacy were important in loving another individual (All About Love - Types of Love, 20032006). Love Styles The Color Wheel Model of Love which John Lee compared styles of love to the color wheel. There are three primary styles of love which are eros, ludos, and storge. Lee described Eros as loving an ideal person. With eros, you and your partner have the right physical chemistry. Ludos is the love as a game. In here, an individual believes that what his/her partner doesnt know about them wont hurt their partner. Storge is the love as friendship. For storge, their love is the best kind because it grew out of a long friendship. He also proposed that the primary styles of love could be combined to create more different secondary love styles. The three secondary styles are mania, pragma, and agape. Mania is the combination of eros and ludos which is the obsessive love. It is when an individual doesnt get the attention that they want, they feel sick. Pragma is the combination of ludus and storge which is the realistic and practical love. Main consideration in choosing their partner is how he/she will reflect with their family. And agape is the combination of eros and storge which is the selfless love. With agape, the individual would rather suffer than let their partner suffer. Erotic lovers based their passionate, physical and emotional love on aesthetic enjoyment. Partners are chosen by intuition or chemistry. They are more likely to say they fell in love at first sight rather than the other love style. Most Erotic lovers tend to others their partner with pet names, such as sweetheart or honey. An Erotic lover can be
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perceived as a hopeless romantic. For other love styles, they may see erotic lovers as unrealistic or trapped in a fantasy (Ayalon, 2008 ). The eros lover is characterized by passion, though a passion broader than just a physical one. An eros lover tends to be drawn toward a preferred physical type, and thus there may be an immediate recognition when meeting a potential love partner. They want to be involved with their partner in all levels, physically affectionate and intimate, talking for hours, and learning all about their partner. Eros lovers are fully and openly present, self-confident and trusting, and balance intensity with an appropriate sense of boundaries (Hendrick, 2004). Ludic lovers are players who play love as a game or sports. They are more interested with the quantity than the quality of relationships and want to have much fun as possible. Partners are chosen by playing the field and they quickly recover from breakups. Ludic lovers generally view marriage as a trap, and are the most likely of the love styles to commit infidelity. Relationships with a ludic lover do not have great depth of feeling. They regard sex as a conquest or a sport, and they engage in relationships because they see them as a challenge (Ayalon, 2008). The ludus lover in contrast is not interested in intensity but rather experiences love as a game to be played for mutual enjoyment but not necessarily with any serious outcome in mind. They do not have a preferred physical type. Although ludic lovers may be in a partnered relationship with someone, ludic love is best played with several partners at a time. In here a ludic lover plays it with different people, different qualities, in different activities, with no one person or relationship taking precedence over another. A ludic lover may hurt a partner inadvertently, but the goal is to enjoy relationships with a variety of people, with everyone having fun and no one getting hurt (Hendrick, 2004). Storgic lovers have an affectionate love that slowly develops from friendship. Lovers are friends first. Storgic love is solid, down to earth, presumably enduring. It may take time to develop but it is related to satisfaction in long-term relationships. Storgic love develops gradually out of friendship, and the friendship can endure beyond the breakup of the relationship. They sometimes cannot pinpoint the moment that friendship turned to love. Storgic lovers want their partner to also be their best friends. They give great importance on commitment, and find their motivation to avoid committing infidelity is to preserve the trust between their partners. For storgic lovers, sex is of lesser importance than in some of the other love styles (Ayalon, 2008 ). The storge lover is someone who builds a love relationship on a strong base of friendship. Their goal is to be companionable, secure, trusting relationship with a partner who is similar in terms of attitudes and values. For storgic lovers, the similarity is more important than the physical appearance or sexual satisfaction. The orientation to love of storgic lover is more likely to seek long-term commitment rather than short-term excitement (Hendrick, 2004). Pragmatic lovers are practical. Lovers are driven by their head, not with their heart. Pragmatic lovers think rationally and realistically about their expectations with their partner. They want to find value in their partners, and ultimately want to work with their partner to reach a common goal. They avoid infidelity to avoid adverse consequences and they carefully weigh the costs and rewards of their relationships. For pragmatic lovers, they view sex as a reward (Ayalon, 2008 ). The pragma lover may or
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may not have a preferred physical type, but he or she will surely have a virtual or actual list of qualities required in a partner. This type of lover may profit from working with a matchmaker or a computer dating service. In here inappropriate relationship candidates will be screened out. They are not looking for great excitement and drama rather they are looking for a suitable partner with whom they will have a satisfying, rewarding life can be built. (Hendrick, 2004). Manic lovers are highly volatile love, obsessive, dependent, and mostly fueled by low self-esteem. They place much importance on their relationships where they speak of their partners in possessiveness and superlatives. For them, love is a means of rescue or a reinforcement of value and they often feel they need their partners. Partners are usually discovered in random means. They will avoid committing infidelity because they fear their partner will find out about it. For manic lovers, sex is a reassurance of love. Manic lovers are often anxious or insecure and can be extremely jealous (Ayalon, 2008 ). The mania lover yearns for a love relationship but finds it elusive because she or he seems compelled to push for commitment from a partner. They dont trust the commitment even if it is forthcoming and is always afraid that the partner will find someone else. The manic lover has high and lows emotionality, dependence, possessiveness, jealousy and insecurity are typically present (Hendrick, 2004). Agapic lover are selfless, no demanding and altruistic love. They are selfsacrificing and all-encompassing love. Agapic lovers are often spiritual or religious people because they view their lover as a blessing and they wish to take care of them. They would remain faithful to their partners to avoid causing them pain and they will often wait patiently for their partners after a break-up. For agapic lover, sex is a gift between two people (Ayalon, 2008 ). The agape lover is said to be the rarest type of lover. It is characterized by altruism in which the partners welfare is more important than ones own welfare. With the Agapic lover, what one can give in a relationship is more important than what one gets. Agapic lover is much more common with compassionate love. For agapic lover, sensuality and sexuality are likely to be much important than more spiritual qualities. Agapic qualities are extremely important as relationships encounter inevitable ups and downs (Hendrick, 2004). There are a lot of theories that psychologist and researchers have made about love. Past studies made studies on different age, sex, relationship, love, culture and other attributes that they could explore with the love style of individuals. The researcher would want to explore more on the Color Wheel Model of Love by John Lee (Hendrick, 2004). The love styles typologies are about how and why individuals differ in the way they relate to others, particularly in intimate relationships. Love means different things to different people in different relationships at different points in time (Fricker, 2006). In this paper, the researcher would want to discover what love styles are practiced by cabin crews and non-cabin crews that will show how they view love.

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Methodology Research Design The study used a survey method to gather needed data. After respondents were identified, they were given a 42-item Hendrick Love Attitude Scale to answer. The survey method was done necessary for the research because it has one hundred respondents. Participants The research included total participants of 114 individuals. Participants were 31 female cabin crew and 29 female non cabin crew; 22 male cabin crew and 32 male non cabin crew was included in the study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a particular group. Criteria for selection include age, civil status and the number of past relationships. Respondents age must range from 21 to 29 years, be single and have at least experienced a relationship. For cabin crews, they should be working in an airline company that has domestic flights. As for the non cabin crew, they should be coming from the same background as the cabin crews. Instruments The participants were given personal information sheet which includes their name, age, gender, civil status, number of past relationships, area of residence, educational attainment, contact number, email address and signature. The researcher utilized the 42-Item Hendrick Love Attitude Scale (1990) (Hendrick H. &., 1990). The Love Attitude Scale consists of forty-two statements about relationships. The scale is a five-point Likert format (1 = Strongly Agree; 5 = Strongly Disagree), consisting of six subscales with seven items each. Scores are tallied per subscale, with a minimum of 7 points and a maximum of 35 points per subscale. Each love styles are measured by seven of the statements. The mean score of these seven statements reflects the level of love style of the participant. Lower scores indicate higher tendencies towards the love style while higher scores indicate lower tendencies towards the love style. Procedure The researcher personally approached and conversed with the cabin crews while they were in the crew lounge. They were briefed about what the survey was about and have the right to not participate. Also, a non cabin crew individual was recruited whom suited the given criteria. All individuals accomplished the same questionnaires. The researcher sent a letter of request to the airline company to conduct a survey. The letter was subsequently approved by the companys manager. Participants were then informed that they were to participate in a study about cabin crews and non cabin crew's love styles. Participants were provided with two questionnaires. The first questionnaire contained personal information, while the other questionnaire contained the Love Attitude scale.
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Questionnaires were handed to the participants personally by the researcher. Participants were also informed that the information given will be kept confidential. The results were to be used only for the researchers study. Participants were told to accomplish questionnaires and drop them in to given mailboxes or hand them back to the researcher in person.

Results The researcher computed the percentage of the number of individuals who possessed a said love style. With it, it became easy to see the difference of each love style and see which love style would have had more or less individuals. By comparison, the groups love styles were being erotic lovers, storgic lovers and agapic lovers. More female cabin crew individuals were erotic lovers with 29% of their group having the said love style. While the male cabin crew individuals being 23% of their group having eros as their love style. More female non cabin crew individuals were also erotic lovers with 21% of their group having the said love style. While the male non cabin crew individuals were 16% of their group having eros as their love style. Being storgic lovers, more female cabin crew individuals were 29% of their group and female non cabin crew individuals were 27% of their group having the said love style. Also, male cabin crew individuals were 18% of their group and male non cabin crew individuals were 13% of their group having storge as their love style. Being agapic lovers, more male non cabin crew individuals were 59% of their group and male cabin crew were 50% of their group having the said love style. At the same time, less female cabin crew individuals were 26% of their group and female non cabin crew individuals were 21% of their group having agape as their love style. Below is the comparison of the groups using the love styles ludic, pragmatic and manic lovers. More male non cabin crew individuals were ludic lovers with 6% of their group having the said love style. Compared to less female non cabin crew individuals were 3% of their group having ludos as their love style. Both female and male cabin crew were individuals who did not have ludos as their love style. Being pragmatic lovers, more female cabin crew individuals were 16% of their group and female non cabin crew individuals were 14% of their group having the said love style. Compared to less male cabin crew individuals who 9% of their group and male non cabin crew individuals who 6% of their group having pragma as their love style. Being manic lovers, more female non cabin crew individuals were 4% of their group having the said love style. Compared to female cabin crew, male cabin crew and male non cabin crew were individuals who did not have mania as their love style.

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LOVE ATTITUDE SCALE SCORES IN PERCENTAGE

Figure 2

CABIN CREW
40 30 20 10 0 Eros Ludus Storge Pragma Mania Agape 0% 26% 25% 13% 0% 36%

As shown in figure 2, cabin crew individuals were more agapic lover, erotic lover and storgic lover and are less likely to be pragmatic lover. Out of 53 individuals, both female and male cabin crew individuals were agapic lovers with 36% of their group having the said love styles. There were also erotic lovers with 26% of their group having the love style and storgic lovers with 25% of their group having the love style. There were pragmatic lovers with 13% of their group having the said love style. No individuals indicated to be ludic lover and manic lover.

Figure 3

NON CABIN CREW


50 40 30 20 10 0 Eros Ludus Storge Pragma Mania Agape 18% 5% 20% 10% 6% 41%

As shown in figure 3, non-cabin crew individuals were more agapic lovers, storgic lover and erotic lover and are less likely to be pragmatic lover, manic lovers and ludic lovers. Out of 61 individuals, both female and male non cabin crew individuals were more agapic lovers with 41% of their group having the said love style. There were also storgic lovers with 20% of their group having the said love style and erotic lovers with 18% of their group having the said love style. There were pragmatic lovers with 10% of their group, manic lovers with 6% of their group and ludic lovers with 5% of their group having the said love styles.
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Figure 4

FEMALE
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 25% 28% 23% 15% 7% 2% Eros Ludus Storge Pragma Mania Agape

As shown in figure 4, female individuals were more storgic lover, erotic lover and agapic lover and are less likely to be pragmatic lover, manic lover and ludic lover. Out of 60 individuals, both cabin crew and non cabin crew female individuals were more storgic lovers with 28% of their group having the said love style. There were also erotic lovers with 25% of their group having the said love style and agapic lovers with 23% of their group having the said love style. There were pragmatic lovers with 15% of their group, manic lovers with 7% of their group and ludic lovers with 2% of their group having the said love styles.

Figure 5

MALE
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Eros Ludus Storge Pragma Manis Agape 19% 4% 15% 7% 0% 55%

As shown in figure 5, male individuals were more agapic lover, erotic lover and storgic lover and are less likely to be pragmatic lover and ludic lover. Out of 54 individuals, both cabin crew and non cabin crew male individuals were more agapic lovers with 55% of their group having the said love style. There were also erotic lovers with 19% of their group having the said love style and storgic lovers with 15% of their group having the said love style. There were pragmatic lovers with 7% of their group having the said love style and ludic lovers with 4% of their group having the said love style. No individual indicated to be manic lover.

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Figure 6

FEMALE CABIN CREW


40 30 20 10 0% 0 EROS LUDUS STORGE PRAGMA MANIA AGAPE 0% 29% 29% 16% 26%

As shown in figure 6, female cabin crew individuals were more erotic lovers, storgic lovers and agapic lovers and are less likely to be pragmatic lovers. There were no individuals who were ludic lover and manic lover. Female cabin crew individuals were erotic lovers and storgic lovers with both 9 (29%) of their group having the said love styles. There were also agapic lover with 8 (26%) of their group having the said love style. Also 5 (16%) of their group were pragmatic lovers. There were no individuals indicated to be ludic lover and manic lover.

Figure 7

FEMALE NON CABIN CREW


30 21% 20 10 0 EROS LUDUS STORGE PRAGMA MANIA AGAPE 14% 3% 14% 27% 21%

As shown in figure 7, female non cabin crew individuals were more storgic lover, erotic lover and agapic lover and are less likely to be pragmatic lover, ludic lover and manic lover. Female non cabin crew individuals were storgic lovers with 8 (27%) of their group having the said love style. Also individuals were erotic lover and agapic lover with both 6 (21%) of their group having the said love styles. Both were pragmatic lovers and manic lovers having 4 (14%) of their group having the said love styles. There were also ludic lovers with 1 (3%) of their group with the said love style.

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Figure 8

MALE CABIN CREW


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 50%

23% 0% EROS LUDUS

18% 9% 0% STORGE PRAGMA MANIA AGAPE

As shown in figure 8, male cabin crew individuals were more agapic lover, erotic lover, storgic lover and pragmatic lover and are less likely to be ludic lover and manic lover. Male cabin crew individuals were agapic lovers with 11 (50%) of their group having the said love style. Also 5 (23%) of their group were erotic lovers. There were 4 (18%) individuals being storgic lovers and 2 (9%) individuals being pragmatic lovers. No individuals indicated to be ludic lover and manic lover. Figure 9

MALE NON CABIN CREW


80 60 40 20 0 EROS LUDUS STORGE PRAGMA MANIA AGAPE 16% 6% 13% 6% 0% 59%

As shown in figure 9, male non cabin crew individuals were more agapic lover, erotic lover and storgic lover and are less likely to be ludic lover and pragmatic lovers. Male non cabin crew individuals were agapic lovers with 19 (59%) of their group having the said love style. There were erotic lovers having 5 (16%) of their group and 4 (13%) of their group being storgic lovers. Individuals were also ludic lovers and pragmatic lovers with both 2 (6%) of their group having the said love style. No individual indicated to be manic lover.

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Figure 10

FEMALE/MALE CABIN CREW AND FEMALE/MALE NON CABIN CREW


60 40 22% 20 0 Eros Ludus Storge Pragma Mania Agape 3% 22% 11% 3% 39%

As shown in figure 10, all individuals were more agapic lover, erotic lover and storgic lover and are less likely to be pragmatic lover, manic lover and ludic lover. Out of 114 individuals, all groups were agapic lovers with 39% of their group having the said love style. There were erotic lovers and storgic lovers with both 22% of their group having the said love styles. There were also pragmatic lovers with 11% of their group having the said love style. There were ludic lovers and manic lovers with both 3% of their group having the said love styles.

Discussion This research explored the relationship of job and gender regarding each individual's love style. Results showed that all in all, individuals who participated in the study were said to be agapic lovers. To clearly compare, the 2 main groups of the study is the cabin crew/non cabin crew individuals and female/male individuals. By combining the cabin crew and non cabin crew individuals, results also showed that they were both agapic lovers. As for comparing the female and male individual, results showed that female individuals were storgic lovers and male individuals were agapic lovers. The 4 sub groups of the study are the female cabin crew and female non cabin crew; male cabin crew and male non cabin crew. In comparison, female cabin crew individuals were erotic lovers but female non cabin crew individuals were said to be storgic lovers. As for the male cabin crew and male non cabin crew individuals, results showed that they were both agapic lovers. These results suggest that past studies and the present study are inconsistent with their findings. Here are some findings from past studies to show some of the inconsistencies. In the study, the researcher found a general tendency for women to be higher in eros (Hendrick, Hendrick & Dicke, 1998). With the present study, the results also show that female cabin crew individuals have higher tendencies being erotic lovers than male cabin crew individuals. In addition to the last study (Hendrick & Hendrick, 1986; Hendrick et al., 1984) and (Frazier & Esterly, 1990) found that there was a clear gender distinction with men being higher in ludus than women which findings were said to be consistent with some previous studies. The result of the present study also showed that male non
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cabin crew individuals have higher tendencies of being ludic lovers than female non cabin crew. Also, the total number of male individuals has higher tendencies of being ludic lovers than the female individuals. There was a clear gender distinction found with men being lower in storge than women (Hendrick & Hendrick, 1986; Hendrick et al., 1984). The results show that male cabin crew individuals are lower being storgic than female cabin crew. This is the same with the male non cabin crew and male individuals having lower tendencies of being storgic lovers than female non cabin crew and female individuals. There was a clear gender distinction found with men being lower in pragma than women (Hendrick & Hendrick, 1986; Hendrick et al., 1984). The result of the present study shows that the male non cabin crews were lower in pragma than the female non cabin crew. In contrast to this, (Sprecher et al., 1194) study found that women were higher in ludus. The male non cabin crews were higher in ludus than the female non cabin crew. Also the male individuals were higher in ludus than the female individuals. On the contrary, women were not found to be higher in pragma than men. The present study shows female non cabin crews were more pragmatic lover than the male non cabin crew. Women were not found to be higher in storge than men. The present study shows that female cabin crews were more storgic lover than male cabin crew. Also for the female non cabin crew, they were more than the male non cabin crew. The female were more storgic as well than the male individuals. Women are not found to be higher in mania than men. In contrast to this, female non cabin crews were more manic lover than male non cabin crew. Also female were more in mania than male individuals. An interesting finding in past studies which was consistent with (Fricker & Moore, 2002), men were higher in agape than women. The present study did find that male cabin crews were more agapic than the female cabin crew. As well as, male non cabin crews were more agapic lover with female non cabin crew. Also male were higher in agape than the female individuals. Conclusion The study showed that individuals tested were highly erotic, storgic and agapic lovers; and less likely to be ludic, pragmatic and manic lovers. Comparing these results to past studies with regards to their gender would have some differences. It was not consistent with the present study. Some would agree with the findings but not in all of the groups. The comparative study concludes that these individuals were more agapic lovers. Past studies have said that Agape is the rarest of all the love style but the present study found out that individuals view love as a compassionate kind of love. Each individual tends to sacrifice their own needs just to give and provide the needs of their partner. This kind of outlook should be a requirement in the line of career of cabin crews. Since the needs of their passengers is more important than their own needs. Individuals didnt show less on ludus and mania. The individuals who participated in the present study didnt view love merely a game and were not into obsessive love. For future studies, a broader comparative study should be done. The researcher suggests that participants who are currently in a relationship and who are already married be included. Airlines can also make use of this study as a basis in choosing individuals who would want to be in the airline industry.
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References

Airline Career. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.airlinecareer.com/flightattendant/eval.htm All About Love - Types of Love. (2003-2006). Retrieved from http://www.lovedetector.com/whatislove.html All About love - What is Love? (2003-2006). Retrieved from http://www.lovedetector.com/whatislove.html Ayalon, A. (2008 , Jul 29). Love Styles. Retrieved from A Knol - A Unit of Knowledge: http://knol.google.com/k/love-styles#References Butler, R., Walker, R., Skowronski, J., & Shannon, L. (1995). AGE AND RESPONSES TO THE LOVE ATTITUDES SCALE: CONSISTENCY IN STRUCTURE, DIFFERENCES IN SCORES. Aging and Human Development , 1-16. Chang, C.-Y. (2008). LOVE, STRUGGLE, AND FLY: THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF TAIWANESE FEMALE FLIGHT ATTENDANTS. 1-80. Diessner, R., Frost, N., & Smith, T. (2004). DESCRIBING THE NEOCLASSICAL PSCHE EMBEDDED IN STERNBERG'S TRIANGULAR THEORY OF LOVE. SOCIAL BEHAVOIR AND PERSONALITY , 1-8. Diessner, R., Frost, N., & Smith, T. (2004). DESCRIBING THE NEOCLASSICAL PSYCHE EMBEDDED IN STERNBERG'S TRIANGULAR THEORY OF LOVE. Flight Attendant Careers. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.internationalstudentguidetotheusa.com/articles/flightattendant.php Fricker, J. (2006). Predicting Infidelity: The Role of Attachment Styles, Lovestyles, and the Investment model. 1-177. Gonzaga, G., Kelter, D., Londahl, E., & Smith, m. (2001). Love and the Commitment Problem in Romantic Relations and Frienship. Hatfield, E., & Rapson, R. (1994). Love and Intimacy. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior , 1-9. Hatfield, E., & Rapson, R. (2009). The Neuropsychology of Passionate Love. Hendrick. (2004). CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS RESEARCH: A RESOURCE FOR COUPLE AND FAMILY THERAPISTS. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy , http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3658/is_200401/ai_n9350166/pg_5/. Hendrick, H. &. (1990). Love Attitudes Scale. Healthy Marriages Compendium , 4-5.

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Kim, J., & Hatfield, E. (2004). LOVE STYLES AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY. Social Behavior and Personality , 1-10. Psychology of Love. (1995-1999). Retrieved from Words about Love excerpted from Be Your Own Therapist - Whoever You Hire Is Just Your Assistant: http://www.helpself.com/love.shtml Stuckey, R., & Arpaio, M. (2005). The Psychology of Love. Retrieved from http://rachels711.tripod.com/index.html Taylor, S., & Tyler, M. (2000). EMOTIONAL LABOUR AND SEXUAL DIFFERENCE IN THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY. Work, Employment and Society , 77-95. (n.d.). Retrieved from Cabin Crew Jobs: http://www.cabincrewjobs.com/ (2009). Retrieved from Bureu of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos171.htm (2009). Retrieved from FlightAttendantFacts.com: http://www.flightattendantfacts.com/flight_attendant/flight_attendant_job_description.ht ml (2011). Retrieved from Current Events Article: http://www.blanchenef.com/flightattendant-training-what-happens-before-and-after/

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Effects of Biking on Stress Levels among 4th year High School Students
Akinori Blanca Iwasaki

This study attempts to determine how the practice of biking affects heart rate and blood pressure. The research design used in this study is the Matched Groups Experimental Design. Samples were taken through incidental sampling. Experimental participants (N=30 with the mean age of 16.33 ranging from 15 and 17 years old) were divided in half, all males were invited to take part in 30 minute biking program for three sessions. The remaining subjects were not participants of biking sessions; however, they still stayed at the venue. The participants; heart rate and blood pressures were measured and recorded twice (1st is before the biking session and 2nd is after the biking session). The computed t value of 2.54 was derived. There is no significant difference in measured stress levels between biking and non-biking participants. Refinements in sampling and control procedures are recommended.

________________________________________________________________________ High school life may bring a lot of stressors to students. It may be quizzes, long test, exams, puberty or peer pressure. Although some stress is necessary for personal growth to occur, the amount of stress can overwhelm a student and affect the ability to cope. High school students today are experiencing increasing amounts of stress, a rapidly changing in schedule and deadline. High school students are losing their hope, devotion and even their time due to the tough lessons and homework this students are facing. Academic achievement is also measured whether a student will pass or fail. On the other hand, stress is a process-an interaction between a person and the environment (Wheeler, 2007). Time is a worry, in regarding with issues of how they are going to accomplish their responsibilities as a student. Some have conflicts with friends, siblings, and family; have to deal with random moods, concerns about how they fit within a group, handle relationships, and even sexuality. Adolescents are defined as people with the age ranging from 13 to 18. During this time in life people attend high school, go through puberty and experience many life changes (flinders.edu, 2006). Here are some high school students give for being stressed: 4% homework, 22% exams, 23% grades, 20% friends, 2% others, 13% teachers, and 16% parents. Stress contributes to high-blood pressure, heart disease, poor habits and a lowered immunity. Studies would say that exercise can decrease stress hormones' like cortical, and increase endorphins, your body's feel-good chemicals, giving your mood a natural boost. (This is the chemistry behind a runners high.). Making time to ride your bike
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during stressful and busy times isn't just important for your physical health, but your mental health as well. As of 2006, 25% of Filipinos are stressed that is why popular exercise programs like aerobics, yoga, pilates, cycling, and running are being promoted (Gatbonton, 2006). Michael Hopkins says that positive stress of exercise prepares cells and structures and pathways within the brain so that theyre more equipped to handle stress in other forms. Biking has never been used in an experiment in relation to stress although some form of exercises such as Yoga and Aerobics has already been used in an experiment also relating to stress. In this study, the researcher would like to figure if biking can help in reducing stress. The purpose of the study is to answer these following research problems. What are the stress levels of students who participated in biking? What are the stress levels of students who did not participate in biking? Is there a significant difference in the pre-test stress scores and the post-test stress scores? Is there a significant difference in the pre-test and post test scores of control group? Is there a significant difference in the pre-test and post test scores of treatment group?

Conceptual Framework

Biking

Hectic High School Activities

Stress Levels (BP, Heart Rate)

The conceptual framework will explain that the past experience, needs, motives, academic responsibilities peer pressure and knowledge are stressor that affects students (Kaufman, 2008). When biking is applied (Godbey, 2009), the blood pressure and the heart rate measured will result to the stress levels. The study presents the following framework: The stress level, as measured by the blood pressure and the heart rate, of participants who practice biking would range from low to normal. The stress level as measured by the blood pressure and heart rate, of participants who practice biking would range from normal to high.

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Review of Related Literature

Stress There are numbers of studies about stress. People are still up to making studies everyday to find the solution or effective ways on how to reduce stress. Stress.com article says As educational requirements get more stringent in all levels of education, students everywhere experience considerable school stress. Here are some student stress relief tips and tools that students can use to learn study skills, prepare for exams and minimize their school stress levels to make learning easier, including an explanation of the importance of student stress management. Researchers (Chicago State University) including the late Dr. Julian Scheinbuks, an educator, researcher and administrator at Chicago State University for over 20 years said that as educational requirements get more stringent in all levels of education, students everywhere experience considerable school stress. They arranged to put more counseling areas, counselors, support group to help de stress the students. According to their survey it was effective to some but some students are uncomfortable or unwilling to share thoughts and feelings to others. There were students reported that they had dropped an activity or hobby they enjoyed because schoolwork took too much time (Kaufman, 2008). More than three-quarters reported experiencing one or more stress-related physical problem. They experienced headaches, difficulty sleeping, or exhaustion. Some students said they had illegally used prescription drugs like Adderall or Ritalin to stay up and study and others said they used stimulants like Red Bull or No-Doz. The influence of aggression and area factors on stress among teens, teens prioritized other sources of stress, particularly from school, friends, siblings, and family. For support, they relied on different individuals, depending on the source of the stress friends for romantic relationship stress and family for job, school, and family stress. Sex differences in the coping styles of the participating teens were found. Girls reported numerous uses of support-seeking and dynamic coping strategies than boys (Chandra, 2006). The relationship between stress coping behavior in daily life and self-esteem among high school students is stressful. "Unclear future prospect" was the most prevalent stressor, followed by "urgent work" and "facial/physical appearance". Consulting with a reliable person like a friend, family member, and sibling was the easiest. It is followed by changing the way of thinking and making efforts to overcome difficulties. Their coping behavior was mostly positive, however, when their stress was getting too much and too severe, the coping behavior tended to be negative and many physical and mental subjective symptoms were simultaneously found in their answers. The higher a self-esteem score the students had, the less stress they indicated. Most high school students coped with their daily stress successfully, but a number of them needed support for proper coping behavior. These results suggest that we should develop supporting plans for concrete and suitable coping behavior at high schools (Kazuko Sato, 2003).
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Academic demands are an increasing source of stress among young adults (Seddon, 2011). High school students are more stress than ever before. Tovia Smith explains how a growing number of parents and administrators are becoming very worried about the high-stress learning that their teenagers experience in school. The (2010, The Race to Nowhere, produced by Vicki Abeles) documentary presented several stories of students suffering from burn-out from high achievement expectations and yet still reaching college without the needed skills. Some schools are experimenting on students according to NPR article. There were cases of measures as eliminating advanced classes and reducing the importance on textbook learning. This might include counseling, exercising, breathing techniques, or school day off. The link between stress and heart disease is well-established. If stress is intense, and stress hormones are not used up by physical activity, our raised heart rate and high blood pressure put tension on arteries and cause damage to them. As the body heals this damage, artery walls scar and thicken, which can reduce the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. This is where a fight-or-flight response can become lethal: Stress hormones accelerate the heart to increase the blood supply to muscles; however, blood vessels in the heart may have become so narrow that not enough blood reaches the heart to meet these demands. This can cause a heart attack. A group of researcher at Alabama State University (2001) conducted a study on stress reduction on medical setting. The stresses that these students experience everyday in their school were asked to be written down as a journal so as to detect the cause of their stress. They practice a cognitive technique; particularly the Anticipation and Avoidance technique to reduce stress levels. Biking Exercise is a good stress beater. It helps to lift tension; releases pent up aggression, and generally give you a feeling of comfort. It is best to choose a form of exercise that requires stamina like walking, football or swimming rather than the sort that builds up muscle such as weight lifting. Being outside in natural surroundings may improve health and how outdoor physical activities benefit people. Outdoor recreation compromises with numerous kinds of activity. Walking, running, and biking are the common denominators in outdoor activities. Exercising has been shown to have many health benefits. These are managing weight, controlling blood pressure, decreasing risk of heart attack, lowering risk of stroke, preventing depression, impotence and so many more. Any outdoor activities can reduce stress and improve wellness (Godbey, 2009) The one thing that keeps us off of our bike is the one this that should be making us get on it: stress. Stress is a major buzz word, so much so that it has become almost meaningless. We all use it and we all feel it, especially when economically tough times are upon us, school stress and especially during busy times. We all know that too much stress is deadly. Stress contributes to high-blood pressure, heart disease, poor habits and a lowered immunity. Study after study has shown that working out helps reduce the
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negative health effects of stress. When we exercise, we put our body under stress. In many ways cycling may be better than some other forms of exercise in relieving stress (Katharine McCoy, Road Bike Action 2011). Most students experience significant amounts of stress, but with all of the activities and responsibilities that fill a students schedule, its sometimes difficult to find the time to try new stress relievers to help dissipate that stress. There are list of stress relievers that are most appropriate for students: relatively easy, quick, and relevant to a students life and types of stress. Theyll help you to function at your best, and enjoy the journey. One of the healthiest ways to blow off steam is to get a regular exercise program going. Students can work exercise easily into their schedules by doing yoga in the morning, walking or biking to campus, or reviewing for tests with a friend while walking on a treadmill at the gym. Starting now and keeping a regular exercise practice throughout your lifetime can help you live longer and enjoy your life more (Elizabeth Scott, 2011). Thus in this regard, this study will point out the effects of biking on stress levels among high school students. Synthesis Educational requirements get more stringent in all levels of education, students everywhere experience considerable school stress (Chicago State University). Students reported that they had dropped an activity they enjoyed because of school work took too much time (Kaufman, 2008). Factors of stress among teens prioritized some sources of stress such as friend, siblings, and family (Chandra, 2006). The relationship between stress coping behavior in daily life and self-esteem among high school students is stressful (Kazuko Sato, 2003). Academic demands are an increasing source of stress among young adults (Seddon, 2011). A group of researcher (Alabama State University, 2001) conducted a study on stress reduction. They practice cognitive techniques to reduce stress levels. Being outside in natural surroundings may improve health and how outdoor physical activities benefit people. Exercising such as biking has been shown to have many benefits such as controlling blood pressure, decreasing risk of heart attack, lowering risk of stroke, and preventing depression (Godbey, 2009)

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Methodology Research Design The researcher used a Matched Groups Experimental Design, giving the researcher a useful way to compare treatments without having to use huge and randomized groups. There were two variables used in this study, the Independent Variable (Biking) and the Dependent Variable (Blood Pressure and Heart Rate). The matching variable that is used to equal the groups is the psychologist world stress pre-test and through this the matching variables are determined. Participants and Sampling In this study there were N=30 participants. The sampling technique used was incidental sampling since they were the most available and readily members. They were chosen from a population of high school students from senior year from an exclusive all boys school of Ateneo de Manila High School. Participants were all male with the mean age of 16.33 ranging from 15 and 17. They were grouped into 2 equal groups matched according to the number of participants, age and the psychologist world stress pre-test. Instruments The materials that the researcher used in this study are Bicycle, Cyclocomputer, Blood Pressure Monitor, and Heart Rate Monitor. A bicycle is a human-powered, driven, single, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A cyclocomputer is a device mounted on a bicycle that calculates and displays trip information, similar to the instruments in the dashboard of a car. A blood pressure monitor is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprised by an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. A heart rate monitor is a personal monitoring device which allows a subject to measure his or her heart rate in real time or record his or her heart rate for later study. A psychologist world stress (Devilly G. J., 2004) pre-test and post-test was used in the study which uses 4 point likert scale to measure the samples on a before and after basis. The cronbach alpha of the pre-test is d = .8824, and the post test is a = .8405. For the purpose of this study, stress levels are operationally defined in terms of participants blood pressure and heart rate. As shown in the table, stress levels are measured by a scale of 1 5, 1 being normal and 5 being hypertensive. Stress Level 1 Optimal 2 Normal 3 Hypertension Stage 1 4 Hypertension Stage 2 5 Hypertension Stage 3 Blood Pressure 120/70 130/80 140/90 150/90 160/90 Heart Rate 50 100 50 100 130 101 140 131 150 141

The venue of this study was held at the Camp Aguinaldo Bike Trail.
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Procedure Participants (N=30 with the mean age of 16.33 ranging from 15 and 17) were drawn from an exclusive all boys school where it is known of high standard of education. Students here are sure hard workers and stressed out so as to pass to the next level. The group who practiced biking did it for 30 minutes and will have to reach the goal of biking 5km, Samples (N=30) blood pressure and heart rate will be logged before and after their biking exercise. On the other hand, the group that will not participate will also have the same procedure just that they will not participate in the said exercise but heart rate and blood pressure will also be logged before and after the said 30 minutes exercise. The first session started at 6:00am. Samples (N=30) were divided into two groups with their average age per group and with the given pre-test. Through tossing a coin, the groups were randomly assigned to either group Treatment or Control Condition. The samples (N=15) who did the biking program were given a pre-test and logged before and after the 30 minutes biking exercise program and must at least reached the goal of biking 5km. The other participants (N=15) who did not do the biking exercise program were given the same procedure but they did not perform the said exercise. The second session of the experiment continued on the following day at 6:00am. The researcher did the same procedure except the pre-test wasnt given before the group A (N=15) and B (N=15) did the experiment. The third and final session started at 3:00pm. The researcher gathered all the participants (N=30) in the camp Aguinaldo bike trail and started the biking program for the group A (N=15). The group B (N=15) were given the same procedure during the experiment where blood pressure and heart rate was logged before and after the said exercise which they did not perform. A post-test was given to the participants (N=30) after the program ended and collected all the questionnaires that the researcher given them. Statistical Analysis The researchers groups were compared through statistical t test. The independent and the dependent variable were computed by getting their mean average for each group. To get the final answer of the statistical t test, stress levels of both groups were computed through getting their mean average.

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Data & Results There were N=30 with the mean age of 16.33 ranging from 15 and 17. In terms of stress levels, participants who practiced biking have lower stress levels indicated by their heart rate and blood pressure. Throughout the three sessions of the experiment, this particular pattern was maintained. Both groups showed stable levels of stress level as indicated by the graph.

Figure 2
3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Day 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Biking Without Biking

Table 4 shows the mean stress levels of the treatment and control groups. Participants who practiced biking have a lower mean diastolic pressure (73.77 mmHg), heart rate (95.82bpm) and stress level (1.37). Table 4 Comparison of mean diastolic pressure, heart rate and stress levels Groups Biking Without biking Diastolic Pressure 73.77mmhg 86mmhg Heart Rate 95.82bpm 113.53bpm Mean Stress 1.37 Optimal 2.69 High Normal

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Blood Pressure Figure 2.1

mmhg
90 85 80 75 70 65 Biking Without Biking mmhg

The diastolic pressure of group A participants (N=15) who practiced biking was 73.77mmhg and the group B participants (N=15) who did not practiced biking was 86mmhg.

Heart Rate Figure 2.2

bpm
115 110 105 100 95 90 85 Biking Without Biking bpm

The heart rate of the participants (N=15) who practiced biking was 95.82bpm and the participants (N=15) who did not practice biking was 113.53bpm.
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Results of the Psychologist World Stress Test (Devilly)

40 35 30 25 N=30 20 15 10 5 0 Pretest Post Test Without Biking Biking

The results indicated that the test was not taken seriously by the participants (N=30). Bias was present when the participants (N=30, both biking and w/o biking) learned that the experiment conducted by the researcher was for the researchers partial requirement. This is the interpreted score for the pre-test and post-test, High score = 60 41, Moderate score = 40 21, Low score = 20 4. The pre-test has the same computed mean average of 501/15 = 33.4. The post-test total score is 882/30=29.4. The pre-test score of control group is 501/15=33.4 and the post test score of control group is 404/15=26.93. The pre-test score of treatment group is 501/15=33.4 and the post test score of the treatment group is 478/15=31.86. The computed t value in the statistical t test was 2.54. The X1 = 0.11 was the mean average stress levels of group B (without biking) and the X2 = 1.69 was the mean average stress levels of group A (biking). The D = 23.64 was the difference each pair of the total stress levels.

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Discussion Based on the findings, it is evident that participants who practiced biking experienced a change in the measured indicators of stress. Their lower diastolic pressure, heart rate and equivalent stress level indicate healthy conditions. The participants of the study are high school students; they are exposed to all forms of stress imaginable to anyone studying in Manila. In view that all of the participants are of similar health conditions and lifestyles, these results are inspiring. It can even be considered impressive in the sense that the biking exercises were done only in three sessions. The difference between the two groups as shown by Figure 2 and Table 4 suggest that biking generally results in lower hear rate and diastolic pressure. These two measures are usually monitored on individuals suffering from hypertension and heart ailments. On average, individuals older than the participants suffer from this ailment. The medical literature however suggests that these illnesses develop over a period of years. Often, the illness is a result of neglected health and inability to cope with stress conditions. Exercising has been shown to have many health benefits. These are managing weight, controlling blood pressure, decreasing risk of heart attack, lowering risk of stroke, preventing depression, impotence and so many more. Any outdoor activities can reduce stress and improve wellness (Godbey, 2009) Since people encounter stress everyday, the practice of biking is beneficial for almost everybody. Imagine a 30- minute biking session would help you decrease your stress levels, thus avoiding more health complication. It also promises medication and breathing exercise, which practices the lungs for a well circulation of the blood.

Conclusions and Recommendations Based on the result of the experiment and the data gathered, the study shows that biking helps in reducing stress levels. The 30 minute plan shows that blood pressure and heart rate normalizes for those who practiced biking while the other group reaches its normal level of blood pressure and heart rate in 30 minutes. Based on the observation it can be suggested that the practice of biking on a regular basis would be beneficial to individuals in general. Thus, it can also be included in the battery of fitness programs for both healthy and diseased individuals, as biking is a low intense activity with meaningful physiological benefits. Secondly, considering its influence on stress reduction and delaying in fatigability, the authors recommend that the practice of biking can be included in battery of training schedule of professionals to achieve better performance.

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References Appley, M.H., and Trumbull, R. A., eds., Dynamics of Stress (1986) Chandra A, Batada A. Exploring stress and coping among urban African American adolescents: the Shifting the Lens study. Elizabeth Scott, (2011). Stress Management, Top 10 School Stress Relievers for Students, stress.about.com Gerard E. Dallal, Ph.D. (2005) The Analysis of Pre-test/Post-test Experiments. Experiment Resources: http://www.jerrydallal.com/LHSP/prepost.htm Godbey, Geoffrey, Outdoor Recreation, Health, and Wellness: Understanding and Enhancing the Relationship (May 6, 2009). RFF Discussion Paper No. 09-21. Grolier International Encyclopedia Deluxe Home Edition, 1994 Heart Rate Basics (2011 Xmarks). Heart Rate and Exericse Basics Expert Advice 800959-4089 M-F 10-5 PST. Experiment Resources: www.heartmonitors.com/exercisetips/heart<br/>_rate_basics.htm Katharine McCoy, (2011). Road Bike Action, four ways to use your bike to beat stress. Kaufman, Jonathan (2008). High Schools Worst Year. For Ambitious Teens, 11th Grade Becomes a Marathon of Tests, Stress and Sleepless Night. The Wall Street Journal, page one. Kazuko Sato, Marumatsu Tsuneji, Yoshida Tadashii (2003). The Relationship between Stress Coping Behavior and Self-Esteem among High School Students. VOL.49;NO.3;PAGE.197-207(2003) Simon Lovell (2010). Heart Rate Chart gif. http://www.simonlovell.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2010/05/heart-rate-chart.gif Steps of the Scientific Method (2008 2012) Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/pretest-posttest-designs.html

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Thornton Holdings Ltd (2007 2011). Resource for Healthy Living with Heart Disease. Experiment Resources: http://www.smart-heart-living.com/normal-heart-rate.html Understanding the Stages of Hypertension (2008 2012). Experiment Resources: http://www.treating-hypertension.com/stages-of-hypertension.html William M.K. Trochim (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base. Experiment Resources: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/index.php Yerkes, R. M. & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The Relation of Strength of Stimulus to Rapidity of Habit-Formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459482.

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Evaluation of the Training Program Effectiveness of Mexicali Restaurant: Basis for Employee Training Program Enhancement
Jose Miguel C. Mabanta
The paper aims to study the Human Resource systems and training regimens in modern time of one of the biggest Mexican restaurant chains in Manila to help improve the employee performance and overall company outcomes of Mexicali Corporation. It also aims to discover specific improvements and to measure their effect on employee and overall company performance as well as to evaluate the pros and cons of the implemented improvements.

________________________________________________________________________

The focus of this paper is the family owned restaurant of the Mabantas namely Mexicali. The art and lifestyle of San Francisco has greatly influenced the design and dcor of the restaurants of Mexicali; a friendly, casual and unpretentious feel that evokes the culture of San Franciscans was theme for the restaurant. As Dixie Mabanta stated, In the end, we have what we've always wanted - a friendly, non-threatening place where the price is right, the food is good and in large portions, the music hip and the people warm just like in San Francisco (Mabanta, 1997). The importance of not only the food they serve but also the highlight of Mexicalis artistry has shown why they have stayed in the business for more than a decade. However, it is not only the look of the restaurant or the owners that made this restaurant survived for more than a decade, but it is also through the employees, the staff, and all the workers. The friendly environment of Mexicali is brought to customers by the service crews and managers of the restaurant. The way they were trained reflects their performance and influences the restaurants productivity and efficiency. Different aspects in the restaurant besides the food should be given importance especially the service the restaurant offers. The training gives an outcome to how the restaurant will be. It affects the restaurant for the workers are a vital aspect in any major corporation. This brings the importance of industrial and organizational psychology in every company. Industrial and organizational psychology is a field that focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well being of employees. Industrial organizational psychologists perform a wide variety of tasks, including studying worker attitudes and behavior, evaluating companies and conducting leadership training (http://psychology-talk.com/industrial-organizational-psychology-vs-human-resources2209). Industrial and organizational psychology comes in for the topic of training. The study on the issues of employee performance, motivation and work productivity in a consumer oriented business in the Philippine setting may provide useful information that could help give both temporary and long-term solutions that will benefit both the company and its members. It hopefully enlightens us on what pushes a person to perform at either a sufficient or a meager level given the different factors he or she goes
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through with their everyday lives, such as home and work environment, financial conditions, physical and mental restraints and so much more. Basing from experiences said by the main human resource training manager, Jay Teves, motivation and productivity have helped increase the standard of living of many of the workers, some even move abroad but training also has caused downfalls to the company such as bad employment of certain employees that led to the company going down on sales. Mexicali works like clockwork or like the cogs that run inside of it. The bigger it gets even more so. When one element of the watch stops running properly, tendency is the watch will not tell the right time, hence an inaccuracy on the expected or favored outcome. Like the watch when one part of it breaks then a replacement then becomes a necessity. The employee is represented by one little cog that exists within the device, in this case the entire corporation. Turnover processes in Mexicali is complicated but only because it offers both the corporation and its employees fair and just trials that was designed to benefit both. The employee is given an entire 2 weeks after training, which is also known as the probationary period. In this allotted time for the employee he/she is given no salary but a reasonable allowance to sustain him/herself. If the individual has passed the criteria and standards, after the two weeks are done, employees are then welcomed officially into the Mexicali crew, regardless of the position an employee has applied for. The reason for this is to make sure the restaurant has minimal problems while it strives to succeed. To keep employees motivated and working, it is made clear to them that the work and pay does not end there. When an employee is made official, there are standards of quality that are clearly stated in the corporations operation manual. Their pays are made official as well. Out of the total number of branches, there are seven company owned stores, eight including the main office, which has the central kitchen. The other five branches are owned by franchisees. There are exactly one hundred twenty employees working in the Mexicali Food Corp. Seventy of these employees are assigned to as the companys official work force and personally employed individuals. The other fifty employees were chosen by the franchisees but were only approved to start work after strict quality screening by the mother company itself. The reason for this is to secure the companys reputation. The employees are paid well over minimum wage because it is inclusive of tips and service charges that get added to their wages. Most employees that work at the company have been growing with it for years. Resulting to the worker staying at the company longer due to their good job satisfaction. Most employees would only complain about their benefits. Mainly, only the employees themselves have health insurance and their direct family members arent included in the contract. Turnover happens rarely within the establishment, at least in most branches. The franchisees seek help and advice from the owners if they get problems with their employees. Aside from the employees high rate of favoring their jobs, they are all assigned tasks for the day and all of them have tight time schedules to make shift clear. A job evaluation sheet is given to all contractual based employees every third and fifth of the month and only once a year for the regular employees. All company policies follow of course the rules of the law.
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The owners have observed that when its employees are doing a good job in a specific branch then the branch would also flourish. These power-employees are given bonuses and commissions. When problems occur later on, proper sanctions and consequences are readily available to superiors to be able to deal with it justly. Superiors have only been following this system since 2005 and Mexicali has been open since 1993, basically this was applied during its greatest expansions. The reason Mexicali has excellent training regimens and what the researcher believes sets it apart from other companies is that there is no grey area, only black and white. Meaning that there are no questions anyone else can answer, only a manual where everything is stated. This study may contribute to the companys growth through the field of industrial-organizational psychology research. Especially with regards to the working Filipinos values, attitude and coping mechanisms. For over 17 years in the field of satisfying hungry customers, Mexicali has been considered as a pioneer in the Mexican food industry in the Philippines. In line with the companys vision of being locally accepted and competitive, the food chain has risen into the present day leading Mexican dining establishment and is planning on branching out even further to other regions in the country. However, despite the advances Mexicali has undergone since it started, it has experienced yet in terms of its diagnostic capability, certain aspects have been left unimproved especially in the human resource section such as when it comes to the benefits of the employees. In this thesis, the steps and training procedure will be stated and how this affects the company positively and negatively. However, for Mexicali restaurant, quick and efficient service may not be possible without the cooperation of warm bodies constantly working together. Despite the presence of a developed contingency measure to cover up the work of faulty employees, it cannot hold up to prolonged problems such as the constant complain of employees for benefit programs in the human resource department. Delays spring up from these circumstances and eventually pile up, leading to inefficiency and additional expenses and ultimately poor service. Such problems seem to arise from the lack of management and training of the employees present in Mexicali, may it be the service crew, manager, financial adviser, owners and etc The lack of a more efficient work procedure and system could be associated with the lack of a system and structure, and a more efficient work procedure. Based on a study of industrial-organizational psychology, adopting a proper HR system helps motivate the employees of a company and ultimately helps it attain its goals. With this, HR helps a company with its foundation for it keeps the company and its members intact. It is, therefore much needed to have good training to employees on their specific tasks especially for consumer based businesses like restaurants. It helps the business overall efficiency and productivity, as well as uplifting the workers job performance and motivation. Because restaurants are consumer based, all the members of the company affect the productivity of the whole business.

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Review of Related Literature Industrial and Organizational Psychology of RCBMD Clinic In the thesis of Rheinhart Bartolome, an interdisciplinary studies major, Industrial and Organizational Psychology of Our Family Owned Business, RCBMD Clinic. He talks about the whole human resource aspect of the company and what it does to further enhance and continue the success of their business. He looks at the problems that the company is facing and what solutions as a student of psychology can be done in order to fix the problems. He looks at aspects of the whole company to distinguish what is causing the problem and what are the possible ways to be able to affix these problems. This thesis is a related study for in some parts he points specific aspects such as the quality of work the employees do is not enough therefore there are problems that arise in the company. While I study on a specific part which is the training in our restaurant business, Mexicali. These theses have similar patterns because it studies industrial and organizational psychology and how this relates to the different business, one in the field of medicine and mine in the restaurant business. Industrial Organizational Psychology Ronald E. Riggios book entitles Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology defines Industrial-Organizational Psychology as a specialty area within the broad field of psychology that studies human behavior in work settings. IndustrialOrganizational Psychology can also be the application of psychology principles to change work behavior (Riggio, 2003). Due to the complexity of organizations and variety of jobs or work, studying human behavior in work settings would be a considerable task. This is the why Riggio suggests, as some I/O psychologists would carry out, to focus on specific studies within the field of I/O Psychology such as basic personnel functions, the psychological processes underlying work behavior, group processes in the workplace, and relationships between workplace supervisors and subordinates. These however can still be divided, for example, basic personnel functions can be further divided into recruitment and selection, training and development, assessment of job performance, so on and so forth. These focuses and divisions make it easier to study human behavior in work settings and make it easier to determine the factors that affect each making an providing an easier analysis for each aspect and an overall conclusion. Hypothesis of the Study The thesis hypothesizes that the lack of an HR system and structure, too much trust and carelessness and the lack of implementation of goal setting, training and feedback in the Mexicali Corp is the main reason for its recent regrets. The introduction and integration of proper HR systems and concepts to the organizational structure may not only increase efficiency and improve company performance, but also improve communication and relationships between the company and its workforce, and ultimately assert the companys position once again as a leading pioneer in its industry and craft. It also hypothesizes that through studying the problems and complications that the human resource is encountering especially when it comes to its employees, the training they undergo, the study of industrial and organizational psychology may be able to give sufficient suggestions and work regulations that can boost up the companys performance and work productivity.
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Conceptual Framework The study employs three theories from the field of Industrial-Organizational Psychology, specifically in the section of Work Motivation. These theories have been put forward from environmental, social, dispositional, and cognitive perspectives that provide different explanations for the same aspect of human behavior (Muchinsky, 2006, p.381417). The three work motivation theories are used to help determine what deficiencies exist in the Mexicali Restaurant organizational structure and work procedures and systems.

Figure 1: Conceptual Workflow Goal-Setting Theory This theory is defined as a theory of motivation based on directing ones effort toward the attainment of specific goals that have been set or established (Muchinsky, p.399). It relates goals, intentions and task performance. Muchinsky says that goals have two major functions: a basis for motivation and directs behavior. Because goals are considered conscious ideas, it has the capacity to regulate an individuals actions as the goals are being consciously attained. Research has proven the effectiveness of goalsetting or having a goal at work than not having goals. Having goals leads to better performance (D. Schultz and S. Schultz, 2006, p. 231). The level of difficulty in attaining these goals has direct effect on the motivation of the worker. However, too much difficulty can be worse than having no goals in terms of their effect on motivation (D. Schultz and S. Schultz, 2006).

Figure 3: Interrelation of the Needs Theory


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Goal-Setting Theory Maslow believes that needs can influence behavior unconsciously, goals on the other hand are what individuals are trying to consciously attain, and self regulation helps an individual attain these goals through feedback and awareness of his or her current position in his or her pursuit of the goals. A relationship can be made on how behavior is unconsciously influenced by needs, which affects, also unconsciously, to either keep an individual on or off-track from his conscious pursuit of his goals, while self-regulation is the conscious effort of an individual to respond to how far or near he or she is from attaining the goal. For example, if an individuals basic needs such as food and sleep are not met, his or her behavior would be unconsciously directed to fulfill these needs first, and may affect his or her effort in attaining the goals set by the organization especially when these goals are part of what deprives them of these basic needs. Training

Job Performance

Work Productivity The training of every worker is a vital aspect to a success to a company for it gives the guidelines, rules, opportunity to learn new skills are essential for career development and for companys growth. The turnover gives importance and recognition to the worker for it is giving them the position and work in the company. The job performance of the worker is enhanced through the training and turnover received for the worker has acquired new learning and skills on how to undergo their job. The employees work productivity increases because of the job performance and training of the worker. Since the employee is able to learn new methods and is organized through the new skills that help personal growth, the employee is able to do work more accurately and even find better opportunities in line with his passion. Industrial and Organizational Psychology place a big role in a companys growth and success. With the help of I/O psychology, it makes the company have employees who do their job well and accurately. It has an eye in every problem and thus, is able to fix it. The main field that will be talked about here is I/O psychology but specifically the training of Mexicali restaurant. The training shows how well the company functions as a consumer based business. It studies how training affects the job performance, work productivity and the overall performance of a worker. Through the study of I/O psychology, it helps improve mistakes made by employees or the company itself and gives them basis on what things should be worked on. The question here is, how exactly does the training help the work productivity and job performance, especially for restaurants, such as our family owned business, Mexicali? What are the things that contribute to its success and what are the mistakes that affected the companys growth?
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The different aspects of the training of Mexicali can help explain how it is related to work productivity and job performance. As mentioned by the human resource head of training, Jay Teves, different steps are followed before becoming an employee such as the application process (employee must reach at least 2nd year college), ages 18 and up, work experience preferably in a restaurant, health requirements, orientation in the office about details of Mexicali and field work that evaluates the employees performance. Part of this study is to see the negative and positive aspects of the human resource department of Mexicali restaurant in terms of its training and how it affects the restaurants performance and job productivity. Seeing as how the employees contribute to the restaurants overall productivity and performance, the researcher aims to see how their training affects their performance. Basing also on experiences that the company has encountered due to training and motivation, problems have arose causing a negative net gross on the company. Therefore, the researcher wants to find out how the training process affects their quality of work. Hopefully this study would be able to help the restaurant, its employees, and even other researchers in understanding the aspects of the human resource in terms of training and how much this type of work demands from them. It also aims to discover specific improvements and to measure their effect on employee and overall company performance as well as to evaluate the pros and cons of the implemented improvements. Statement of the Problem The paper aims to study the Human Resource systems and training regimens in modern time of one of the biggest Mexican restaurant chains in Manila to help improve the employee performance and overall company outcomes of Mexicali Corporation. It also aims to discover specific improvements and to measure their effect on employee and overall company performance as well as to evaluate the pros and cons of the implemented improvements. Specifically, the research sought to answer the following questions: a) What is the level of service performance of the MR employees? b) What is the perceived effectiveness of the MR training program? c) What are the training program enhancements that can be suggested based on the identified gaps in the training program? Significance of the Study The thesis can be useful in the field of human resource administration where companies may be able to understand and gain knowledge of the different approaches to motivation and a good work behavior for its members. The study on the issues of employee performance and motivation in a consumer oriented business in the Philippine setting may provide useful information that could help provide both temporary and longterm solutions that will benefit both the organization and its members. It hopefully enlightens us on what pushes a person to perform at either a sufficient or a meager level given the different factors he or she goes through with their everyday lives, such as home and work environment, financial conditions, physical and mental restraints and so much more. The study may also contribute details in the field of industrial-organizational psychology research especially with regards to the working Filipinos values, attitude and
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coping-mechanisms. Other than that, it may also help the company itself with the problems and issues it is encountering related to human resources and find solutions through the study of industrial and organizational psychology. Scope and Limitations of the Study This study is limited to Mexicali Food Corp and it aims to study the improvements and success the restaurant is undergoing. It intends to give suggestions through the study of psychology on how the service it gives to its customers can be ever more efficient and quicker, as well as to minimize company expenses due to inefficiencies brought by the under par performance from its workforce and proper communication from the management. Given the nature of the study, the research will be limited to the concepts provided by studies on Industrial-Organizational Psychology, specifically in the study of work motivation and behavior, contextualized within the organization of the restaurants work staff. Interviews are limited to the members of the organization. Definition of Terms 1. Organization a coordinated group of people who perform tasks to produce goods or services (D. Schultz and S. Schultz, 2006) 2. Organizational Structure the arrangement of work functions within an organization designed to achieve efficiency and control (D. Schultz and S. Schultz, 2006) 3. Work a task or tasks to be undertaken (D. Schultz and S. Schultz, 2006) 4. Employment The state of being employed (www.businessdictionary.com) 5. Training Program - A program designed for training in specific skills (www.businessdictionary.com) 6. Goal Setting - Establishing short or long-term objectives, usually incorporating deadlines and quantifiable measures 7. Human Resources (HR) Scarcest and most crucial productive resource that creates the largest and longest lasting advantage for an organization. It resides in the knowledge, skills, and motivation of people, is the least mobile of the four factors of production, and (under right conditions) learns and grows better with age and experience in which no other resource can (www.businessdictionary.com). 8. Service -An act of helpful activity, type of economic activity that is intangible, is not stored and does not result in ownership. A service is consumed at the point of sale. (www.businessdictionary.com) 9. Efficiency Comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (money, time, labor, etc.). It is an important factor in determination of productivity (www.businessdictionary.com). 10. Performance Accomplishment of a given task measured against preset standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed (www.businessdictionary.com)

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Methodology Participants The study will cover 5 employees each from 10 different branches who are working in Mexicali Restaurant Corporation. The experiment comprises the official workforce, including trainees summing up to total of 50 participants. The researcher will observe 2 dishwashers and 3 food preparers from the strongest branches on its strongest days on work performance. The participants will be treated with regards to informed consent, detailed description of the nature of the research study, debriefing, and confidentiality. Instruments Along with the researcher, the managers are also tasked to observe the workforce and gather data on work efficiency and outputs particularly the dishwasher and food preparers. The data gathered on the data sheet will be used as an instrument of reference in which the researcher will have to improve on. The main instrument in the research would be to use the quantity of receipts of the restaurant with the corresponding times of the day they were printed. Procedure The researcher has chosen 5 employees per Mexicali branch to be tested, 2 dishwashers and 3 food-preparers from the companys most profitable branches. The researcher and the managers of each branch are tasked to observe these employees on the efficiency of their work, production, and attitudes. The outputs of the employees will then be recorded in relation to the time it takes for them to finish each task. The data recorded will then be used to denote whether or not the actual outputs is satisfactory, lacking, or excelling in the accommodation of the number of customers that come and visit the participating branches. Also, the information will be useful in designing, if needed, a new Mexicali training regimen. The outcomes of the research should be able to produce a) the operational definition of service performance, b) the measuring service device (i.e. anecdotes of complaints) / or instrument MSD quality. After that step has been utilized, the c) evaluation tool for the existing training program. Statistical analysis The means for each factor would then be computed and be used to tabulate the data along with the original performance statistics per participant. Scores and data will then be computed and analyzed by Pearson correlation. The SPSS program will be used for the computation.

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Results

MEXICALI FOOD CORP. Average Sales Reference Sheets of an average weekend day: Food Preparers (10:00AM-10:00PM) Date/Time of the Day 10:00AM-11:00AM 11:00AM-12:00PM 12:00PM-1:00PM 1:00PM-2:00PM 2:00PM-3:00PM 3:00PM-4:00PM 4:00PM-5:00PM 5:00PM-6:00PM 6:00PM-7:00PM 7:00PM-8:00PM 8:00PM-9:00PM 9:00PM-10:00PM TOTAL Actual dishes/ hour 5 10 20 20 10 5 10 20 15 25 20 10 170 Performance Gap 0 0 3 3 2 0 2 3 3 3 3 0 22

There are approximately 170 dishes/branch consumed in one weekend day, according to data inventory there are only 100 plates are required per branch (chosen from the ten stronger branches of Mexicali restaurants) with the addition of cups, utensils, and smaller plates for sides and appetizers. It is crucial that the dishwashers keep up with the demand of plates to be washed throughout the day. To be able for the workers to come up with the perceived output a longer more comprehensive training regimen would need to provided along with constant supervision from the owners.

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Dishwasher (11AM-2PM/5PM-10PM) Date/Time of the Day 11:00AM-12:00PM 12:00PM-1:00PM 1:00PM-2:00PM 5:00PM-6:00PM 6:00PM-7:00PM 7:00PM-8:00PM 8:00PM-9:00PM 9:00PM-10:00PM TOTAL Plates (including cups and utensils) / hour 15 20 25 10 20 25 25 30 170 Performance Gap 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

With the data obtained from the food preparers, results show that on the times of the day each restaurant is most full, saving time would be crucial in obtaining more customers and thus maximizing profits. It is important that food preparers work faster so that customers get what they need in a lesser amount of time. There is always good feedback when service is fast and done well. Thus making more customers come back for more. Self-Regulation is more of a collection of different theories that share basic commonalities rather than a singular theory. Basically, this theory involves goal setting and the individuals awareness of his or her progress in the process of achieving this goal. In relation to the previous theory Goal-setting, awareness in this theory is facilitated by receiving feedback and allows them to engage in processes of self-monitoring or selfevaluation in order to direct their behavior in line with attaining their goals. The feedback is information provided on how far the individual is from his or her goal and whether the individual is on or off-track in attaining his or her goal. More often than not, this feedback creates a discrepancy between the individuals current status in his or her pursuit of a goal and the actual goal (D. Schultz and S. Schultz, 2006, p.403). This discrepancy allows a response depending on the measure of discrepancy. If the discrepancy is small, then it is believed to be an enhancement in the individuals selfefficacy. Self-efficacy is one of the notable theories in this collection of theories and is according to D. Schultz and S. Schultz, a sense of personal control and mastering of the environment, resulting in greater self-confidence that the goal can and will be attained. On the other hand, larger discrepancies result in the loss of this self-efficacy and may decrease the individuals self-confidence that the goal may be attained (Schultz). When this happens, the individual may choose to revise his or her goal. Basically, the significance of this theory is that individuals monitor their own progress and behavior in the pursuit of their goal, and by being aware of their status in their pursuit, they seek feedback and respond accordingly to the feedback which enables them to form opinions regarding the likelihood of success in future endeavors.
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Discussion The current level of service of Mexicali employees is satisfactory and meets its standards according to data. But due to the higher demands from customers on weekends and happy hours, the company could do better to maximize its profits and all-around customer satisfaction. Since Mexicali is a semi-fast-food establishment, the hungry customer is expecting his big course meals to arrive as soon as possible. With the current rate of service, it is apparent to the researcher that food-prep could be doing a better job in terms of time efficiency. Since the customer has no time limit to how long he can stay at a table and there is no way each of the restaurants can expand due to lack of space, the restaurants only way to make up for time comes down to getting the food to the customer as soon as he places an order. The perceived effectiveness of the training regimen program is to design a taskforce that can accommodate the growing rate of customers that come to Mexicali, most especially on weekends and happy hours. The time saved from getting quality food to the customers will make up for the time the customer chooses to stay in the restaurant, including after he has finished eating it. Since most of the companys customers come in very hungry, by not making them wait, a whole other positive effect on customer satisfaction arises and thus resulting to positive word of mouth. The new training regimen and task force will be able to produce more food, faster and at a better quality in terms of taste and proportions. It has become clear to the researchers that because the establishment has focused highly on expansion, it has overlooked such elementary needs such as customer service and the quality of its employees. Based on the researchers results, the training program is out-of-date due to the expectancy of customers in the restaurant at any time. It is undermanned and apparently unprepared. Since it is designed for an outdated market, the need to innovate and keep up with the times has come to utmost concern. The managers and the researchers have realized that the current workforce of each branch can no longer accommodate its growing market. The suggestion has come up to add one extra employee to each Mexicali branch. Also, the training is not as comprehensive as it supposed to be. Since the teams have been pressed on time, the quality of each dish has changed and as a result, the customer is not getting what he is paying for. The training also requires each employee to not be idle at any particular time. It is apparent that the allotted time for training is not enough for the employees to fully comprehend what they need to deliver in terms of output, both on quality and quantity. Furthermore, with the addition to the work force, the work is more distributed and possible. From the results of each observation, aspects of the Mexicali system were changed at hopes to boost training effectiveness and help new recruits get the hang of their jobs.

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For the work place, most of the service crew is based in the restaurants themselves. The central kitchen, they are now provided with the latest tools and equipment for them to accomplish their tasks efficiently, this resulting to less human errors with work efficiency. From the data gathered, the employees had minimal complaints or bad criticism. On the other hand, dissatisfied employees, there is a null relationship between having a low job satisfaction and high job performance. As seen on the table above, the participants had low satisfaction with their jobs yet they were still able to keep up with the companys standards. According to employee 23: Pag dating ho sa sahod, okay lang naman po yung nakukuha namin sa aming pangkabuhayan. Sa mga napasukan ko ito na yung pinaka magandang benefits para sa trabahong katulad nito. Ang nagustuhan po namin yung may kasamang benefits. Individual performance is generally determined by three factors: motivation, abilities and capabilities, and the work environment. If an employee lacks ability, the manager can provide training or replace the worker. Mexicali believes in its employees and would rather train further the employees than let them go. Letting them go would be the worst-case scenario. If there is an environmental problem, the manager can also usually make adjustments to promote higher performance (Buchanan). This means that even though an employee has a very low satisfaction with his/her job, they could still have motivation to perform their duties well. The company could help motivate the employees to do their work better, it doesnt necessarily mean that theyre satisfied with their work but the important factor is that theyre motivated. Matagal na akong nagtatarabaho sa food industry, at sa Mexicali lang ako nagtagal dahil kompara sa mga iba meron ditong tamang kompensasyon at maayos na polisiya na sinusunod para sa mga empleyado. Kahit na gustohin ko na maka kuha ng masmataas na trabaho na may masmataas na bayad ang Mexicali na ang ayon sa aking pangangailangan at lalo na sa aking pamilya. Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept, which can mean different things to different people. Job satisfaction is usually linked with motivation, but the nature of this relationship is not clear. Satisfaction is not the same as motivation. "Job satisfaction is more an attitude, an internal state. It could, for example, be associated with a personal feeling of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative"(Buchanan). This means that employees could not be satisfied with their jobs but could be motivated to perform better. Factors such as supporting a family or the difficulty of finding another job motivate them to perform well in their duties. Here in the Philippines, finding a decent job that is dignifying and equal to the amount of education one has attained is close to impossible. This is why people try to make do with whatever jobs they can get; employee 26 said hindi naman siguro ako aasenso ng todo, pero at least may kakainin mga anak ko mamayang gabi.

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Conclusion It is seen that their work efficiency is also affected by what Mexicali gives them such as the equipment they use or the environment they are in. The negative aspects of Mexicali can be traced to the faulty managerial skills of the operations department rather than the job performance of the employees. The Mexicali training regimen was not given importance thus the employees were not given much attention as to what they were doing. The Mexicali operations department focused too much on expansion and making the business bigger rather than making the business better. The training regimen was not up to date especially food business having a lot of competition around. It is therefore needed that to give importance to the training given to employees. After seeing the data gathered, the researcher concludes that there is no concrete relationship between an employees job satisfaction and job performance. Being satisfied doesnt necessarily produce high performance results. Studies have shown that employees who are unsatisfied with their work could still produce high performance results just as long as they are motivated. It was also concluded that most of the employees were satisfied with their salary, work conditions, and chances for promotion.

Recommendations Better and more competitive form of training should be given to the employees to be at par with the competition in the food industry. This would reduce cost on getting a bigger work force and simply focusing on improvement of present employees with their jobs. The operations department should also have consistency on keeping track of its employees. Also, a more comprehensive training regimen is necessary in order for the taskforce to fully absorb the quality of their work. It is therefore needed that Mexicali should continue innovating to be able to keep up with the competition. It is also important that Mexicali restaurant should keep their employees more satisfied and motivated in order for them to produce optimum results in their work. If employees are both satisfied and motivated then it would produce better job performances than that on pure motivation alone. In order to maximize employees, no employee should be idle for a certain amount of time. A strict regulation of rules should be observed. With all these, it is most likely that if Mexicali implements the recommendations said by the researcher, it will have a positive outcome on the organization of their company.

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References Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, 1990. Bartolome, Rheinhart. Industrial and Organizational Psychology of Our Family Owned Business, RCBMD Clinic Business Dictonary. Online. Available from<http://www.businessdictionary.com.html> accessed: 3 October 2010 Cherry, Kendra. What is Organizational Psychology. Available from http://psychology.about.com/od/iopsychology/f/organizational.htm. Internet; Accessed 11 march 2010 Culbertson, Satoris. Laying Down the Law: Engaging Industrial-Organizational Psychology Undergraduate Students on Employment Legal Issues. Available from http://www.siop.org/tip/jan09/04culbertson.aspx. Internet; accessed 11 march 2010 Hechanova, Ma. Regina M. et al., Who is the Filipino Worker? in The Way We Work; Research and Best Practices in Philippine Organizations, ed. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2006 Jersey: Pearson Education Hall, 2006. Mabanta, Dixie. Let the Burritos Rule, 1997 Michael Aamodt, Applied Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed. (USA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1996) p. 439 Muchinsky, Paul M. Psychology Applied to Work, 8th edition. USA: Thomson Wadsworth,2006. No author. Philippines and Mexico: destined brothers, destined warriors. Available from http://www.boxingscene.com/forums/showthread.php?t=140381. Internet; accessed 11 March 2010 Riggio, Ronald E. Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology New York: Prentice Hall, 2003. Schultz, Duane and Sydney Ellen Schultz, Psychology and Work Today 9th ed. New Segal, N.L. and Arvey, R.D. Job satisfaction: Environmental and genetic components. 1989 Yao, Karen et al., Rewards that Matter: What Motivates the Filipino Employee? in The Way We Work; Research and Best Practices in Philippine Organizations, ed. Ma. Regina Hechanova and Edna P. Franco Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2006. Thinkphilippines.com
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Experiences of Road Rage While Under the Influence of Alcohol and When Feeling Stressed Among College Students
John Abraham, L. Santiago
The researcher studied about the road rage experience of CAS students in San Beda College Alabang using self-made surveys based on the AUDIT(Alcohol use disorder identification test), DDDI(Dula Dangerous Driving Index) and the PSS(Perceived stress scale). The researcher found out that 58%(n=100) of the participants have low tendencies in all the aspects of stress, alcohol consumption and road rage behavior while 23%-28%(n=100) of the participants have moderate tendencies in all aspects. The participants who have no tendencies at all are 7% (n=100). The researcher concluded that those who have experienced road rage in San Beda College Alabang, are only half of the participants who had experienced road rage while stressed and alcohol intoxicated and that most of those who experienced have low tendencies.

________________________________________________________________________ This is an incident that put road rage on the front page of every newspaper in the country. On July 2, 1991, 25-year-old Eldon Maguan, a De La Salle University engineering student, was driving his car down a one-way street in San Juan and nearly collided with Rolito Go's vehicle, which was traveling the wrong way. The businessman got off his car and shot Maguan, who died a few days later. Go was convicted of murder "in absentia" in 1993 by the Pasig Regional Trial Court as he was in hiding after he escaped from the Rizal Provincial Jail a few days before the sentencing. Go was finally caught in 1996 in Pampanga and then served his life imprisonment sentence at the New Bilibid Prison in Muntinlupa (Victoria, 2008). Road rage, as in the case of Go, is a phenomenon that has been one of the causes of many deaths the past years. (Blanco, 2011) In the Philippines it is estimated that 80% of accidents are caused by road rage that resulted in 10,000 deaths per year. People have wondered why some drivers suddenly lose their cool and resort to violent behavior. Like the celebrated case of Rolito Go, one wonders what goes on in the mind of that person at that instant. The experience of road rage as a victim and perpetrator has been a motivating factor in delving into the causes and motivation of road-raged motorists. The hierarchy of emotions that an individual feels, the first level is the secondary emotions (ex. Fear, Envy, & Frustration) we usually feel these emotions everyday. (Brady, 2008) But it is different during our travels, because these secondary emotions get aggravated by other people, at first you will be annoyed at a certain individual and when that individual goes on and on you will be irritated and eventually you will get angry and that individual will either get verbally abused or physically hurt, with you as the perpetrator.

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Road rage is a motorist's uncontrolled anger that is usually provoked by another motorist's irritating act and is expressed in aggressive or violent behavior. What happens when an individual is going on a road rage? Basing on a telephone survey that was gathered on 1998 with 1382 participants with factors such as age, gender, annual miles driven and verbal expression behavior controlled. They related road rage with hazardous driving behaviors and crash experiences(Wells-Parker, Ceminsky, Hallberg, Snow, Dunaway, Guiling, Willimas & Anderson, 2002). Most of the respondents reported that they engaged in rude verbal expressions of annoyance towards other drivers while 2.45% of those respondents actually confronted the other driver that annoyed them. Road rage is also common among college students because of family affairs, school work, social problems and personal problems. Making the strained from stress, and one of the things that students do is to relieve some of those stress through drinking alcohol (Garase, 2006). Meaning each student gets filled to the brim with their anger. Differentiating stress and alcohol to the type of road rage, they each have one common effect the impairment of emotional control, the difference among the three is that (Yu, Evans & Perfetti, 2004) alcohol impairs our decision making abilities. (K. Kent, 2009) Stress on the other hand impairs our ability to think with reason making us show the attitude I want everything to go my way today but if everything turned out the opposite way youd want to let loose all those negative emotions inside of you. The researcher had performed a survey in San Beda College Alabang, the sample taken from the population are CAS students that had verbally/physically abused another driver while intoxicated with alcohol or stressed because as surveyed by Wells-parker individuals who have drank alcohol tend to be more violent and individuals who have experienced excessive stress makes them more prone to anger because of their inability to think with reason. This study aims to answer what are the profiles of college alcoholics? Are they low alcoholic drinkers, moderate alcoholic drinkers or high alcoholic drinkers? What are there profiles in terms of stress? Do they have low stress tendencies, moderate stress tendencies or high stress tendencies? And there profiles towards their road rage behavior, do they have low rage tendency, moderate rage tendency or high rage tendency? Conceptual Framework

Alcoholic road rage


Stressed road rage

Road rage behaviors of CAS students

The framework provided is to summarize if college students who have experienced being under the influence of alcohol and excessively takes stress that leads them to road rage and to determine what have they experienced the most. As an objective, this paper will find out if alcohol or stress is the cause of road rage for college students. This study aims to answer which of the 2 easily initiates road rage?
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Review of Literature Alcohol and Road rage Aggressive driving and alcohol consumption were related to each other. In a telephone survey conducted using alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) with 2610 participants aged 18 and above, it showed that heavy drinkers are more prone to be violent. 32% of the participants shouted or made rude gestures at someone, 1.7% threatened someone and 1.0% attempted or actually damaged a car. The study results show a statistical significance that alcohol has a high prone level to road rage adding that the reason why there is an overlap of behavior because it also includes the driving behavior of an individual(i.e. road courtesy and following of road rules ( Mann, Smart, Stoduto, Adlaf & Ialomiteanu, 2004). That is why alcoholism and road rage are two separate behaviors but are simultaneously influenced by each other. Implying that the impairments of the brain caused by alcohol which affects our judgment, body coordination and emotional control (Yu, Evans & Perfetti, 2004) Alcohol also adds discomfort to the driver specifically the medulla which controls bodily functions including breathing which has an important part in driving because as a driver breaths heavily the driver cant stay calm and focused on driving (how alcohol affects the brain, 2011). Stress and Road rage Stress is defined as the body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response, the stimuli that affects the bodys response is called the stressor ( S t e c k l e r , 2 0 0 5 ) . So how is this associated with road rage? As we go home from work may it be driving or commuting home we are stressed out. Making us anti-social while traveling on land and that most likely we will be giving the finger to another motorist or a fellow commuter that annoys us, instantly makes them a victim of our rage (Woodside, 2008) Most who are people in a road rage uses verbal gestures (Wells-Parker et.al.., 2002) if you experience t h i s t h e n driving may well in fact be a hazard to you. (Kent, 2009) many people are experiencing stress and the reason why most drivers go on a road rage is because of strong emotions or being upset consequently it affects our ability to think with reason. Stress also causes lack of sleep which in turn produces more stress when you dont have enough sleep (Hurwitz, 2004) it is because fatigue increases the frequency of eye blinks and micro-sleeps to compensate for sleep deficits. Why is that? (Ledoux, 2002) Sleep is needed to restore certain parts of the body especially the brain so that it may continue to function optimally. After a period of prolonged wakefulness, neurons may begin to malfunction affecting the persons behavior and body coordination begins to dull. (Lake& Morton, 2010) it is also common for sleep deprived individuals to experience extreme emotions and mood swings also individuals who lack sleep experience extreme anger the most because of anxiety and stress ( Sleep deprivation and its negative effects, 2011). That prolonged wakefulness impairs our driving performance and our brain control (Arnedt, Wilde, Munt & MacLean, 2001).

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Methodology Research Design The researcher used quantitative descriptive design. The quantitative descriptive research design is used to observe a behavior of an individual or a group of people without influencing the data that is gathered through questionnaires or through observation. The reason why the researcher used this design is to prevent any extraneous stimuli so that the participant would answer naturally. Using survey in this research to determine what students have experienced the most among San Beda College Alabang students because by using this design the researcher could get accurate results without influencing the participant. Participants and Sampling Purposive sampling was used for respondent selection since the design of the research is intended only for the population of San Beda College Alabang students, 100 participants that will be chosen must fit the criteria. That they are driving a car to school and back home and they own a drivers license. Instruments The following instruments were used in the study. Alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) - Developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) the research that used this tests validated it with a telephone survey consisting of 2610 participants that drinks alcohol and the results says that 32% of the 2610 reported that participants 32% shouted or made rude gestures at someone, 1.7% actually threatened someone and 1% tried to or damaged a car. Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) created by Chris S. Dula. There was a test that was used in Appalachain State University with 119 participants (47% male, 53% Female) for the males scored a total of 70.73 and the females scored 65.68 which showed that males have a higher proneness to drive dangerously. Perceived Stress Scale- created by Dr. Sheldon Cohen. He conducted a test with 446 undergraduates using this scale showing that stress levels with the participants increased during the past month because of work and life problems 46% of the participants needed stress relief methods. Procedure In this study, the researcher made a survey on an individuals alcohol drinking and stress accumulation followed by another test that will score their driving behavior. The respondents were asked to answer these surveys by encircling their best answer to the given criteria and was scored using the likert scale to categorize them from low alcohol drinker, moderate alcohol drinker and high alcohol drinker. Same with the stress factor which they will also be categorized as low stress tendency, moderate stress tendency and high stress tendency then matched with their driving behavior test with the category of low road rage tendency, moderate road rage tendency and high road rage tendency.
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Results
60

50

40

30

Series1

20

10

0 Low Alcohol intake Moderate Alcohol intake High Alcohol intake

A-1:Alcoholic violence tendency profile of CAS students The results of the alcohol consumption test showed that 56% of the participants have low alcohol intake while 21% of the students have moderate alcohol intake meaning that even though they have drinking sessions almost half of the participants sometimes become violent when they have drank alcohol.
70 60 50 40 Series1 30 20 10 0 Low stress violence tendency Moderate stress High stress violence violence tendency tendency

A-2: Stress violence tendency profile of CAS students The stress test results showed that 58%(n=100) of the participants have low stress violence tendency while 25% (n=100) have moderate stress tendency they showed no sign of having high stress tendencies as shown above.
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Low rage tendency moderate rage tendency high rage tendency

A-3: Rage tendency profile of CAS students The driving behavior test showed 58% (n=100) participants have low rage tendencies while 23% (n=100) have moderate rage tendency with no participants showing high rage tendencies while driving.
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Discussion

Table 1 Low alcohol violence tendency Moderate Alcohol violence tendency High Alcohol violence tendency 56% 21% 0 58% 23% 0 Low rage tendency Moderate rage tendency High rage tendency

As shown in table one half of the participants that took both the alcohol test and driving behavior test have low tendencies meaning that there is a low chance that they will become violent when driving while intoxicated and that those who are in the moderate level of alcohol violence and moderate rage are low and suggest that none of the participants would go on a road rage, because heavy drinkers are more prone to be violent (Mann, et. al.., 2004)

Table 2 Low stress violence tendency Moderate stress violence tendency High stress violence tendency 58% 25% 0 58% 23% 0 Low rage tendency Moderate rage tendency High rage tendency

The table above shows that half of the participants have low stress violence tendencies and low rage tendencies and that only 25% (n=100) have moderate stress tendency but only shows that 23% (n=100) have moderate rage tendencies suggesting that there are participants who get stressed but dont get violent. But as stated in the hierarchy of emotions, the secondary feelings that are being abused during our travels would eventually lead to anger (Brady, 2008). So it does not necessarily mean that even though half of those participants have low stress and low rage tendency it would not mean that they would not be prone to going on a road rage but given an ample amount of stress that they can handle, it will still cause them to go on a road rage (Garase, 2006).

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Conclusion Stress is what most CAS students in San Beda College Alabang experienced that triggered or initiated their road rage basing on the percentage of the participants who have answered, even if some of the participants also experienced road rage while under the influence of alcohol it is still unsure because all individuals have different alcohol intake and the sudden memory loss in the morning suggesting that some of the participants do not remember what they have experienced thus making alcoholic road rage experience percentage low. The difference between the two factors is that when a participant is stressed, they still remember what had happened and carries it for a couple of days which make stress for the participant even worst because of the things that happened that would pile up make them more angry and more prone to road rage.

Recommendation I could only recommend that an experimental study should be done about this to accurately determine if the participants road rage tendency would change if they are behind the wheel and give them stressors and alcoholic beverages when doing the test. An actual driving test would be better suited for this kind of study, but because the researcher does not want to be held responsible for the danger he is putting the participants in when this type of test is administered and also the researcher does not have enough funds to make this type of test.

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References Arnedt, J.T, Wilde, G.J.S., Munt, P.W., & MacLean, A.W. (2001) How do prolonged wakefulness and alcohol compare in the decrements they produce on a simulated driving task? Accident analysis and prevention, 33(3), 337-344 Blanco, N (2011, January 15) Krusada: Road Accidents. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/current-affairs-programs/01/15/11/krusadaroad-accidents Brady, C. (2008, July 10). Emotions That Give Rise to Anger. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Emotions-That-Give-Rise-to-Anger&id=1303848 Dukes, R.L., Clayton, S.L., Jenkins, L.T., Miller, T.L., & Rodgers, S.E. (2001). Effects of aggressive driving and driving characteristics on road rage. The Social Science Journal, (38)2, 323-331. Garase, M. (2006) Road Rage, Journal of health and fitness. Pp. 29 Hurwitz, J.B. (2004). Individual differences on driver risk acceptance during sleep deprivation. Traffic and transport psychology (pp. 245-255) UK: Elsiever Ltd. Lake, E. & Morton, K. (2010). The heavy effects of sleep deprivation, what happens if I dont get enough sleep? Ledoux, S. (2002). The effects of sleep deprivation on brain and behavior. Biology Mann, R.E., Smart, R.G., Stoduto, G, Adlaf, E.M., & Ialomiteanu, A. (2004). Alcohol consumption and problems among road rage victims and perpetrators. Journal of studies on alcohol, 65. Steckler, T. (2005). The neuropsychology of stress: The hand book of stress (pp. 20-42) Elsevier Victoria, E. (2008, Nov 10) The Maguan Case. Retrieved September 18, 2011, from http://showbizandstyle.inquirer.net/sim/sim/view/20081109-171121/The-MaguanCase Woodside, A, (2008) "Anti-social behavior: profiling the lives behind road rage", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 26 Iss: 5, pp.459 480 Yu, J., Evans, P.C., & Perfetti, L. (2004). Road aggression among drinking drivers: alcohol and non alcohol effects on aggressive driving and road rage. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32(5), 421-430. (2011) how alcohol affects the brain, Retrieved September 23, 2011 from http://www.bloodalcohol.info/how-alcohol-affects-the-brain.php (2011) Sleep Deprivation and its negative effects, Retrieved September 27, 2011 from http://mommiesmagazine.com/348/sleep-deprivation-and-its-negative-effects/
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Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Program Among College Students


Jaime Miguel III, S. Santos

This paper provides an overview on how the smoking cessation program is effective in a college setting. Thirty college smokers were chosen to participate in a smoking cessation program provided by the National Center for Diseases of the Department of Health of the Philippines (NCD-DOH). The program was implemented by the chosen colleges head doctor. A smokers assessment profile was administered to the participants and results show that the important factors for smoking initiation is stress and pleasure. Majority of the participants have low dependence in nicotine. With the information at hand, the intervention administered to the participants was assessed by the doctor. The participants were subjected to a psychological intervention. The effectiveness of the program was assessed through a quit diary which the participants were required to record the number of cigarettes they smoked per day for 2 weeks. The quit diary monitored the progress of the participants in regards to the effectiveness of the program. Results show that there was a 10% decrease in the pre-contemplation stage, a 61% increase in the contemplation stage, a 51% decrease in the preparation stage, a 30% decrease in the relapse stage, and a 94% decrease in the relapse stage. The program was effective as there was a decrease in smoking behavior in majority of the stages.

________________________________________________________________________

Smoking is a common vice amongst everyone. Cigarettes are found everywhere and are being smoked by people of almost all ages. The cigarette is commonly known as the stress marker and the stress reliever (Jarvis, 1994). The thing about smoking is that 100% of the time it affects a persons anatomy in a negative way. People die or suffer from diseases/ailments because of the negative effects of smoking, yet people continue to smoke despite of these consequences, especially the young ones today. In San Beda College Alabang, out of 10 college students outside the campus gates, 8 students would be seen smoking. College students nowadays tend to smoke because of the stress they get from school work. Does it really help? The use of cigarette smoking as a stress reliever has been one of the most used reasons for smoking. With that in mind, we still cannot avoid the fact that smoking still harms the body. People have been looking for ways to smoke without harming the body, but the thing is that stopping is the only possible option. The problem today is that most people are trying to stop smoking, but most likely fail to do so. There are a lot of techniques and rehabilitations involved. The problem with rehabilitation is the cost. Getting into rehab requires money as the host requires compensation for their services. As for the deprivation techniques used by many who attempt to stop smoking, they will always lack something to back up the goal of stopping. Smoking cessation is not as simple as going cold turkey on it. There are factors which
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affect the smokers personality such as the likes of peer pressure and stress reliever. These factors also require the proper treatment/therapy in order for the smoker to completely overcome the habit. With regard to the smoking cessation protocols here in the Philippines, most of them are geared towards the use of health workers. The National Center for Diseases of the Department of Health of the Philippines is in charge of the Smoking Cessation Programs. The protocols here in the Philippines are mostly offered in health clinics and hospitals. The thing about the protocols here in the Philippines is that there is no demand. The most recent protocol by the NCD-DOH was only offered through health clinics and certain hospitals. In line with that, the number of participants was not enough to support the stability of the program, in the sense that as a business, the program is not doing well. The researcher wishes to conduct the study on college students as most of the smokers today are young people. We can assume that the preferable target participants are within the school. With that in mind, the school is already within reach of a population of smokers, yet, smoking cessation programs are not being implemented. Schools around the metro rely on no smoking zones to keep the students from smoking, but this is not enough. The researcher believes that a lot of people will benefit from a smoking cessation program being implemented inside the school. The beneficiaries includes the college smoker himself because a decrease or stop in smoking will lead to a healthier life, the college smokers family as they will not be exposed to second hand smoke, and of course the school itself, as such program will help them in shaping the future of the country by prolonging life and setting as an example to other colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to figure out if the Smoking Cessation Protocol by the NCDDOH will be effective in a college setting. Specifically, the study aims to answer the following research problems. What is the college smokers profile depending on their level of readiness? What are the reasons why the participants initiate in smoking? Is the smoking cessation program effective to the respondents?

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Conceptual framework The framework was designed in line with the connection between the effectiveness of the smoking cessation protocol and the target participants which are the college students of San Beda College Alabang. In this study, the researcher aims to find out if a smoking cessation program will be effective in a college setting in such a way that the college smokers will reduce or quit smoking with the program being implemented in the school.

SMOKING CESSATION PROGRAM

DECREASE SMOKING BEHAVIOR OF THE COLLEGE SMOKER

Review of Literature Cigarette Smoking Cigarette smoking has been around for years. The cigarette is commonly known as the stress marker and the stress reliever (Jarvis, 1994). As it may be, smoking has been declining slowly in western countries, but still remains highly prevalent. According to Martin Jarvis, only 40 percent of those who ever smoked cigarettes regularly have given up. High levels of dependence on tobacco usage are experienced by the majority in the general population, with an onset early in the smoking career. The rewards which underpin continued smoking are unclear, but it may be that avoidance of the unpleasantness of not smoking is more significant than positively rewarding effects (Jarvis, 1994). Nicotine Dependence As we all know, the cigarette contains the addictive nicotine. Nicotine addiction is an extremely complex process that involves biological, psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors. (Heishman, 1999). With the deprivation of nicotine, according to Heishman (1999), attentional and cognitive abilities can be impaired. These deficits can be reversed once the person who was deprived receives nicotine. In nonsmokers and non deprived smokers, nicotine enhances finger tapping, focused and sustained attention, recognition memory, and reasoning. Stress results in increased smoking, but there is little empirical evidence that smoking reduces stress. Stress reduction from smoking is likely the relief of withdrawalinduced negative mood that is experienced between cigarettes. (Heishman, 1999).

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Given these factors, Heishman (1999) states that smokers weigh on average 3-4 kg less than non smokers and the weight gained after quitting smoking also averages 3-4 kg. The changes in eating and energy expenditure are responsible for the body weight changes seen during smoking cessation and relapse says Heishman (1999). Smoking Cessation Programs In the study conducted by William P. Adelman, Anne K. Duggan, Patricia Hauptman MS, & Alain Joffe (2001), it was discussed that a smoking cessation program implemented early in the school year is most likely to succeed. Smokers are motivated to quit and are more likely to succeed when they receive an intervention early. Increased attention in quitting smoking received as part of the study is a possible factor in decrease in cigarette smoking. The barrier that affects a smoking cessation program is the reliability of a students self report in terms of cigarettes per day. The researchers used biochemical measures such as saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide to validate the current smoking status. In another study by Klara Brunnhuber, K. Michael Cummings, Sheila Feit, Scott Sherman, James Woodcock (2007), it is stated that reduced cigarette consumption may be useful as a step toward cessation, with lower cigarette dependency being associated with a greater chance of successful quitting. (Brunnhuber, Cummings, Feit, Sherman, & Woodcock, 2007). In their review of related literature, it is said that two prospective studies found that nicotine dependence was the key predictor of cessation success. This was assessed by the length of time to first cigarette of the day and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Another predictor of cessation success was identified as making a quit attempt. Non-pharmacologic measures can be used singly, in combination, or along with drug therapies. There is good evidence that combining brief practical advice to quit with pharmacotherapy increases success rates. (Brunnhuber, Cummings, Feit, Sherman, & Woodcock, 2007). In a research of Bauld, et al. (2007), it implies that incentive schemes particularly access to free nicotine replacement therapy, encourages smokers to make quit attempts. Some limited evidence also exists that including a drop in or rolling group element to smoking treatment may improve access and outcomes for some smokers (Bauld, Mcneil, Hackshaw, & Murray, 2007). In a study conducted by Gin, et al. (2008), The researchers designed and tested a voluntary commitment product to help smokers quit smoking. The product is entitled Committed Action to Reduce and End Smoking (CARES). The product (CARES) offered individuals a savings account in which they deposit funds for six months, after which they take a urine test for nicotine and cotinine. If they pass, their money is returned; otherwise, their money is forfeited to a charity of the banks choosing. (Gin, Karlan, & Zinman, 2008). The product acts as a reinforcement to help the participants refrain from smoking.

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In another study conducted by Etter, et al, (2001), 74% precontemplators, 22% contemplators, and 4% who were ready to quit. Results show that the program was more effective in smokers who said at baseline that it was easy to quit smoking rather than those who said it would be very difficult. Participants who made quit attempts during the year before enrollment were more likely to quit smoking than those who had not. The program was effective among very heavy smokers and among teenagers (aged 15-19). The results were statistically significant only when the 7-day abstinence criterion was used to compare the intervention group vs. the control group. The results were statistically significant only when the 7-day abstinence criterion was used to compare the intervention group vs. the controls (very heavy smokers, 7.9% vs 1.6%, P=.02; teenagers, 14.9%) (Jean Francois Etter & Thomas P. Perneger, 2001) Synthesis The topics and articles gather by the researcher are comprised of cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, and smoking cessation programs. These topics and articles have helped the researcher establish the research problems which wants to figure out if a smoking cessation program will be effective in a college setting. The articles above portray different techniques and variables in other smoking cessation programs that prove to be a contributing factor in the study. The topics and articles above have helped and influenced the researcher in such a way that they proved to be good basis for this study.

Methodology Research Design In this study, the researcher used the quasi-experimental research design. The quasi-experimental research involves selecting groups, upon which a variable is tested, without any random pre-selection processes. This research design was used in this study to determine the effectiveness of the smoking cessation program, as the program is a series of treatments. The participants were subject to the smoking cessation program provided by the NCD-DOH. Participants and Sampling In the selection of respondents, 30 individuals were chosen to participate. The participants were all male with a mean age 20 that ranges from 16 to 23 years old. All participants are currently enrolled in San Beda College Alabang. The participants were chosen with the use of purposive sampling. The researcher chose college smokers currently enrolled in San Beda College Alabang as this study is about the effectiveness of the smoking cessation program in the school.

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Instruments The material used in the research is the Smoking Cessation Protocol by the NCDDOH entitled Smoking Cessation Clinic: HELPING SMOKERS QUIT: A Training Manual for Health Workers The protocol contains guidelines and procedures geared towards health workers to learn how to initiate and set up a smoking cessation program. The program starts off with a smokers assessment profile which includes the personal data, a self test on reasons for smoking, a self test on nicotine dependence, a self test on readiness to stop smoking, and a reflection on previous attempts to stop smoking. The self test on reasons for smoking is based on Horns smokers self test (1978). It reveals the following factors: stimulation, pleasure, craving, handling, habit, stress, and social. These factors aid in identifying the factors contributing to smoking dependence which are the physiological dependence, psychological dependence, and the behavioral dependence. This test will also determine what intervention will be used for the client. Factor physiological dependence will lead to an intervention wherein nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and anti-depressants will be prescribed to the client. The psychological dependence will lead to an intervention with stress management techniques. The behavioral dependence on the other hand will lead to diversionary activities and behavioral counseling. The self test on nicotine dependence will determine the clients current state on smoking. The test will determine if it is just a habit, or already an addiction. The level of dependence according to the test is as follows: 0 (no dependence), 1-2 (very low dependence), 3-4 (low dependence), 5 (medium dependence), 6-7 (high dependence), and 8-10 (very high dependence). Score under 5 means that the level of nicotine dependence is still low. Score of 5 is a moderate level of nicotine dependence. While a score over 7 means that the level of dependence is high. The test is a revision of The Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (1991). The reflection on previous attempts to stop smoking creates a picture of the possible effects of smoking that the body has accumulated through the years. This assessment can help in planning methods of quitting and anticipating possible barriers to quitting. Procedure In this study, the researcher followed the program in the protocol, Smoking Cessation Clinic: HELPING SMOKERS QUIT: A Training Manual for Health Workers. The program consisted of 4 sessions which are: the assessment stage, the planning stage, the quit stage, and the monitoring and prevention of relapse stage. The program was implemented by the head doctor of San Beda College Alabang. The role of the researcher was to aid the doctor in implementing the program. The researchers task was to gather and check up on the participants, and distribute the assessment forms. Before the program, a short interview was conducted by the researcher for each participant. The researcher asked each participant if they were interested to stop smoking and if they were willing to try a program that would help them do so.
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During session 1, the researcher distributed a smokers assessment form to the participants which is also known as, the smokers profile. The smokers profile determined the participants number of sticks per day, the participants major factors for smoking initiation, the participants level of nicotine dependence, the participants willingness to stop, and the number of quit attempts they had in the past. After the participant filled out the form, the researcher assessed which of the following were to be classified in the pre-contemplation stage, contemplation stage, preparation stage, action stage, relapse stage, maintenance stage, and termination stage. In session 2, the participants were filtered out. Those who were in the precontemplation and contemplation stage were not tasked to go to the clinic for the intervention but were asked to record their number of sticks per day for comparison purposes. Those who were in the preparation stage, relapse stage, and maintenance stage were advised to go to the clinic for the treatment/intervention. The participants were given quit diaries. The quit diary was used to monitor the number of cigarettes the participant smoked per day for the next 2 weeks. While on the 4th day of the quit diary, session 3 was held. In session 3, the participants were tasked to check in with the doctor for consultation and treatment. The participants were accompanied by the researcher. During this stage, the doctor simply explained and expounded the biological and sociological effects of smoking. This was due to the fact that the participants had high psychological dependence with stress being the dominant factor in smoking initiation. The second factor was pleasure and is under the physiological dependence. The treatment for this is the nicotine replacement therapy which includes nicotine gums and nicotine patches, and anti-depressants specifically Bupropion Hydrochloride. Due to insufficient resources and availability of the medication, the doctor focused on the treatment for the psychological dependence and improvised to compensate for the lack of budget and insufficiency of medication. Session 4 takes place after 14 days. The participants were again tasked and accompanied by the researcher to visit the doctor for monitoring and updates. This is simply to assess the progress of the participants regarding their smoking behavior via sticks per day.

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Results and Discussion The college smokers profile depending on their level of readiness In this study, the researcher used the smokers profile for self assessment. The smokers profile comprises of the smokers self test on reasons for smoking, the self test on nicotine dependence, and the self test on readiness to stop smoking. Based upon the smokers self assessment, the common age of a college smoker ranges from 16-23 years old with a mean age of 20 (N=30).

Table 1.

PARTICIPANTS CLASSIFIED BASED ON LEVEL OF READINESS

Table 1 shows that out of 30 participants, 36.67% (N=30) are in the precontemplation stage meaning they have no interest in stopping at all. 10% (N=30) are in the contemplation stage and it shows that they also have no interest in stopping the habit. The 33.33% (N=30) in the preparation stage are the participants who intend to stop smoking in a month and have tried to stop in the last 12 months. 13.33% (N=30) are in the relapse stage while 6.67% (N=30) are in the maintenance stage.

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Table 2.

Level of Nicotine Dependence


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Participants

LEVEL OF NICOTINE DEPENDENCE The data in table 2 suggests that out of 30 participants, the dominant level is at the low dependence at 36.67% (N=30). This suggests that the students are not heavy smokers and are influenced by certain physiological and psychological factors like stress and pleasure as shown in graph 1. One participant though is at the high dependence, this certain participant may be subject to nicotine replacement therapy, but it also depends on the level of readiness of the participant. The reasons why the participants initiate in smoking Table 3.

Important factors affecting smoking initiation/behavior


30 20 10 0

Participants

IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING SMOKING INITIATION As seen in table 3, the dominant factor that affects smoking initiation out of 30 is stress at 66% (N=30). This is due to the fact that college students are exposed to a lot of school work and probably other personal matters. Closely following stress as the most dominant factor is pleasure at 60% (N=30). This suggests that most of the students derive pleasure from smoking. The least important factor is social at 16% (N=30). Few of the students smoke to be part of the in crowd, or because of peer pressure.
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Is the smoking cessation program effective to the respondents? Table 4


25 20 15 10 5 0

Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action AVG Sticks per day Day1 Day2 Day3 Day4 Day5 Day6 Day7 Day8 Day9 Day10 Day11 Day12 Day13 Day14 Relapse Maintenance Termination

In this graph, the effect of the program is shown through the comparison of the average number of sticks per day before, and the average sticks per day while the program is implemented. The action and participant group is at 0 as no participant was classified under them. In the pre-contemplation group, the average stick per day is 9. At day 1, the number of sticks per day is already below average at 8.9 sticks per day. There was a steady drop until day 3, but a sudden rise above average during day 4 at 9.5 sticks per day. Day 5 had a drop below average and was consistent all the way until day 14 in which the cigarettes smoked per day ended with an 8.5. In the contemplation group, the average stick per day is 9. This group had an unusually high fluctuation above average. The fluctuation rises as high as 21.3 sticks per day and has significantly high drops, but still above average. There was a drop below average at 7.3 sticks per day during days 6 and 12, but still the fluctuation is consistent above average during the other days. Day 14 ended with an average of 13.6 sticks per day. In the preparation group, the average stick per day is 7. Day 1 started with a drop below average at 4.1 sticks per day. Day 2 had a slight rise below average at 5.5 sticks per day, but since then had a consistent drop all the way until day 14 at 3.1 sticks per day. In the relapse group, the average stick per day is 5. In this stage day 1 and 3 had a good start with average per day sticks below average which ranges between 2.5, to 3.8 sticks per day. From day 4 to 6, the average went up above average which ranges between 5.3, to 5.5 sticks per day. Day 7 had a slight drop below average at 3.5 sticks per
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day. Day 8 had a rise above average at 5.3 sticks per day, and then dropped to 2 sticks per day during day 9. The sticks per day slowly fluctuated up to day 12 at 3.8 sticks per day, and consistently dropped until day 14 at 1.8 sticks per day. In the maintenance group, the average stick per day is 5. The results of the 14 day monitoring proved to be effective although there were slight relapses during days 2, 6, and 8 wherein the participants classified smoked 1 cigarette per day. After day 8, the participants remained stable at 0 sticks per day.

Conclusions and Recommendation Based on the college smokers profile, the college student has low dependence on nicotine at 36.67% (N=30). This is already a sign that they should stop as soon as possible, as the level of dependence may advance through the higher levels. In line with that, the college student initiates smoking because of stress at 67% (N=30) and pleasure at 60% (N=30). This is due to the fact that the college students are being exposed to stressful activities every day. In turn, the college students turn to a stress releasing activity which so happened to be smoking, as smoking is one of the cheap and convenient way of relaxation. The pre-contemplation group and the contemplation group were tasked to monitor their consumption of cigarettes via quit diary to monitor their average sticks per day. The pre contemplation group had a decrease of 10% in cigarettes smoked per day. The contemplation group on the other hand had an increase of 61% in cigarettes smoked per day. As of the quit diarys initial results concerning those who reached the stage with interventions, the program is being effective, especially in the maintenance stage which had a 94% decrease in cigarettes smoked per day. The preparation stage had a decrease of 51 % while the relapse stage had a decrease of 30% in cigarettes smoked per day. The program has so far been effective as evidence shows that all the stages aside from the contemplation stage had a decrease in smoking. The contemplation stage on the other hand is quite doubtful as there is a major fluctuation going on, but this may be due to extraneous variables that surround the participants under this classification. Overall, the program is effective as majority of the stages had a decrease in smoking habit. The main problem encountered while implementing the program was the schedule of the participants. Due to their hectic class schedules, they could not concentrate on quitting smoking as they are frequently bombarded with stress along the way. For future studies that aim to promote smoking cessation programs in colleges, one should consider the extraneous factors that could be a hindrance to the program. The schedule of the program should match that of the participants to prevent relapses, and in order for them to focus more on quitting the habit. The one thing that the researcher noticed is that the term doctor scares potential participants so the term health worker is advised.
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A considerable amount of budget would do good for this study as this will be able to cover the expenses concerning the validity of the smokers self-report through the use of biochemical measures as used in the study of Adelman, et al. (2001). It would also be better if the future researcher will consider a pre test and post test especially in the average sticks per day to have a more accurate data and an actual comparison between the before and after of the cigarette consumed per day, as previous studies have. The study is recommended for a long term basis as quitting the habit of smoking is a very hard task and the participants should not feel pressured about the program.

References Bauld, L., Mcneil, A., Hackshaw, L., & Murray, R. (2007). The effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions to reduce the rates of premature death in disadvantaged areas through proactive case finding, retention and access to services. Brunnhuber, K., Cummings, K. M., Feit, S., Sherman, S., & Woodcock, J. (2007). Putting evidence into practice: Smoking cessation. BMJ Publishing Group. Gin, X., Karlan, D., & Zinman, J. (2008). Put Your Money Where Your Butt Is: A Commitment Savings Account for Smoking Cessation. Heishman. (1999). Behavioral and cognitive effects of smoking: Relationship to nicotine addiction. Oxford Journals, Volume 1 , s143-s147. Jarvis, M. J. (1994). A profile on tobacco smoking. Addiction, Volume 89, Issue 11 , 1371-1376. Jean Francois Etter, P., & Thomas P. Perneger, M. P. (2001). Effectiveness of a Computer-Tailored Smoking Cessation Program. ARCH INTERN MED, VOL 161 . William P. Adelman, M., Anne K. Duggan, S., Patricia Hauptman MS, C., & Alain Joffe, M. M. (2001). Effectiveness of a High School Smoking Cessation Program. PEDIATRICS Vol. 107 No. 4 , 50.

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The Effects of Fast Tempo Music to Brisk Walking Performance


Kim Marie I. Villanueva
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fast tempo music to brisk walking performance. A pre-test post-test experimental design was conducted with thirty (N=30) female participants with an average age of 20 years old. A-B paradigm was used wherein A is the presence of music and B is the absence of music. Fast tempo music (>120 bmp) with different selections was provided by the researcher. Paired-sample t-test results of the experimental group showed significant values: t(14)=-10.546,p<0.01; t(14)=-11.209,p<0.01; t(14)=5.479,p<0.01. Control group showed insignificant values on the first two pairs: t(14)=-1.427,p>0.05; t(14)=-.546,p>0.05 and significance on the third pair t(14)=-6.507p<0.01. Results suggest that the experimental group were easily motivated because of the music compared to the control group that performed without any music at all. Level of performance increased while the extinction caused time performance to decrease.

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Exercise is believed to be an essential part of our lifestyle and is needed for everyone who is out of shape or fit, whether you are an athlete, a student or a parent,. In addition it has various benefits such as strengthening our heart, lower blood sugar, increasing good cholesterol, reduces stress, maintaining strong bones and muscles, helping manage our weight, and improving our mood. Despite the knowledge that brisk walking has numerous positive benefits for our well-being, there are certain hindrances such as time, boredom, and exhaustion that lessen our capacity for exercise. The purpose of the researcher in this study was to investigate if music specifically high tempo music provides a pacing advantage in increasing the performance level (as to the length of time in working out) and a form of distraction from the exhaustion of brisk walking. For us Filipinos, gaining weight may be a nightmare. This is especially true for women, who have been petite all their lives. As of 2006, twenty four (24) out of a hundred (100) Filipinos are overweight or obese (Gatbonton MD, 2006) that is why many popular health exercises like walking, aerobics, running, jogging, bicycling, yoga, and pilates are being promoted yet little empirical data is available to support these claims. The problem with these forms of exercises is that repetition is required (Sbaz, 2010) which in the long run makes brisk walking to be monotonous. Fast Tempo Music produced a stimulative effect to individuals which reduced perceived exertion (Distraction) during brisk walking and in turn worked harder for a longer (Terry & Karageorghis, 2003) period of time (Enhanced Time Performance) (see figure 1). This could promote more ways in helping out persons who have a difficult time exercising due to factors such as getting exhausted right away which with anticipation lead to greater work output through enhanced time performance. This study aims to answer the following research problems:
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1. Was there a significant difference in the amount of time spend on treadmills by groups who used fast tempo music than those who performed without fast tempo music? 2. Was there a significant increase in the work output based on the enhanced time performance when fast tempo music was used? 3. What is the amount of time spent on the treadmill with and without the presence of high tempo music? 4. Was there a significant increase in the work output based on the enhanced time performance when high tempo music was used?

Conceptual Framework

Greater work output Fast Tempo Music

Enhance time performance

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework that shows how Fast Tempo Music acts as a motivator that leads to enhanced time performance. People can substantially improve their health and quality of life by including a moderate amount of physical activity such as brisk walking in their daily life. Through playing fast tempo music during brisk walking, the exhaustion of individuals performance may have a less negative effect on them and may encourage more people to make brisk walking a regular and sustainable part of their life which in turn will improve endurance levels.

Review of Related Literature Music Music is an art form that consists of any pleasing or harmonious sound that has the capacity to capture attention, lift spirits, generate emotions, change or regulate mood, evoke memories, increase work output, reduce inhibitions, and encourage rhythmic movement (Terry & Karageorghis, 2006). It is a source of motivation and inspiration that can influence exercise enjoyment and participant retention, and by extension, has the potential to contribute to improved public health that is much valued in sport and exercise (Simpson & Kaeageorghis, 2005). In addition, Terry and Karageorghis (2003) postulated that the main benefits from listening to music would be increasing positive moods and reduced negative moods; pre-event activation or relaxation; dissociation from unpleasant feelings such as pain and fatigue; reduced ratings of perceived exertion especially during aerobic training; extended work output through synchronization of music with movement; enhanced acquisition of motor skills when rhythm or association is matched
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with required movement patterns; increased likelihood of individuals achieving flow states; and enhanced performance via the above mechanisms. With this said, music research shows that a rush of energy and momentum comes creating a push for people to raise the bar when working out (Nichols, 2008). The music is said to be powerful and with that, the right music for one's workout routine keeps one excited and motivated to work hard during an exercise session, and it is called Playlist Fixation (Nichols, 2008) this is applicable especially for recreational exercisers who workout at sub maximal intensity for health purposes (Gertjan Wijnalda, 2005). During an investigation, Szemedra and Bacharach (1998) showed that music allowed participants to relax, reducing muscle tension, and thereby increasing blood flow and lactate clearance while decreasing lactate production in working muscle. Statistics drawn from the data proved that there was no difference in the exercise performance of the two groups, it showed that the experimental group were easily motivated because of the music compared to the control group that performed without any music at all. In one research study by Priest, Karageorghis, and Sharp (2003) states that 91 participants reported to feeling more motivated in response to music. Although music can also have a negative impact on motivation, music is one of the prime motivators when actually using the gym, music can make you keep going or give up (Priest, Karageorghis, & Sharp, 2003). In other words, music has been shown to enhance muscular endurance performance and reduces perception of effort while greatly enhancing in-task affect and enjoyment, the effects of motivational music were considered particularly relevant during cardio-vascular as opposed to resistance exercise (Priest, Karageorghis, & Sharp, 2003). Fast Tempo Music According to Terry and Karageorghis (2007), tempo is an element of rhythm response and is considered the most significant factor in determining an individuals response to a piece of music. Karageorghis and colleagues proposed that the key characteristics of motivational music are that it has a fast tempo (>120 bmp), a strong rhythm, enhances energy, and promotes bodily movement which has been tested using the scale called Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI). Karageorghis, Drew and Terry (1996) investigated effects of fast tempo, energizing music, slow tempo, and relaxing music on grip strength and they confirmed that participants produced significantly higher handgrip dynamometer scores after listening to stimulative music(fast tempo) compared to sedative music (slow tempo). Asynchronous use of music, as this is known, occurs when there is no conscious synchronization between movement and music tempo, but with this application, tempo is postulated to be the most important determinant of response to music and may be affected by the physiological arousal of the listener and the context in which the music is heard. This suggests that there might be a stronger preference for fast tempo music during physical activity (Terry & Karageorghis, 2006). A significant main effect for music tempo was found, whereby a general preference for fast and medium tempo music over slow music was evident. Participants from the research conducted by Terry and Karageorghis stated that a they have a preference for fast and medium tempo music during low and moderate exercise intensities, but they prefer fast tempo music during
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high intensity exercise. Utilizing the BMRI to rate the accompanying music, results supported the prediction that the rhythmical components of music contribute more to its motivational qualities than melodic or harmonic components. The BMRI-2 is useful in this regard as various activities can be substituted into the generic item structure in order to select music that is contact-specific (e.g. The rhythm of this music would motivate me during plyometric training) According to Priest, Karageorghis, and Sharp (2003), slow asynchronous music is inappropriate for exercise or training contexts unless used with the intention to limit effort exertion. In addition, clear preference was demonstrated for up-beat music; for example, a 26-year-old female exerciser stated that, music tempo has a significant impact on how hard I push myself. Up-beat music is best. Moreover, there was a general trend for the preference for louder volume (9.77%) as opposed to quieter music (4.70%) (Priest, Karageorghis, & Sharp, 2003). Another example is by a 20-year-old female who wrote, I find it improves my motivation to carry on with my workout when the music is lively. In conclusion to these studies, high tempo or fast tempo music played for intensity activity yields high performance scores and is likely to enhance in-task affect and in applying this kind of music with athletes or exercise participants highlights the importance for researchers or practitioners to be conversant with the potential benefits of music in order to tap its psychophysical and ergogenic properties with precision (Terry & Karageorghis, 2003). Moreover, it has been proposed that the arousal potential of stimuli determines preference; therefore there should be stronger performance reported for fast tempo music owing to the associated increases in physiological arousal (Karageorghis D. , 2008). Indeed, fast music of a high intensity appears to be the most appropriate accompaniment for vigorous exercise Performance Level This article aims to show how playing a selection of fast music can change the speed of movement in the things we do in everyday life such as workouts, and other forms of productive movement. According to Flint and Mariagrace (2010), music can distract our attention by taking attention off of the work a person is doing which is a factor in increasing endurance during workout sessions. Music acts as an intrinsic motivator meaning that it comes from within and is fully self-determined and characterized by interest in and enjoyment derived from an activity. Karolien Dons (2009) also states that research has proven that listening to music during physical activity can result in a better performance quality; in the sense that the performance benefits from the music. Music elicits long-term and short-term effects on physical training (Karageorghis et al., 1999 in Dons 2009). In the article, Enhancing Sports Performance Through The Use of Music by Kelly Brooks (2010), the effects of music was used as a motivational tool in aerobic versus anaerobic performance. Data showed that aerobic testing with music showed improved performance, mental arousal, and physical arousal while anaerobic testing continues to show inconsistent results (Kelly Brooks, 2010) with the presence of music as well as enhance athletic performance (Dorney & Goh, 1992; Karageorghis & Terry, 1997; Krumhansl, 2002).
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In relation to previous studies, the present findings by Simpson and Karageorghis (2005) and Oliver and Fores-Mangas (2006) provided support for the argument that music will enhance the performance of people especially when it has a high tempo. In addition, the outcomes of this research suggested new insight in how structuring music along physical workouts can be done efficiently in that the performance benefits from the musical input. Dons (2009) pointed out that it is not only the correct selection of music, but also the ordering of that selection plays a crucial role when optimizing a physical performance throughout music. Not all studies show positive effects of music to the performance during exercise in contrast to the other researchers. Karageorghis (2009), for instance showed that although the motivational qualities of synchronous music appear to have a strong influence on work output and how one feels during exercise, they have no effect on exercise-induced feeling states. Similarly, these above mentioned findings illustrate the potential benefits associated with walking in time to a musical tempo and provide strong support for the adoption of this modality of exercise, (Terry & Karageorghis, 2006). In conclusion, all articles discuss how listening to some music affected performance level by having greater and longer work output during exercise yet tests also show that there is both a significant difference as well as no difference with having no music and exercising. To finalize the researches above, most of us feel good after exercise which is why physical exercise is good for our mental health and for our brain. Music, specifically one that has the key characteristics of motivational music which is fast tempo (>120 bmp) is a source of motivation and inspiration that can influence exercise enjoyment and participant retention, and by extension, has the potential to contribute to improved public health(Simpson & Kaeageorghis, 2005). In addition fast music can change the speed of movement in the things we do in everyday life such as workouts, and other forms of productive movement (Flint and Mariagrace, 2010) and increases performance level by having greater and longer work output during exercise. Indeed, fast music of a high intensity appears to be the most appropriate accompaniment for vigorous exercise.

Methodology Research Design The experimental design was used to answer the objectives of the study. In line with this, a two-group experimental pre-test post-test design was most appropriate for this study since the researcher was most interested in determining whether the two groups (control and experimental) are different after the said experiment. The researcher compared them by testing for the difference between the means using a T-Test. In order to control for practice effects, A-B-B-A paradigm was used wherein A is the presence of music and B is the absence of music (Sbaz, 2010).

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Participants A sample of 30 female participants, who had no exposure to fitness, was recruited to participate in the experiment. All participants were college students residing within the area of Canlubang Laguna. The ages of the participants ranged from 19 to 21 years with an average of 20 years. Conducting an experiment to participants living within the proximity of Canlubang made it easy for both the researcher and the participants to meet up since they all live within the area. In addition, the location of the gym where the experiment was held was also located within the area and finally, all that the participants were treated in accordance with the ethical principles of the American Psychological Association (1994). Instuments The researcher prepared mp3 players with a variety of songs that was used within the experiment. Each mp3 player contained 10 modern fast tempo music of different genres such as Rock, Poprock, Pop, and Techno: Song Title: 1. Angel 2. Young Folks 3. Satisfaction 4. The Time (The Dirty Bit) 5. Getting Over You 6. Memories 7. I Like It 8. Dont Look Now 9. Club Cant Handle Me 10. Sugar Artist: Akon Kanye West Hypnotica The Black Eyed Peas David Guetta & Chris Willis feat. Fergie and LMFAO David Guetta feat. Kid CuDi Enrique Iglesias feat. Pitbull Far East Movement feat. Keri Hilson Flo Rida feat. David Guetta Flo Rida BPM 126.01 137.15 130 127.97 130.01 129.93 129 127.99 128.01 130.01

Table 1: Compilation of ten fast tempo music (>120) of different genres. A software called MixMeister BPM Analyzer was used in order guarantee that BPM are (>120). Treadmill was also used which was available in a local gym in Canlubang, this measured the speed of both groups A and B precisely. The treadmill was also used to measure the total time in minutes that was later on converted into seconds for reliability purposes.

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Procedure A number of participants, who do not practice any sort of physical exercise and who are living within the proximity of Canlubang Laguna were asked by the researcher to participate in this research. A total of 30 female participants agreed and volunteered to join. The 30 participants were then divided equally into two and were grouped into Group A and Group B each consisting of 15 members. For the first day, both group A and group B were asked to proceed to the local gym found within the proximity of Canlubang Laguna. The gym where the experiment was conducted did not have the exact amount of treadmills to be able to perform the experiment for both groups at the same time. But since the gym required no membership fee, and was easily accessible for both the researcher and the participants, the researcher decided on conducting the experiment there. Since there were only five (5) treadmills that had been available at the gym, the researcher chose the first 5 participants from group A who performed the experiment first. After they have accomplished the experiment, they were followed by 5 members from group B. On the first day of experiment both groups A and B accomplished the PreTest experiment wherein members from both groups brisk walked on the treadmill without the presence of high-tempo music. Each member was given a 3 minute warm-up exercise on the treadmill that had the speed of 3.0km/h in order to avoid straining of muscles. After the warm-up, the researcher slowly increased the speed of the treadmill and had maintained a speed of 6.0km/h to carry on with the first trial. The researcher then recorded their accomplished time. After two days the researcher called both groups again, and to avoid curiosity from the groups about why not all members had been given mp3 players, the researcher did not make groups A and B perform at the same time. The researcher made sure that participant from group B had arrived at the gym once all 5 members from group A have finished performing. Mp3 players had been given to the 5 members of group A. Before proceeding to trial two which is the Post-Test, each member again was given a 3 minute warm-up exercise on the treadmill with the speed of 3.0km/h in order to avoid straining of muscles. The researcher slowly increased the speed until it reached 6.0km/h. Once the members have stopped, the researcher then recorded the time spent by each participant from both groups. Group B then performed the same procedure except they did not have the mp3 player with them. The same procedure was conducted for the next batch of participants until all fifteen (15) participants from each group A and B had completed the task. There was a total of six (6) sets within the day, three from group A and three from group B. The participants were given a two day interval before asked to proceed with the 3rd trial. The exact procedure was conducted: Group A accomplished the test with the presence of Fast Tempo Music while group B accomplished the test without any presence of music. The researcher then recorded the result of time. Again, the researcher gave a two day interval before having completed the fourth and last trial. The same procedure had been done, except this time group A had performed without the presence of the fast tempo music while group B accomplished the test with the presence of the fast tempo music. After having done the three (3) sets, the researcher compared the results of both groups using the SPSS and determined whether the outcome of time had changed for the reason that group A did not have the Music for the last trial while group B had the presence of music.
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Statistical Analysis The researcher used descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation to tabulate and analyze the data gathered for this study. The mean was used to determine the average time each participant has accomplished, the task which was followed by the standard deviation showed the relation which the set of data has to the mean of the sample. Since the Pre-test Post-test design was the preferred method to compare participant groups and measure the degree of change occurring, this was used by the researcher to compare the final post test results of the two groups, giving the researcher an idea of the overall effectiveness of the treatment. Finally, data was entered into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets to facilitate analysis. SPSS was used in order to compare means and standard deviation as well as obtain paired-samples of T-Test that participants had during the experiment. The researcher then converted the time of the participants from minutes to seconds in order to make it whole numbers.

Results and Discussion Using SPSS to get the mean and standard deviation of the total time, results showed that on Day 1(pre-test) group A who performed without the presence of fast tempo music used the treadmill for an average of M=372.07 seconds with a SD= 70.39 while group B, who also performed without the presence of fast tempo music stayed on the treadmill for an average of M= 401.80 seconds with a SD= 100.07. To ensure that both groups are equal in terms of endurance, the researcher compared the data gathered when conducted during Day 1(pre-test) between group A and group B. Data showed no significant difference between the means of the two groups t(28)= -29.733, p>0.05 which means that the two groups have no significant difference in their endurance. It is necessary to establish this fact because any difference in their performance after music was introduced will be assured to be due to music and not to respondents characteristics. On Day 2 (post-test), group A who performed with the presence of fast tempo music had a total average of M= 460 seconds with an SD=61.63 seconds while group B who still performed without the presence of fast tempo music had a total average of M= 406. 60 and a SD= 95.91. And again on Day 3(post-test), group A performed the brisk walking exercise with the presence of music and obtained a time of M= 504.07 with an SD= 61.30 while group B who again performed without the presence of music obtained a time of M=408 with an SD= 93.89. Lastly on Day 4(switch-day), group A perform the brisk walking exercise but this time with the presence of fast tempo music and attained a final time of 468.87 with an SD= 64.60 while group B, who performed the brisk walking exercise with the presence of fast tempo music attained a final time of M= 496.07 with an SD= 78.78 (see table 2).

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Day # 1 (Pre-Test) w/o music w/o music 2 (Post-Test) w/ music w/o music 3 (Post-Test) w/ music w/o music 4 (Switch Day) w/o music w/ music

Mean (M) A 372.07 B 401.80

Standard Deviation (SD) A 70.39 B 100.07

A 460.00 B 406.60

A 61.63 B 95.91

A 504.07 B 408.00

A 61.30 B 93.89

A 468.87 B 496.07

A 64.60 B 78.78

Table 2 Mean and Standard Deviation of Group A and B from Day 1-4 During the first day of experiment (Pre-test) both groups started the experiment without the presence of music. Results showed that on Day 2 (post-test), group A used the treadmill longer with the presence of fast tempo music compared to day 1(pre-test) where there was no music. For group B, their time spent on a treadmill did not change. On the third day of the experiment, the work output as to time of group A increased since group A used the treadmill longer than Day 2 with the presence of music. On the third day of experiment, the time of group B remained constant. The experimental group (A) were easily motivated because of the music compared to the control group (B) that performed without any music at all(Simpson & Karageorghis, 2005). On the fourth day of the experiment, the researcher switched the experiment process (switch-day) and this time group A conducted the experiment without the presence of fast-tempo music while group B accomplished the experiment with the presence of fast tempo music. Based on the results, the work output of group A decreased when the presence of music was removed while the work output of group B increased (see figure 2). Music has been shown to enhance muscular endurance performance and reduces perception of effort while greatly enhancing in-task affect and enjoyment. In addition, the effects of motivational music were considered particularly relevant during cardio-vascular as opposed to resistance exercise (Priest, Karageorghis, & Sharp, 2003) which was why the performance as to time of group B improved when they performed the brisk walking exercise with the presence of fast tempo music.

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Comparison
Time in Seconds 1000 500 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Group A Group B

Figure 2 Comparison of time of both group A and B from day 1-4 The researcher used a paired-samples t-test and analyzed data through SPSS to compare means and find the significance level for paired samples for t-test. For the Experimental group (group A) the researcher had a three pair sample correlation: Pair # Result

1 (Day 1 & Day 2) t(14)= -10.546, p<0.01 2 (Day 1 & Day 3) t(14)= -11.209, p<0.01 3 (Day 1 & Day 4) t(14)= -5.479, p<0.01

Table 3: Paired-Samples Test of Group A When the researcher compared values of the Day 1(pre-test) and Day 2 (post-test) using the standard alpha level of p<0.01, results showed a significant level between brisk walking with the presence of fast tempo music and the extinction of fast tempo music with the condition, t(14)= -10.546, p<0.01 while the second pairing Day 1(pre-test) and Day 3(post-test) also presented a significant difference of t(14)=-11.209, p<0.01. However, even though group A did not have the presence of music on day 4, the third pairing Day 1(pre-test) and Day 4(switch-day) still presented a significant difference of t(14)=-5.479, p<0.01 which concludes that the performance of group A was due to practice effects (see appendix c). For the Control group (group B), the same procedure was conducted for Day 1, however on Day 2, the experiment was conducted without the presence of music. Pair # 1 (Day 1 & Day 2) 2 (Day 1 & Day 3) 3 (Day 1 & Day 4) Result t(14)= -1.427, p>0.05 t(14)=-.546, p>0.05 t(14)= -6.507, p<0.01

Table 4 Paired-Sample Test of Group B

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For the first pairing, results showed that there was no significant difference in time between Day 1(pre-test) and Day 2(post-test) wherein t(14)= -1.427, p>0.05. The second pairing, also showed that there was no significant difference as to time t(14)=.546, p>0.05 since group B did not perform the brisk walk exercise without the presence of fast tempo music. Nevertheless on the third pairing, result indicated a significant difference between exercise with the presence of music and exercise without the presence of music t(14)= -6.507, p<0.01 (see appendix D) because music has been shown to enhance muscular endurance performance and reduces perception of effort while greatly enhancing in-task affect and enjoyment, the effects of motivational music were considered particularly relevant during cardio-vascular as opposed to resistance exercise (Priest, Karageorghis, & Sharp, 2003). Upon further investigation of the results, the 30 participants manifested greater endurance during brisk walking when there is presence of fast tempo music compared to having no fast tempo music at all. On the first two days of the experiment, group A performed with the presence of music while group B performed without the presence of music and results showed that even though participants of both groups are equal in the sense that all participants have no experience in working out at the gym, group A still showed greater work output compared to group B but then on the last day when group B performed with the presence of the fast tempo music instead of group A, results showed that group B had a higher work output as to time of performance compared to group A which shows that exposure to fast tempo music increases the endurance and reduces exhaustion level that improves the participants treadmill performance. In connection with studies of Karageorghis (2003), the role of fast tempo music reduced ratings of perceived exertion especially during aerobic training such as brisk walking and with this being said, this answers the question Did high tempo music increase work output based on the enhanced time performance? Playing music is a form of relaxation from the stress that we encounter, it is very important to choose the music that will suit everybody. When it comes to choice of music, the participant chose the following that have been on the top charts with a BPM of >120. The gender of exercise participants may have an attitude on their music preferences during exercise. Females may find music more important during exercise in addition to exhibiting a sensitive response to its motivational qualities. To conclude this study, improvement of work output as to time is not only influenced by fast tempo music but may also be due to practice effects. the data gathered from the two groups A and B shows the importance of music and how it has an impact in terms of work output as to the time of performance, during the first two days of the experiment group A who brisk walked at a speed of 6.0km/h had a higher performance level compared to group B, but during the third day of experiment, the researcher changed the process and instead made group B perform brisk walking with the existence of music and resulted to having a greater output compared to group A. According to Karageorghis and colleagues, the key characteristics of motivational music are that it has a fast tempo (>120 bmp), a strong rhythm, enhances energy, and promotes bodily movement which is why it is highly important and is great factor in improving health benefits since it is a good way of distracting to keep our minds off exertion during work outs and lead us to longer time for exercising.

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Conclusions and Recommendation With the presence of music that has a fast tempo, exercising performance specifically brisk walking will lead to greater and longer work outputs. All 15 participants who have no exposure to exercise performed the experiment and showed that once the music is taken away, the momentum for exercising for a longer time is gone. The result of group A on the last day of experiment dropped since the fast tempo music was given to the group B instead, performance of group B improved because of the motivating factor of the fast tempo music. For following researchers who would like to do future studies in this area, one should see to it that participants should be involved in the selection of tracks, as this is likely to increase the potency of music related effects. In addition, switching from slow to fast tempo music should be done because this may enhance participants motivation and work output, especially when work level plateaus in the latter stages of exercise. Another recommendation from the researcher would be to conduct the experiment in a much more secluded area, so as to avoid shyness from participants who are not comfortable to work out in public areas, which could lead to bias results, another important recommendation is to have gym confederates so that more random gym members may join the experiment and may have more efficient and reliable data. Lastly, the researcher should use the within subject design for the experiment instead of two-group experimental design.

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