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Chng 4.

k thut MIMO-OFDM

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Chng 4
K THUT MIMO-OFDM
4.1 Gii thiu
H thng MIMO c th tng dung lng knh truyn, s dng bng thng rt hiu qu
nh ghp knh khng gian (V-BLAST), ci thin cht lng ca h thng ng k nh
vo phn tp ti pha pht v pha thu (STBC, STTC) m khng cn tng cng sut pht
cng nh tng bng thng ca h thng. K thut OFDM l mt phng thc truyn dn
tc cao vi cu trc n gin nhng c th chng fading chn lc tn s, bng cch
chia lung d liu tc cao thnh N lung d liu tc thp truyn qua N knh truyn
con s dng tp tn s trc giao. Knh truyn chu fading chn lc tn s c chia thnh
N knh truyn con c bng thng nh hn, khi N ln cc knh truyn con chu fading
phng. OFDM cn loi b c hiu ng ISI khi s dng khong bo v ln. Ngoi ra
vic s dng k thut OFDM cn gim phc tp ca b Equalizer ng k bng cch
cho php cn bng tn hiu trong min tn s. T nhng u im ni bt ca h thng
MIMO v k thut OFDM, vic kt hp h thng MIMO v k thut OFDM l mt gii
php ha hn cho h thng thng tin khng dy bng rng tng lai.
Chng ny trnh by tng quan v phn tch h thng h thng MIMO. C nhiu loi
h thng MIMO-OFDM, ty vo tng k thut MIMO m chng ta c cc h thng khc
nhau, h thng MIMO-OFDM m ho khng gian_thi gian, h thng MIMO-OFDM
ghp knh khng gian.
4.2 H thng MIMO-OFDM
4.2.1 S khi h thng MIMO-OFDM
Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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STC
Encoder
OFDM
Transmitter
OFDM
Transmitter
OFDM
Transmitter
STC
Decoder
OFDM
Receiver
OFDM
Receiver
OFDM
Receiver
Signal
Demapper
Signal
Mapper
1 Rx 1 Tx
2 Rx 2 Tx
T
N Tx
T
N Rx
Data Data

Hnh 4.1: S khi h thng MIMO-OFDM
Cu trc my thu v pht ca h thng MIMO-OFDM bao gm h MIMO N
T
anten
pht v N
R
anten thukt hp vi k thut OFDM s dng N
c
sng mang ph.
Tn hiu thu c t anten thu th i, ti sng mang ph th k ca symbol OFDM c th
biu din nh sau:
y
1
(k)=h
11
x
1
(k)+ h
12
x
2
(k)+.......+ h
1Nt
x
Nt
(k)+n
1
(k)
3 y
2
(k)=h
21
x
1
(k)+ h
22
x
2
(k)+.......+ h
1Nt
x
Nt
(k)+n
2
(k) (4.1)
..................................................................................
y
Nr
(k)=h
Nr1
x
1
(k)+ h
Nr2
x
2
(k)+.......+ h
NrNt
x
Nt
(k)+n
Nr
(k)
Vi x
j
(k) l symbol pht trn sng mang th k trong symbol OFDM
n
i
(k) l nhiu Gauss ti anten thu th i
h
ij
l h s knh truyn t anten pht th j ti anten thu th i.
Knh truyn h thng MIMO-OFDM c th m t thng qua ma trn H nh sau
H=
(
(
(
(

NrNt Nr Nr
Nt
Nt
h h h
h h h
h h h
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11

4.2.2 Cu trc ca khung (frame) ca h thng MIMO-OFDM.
Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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Hnh 4.2: Cu trc khung d liu MIMO-OFDM.

Trong mi trng thi gian thc, frame l n v vn chuyn nh nht bao gm 10
khe. Mi khe bao gm 1 khe preamble v 8 symbols OFDM. Preamble c s dng cho
mc ch ng b thi gian. Mi OFDM symbol c gn thm 1 CP. CP c s dng
gim nhiu symbol ISI v cn bng knh mt cch n gin hn. Mi frame c vn
chuyn qua sng mang ph (nh thi pha, nh thi tn s v c lng tn s offset).
4.3 M hnh h thng MIMO-OFDM Alamouti

Hnh 4.3 M hnh h thng MIMO-OFDM Alamouti
Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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S khi STBC-OFDM c cho trong Hnh 4.5. Dng tn hiu nh phn c iu
ch v nh x thnh chui k t phc. B chuyn i Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
(IDFT) M im thc hin trn tng dng d liu ni tip. Ng ra ca khi IDFT l M
mu tn hiu trong min thi gian, tng ng vi mt khung OFDM.
trnh tc ng ca nhiu xuyn k t, mt cyclic prefix (CP) vi chiu di v
c thm vo cc mu ng ra, kt qu l to ra mt khung c chiu di M+v.
Cc khung OFDM c truyn ng thi t anten th nht v anten th hai, nh
sau:
+ Khung OFDM th n:
Anten 1:
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
,0 , 1 , , 1 ,0 , 1
(0)... ( 1) ... ... , ...
IDFT CP
n n n n M n M v n M n n M
X X M x x x x x x


Anten 2:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
,0 , 1 , , 1 ,0 , 1
(0)... ( 1) ... ... , ...
IDFT CP
n n n n M n M v n M n n M
X X M x x x x x x


+ Khung OFDM th (n + 1) :
Anten 1:
( ) ( ) ( )
2* 2* 1 1 1 1 1 1
1,0 1, 1 1, 1, 1 1,0 1, 1
(0)... ( 1) ... ... , ...
IDFT CP
n n n n M n M v n M n n M
X X M x x x x x x
+ + + + + +

Anten 2:
( ) ( ) ( )
1* 1* 2 2 2 2 2 2
1,0 1, 1 1, 1, 1 1,0 1, 1
(0)... ( 1) ... ... , ...
IDFT CP
n n n n M n M v n M n n M
X X M x x x x x x
+ + + + + +

Trong (.)
*
l ch i lng lin hp phc v n = 2u-1, u=1,2.
Tn hiu pht i ti anten:
Xm,J
(t)
= X
m,n,[J,t]
=
0 1, 2 1
, ....
N
x x x x

(


Trong m:l s k t th m ca OFDM
n:l s k t th n c iu ch trn sng mang con n
Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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J l s th t anten pht J=1,2
T l khe thi gian tng ng t=1,2
X
m,1
(1)
= [s1,s3,s5.]
X
m,2
(1)
= [s2,s4,s6.] (4.3)
X
m,1
(2)
=- X
m,2
(1) *
=[-s2
*
,-s4
*
,-s6
*
.]
X
m,2
(2)
= X
m,1
(1)*
= [s1
*
,s3
*
,s5
*
..]
Sau Xm c bin i IFFT iu ch sng mang v chn CP vo ng thi c
truyn i trn 2 anten nh phn tch trn
( 4.4 )
Vi ne {-Ng,.,0,N-1} vi Ng l di ca CP
J=1,2 tng ng vi anten1,2
t=1,2 tng ng vi khe thi gian 1.2
Ti my thu:
Tn hiu c truyn i qua knh truyn v tuyn s chu tc dng ca nhiu
AWGN(additive white gausian) v fading
r
1,m
(1)
=

(h
11,m
x
1,m
(1)

+ h
12,m
x
2,m
(1)

+n
1,m
(1)
)
r
1,m
(2)
=

(h
11,m
x
1,m
(2)

+ h
12,m
x
2,m
(2)

+n
1,m
(2)
) (4.5)
r
2,m
(1)
=

(h
21,m
x
1,m
(1)

+ h
22,m
x
2,m
(1)

+n
2,m
(1)
)
r
2,m
(2)
=

(h
21,m
x
1,m
(2)

+ h
22,m
x
2,m
(2)

+n
2,m
(2)
)
Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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Trong r
J,m
(t)
,x
J,m
(t)
,n
j,m
(t)

la tn hiu nhn c, tn hiu truyn, v nhiu tc ng ti
anten th J (J=1,2) trong khe thi gian t (t=1,2) tng ng ca k t OFDM th m.
h
j,k,m
l h s knh truyn t cc anten pht n cc anten thu tng ng ca k t OFDM
th m ,n khng thay i trn 2 khe thi gian.
y n gin ta xt trong mt k t OFDM vi mi trng fading phng
Ti my thu tch CP ta c
1
, , [1] , , [1] , [2] , , [2] ,
0
L
n m n m l n m n m l n m n m
l
y x h x h z

=
= + +


r
1
(1)
=

=
1
0
L
l

=
1
0
N
n
(h
11,l
x
1,n
(1)

+ h
12,m,l
x
2,n
(1)

+n
1
(1)
) (4.6)
r
1
(2)
=

=
1
0
L
l

=
1
0
N
n
(h
11,l
x
1,n
(2)

+ h
12,m,l
x
2,n
(2)

+n
1
(2)
)
r
2
(1)
=

=
1
0
L
l

=
1
0
N
n
(h
21,l
x
1,n
(1)

+ h
22,m,l
x
2,n
(1)

+n
2
(1)
)
r
2
(2)
=

=
1
0
L
l

=
1
0
N
n
(h
21,l
x
1,n
(2)

+ h
22,m
x
2,n
(2)

+n
2
(2)
)
Trong : n=0N-1 tng ng vi cc sng mang co

l
: chm tia fading th
l

Sau qua b FFT ta c:
( 4.7 )
R
J
(t)
=H
J,1
X
1
(t)

+ H
J,2
X
2
(t)

+ Z
J
Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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Vi :

Sau khi tch CP v bin i FFt tch sng mang, tn hiu s dc a n b gii m
STC. y b gii m s tin hnh gii m trn 2 khe thi gian c lng cc k t
truyn.


my thu bng phng php maximum likelihood detection (ML) ngi ta c th khi
phc li cc k t phc M-PSK hoc M-QAM v sau gii m, ta tm c cc bit tin
cn thit.

Vi s1,s2 l cc s phc trong mt phng phc c thay ln lt vo tm c gi tr
gn vi n. M hnh h thng trn c th s dng vi Nr anten thu.
Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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4.4 M hnh h thng MIMO-OFDM V-BLAST
OFDM
Transmitter
OFDM
Transmitter
OFDM
Transmitter
Signal
Mapper
TX 1
TX 2
TX NT
1
X
2
X
T
N
X
STC Coder
Data

H thng MIMO-OFDM V-BLAST c p dng nhm tng ti a dung lng knh
truyn. Tn hiu u vo s c a qua b iu ch iu ch M-psk hoc M-QAM,
sau n i qua b MIMO coder. B MIMO coder trong trng hp ny ch l mt b
S/P chia lung d liu ln thnh N
T
lung d liu nh(tng ng vi N
T
anten pht, N
T

lung ny c a vo N
T
b pht OFDM. Tng lung d liu s c bin i ni tip
sang song song v chn pilot thnh N
C
vector x
k
, vi k = 1,2,N
C
tng ng vi Nc
sng mang con, tng vector x
k
s c a qua b bin i IFFT.

OFDM
Receiver
OFDM
Receiver
OFDM
Receiver
RX 1
RX 2
RX NR
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
N
N
N
N
ZF/MMSE
Decoder
ZF/MMSE
Decoder
ZF/MMSE
Decoder
ZF/MMSE
Decoder
Signal
Demapper
NT x N Symbol
Data
STC Decoder
Song mang phu
1 N
f
1
f
0
f
1
Y
2
Y
R
N
Y


Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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Ti pha thu, tn hiu nhn c s c sau khi loi b cao tn s a n b thu
OFDM. Ti y n loi b khong bo v CP khi symbol OFDM, vector thu c dng
sau
y
(k)1
=h
11
X
(k)1
+h
12
X
(k)2
+....+ h
1Nt
X
(k)Nt
+n
1
y
(k)2
=h
21
X
(k)1
+h
22
X
(k)2
+....+ h
2Nt
X
(k)Nt
+n
2
(4.10)
.........................................................
y
(k)Nr
=h
Nr1
X
(k)1
+h
Nr2
X
(k)2
+....+ h
NrNt
X
(k)Nt
+n
Nr

Vi h
ij
l ma trn knh truyn t anten pht th i ti anten thu th j
n
j
l vector nhiu ti anten thu th j
Sau tn hiu c a qua b FFT, vector thu s c biu thc sau:
Y
(k)1
=H
11
x
(k)1
+H
12
x
(k)2
+....+ H
1Nt
x
(k)Nt
+N
1
Y
(k)2
=H
21
x
(k)1
+H
22
x
(k)2
+....+ H
2Nt
x
(k)Nt
+N
2
(4.11)
.........................................................
Y
(k)Nr
=H
Nr1
x
(k)1
+H
Nr2
x
(k)2
+....+ H
NrNt
x
(k)Nt
+N
Nr
Trong Y
(k)j
=fft(y
(k)j
), H
ij
=fft(h
ij
), N
j
=fft(n
j
)
H thng MIMO-OFDM V-BLAST tng ng vi h gm N
c
h thng MIMO
VBLAST bng hp .
Sau khi qua b FFT tn hiu s c a qua b thu Vblast, n gii m vector thu ti
sng mang th k (Y
(k)1
Y
(k)2
...Y
(k)Nr
) c lng cc vector pht ( 1 ) (
~
k x 2 ) (
~
k x .... Nt k x ) (
~
)
thng qua gii thut Zero-forcing hay MMSE.
Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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Bothu
ZF/MMSE
Giai ma
luong 1
Bothu
ZF/MMSE
Giai ma
luong 2
Bothu
ZF/MMSE
Giai ma
luong 3
Bothu
ZF/MMSE
Giai ma
luong Nt
Loai tr
luong 1
Loai tr
luong 1, 2
Loai tr
luong 1, 2,
3,,NT-1
( ) k X
1
~
( ) k X
2
~
( ) k X
3
~
( ) k X
T
N
~
( ) k Y
T
N
~
( ) k Y
1
~
( ) k Y
3
~
( ) k Y
2
~
ZF/MMSE Decoder
cho song mang phuthk

4.4. Kt lun chng.
Trong chng ny trnh by k thut MIMO-OFDM. y l k thut ang
c ng dng trong nhiu h thng thng tin di ng v n m rng bng thng v tng
tc d liu ln nhiu ln, nng cao cht lng tn hiu
. Hin nay, MIMO-OFDM ang l c s cho chun IEEE 802.11n, y l chun mi cho
h thng WIFI va h tr cc chun c va c tnh nng u vit hn hn, nh h tr lin
lc ging ni, trao i hnh nh, video vi cht lng cao.
MIMO-OFDM cn c p dng trong h thng WIMAX, hin nay v trong mt
tng lai khng xa na cng ngh ny s c p dng rng ri v em li cc tin b
vt bc trong thng tin lin lc khng dy ca nhn loi.




Chng 4.k thut MIMO-OFDM

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