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1. The deﬁnition of convergence The sequence xn converges to X when this holds: for any all n ≥ K. > 0 there exists K such that |xn − X| < for

Informally, this says that as n gets larger and larger the numbers xn get closer and closer to X. But the deﬁnition is something you can work with precisely. In eﬀect, the deﬁnition says that in order to show that a sequence xn converges to X you have to explain how to get K from . It is important to realize that you do not have ﬁnd the best possible value for K - just anything that works will enable you to verify convergence. 2. Convergent subsequences Any bounded sequence of real numbers has a converging subsequence. Let the sequence be xn . We can assume all of one sign, because we can choose an inﬁnite subseueqnce of one sign. Say non-negative. Because of boundedness, we can assume all xi ≤ 10k for some k. An inﬁnite number of the xi must have a ﬁrst digit in common; throw away the rest. Let y0 be the ﬁrst in what is left. Among those left, an inﬁnite number must have the same second digit. Let y1 be the ﬁrst among these. Throw away the rest. Etc. Then after the ﬁrst n all the yi will have the same ﬁrst n digits. We can construct a particular real number to be that number Y whose ﬁrst n digits agree with those of yn . The diﬀerence between yn and Y will be at most 10k−n . This makes it easy to verify the convegence to Y . 3. What this means for series A series is a formal expression x0 + x1 + · · · and it corresponds to the sequence of partial sums s1 = x0 , s2 = x0 + x1 , s3 = x0 + x1 + x2 , . . .

The series is said to converge if the sequence of partial sums si converges. If a series converges, then its individual terms must have limit 0, but this is not a suﬃcient condition for convergence. Applying the deﬁnition literally, we see that the series converges to the number S if for any there exists K such that |Sn − S| = |x0 + x1 + · · · + xn−1 − S| < whenever n > K. We’ll see how this works in practice in the next section. 4. The geometric series Fix x with |x| < 1, and consider the series 1 + x + x2 + · · · . Algebra tells us that the n-th partial sum is Sn = 1 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1−x

Intuitively, this should converge to S = 1/(1 − x) as n gets larger. Let’s try to verify the deﬁnition in this case.

Then by deﬁnition. the whole point of series is often that they converge to something interesting which you might not know how to describe otherwise. say to X. If i ≥ K then |x|i ≤ |x|K . The geometric series plays a crucial role in the subject for this and other reasons. m > K. For example. But we can practically take as given in this course that this is so. We know that for any > 0 we can ﬁnd K1 such that |xni − X| < for i ≥ K1 . it is essentially the deﬁnition of e that it is the number to which the series 1 + 1 + 1/2 + 1/3! + · · · converges. Cauchy’s criterion. m ≥ K2 . But it is rare to know explicitly what a series converges to. In fact. Cauchy’s criterion The deﬁnition of convergence refers to the number X to which the sequence converges. We also know that if we are given > 0 we can ﬁnd K2 such that |xn − xm | < for n. To prove one implication: Suppose the sequence xn converges. and then |xn − xm | = |(xn − X) − (xm − X)| < |xn − X| + |xm − X| < /2 + /2 = for m. Second. 5. and hence xi ≤ (1 − x) . we can solve xK = (1 − x) . Therefore what is needed is a criterion for convergence which is internal to the sequence (as opposed to external). I claim that in fact the whole sequence converges to this same X. To prove the other: Suppose the criterion holds. It is rare to know exactly whjat a series converges to. or in other words that if |x| < 1 then the sequence xn converges to 0. This is necessary and suﬃcient.Cauchy’s criterion We have explicitly S − Sn = So now we have to verify that for any 1 − xn xn 1 − = 1−x 1−x 1−x 2 > 0 there exists K such that xn < 1−x or xn < (1 − x) if n > K. But then if we are given > 0 we can ﬁnd K such that |X − xn | < /2 for n ≥ K. First choose K1 such that |X − xni | < /2 for i ≥ K1 . So in this case we can use the deﬁnition to prove directly that the geometric series with |x| < 1 converges to 1/(1 − x). choose K2 such that |xn − xm | < /2 K= ln( (1 − x)) ln(x) .Mathematics 220 . Explicitly. Now we want to prove that for any > 0 we can ﬁnd K such that |xn − X| < for n ≥ K. The sequence xn converges to something if and only if this holds: for every > 0 there exists K such that |xn − xm | < whenever n. for every > 0 we can ﬁnd K such that |X − xn | < whenever n ≥ K. We know that we have a subsequence xni which converges to some X. n ≥ K.

Suppose n ≥ K2 .Cauchy’s criterion for m. where 0 ≤ q < 1. A new example Let’s now look at the series x + 2x2 + 3x3 + · · · . If the series |x0 | + |x1 | + · · · converges. then the series y0 + y1 + y2 + · · · converges also. . 6.Mathematics 220 . we know that we can ﬁnd K such that |xm + xm+1 + · · · + xn−1 | < for K ≤ m < n. Choose some xni with both ni ≥ K2 and i ≥ K1 . n ≥ K2 . Then |xn − X| = |(xn − xni ) + (xni − X)| ≤ |xn − xni | + |xni − X| < /2 + /2 = . then the series x0 + x1 + · · · converges. If |xi | ≤ Cq i for all i. 7. (Cauchy’s inequality) We have |a1 + a2 + · · · + an | ≤ |a1 | + |a2 | + |a3 | + · · · + |an | 3 Prove this by induction. But then for the same K |ym + ym+1 + · · · + yn−1 | ≤ xm + xm+1 + · · · + xn−1 < Because of this Lemma. Corollary. then so does x0 + x1 + · · · The series is said to converge absolutely if the series |x0 | + |x1 | + · · · converges. By Cauchy’s criterion. Convergence by comparison Theorem. starting with 2. We have already used this inequality with two terms in a previous section. If the series of non-negative terms x0 + x1 + x2 + · · · converges and |yi | ≤ xi for each i. Corollary. Suppose we are given > 0.

They form an arithmetic progression. Since |x| < 1. is a series such that the limit of |xn+1 /xn | is less than 1. Power series Another related result is this: Theorem. But then after the ﬁrst N terms the series converges 8. This will show.Cauchy’s criterion I claim that it converges for all x with |x| < 1. If r is close to 1 then the geometric sequence starts out slowly. 4 None of the techniques mentioned so far apply directly to it. . and in particular Theorem. since it is not easy to specify the smallest n such that rn > n. for n ≥ M rn = (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + positive terms > 1 + M x > 1 + (N − 1) = N . To test yourself: How many terms of this series are required to compute its limit to within 10−100 ? 9. Then the series converges. If r > 1 then for some N we have rn > n whenever n ≥ N . It is true that the coeﬃcients grow with n. but the coeﬃcient of xn grows with n instead of remaining bounded. and choose M large enough that M x > N − 1. (The ratio test) Suppose x0 + x1 + x2 + . The sequence n grows less slowly than any geometric sequence rn if r > 1. nxn is dominated by the geometric series for r|x|. Nonetheless sooner or later it surpasses the arithmetic progression. Lemma. It looks something like the geometric series. This implies that for n ≥ N we have n|x|n < rn |x|n . The ratio test The same argument used for one series in the previous section can be applied to prove this as well: Theorem. This is not immediately apparent. for example. This is not quite as easy to see as one might like. hence 1/|x|). Suppose the series cn y n to converge. . that the series x + 4x2 + 9x3 + · · · converges for |x| < 1. We need a new idea to deal with it. we can ﬁnd r > 1 such that r|x| < 1 also (say r = then ﬁnd N such that rn > n for all n ≥ N . Let r = 1 + x. We can now use this to see that the series x + 2x2 + 3x3 + · · · converges for |x| < 1. Then by the binomial theorem. We can . perhaps very slowly.Mathematics 220 . but they don’t grow very fast. Then so do all series cn xn with |x| < y.

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