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NAME: NORFARAH AQILAH BT ZAINORDIN COLLEGE NO : O9699 CLASS : 5 IBN HAITHAM TITLE : INDEX NUMBER
NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TITTLE OBJECTIVE FOREWARD HISTORY OF INDEX NUMBER PART ONE PART TWO PART THREE FUTHER EXPLORATION REFLECTION PAGE 3 4 5 7 16 21 24 28
This project can be done in groups or individually. and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics 3 .OBJECTIVES We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5. Ministry of Education has prepared four tasks for us.This year the Curriculum Development Division.We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest.but each of us are expected to submit an individually written report.and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problemsolving in ways that increase interest and confidence Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics.we are to gain valuable experiences and able to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and non routine problems Experience classroom environments which are challenging. interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills.reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected Experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning. Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking. to cooperate. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing.Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work. Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate.
He tried and tried to teach me until I understand what I supposed to do with the projectwork. for giving me the strength and health to do this project work. to buy anything that are related to this project work and their advise. and etc. Internet. I would like to say Alhamdulillah. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together. my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our ideas. They also supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it. but he taught me patiently until I knew what to do. which is the most needed for this project. 4 .Last but not least. Then I would like to thank my teacher. books. computers.FOREWARD First of all. we had this task done. I had some difficulties in doing this task. Not forgotten my parents for providing everything. Sir Marzuki for guiding me and my friends throughout this project. such as money.
Vaughan wanted to separate the inflationary impact of the influx of precious metals brought by Spain from the New World from the effect due to currency debasement. How do we obtain a composite measure? This composite measure is provided by index numbers which may be def ined as a device for combining the variations that have come in group of related variables over a period of time. We may wish to compare the present agricultural production or industrial production with that at the time of independence. In 1707 Englishman William Fleetwood created perhaps the first true price index. his analysis did not actually involve calculating an index. Vaughan's analysis indicated that price levels in England had risen six to eightfold over the preceding century While Vaughan can be considered a forerunner of price index research. According to Bowley. An Oxford student asked Fleetwood to help show how prices had changed. The student stood to lose his fellowship since a fifteenth century stipulation barred students with annual incomes over five pounds from receiving a fellowship. He argued on behalf of the Oxford students and published his findings anonymously in a volume entitled Chronicon Preciosum. had collected a large amount of price data going back hundreds of years. and which are capable of direct measurement. Index numbers may be classified in terms of the variables that they are 5 . we have to consider all items of production and each item may have undergone a different fractional increase (or even a decrease). For example. changes in business activity in a country are not capable of direct measurement but it is possible to study relative changes in business activity by studying the variations in the values of some such factors which affect business activity. The earliest reported research in this area came from Welshman Rice Vaughan who examined price level change in his 1675 book A Discourse of Coin and Coinage. Fleetwood proposed an index consisting of averaged price relatives and used his methods to show that the value of five pounds had changed greatly over the course of 260 years. Vaughan reasoned that the market for basic labor did not fluctuate much with time and that a basic laborers salary would probably buy the same amount of goods in different time periods. Vaughan compared labor statutes from his own time to similar statutes dating back to Edward III. Fleetwood. Here again. who already had an interest in price change. Index numbers are meant to study the change in the effects of such factors which cannot be measured directly. If we wish to compare the price level of consumer items today with that prevalent ten years ago. so that a laborer's salary acted as a basket of goods. Index numbers are commonly used statistical device for measuring the combined fluctuations in a group related variables.HISTORY OF INDEX NUMBER No clear consensus has emerged on who created the first price index. but in comparing some sort of average price levels. These statutes set wages for certain tasks and provided a good record of the change in wage levels.”Index numbers are used to measure the changes in some quantity which we cannot observe directly”. we are not interested in comparing the prices of only one item. with a view to obtain a figure that represents the net result of the change in the constitute variables.
is sometimes called an index series. different groups of variables in the measurement of which index number techniques are commonly used are price. Here we shall be mainly interested in index numbers of prices showing changes with respect to time. profession.. Composite Index Number: A composite index number is a number that measures an average relative changes in a group of relative variables with respect to a base. we have index of Wholesale prices. quantity. Thus. Index Numbers Index numbers are statistical measures designed to show changes in a variable or group of related variables with respect to time. The present period is called the current period and some period in the past is called the base period. Simple Index Number A simple index number is a number that measures a relative change in a single variable with respect to a base. etc. 6 . In general. etc. In business. etc. although methods described can be applied to other cases. index of consumer prices. index of value of exports and index of business activity. locations. the present level of prices is compared with the level of prices in the past. geographic location or other characteristics such as income.intended to measure. A collection of index numbers for different years. value and business activity. index of industrial output.
PART ONE 7 .
newspaper cuttings or photos on items that you have chosen. a) Collect pictures. You are required to carry out a survey on four different items based on the following categories i. Design a collage to illustrate the chosen items Answer: Food 8 . The survey should be done in three different shops.e. food. detergent and stationery.1)The prices of goods sold in shops vary from one shop to another. Shoppers tend to buy goods which are not only reasonably priced but also give value for their money.
Detergent : ` Stationary : 9 .
Eraser 4.15 17.50 1.35 Price (RM) Borong Din 1.30 9.90 12.5 kg) 2.20 30.35 1. Since item may be differently packed. Pen 3.75 1.50 7.30 18.50 1.05 9.80 2.50 10.Butter (250 g ) 4. Soap (3 bars) 4. Washing Powder Detergent (2.35 1.30 1.b) Record the item and their prices systematically as such in Table 1.50 3.20 1.50 12.20 2.90 5.99 3.50 15. Liquid Detergent (1000 ml) 3.Self-Rising Flour (1000 g) 2.90 50.15 2.00 7.10 54.65 3.00 5. Highlater Total Price Grand Total Pacific 2.70 8.50 0.90 12.50 31.00 2.80 2.89 2.Sugar (1000 g ) 3.Mechanical pencil Stationary 2.Eggs (Grade A) (30 unit ) Total Price 1.99 10 .50 5. be sure to use consistent measurements for each item selected so that comparison can be done easily and accurately Answer : Category Food Item Tesco 1.00 3.80 4.20 9.80 10.90 3.50 2.00 2.80 57.90 28.00 0. Bleach (1000 ml) Total Price 1.
(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the use of ICT is encouraged) to compare and contrast the price of the items chosen. Answer: Food 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 selfrising flour sugar butter eggs Tesco Borong Din Pacific borong din tesco pacific Total price 11 .
DETERGENT 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 washing powder liquid detergent soap Bleach tesco borong din pacific tesco borong din pacific Total price STATIONARY 12 .
2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 mechanical pencil pen eraser highlater tesco borong din pacific tesco borong din pacific Total price 13 .
60 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 tesco din borong pacific te sco din borong pacific Grand total 14 . Based on the graphical representations that I have constructed in Part 1(c).The graph 1(d) will show the conclusion of the difference among the shops based upon the shops grand total. The graph also show that most of the items that are high priced comes from the Pacific. while the highest is the price of eggs. the smallest price difference are of those of sugar.discuss and draw conclusions.stationery items doesn’t have any obvious price difference. On the other hand. it is shown that there are large and small differences among the prices of items in each category between the shops.In the food category. interpret. For detergent shop pacific show the highest total price while din borong shows the lowest total prices.(d) Based on the graphical representation that you have constructed in Part 1(c). while the lowest price items come from the DIin Borong. Comments on your findings.
(2.So that the price is cut. 15 .50 + 2.88 The large price difference of pen among the shops maybe because of the standard of the shop.50)2 + (2.00)2 + (2. Answer: Pen Mean = 2.80 3 =2.30)2 . Hence.2.27)2 3 = .Other than that there may be a sale.00 + 2. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of that particular item.(e) Identify an item that has a large price difference among the shops. Also. A high standard shop or supermarket. the items sold intend to be much more expensive than a regular shop or supermarket. suggest and discuss possible reasons for the price difference.27 Standart deviation = ______________________ = / (2.30 3 = 6. A better quality means a higher price. the price difference of the items may also due to the quality of the item present.
PART 2 16 .
90 = 100 Sugar : 0.30 1.90 x 100 0.25 Price in the year 2010 (RM) 0.90 0.35 3. your class made and sold butter cakes. Last year.10 i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in the table 2 for the year 2010 based on the year 2009 P2010 x 100 P2009 Self-rising flour : 0. Ingredient Self-Rising Flour Sugar Butter Eggs (Grade A) Quantity per cake 250 g 200 g 250 g 5 eggs (300 g) Price in the year 2009 (RM) 0.30 x 100 3.30 =130.86 Butter : 4.36 x 100 0.your class has decided to carry out the same project for this year’s carnival. during the carnival. Answer: Borong Din.35 =102.30 17 .36 4. b) Complete Table 2 with the prices of the items found in the shop/supermarket that you have chosen.90 0. This year the school plans to install air conditioners in the school library.Every year SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the school. (a) Suggest a shop from Part 1 which you would go to purchase the ingredients for the butter cakes.This is because the total price of the ingredients from this shop is the lowest from the three shops.State and discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you suggested. Because of the popularity of the butter cakes.30 2.
55 (iii) In the year 2009.547 1000 = 128.28. = Price 2010 x 100 Price 2009 = P2010 x 100 15 Thus. 18 .10 x 100 1.weightage is needed (W).Eggs : 2.the suitable price for the butter cake for the year 2010 is RM19. price 2010 = 15 x 128.25 =168 ii) Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010 based on the year 2009. = Sum of price index x quantity Sum of quantity = (100 x 250) + (102.55 100 = 19.30 x 250) + (168 x 300) 250 + 200 + 250 + 300 =128.The increase in price is also suitable because of the rise in the price of the ingredients.86 x 200) + (130.Give reasons for your answer. Suggest a suitable selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010.00 each.the butter cake was sold at RM15. Discuss how you obtained your answers.28 Thus. To calculate the composite index.
Explain how you arrive at your answer.20 27 =24. air conditioner is rated according to horse power (1HP).6 19 .12 =664. Answer: For common usage. the dimension for the library is: Height=3.17 x 20.20m3 1 unit of air conditioner is for 27m3 For 664. It is suitable for a room size 1000ft3 which is around 27m3 of volume.12m Volume of the room=3.20m3 = 664. Answer: By using a measuring tape.(c)(i) Find out from reliable sources how to determine suitable capacity of air conditioner to be installed based on the volume/size of a room. determine the number of air conditioners with the appropriate capacity required for your library.6m Width=9.6 x 9. (ii) Work in groups to estimate the volume of your school library. which is approximately 700W to 1000W of electrical power. Hence.17m Length=20.
62 Number of cakes to buy 1 unit of air conditioner = 700 11.24 = 60 cakes 20 . how many butter cakes must your class sell in order to buy the air conditioner? Answer: 1 unit of 1HP air conditioner=RM700 Cost for a cake =0. (iii) If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for the school library.66 =RM11.28 Profit =19.1 =7.3+2.That means our school library needs 25 unit of air conditioner.28-7.9+0.36+4.62 = 60.66 Selling price =RM19.
PART 3 21 .
00 600.As a committee member for the carnival.00 600.00 200.00 500.00 500. The cost of games. Expenditure Food Games Transportation Decorations Prizes Tents Miscellaneous Amount in 2009 (RM) 1200. The price of food.00 920.00 520.00 345.00 800.00 600.00 300. Comment on your answer.00 600.625% .00 500. This is because some price in the year 2009 increased in the year 2010. transportation and tents has increased by 15%. a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above.00 Amount in 2010 (RM) 1380.00 Amount in 2010 (RM) 1380.00 345.00 400.625 The total price for the year 2010 increase by 11.00 920. prizes and decorations remains the same.00 400.00 500.00 200.00 200.00 520. Answer Expenditure Food Games Transportation Decorations Prizes Tents Miscellaneous Amount in 2009 (RM) 1200. whereas the cost of miscellaneous items has increase by 30%.00 b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival in the year 2010 based on the year 2009.00 800. you are required to prepare an estimated budget to organize this year’s carnival.00 200.00 Price index I = p10 x 100 P09 115 100 115 100 100 115 130 Weightage W 12 5 3 2 6 8 4 = (115x12) + (100x5) + (115x3) + (100x2) + (100x6) + (115x8) + (130x4) (12 + 5 + 3 + 2 + 6 + 8 + 4 ) = 4465 40 = 111. The committee has to take into the consideration the increase in expenditure from the previous year due to inflation.00 300. 22 .
625 X 111.c) The change in the composite index for the estimate budget for the carnival from the year 2009 to the year 2010 is the same as the change from the year 2010 to the year 2011. Determine the composite index of the budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009.625 Composite index for the year 2010 to the year 2011 =111.625 X 1 I2009 100 = 124. Composite index for the year 2009 to the year 2010 =111.625 I2011 x 100 = I2010 X I2011 I2009 I2009 I2010 I2011 = 111. Solution .60 23 .
The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant. Stagnant air. or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Air quality index values are divided into ranges. Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two different types of index number of your choice. sulphur dioxide.FUHER EXPLORATION Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations. and is different in different countries. Air Pollution Index Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Causes of Poor Air Quality The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air emissions by fresh air. Limitations of the AQI Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI. or other lack of winds lets air pollution remain in a local area. The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution Index (API) or Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) is a number used by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location. An agency might also encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high. particulates. and each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate air quality indices for these pollutants. Indices by location 24 . often caused by an anticyclone or temperature inversion. for example air pollution index. stock market index. particulate matter. As the AQI increases. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index numbers in daily life. gold index and property index. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. Many countries monitor groundlevel ozone.
e. A 'world' or 'global' stock market index includes (typically large) companies without regard for where they are domiciled or traded. ozone.Of values of the five air pollutants. Types of indices Stock market indices may be classed in many ways. Above 500. this means that non-essential government services are suspended.. The most regularly quoted market indices are national indices composed of the stocks of large companies listed on a nation's largest stock exchanges. and the British FTSE 100. such as the American S&P 500. and all ports in the affected area closed. . to measure the performance of portfolios such as mutual funds. 0-50 Good 51-100 Moderate 101-200 Unhealthy 201-300 Very unhealthy >300 Hazardous Malaysia The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution Index. There may also be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the reporting area excluding the food sector. the highest is the CAI value. Two examples are MSCI World and S&P Global 100. which are divided into six categories. Unlike the American AQI. The higher the CAI value. Many indices are cited by news or financial services firms and are used as benchmarks. a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area. the Japanese Nikkei 225. STOCK INDEX MARKET A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. the index number can exceed 500.South Korea The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the Comprehensice Air-quality Index (CAI) to describe the ambient air quality based on health risk of air pollution. Usually. . A national index represents the performance of the stock market of a given nation —and by proxy. Four of the index's pollutant components (i. nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) are reported in PM 10 particulate matter is reported in ug/m³.The CAI has values of 0 through 500. carbon monoxide. The index aims to help the public easily understand air quality level and protect the health of people from air pollution. the greater the level of air pollution. reflects investor sentiment on the state of its economy. 25 .
it is mainly for the business entrepreneurs. More specialised indices exist tracking the performance of specific sectors of the market. full capitalization price. such as the S&P 500. which only considers the price of the components. For example. As for the stock market index.This is to ensure the air is clean and safe for us to inhale. NASDAQ and American Stock Exchange. This type of index is used to determine the outcome of a stock market and also the conclusion of a stock market. there are three versions of the S&P 500 index: price return. and equal weight versions is in how index components are weighted. including all U. CONCLUSION 26 .Besides that. As another example. which accounts for dividend reinvestment. the Wilshire 4500 and Wilshire 5000 indices have five versions each: full capitalization total return.the air pollution index is use by the government to measure the air quality index and to detect any pollutants in our country’s air. Russell Investment Group added to the family of indices by launching the Russell Global Index. float-adjusted total return. or even more specialized criteria — one index published by Linux Weekly News tracks stocks of companies that sell products and services based on the Linux operating environment. stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange (but not ADRs or limited partnerships). Index versions Some indices. represents the stocks of nearly every publicly traded company in the United States. Some examples include the Wilshire US REIT which tracks more than 80 American Real Estate Investment Trusts and the Morgan Stanley Biotech Index which consists of 36 American firms in the biotechnology industry. have multiple versions.The concept may be extended well beyond an exchange. and equal weight. a certain type of management. The stock market index is important because a country’s economical state sometimes depend on it. float-adjusted. The difference between the full capitalization. Other indices may track companies of a certain size. This warning is given based upon readings and interpretations of the air pollution index. total return. which accounts for dividend reinvestment after the deduction of a withholding tax. and net total return.an early warning can be given to us if the air pollution is to high for us to get out of our homes. the original total market index.S. The Wilshire 5000 Index. float-adjusted price. Uses and importance of air pollution index and stock market index As everyone can see. These versions can differ based on how the index components are weighted and on how dividends are accounted for.
the stock market can’t be interpret and many more. I saw that the usage of index number is important in daily life. REFLECTION 27 . statistics is a daily life essecities.we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of statistics. surveys can’t be conducted. It is not just widely used in markets but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like the air or the water. Without it. Especially in conducting an air-pollution survey. In conclusion.After doing research. drawing graphs and some problem solving. answering questions. So .
. I feel so grateful That He has given me the chance to get to know you« I really love you. Smiling at me... You are my soulmate.... Telling me little by little bout The Knower of All Know. Every time teacher teaches me bout you« Additional maths« Who says you so difficult? Who says you kill them off? Who says you hurt parents feeling? You.... I LOVE U ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS. one of the greatest creature of God. 28 .... You.Additional maths« You are like a very bright star. You my partner... You are my real friend. open my eyes.
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