Prepared by: KHALID WALI MOHAMMAD Date: OCTOBER 12, 2011 53259209393






The undercarriage is a relatively heavy part of the vehicle.INTRODUCTION: The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi. 3 . floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed. depending on the surface. it can be as much as 7% of the takeoff weight. but skids. but some aircraft are equipped with skis for snow or floats for water. Typically wheels are used. takeoff and land. skis. and/or skids or pontoons(helicopters). Landing gear usually includes wheels equipped with shock absorbers for solid ground. but more typically is 45%.

Main Landing Gear Each main landing gear wheels are mounted on a trailing beam pivoted on the main landing gear strut. The ground loads are reacted by the wing structure by the journal bearings mounted coaxially in the wing. Each unit retracts into its’ own well and is fully covered by doors. while airborne. Landing gear extension and retraction time is 9 ± 1 seconds. The main landing gear retracts inwards into the fuselage wheel well. The main landing gear is held. mechanically connected to the landing gear. 4 . The outboard door is rigidly attached at the strut. This uplock is released when landing gear lever is placed in down position by hydraulic pressure. The downlock is released when landing gear lever is placed in UP position by hydraulic pressure. or by nitrogen pressure in emergency. Each main landing gear has two doors. The landing gear is tricycle type with two wheels on each gear strut. an internal lock in the actuator automatically locks it in fully extended positions. landing gear may be extended by compressed nitrogen. and by the bracing actuator attached to the main landing gear strut.Gulfstream G200 Landing Gear System General The G200 has 4 main landing gear tires and two nose landing gear tires. The main landing gear actuator also serves as the gear brace. The inboard door operates by mechanical linkage to the strut and is held in up position by two uplock cylinders. In emergency. As the gear is extended. cordwise direction. absorbing the beam energy and transmitting the ground loads to the upper portion of the main landing gear structure. Its shock absorber is pin-connected at both ends. in retracted position by hydraulic pressure in the actuator and by the inboard door mechanical uplock if pressure drops.

1: Main Landing Gear Nose Landing Gear 5 .Fig.

landing gear must not be retracted again. A towing adapter is mounted on the strut with an integral safety shear pin. The drag brace is locked automatically in fully extended position by jury brace. Emergency Gear Extension Emergency extension of the landing gear requires actuating the emergency gear DOWN handle (on left side of the pedestal). Ground loads are applied to the fuselage structure by means of two bearings and a drag brace. this enables landing gear extension even if landing gear lever is stuck in UP position. 6 . The rotating tube is positioned by a rack and pinion steering system. The nose landing gear bay three doors are actuated mechanically by a system of bellcranks and rods connected to the levers on the nose landing gear strut trunnion. The nose landing gear retracts forwards and locks up by spring-loaded mechanical lock. permitting runway width of 15 meters. the nose landing gear is centered by internal cams in the sliding tube. and opening a valve to direct the upward hydraulic pressure to the return line. The steering movement is transmitted to the wheel axle by torque links. sliding telescopically in a rotating tube. releasing compressed nitrogen to drive the landing gear into down & locked position. Once the gear Emergency DOWN handle is pulled. The hydraulic retracting actuator is sized to retract and extend the landing gear and doors. It is unlocked by hydraulic pressure. while the hydraulic supply is cut off from the steering system. Towing angle is ± 100° without disconnecting the torque links. When the nosewheel is off the ground. The steering angle is ± 60°.The nose landing gear strut is cantilevered. The two side doors open and close during nose landing gear extension and the rear door is opened backwards and remains open while the nose landing gear is down. it is unlocked by a hydraulic unlock actuator.

2: Nose Landing Gear Page 4 7 .Schematic Fig. Nose Landing Gear .Landing Gear System ACTUATOR TRUNNION PIN DRAG BRACE UNLOCK ACTUATOR NLG STRUT Figure 5-13.Gulfstream G200 .

Landing Gear System Controls and Indicators Landing gear lever .Located on landing gear control panel on the front pedestal. Two positions: UP and DOWN Downlock Override button .Landing gear is not down and locked with radar altitude less than 800 ft (400 ft with MOD 7222) and one thrust lever at or below max cruise detent or flaps position more than 25 degree Fig. 3: Landing Gear System Control 8 . It retracts and extends landing gear.Energizes solenoid of downlock plunger if ground contact switch fails Warning Messages: GEAR NOT DOWN .

dual. is directed into the power brake valve through the return port. A. Anti Rotation The anti rotation function stops main wheels rotation after take-off during landing gear retraction before the main landing gear enters the wheel wells. Normal Operation The normal and emergency wheel brake systems are controlled by mechanical inputs from brake pedals. Parking Parking is obtained when the PARK/EMERG lever is placed in PARK position. the PARK/EMERG lever is placed in EMERG position. If any of the brake lines leading to the inboard wheels is broken. B. into two split brakes on each main wheel. which directs pressure through the (inoperative) anti-skid valve into the brakes (the anti-skid disengages when the landing gear goes out of down and locked position). Normal operation of the brakes on each main landing gear strut is controlled by an anti-skid valve. with the pilots and co-pilots commands mechanically interconnected. The lever closes a switch that energizes the parking valve and connects the right hydraulic system pressure and the right T/R accumulator pressure to the normal brake lines through shuttle valves. proportional pressure from the right hydraulic system is metered by the power brake valve to the anti-skid control valves. The left hydraulic system pressure is used with half of the normal braking capacity. separately. When the pedals are pressed. Anti-skid system is inoperative. Emergency Operation Emergency braking is used when the right hydraulic system fails. If both hydraulic systems fail. D. “tip-toe” brake pedals which actuate multi-disk self-adjusting brake units on each of the four main landing gear wheels. pressure to the brakes is governed by pilots metered pressure and modulated by antiskid to minimize wheel skid. 9 . the hydraulic fuse on that side prevents loss of excessive amount of fluid and shuts off flow to the affected brake. The residual braking effect is 3/4 of normal. and then through fuse and shuttle valves. To obtain emergency braking. Back-pressure. developed in the return line during landing gear retraction. hydraulic pressure is directed to the brakes. accumulator pressure is sufficient for six applications of emergency brakes for a total of 50 seconds (or one T/R deployment). Under normal operation. C.Wheel and Brakes Normal and emergency hydraulic wheel brake systems are controlled by conventional.

Gulfstream G200 . 4: Wheel Brakes System Page 10 10 .Schematic Fig.Landing Gear System Figure 5-15. Wheel Brake System .

Operation The control unit receives wheel velocity signals from the wheel speed sensors of both wheels on one strut. brake system is rendered inoperative. The filters include a passive anti-skid drop out circuit to remove anti-skid control for wheel speeds below 10 knots. The servo valve input circuit receives also a lead signal from a lead network which provides compensation for system lags. In addition to that. which reduces the brake pressure. causing the control valves to continuously vary brake pressure as required. The combination of skid detector. and if wheel contact with ground is not firmly stabilized. When armed. Locked wheel protection is provided to each wheel by a detector and an wheel arming circuit. and then allows pressure to increase at a controlled rate. Groundspeed is defined as the greater of the two wheel speeds. 11 . Maximum braking efficiency is obtained when all wheels are at maximum rate of deceleration short of a skidding wheel. thereby permitting shorter landing roll and minimizing tire wear. after each incipient skid a modulator signal brings brake pressure to a value slightly below the incipient skid threshold. The signals are converted to voltage and filtered to attenuate the natural frequency of the strut. In flight. The anti-skid system consists of the following components:     Electronic control unit Anti-skid control valves (2) Wheel speed sensors (4) Drive caps (4) A.Anti-Skid System Anti-skid system prevents wheel skidding by limiting application of main hydraulic system pressure to brakes. the detector removes brake pressure on both paired wheel whenever the wheel speed on one or both of the wheels drops below 30 percent of the aircraft groundspeed. Each wheel speed signal is applied to a skid detector which compares the wheel deceleration (derived from the wheel speed) to a preset reference level. Touchdown protection prevents any pressure at the brakes prior to the wheel spin-up because locked-wheels conditions are detected (arming circuit armed in flight and wheels not rotating). Wheel speed detectors transmit electrical signals to system control box which sends corresponding signals to anti-skid control valves. The locked wheel arming circuit is armed to groundspeeds above 30 knots or when both left and right weight-on-wheel switches indicate an airborne condition. Whenever an incipient skid is detected the skid detector send a proportional signal to the anti-skid servo valve. lead and modulator signals provide a highly adaptive and efficient skid control which achieves the greatest attainable deceleration while minimizing any tendency for deep skids.

5 seconds after transition of one weight-on-wheel switch. OFF Caution Light .  Anti-skid control valve full dump command longer then 1 second with the weight-on-wheel switch in ground position. For speeds under 35 knots. Loss of anti-skid control valve drive current from the control box. Pressed ON . the light goes out automatically. the touchdown protection is lost if one weight-onwheel switch fails in GROUND mode. 2. 4. or loss of regulated power supply. (ANTI-SKID and the OFF lights are on). but brakes pressure loss occurs only after a double failure in the AIR position.5 to 3.Lights come on when main gear is down and locked and: 1. Switch is left in ON position during flight. Fault exists which may cause lock-up of one main wheel during deceleration. Anti-Skid System Controls and Indicators ANTI-SKID Pushbutton . After a tire burst at speeds higher than 30 knots a locked wheel condition is detected when the burst wheel speed decreases under 30% of the aircraft groundspeed and braking is lost on both wheels (ANTI SKID OFF light comes on). whichever occurs first. If the fault is removed. brake pressure can be applied only at wheel spin-up above 35 knots or 2. Main gear downlock switch removes power from anti-skid system after take-off. Loss of power or failure to control power on box power on. ANTI-SKID pushbutton is pressed off. The control unit provides continuous monitoring of system components and signals the ANTI SKID OFF light of the corresponding system if one or more of the following conditions exist:     Opened or shorted wheel speed transducer or interface.Located on pilot glareshield. 3. The anti-skid system is to be switched off and braking continues.After touchdown. Control system produces full brake release signal for more than one second.Anti-skid system is energized on ground.Anti-skid system is off. It has two positions as follows: Pressed off . Electrical failure exists in control system. Opened or shorted anti-skid control valve coil or interface. 12 .

Schematic 13 Page 15 . 5: Anti-Skid Control System Figure 5-16.Fig. Anti-Skid Control System .

normal mode on ground 2.Nose Wheel Steering System The nose wheel steering system includes a rack and pinion steering mechanism actuated by two coaxial hydraulic actuators. Caution Messages: NWS INOP . The nose wheel steering modes of operation are: 1. or as a result of a hydraulic pressure failure. over an angle of ±60°. The ON-OFF. The pilot controls the steering system by pedals.the system is actively maintaining the nosewheel in a centered position during approach and take-off when both nose landing gear weight-on-wheel switches are in air-position 3. which provides shimmy damping. The nose wheel steering system provides: active steering angle of ±60° and towing angle of ±100° without need to manually disconnect the nose gear torque-links. PEDAL DISC pushbutton on the handwheel allows disconnection of nosewheel steering by the pedals (such as for flight controls check). controlled and monitored by an electrohydraulic servo system. The bypass mode is the normal mode after nose landing gear retraction. Any single failure in the nose wheel steering system is detected by the monitoring channel which switches the system to the bypass mode (fail-passive). which includes hydraulic control valve manifold and the electronic control unit.the two actuators are hydraulically interconnected by the bypass valve if nose wheel steering switch is OFF. or to switch it off and remain with the nose landing gear in a free-swivel mode. By-pass mode . nose wheel steering switch allows activation the nose wheel steering system.Nosewheel is down and locked and nosewheel steering system is off 14 . Actively centered mode . Active steering . over an angle of ±3° or by a handwheel. In this case the aircraft directional control is achieved differential braking and/or rudder control. located on the pilot console.

Ground operation includes all four surfaces and is achieved by GROUND A/B switch with ON/OFF positions. They may be extended. Asymmetry protection is operative once the switch is released and permits extension only if all four surfaces (inboard two surfaces of each wing) are out of retracted position. When deployed. Advisory Messages: FLIGHT AIRBRAKES .Flight (inboard) airbrakes extended.Ground (outboard) airbrakes extended. self holding relay bypasses the landing gear ground contact switch and holds the air brakes extended. Flight airbrakes message comes on whenever the flight air brakes are out of retracted position. serve as air brakes. Moving thrust lever beyond MAX CRUISE (such as for go-around) causes all surface to retract. The inboard pair is fed from the actuators have mechanical lock for stowed position. FLIGHT and GROUND AIRBRAKES messages come on. To prevent erratic extension and retraction of the ground air brakes during bouncy landing. to increase drag at any airspeed. 15 .AIR BRAKES Four control surfaces on each wing. the air brakes dump excess lift from the wing when aborting take-off or on landing. The ground air brakes differs from flight air brakes operation by faster rate of extension and the fact that they pop out only after the aircraft touches the ground. in flight. Flight operation is achieved by FLIGHT A/B RETRACT / EXTEND switch. GROUND AIRBRAKES . rotating upwards by hydraulic power for activation. The surfaces have a deployed angle of 45°. Placing GROUND A/B switch in ON position causes all surfaces to extend. if aircraft is on ground and thrust lever position is below MAX CRUISE. The switch is spring-loaded to OFF position.

The shock strut doors are mechanically attached by linkage rods to the gear shock strut and move only when the gear is moved. Body gear trucks are steerable. Main Gear and Doors A. The wing gear is located aft of the rear wing spar inboard of the engine nacelles at station 1342. providing directional control in conjunction with the nose gear in sharp turns during low speed taxiing and towing. Landing impact is absorbed by five air-oil shock struts. This capability also reduces tire scrubbing in sharp turns. means for steering the airplane. Main Gear Doors The landing gear doors consist of body gear doors and wing gear doors. 16 . The 747 have 16 main landing gear tires and two nose landing gear tires. functioning primarily as air springs. takeoff and ground movement. wheels and brakes for each main gear. a gear extension and retraction system. two body gears and two wing gears. All doors are of frame construction with skin paneling on the inner and outer sides. Each gear is comprised of a four-wheel truck. The wheel well doors are hydraulically actuated and can be closed with the gear extended or retracted. The body gear is located at station 1463. gear and door indicating and warning system.5. Rolling vibrations and variances in runway are absorbed by the hydraulic forces within the shock strut. Main Gear The main landing gear consists of four main gears.5 in the fuselage. and control and operation of the gears for landing. The doors close over all gear openings and fair with the fuselage contour to provide aerodynamic smoothness.Boeing 747 Landing Gear System General The landing gear system consists of the gears which support the airplane while on the ground. The body and wing gear doors each have wheel well doors and shock strut doors. B.

Nose Gear and Doors A. 1: Landing Gear Locations 17 . The gear is hydraulically actuated and retracts forward in the wheel well. The airplane can be towed forward or aft from the nose gear. Steering is provided by hydraulically actuated cylinders. Nose Gear Door The nose gear doors are clamshell type and consist of four doors that fair with the fuselage contour when closed. Nose Gear The nose landing gear is a steerable wheel assembly which supports the forward end of the airplane and provides directional control while on the ground. Fig. Landing loads are absorbed by an air-oil shock strut. All doors are of alclad rib and skin construction. B.

Fig. 2: Landing Gear Geometry 18 .

Main gear wheels are numbered as shown in Fig. Full rudder pedal deflection provides approximately | 10 degrees or | 7 degrees of nose wheel steering.Landing Gear Extension and Retraction Extension and retraction of the wing. are provided. A safety lock prevents inadvertent operation of the control handle to the gear up position when conditions are not right for gear retraction. Sequence valves control gear and door operation. 2. The brakes are fitted with combination return springs and automatic adjusters. When the airplane brakes are applied. When the gear unlocks and extends and the gear doors close. On some airplanes. the gear retracts and locks and the gear doors close. the other to the right of the first officer. Each main gear wheel (wing and body) is provided with a brake unit installed on the axle on the side nearest the shock strut. body and nose gears and their wheel well doors is by hydraulic power. Steering Two steering tillers. Hydraulic system 1 powers both nose gear steering cylinders. Cables from a quadrant actuated by the handle transfer motion to selector valves which apply hydraulic pressure for gear actuation. the antiskid system automatically assumes control of the brake pressure through the antiskid valves. Towing angle can range between approximately | 65 degrees without disconnecting torsion links. The gear is controlled from a single handle mounted on the pilots' center panel. especially when the wheels are retracted. The brakes are a multidisk type with stationary elements fitted with replaceable linings and segmented rotor brake disks. Steering power is available only when the gear selector lever is DOWN. eight on the body gear and two are on the nose gear. each with steering control authority of approximately | 70 degrees at the nose gear. Gear and doors then extend by gravity. One tiller is to the left of the captain. and ground operations on 18 wheel and tubeless tire assemblies. the gear doors open. 19 . An electrically powered alternate extension system is provided to unlock the gears and doors when hydraulic power is not available. A brake temperature monitoring system is included to enable monitoring of brake temperatures. takeoff. An additional manual extension capability is provided for the nose gear. Eight are on the wing gear. When the control handle is placed in the UP position. Wheels and Brakes The airplane is supported during landing. The adjusters compensate for brake wear. the rudder pedals are also coupled to the steering control system by an interconnect mechanism. Disconnecting the torsion links enables towing at any angle.

Position and Warning The landing gear position and warning system reflects status of all landing gear positions. 3: Wheel Numbering Diagram 20 . The body gear trucks turn opposite to the nose gear to assist the turn. Landing gear position signals and truck tilt signals are also provided to other airplane systems. Fig.The steering tillers also control steering of the body gear at angles greater than | 20 degrees of nose wheel steering. Indicator lights on the pilots' and flight engineer's landing gear modules provide status of gear position. A switch operated by the nose wheel steering quadrant actuates the body gear steering system. gear door positions and wing and body gear truck positions. The gear tilt indicators located on the flight engineer's landing gear module provide status that determines when the gears are properly tilted. The body gear truck actuating cylinders are then powered by hydraulic system 1. To assure positive status of gear position redundant electronic systems (primary and alternate) for status display are provided.

com/air/12. This kind of passengers has been stowaway on larger aircraft by climbing a landing gear strut and riding within the compartment and this can be deadly dangerous and sometimes it can jeopardize the flight and the passengers onboard. References:  Boeing 747 AMM (ATA chapter 32)  GULFSTREAM G200 AMM (ATA chapter 32)  Aircraft landing gear system design: principles and practice “NORMAN S.php  http://www. One of most unpredictable issues that the companies face is called “stowaways” and this term used for unauthorized passengers. Learning about LANDING GEAR SYSTEM gives us as students close view about how the system works and this assignment can show our understanding and the various resources we can use to find about any aircraft’s landing gear system. CURREY”  Aircraft Design “Ajoy Kumar Kundu”  21 .tpub.Conclusion: As we read above the landing gear is one of the most critical and important parts for an aircraft and as we see lot of incidents happen either it can be a technical failure or human factor.wikipedia.

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