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COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEMS
by
Zhefeng Li
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the University of Delaware in
partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in
Electrical & Computer Engineering
Summer 2010
c _ 2010 Zhefeng Li
All Rights Reserved
SPACETIME/FREQUENCY CODED MIMO AND
COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEMS
by
Zhefeng Li
Approved:
Kenneth E. Barner, Ph.D.
Chair of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Approved:
Michael J. Chajes, Ph.D.
Dean of the College of Engineering
Approved:
Debra Hess Norris, M.S.
Vice Provost for Graduate and Professional Education
I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it meets
the academic and professional standard required by the University as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Signed:
XiangGen Xia, Ph.D.
Professor in charge of dissertation
I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it meets
the academic and professional standard required by the University as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Signed:
Leonard J. Cimini, Jr., Ph.D.
Member of dissertation committee
I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it meets
the academic and professional standard required by the University as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Signed:
Javier GarciaFrias, Ph.D.
Member of dissertation committee
I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it meets
the academic and professional standard required by the University as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Signed:
ChienChung Shen, Ph.D.
Member of dissertation committee
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
As always, the completion of this dissertation would not be possible without
the support of many people. I would like to express my gratitude to my advisor,
Dr. XiangGen Xia. For more than four years, he kept providing encouragement,
good teaching, and lots of great ideas. He is not only an advisor who teaches me,
he is also a friend who is studying and working with me. His enthusiasm and eﬀorts
show us how to become a successful researcher.
I would like to thank Dr. Cimini, Dr. GarciaFrias and Dr. Shen, who
have greatly contributed to my doctoral studies and have been so kind to serve
on the dissertation committee. Dr. Cimini is not only a famous researcher and
also a very good teacher. His lectures for Digital Communications and Wireless
Communications open a door through research for me and lead me into the wireless
communication area. I am grateful to Dr. GarciaFrias for his encouragement and
practical advice for my research. His enthusiasm, his inspiration, and his great eﬀorts
to explain things clearly and simply help me to obtain the solid foundation about
information theorem and channel coding theorem. This really makes my research
go faster and deeper. I would like to thank Dr. Shen for his insightful comments
and suggestion about my research. He is always very kindly and supportive and
I will always feel thankful to him for all his help and advice. It was a wonderful
experience to take Dr. Shen’s class of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing.
He is an expert in wireless networks and his idea and knowledge brought great value
for my research from a diﬀerent point of view.
iv
I also would like to thank my friends and colleagues who provided a stimulat
ing and fun environment in which to learn and grow. Thanks Yue, Bo, Lu, Kejing,
Guo, Xu, Zheng, Xiantao, Tianyi, Xiaowei, and Huimin for all the help.
This dissertation is not an easy task for me. I did hesitate. I did feel frus
trated. But I never stopped. Because I know that my parents always support me
and love me. I know that they are always proud of what I accomplished. This
dissertation is dedicated to my father Jilie and my mother Yuheng.
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Chapter
1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 MIMOOFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Cooperative OFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Outline and Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 OSTFBC AND QOSTFBC CODED MIMOOFDM SYSTEMS . 8
2.1 MIMOOFDM System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.1 MIMOOFDM Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.2 SpaceTimeFrequency Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1.3 Received MIMOOFDM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1.4 ML decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2 OSTFBC and QOSTFBC Coded MIMOOFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.1 OSTFBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.2 QOSTFBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.3 Linear Transformation for Fast Decoding and Full Diversity . 15
2.3 Performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM Systems 18
vi
3 PRECODING FOR PAPR REDUCTION AT TRANSMITTER
USING CHU SEQUENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.1 Deﬁnition of PAPR in OFDM Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.2 PAPR of OFDM Vectors with Repeated Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3 PAPR Reduction by Phase Adjustment in the Repetition . . . . . . . 22
3.4 PAPR Reduction by New Repetition Method and Phase Adjustment 24
3.4.1 New Repetition Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.4.2 Phase Adjustment for PAPR Reduction Using Chu Sequences 25
3.4.3 Full Diversity of STFBC from the New Repetition . . . . . . . 29
3.4.4 Fast Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.5 Performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM with
Clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4 CLIPPING NOISE MODEL BASED ML DECODING AT
RECEIVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.1 Clipping Process and Clipping Noise Model in an OFDM System . . 37
4.2 SingleSymbol ML Decoding for OSTFBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.3 SingleSymbol ML Decoding for QOSTFBC and Linearly Transformed
QOSTBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.4 Clipping Ratio Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.4.1 CR Estimation Theorem for STBC Coded MIMOOFDM
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.4.2 Decision Aided CR Estimation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.5 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.5.1 Performance of Clipping Noise Model Based ML Decoding
with Perfect CR at the receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.5.2 Performance of Clipping Noise Model Based ML Decoding
with Estimated CR at the receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
vii
5 ALAMOUTI CODED COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEM . . . . . 62
5.1 Cooperative OFDM Channel Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.2 Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM System Without Timing
Errors/Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.3 Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM System With Timing Errors and
Interblock Interferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6 TIME DOMAIN INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION FOR
ALAMOUTI CODED COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEMS
WITH INSUFFICIENT CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.1 Interference Cancellation when
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.1.1 Transmitted sequences and interference sequences . . . . . . . 72
6.1.2 Estimation of interference sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.1.3 Interference Cancellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.2 Interference cancellation when N −
cp
−1 ≥ τ > 2
cp
. . . . . . . . . 80
6.2.1 Transmitted Sequences and Interference Sequences . . . . . . 81
6.2.2 Estimation of Interference Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.2.3 Interference Cancellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.3 Interference cancellation when N −1 ≥ τ > N −
cp
−1 . . . . . . . . 90
6.4 Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
7 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.1 Conclusions and Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.2 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
viii
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 Performance comparison among the spacetime block code and
spacetimefrequency block code without clipping for 1 receiver
antenna in MIMOOFDM systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.1 Signal amplitudes from repetition with and without phase
adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.2 Comparison of the complementary CDF of the PAPR of the discrete
OFDM signals with repetition factor Γ = 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.3 Comparison of the complementary CDF of the PAPR of the ideally
bandlimited (analog) OFDM signals with repetition factor Γ = 4. . 28
3.4 Performance comparison of clipped 2 1 OFDM OSTFBC with
Γ = 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.5 Performance comparison of clipped 4 1 OFDM linearly
transformed QOSTFBC with Γ = 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.1 BER performance comparison of OSTFBC in clipped 2 2 OFDM
systems: (a) no convolutional code is added; (b) a convolutional
code is added. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.2 BER performance comparison of QOSTFBC in clipped 4 2 OFDM
systems: (a) no convolutional code is added; (b) a convolutional
code is added. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.3 MMSE of estimated CR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.4 Performance of clipping noise model based ML decoding; 4 transmit
antennas and 1 receive antenna linear transformed QOSTBC . . . . 60
4.5 Performance of iterative decoding; iteration number is 1. . . . . . . 61
ix
5.1 Time domain transmitted signals at the relay nodes. . . . . . . . . 65
6.1 Received sequences in time domain
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
. . . . . . . . . . . 70
6.2 Received sequences in time domain N −
cp
−1 ≥ τ > 2
cp
. . . . . . 80
6.3 Received sequences in time domain N −1 ≥ τ > N −
cp
−1. . . . 90
6.4 Performance comparison when
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.5 Performance comparison when N −
cp
−1 ≥ τ > 2
cp
. . . . . . . . 94
6.6 Performance comparison when N −1 ≥ τ > N −
cp
−1. . . . . . . 95
x
ABSTRACT
Spacetimefrequency coded MultipleInput and MultipleOutput Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMOOFDM) systems have recently attracted
much attention for broadband wireless communications including recent IEEE stan
dards 802.11n and 802.16e. Spacetime/Frequency Coding (SFC) can achieve the
spatial and multipath diversities for a MIMOOFDM system by coding across mul
tiple antennas and subcarriers. In this research, we focus on a family of spacetime
frequency codes proposed by Zhang et al to achieve both full spatial and multipath
diversities by using Orthogonal SpaceTime Block Codes (OSTBC). In particular, we
develop a precoding algorithm for PeaktoAverage Power Ratio (PAPR) reduction
and a clipping noise model based Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoding algorithm
for SpaceTimeFrequency Block Codes (STFBC) coded MIMOOFDM systems.
An important issue for OFDM systems is their high PAPR and it is important
to reduce the PAPR in a practical (power eﬃcient) system. The ﬁrst goal of this
research is to modify the repeating process and adjust phases of coded symbols
so that the PAPR of the OFDM system is reduced. In particular, we propose to
use Chu sequences for phase adjustment and show that the discrete PAPR can be
reduced by Γ times where Γ is the times of the repeating across subcarriers.
Another eﬃcient way to reduce the PAPR in OFDM systems is clipping. Af
ter the clipping in an MIMOOFDM system, the overall additive noise, including the
clipping distortion, may not be white. The second goal of this research is to develop
fast ML decoding algorithms for Orthogonal SpaceTimeFrequency Block Codes
(OSTFBC) and Quasi Orthogonal SpaceTimeFrequency Block Codes (QOSTFBC)
xi
in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. By using a clipping noise model with Gaussian
approximation, our newly proposed fast ML decoding algorithms improve the sys
tem performance without increasing the decoding complexity. Simulation results
are presented to illustrate the improvement.
In order to apply the clipping noise model based ML decoding, the clipping
ratio needs to be known at the receiver. We also consider the case when the clipping
ratio is not known at the receiver. So a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for
MIMOOFDM systems is proposed in our research, too.
Except for MIMOOFDM systems, in this work, cooperative OFDM system
is investigated too. OFDM transmission has been proposed for cooperative commu
nications to combat the time delays from the relay nodes, where the paths from relay
nodes to destination node are treated as multipaths and spacetime (or frequency)
coding is used to achieve the spatial (or multipath) diversity. With this approach,
when the Cyclic Preﬁx (CP) length is less than the time delay length, interblock
interference occurs. In this research, we consider Alamouti coded OFDM systems in
cooperative communications where the CP length may be less than the time delay
length. By taking the advantage of the Alamouti code structure, we propose a time
domain interference cancellation algorithm.
xii
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, we ﬁrst brieﬂy introduce MIMOOFDM systems and coop
erative OFDM systems. Then, we summarize our work and contributions.
1.1 MIMOOFDM
The MIMO channel is constructed with multiple transmit antennas and mul
tiple receive antennas. MIMO systems can achieve large gains in capacity of com
munication over wireless channels. For broadband wireless systems, the symbol
period becomes smaller relative to the channel delay spread, and therefore we have
to cope with frequencyselectivity fading. Large delay spread induces InterSym
bol Interference (ISI), and cause a high performance degradation. So in frequency
selective fading channel, OFDM modulation is used to eliminate or reduce the ISI
caused by the multipath environments. Combination of MIMO systems with OFDM
technology is a promising system for broadband wireless communications.
Spacetime coded MIMOOFDM systems have recently attracted much at
tention for broadband wireless communications including recent IEEE standards
802.11n and 802.16e. For MIMOOFDM systems, various spacetime/frequency
codes have been developed to achieve both spatial and multipath diversities by cod
ing across subcarriers and multiple antennas and/or across OFDM symbols over the
time, see, for example, [1][8]. One of the important methods to achieve the full
multipath diversity is repeating across the subcarriers obtained by Su et al in [3].
1
However, most of the existing spacetime/frequency codes to achieve the spatial and
multipath diversities do not have fast ML decoding.
Among the spacetime codes used in MIMOOFDM systems, OSTBC [9][13]
and QuasiOrthogonal SpaceTime Block Codes (QOSTBC) [15][25] play important
roles since they can achieve full spatial diversity and have fast ML decoding algo
rithms [9][25] when the additive noise is white.
Recently, a family of spacetimefrequency codes have been proposed in [8]
to achieve the full spatial and multipath diversities for MIMOOFDM systems and
in the meantime they have the fast singlesymbol ML decoding by using OSTBC,
see for example, [9][14], across multiple antennas and OFDM symbols, and also
repeating across subcarriers.
Although the repetition across subcarriers can achieve the multipath diver
sity, it causes high PAPR. This is an important issue for OFDM systems and reduc
ing the PAPR is important in a practical (power eﬃcient) system.
One of the most eﬃcient ways to reduce the PAPR is clipping [34] that,
however, induces clipping noise and the induced clipping noise in an MIMOOFDM
system may not be white and thus the fast ML decoding for an OSTBC or QOSTBC
coded system may not hold. When the additive noise is not white, ML decoding for
spatially colored noised [26] needs to be considered.
Many clipping noise mitigation methods have been proposed in the literature.
Some of them are based on the decisionaided reconstruction (DAR) and clipping
noise cancellation [27][29] and some of them apply statistical clipping noise models
to the ML decoding [31]. All of these methods require the knowledge of the clipping
ratio (CR) at the receiver. However, in some applications, for example in inter
ference channels, it is may be possible that the CR is not known at the receiver.
A clipping ratio estimation method has been proposed for single antenna OFDM
2
systems in [33]. This clipping ratio estimation method can be applied to pilottone
based OFDM systems only. By calculating the statistics of the clipping noise at the
pilot subcarriers, the CR can be estimated from the statistical clipping noise model
given in [36][37].
1.2 Cooperative OFDM
Cooperative transmission, which uses a group of communication nodes to
transmit coded symbols together, can achieve diversity gain as MIMO systems do.
Compared to MIMO systems, which require multiple transmit antennas, cooperative
systems utilize the beneﬁts of multiple antennas transmission with only one antenna
at each node. It is more practical for some communication applications.
It is wellknown that spacetime coding can be applied in both MIMO and co
operative systems to achieve spatial diversity [40]–[43], where multiple transmissions
are received at the receiver. A major diﬀerence between MIMO and cooperative sys
tems is that unlike an MIMO system, multiple transmissions from relay nodes in a
cooperative system may not be well synchronized and a spacetime code achieving
spatial diversity for an MIMO system may not do in a cooperative system. This
issue has been studied lately in for example [44]–[53], where there are two major
approaches. One approach is from time domain considerations [44]–[47] and the
other approach is from frequency domain considerations [48]–[53]. The idea for the
frequency domain consideration is to treat paths from relay nodes to destination
node as multipaths and use OFDM transmissions at relay nodes to combat the time
delays, and then uses spacetime/frequency coding to achieve the multipath (coop
erative spatial in this case) diversity. The ﬁrst spacetime coded OFDM system in
cooperative communications was proposed by Mei et al in [48] where Alamouti code
is used. For the OFDM approach, when the time delays from relay nodes are not
larger than the CP length, the interferences from the relays due to the time delays
do not appear. However, when the time delays are larger than the CP length, the
3
interferences occur. Note that, diﬀerent from a conventional pointtopoint OFDM
system where the time delay spread is mainly determined by the signal bandwidth
and thus the CP length can be predetermined, the time delays from relay nodes
may vary and depend on a particular scenario in a cooperative system and thus a
predetermined CP length always larger than the time delays may not be possible.
1.3 Outline and Contributions
In this research, the contributions are mainly from two aspects. The MIMO
OFDM systems are ﬁrst considered. The main goal is to reduce the transmission
PAPR at the transmitter and improving the decoding performance at the receiver by
modelling clipping distortion. The second aspect is on cooperative OFDM systems.
The interference caused by time error of cooperative OFDM systems is studied and
a time domain interference cancellation method is proposed in this research.
In Chapter 2, we ﬁrst describe a spacetimefrequency coded MIMOOFDM
system model. We also generalize the STFC proposed in [8] from OSTBC to
QOSTBC that possesses higher rate than the OSTBC for more than two trans
mit antennas. Similar to the OSTFBC from the OSTBC code, particular Alamouti
code, QOSTFBC can be obtained by repeating QOSTBC code [15][17] across fre
quency subcarriers [30, 31]. The repetition of QOSTFBC in the frequency domain
can exploit the multipath diversity in MIMOOFDM systems.
Compared to OSTFBC, due to the lack of the orthogonality, there are two
shortcomings of the above QOSTFBC. The ﬁrst shortcoming is that the above
QOSTFBC can not achieve full spatial diversity. The second shortcoming is that
the ML decoding for QOSTFBC becomes symbolpairwise decoding, which is more
complicated than symbolwise ML decoding for OSTFBC.
In order to achieve full spatial diversity and fast decoding, we show that
linearly transformation method for single subcarrier QOSTBC is also applied to
4
QOSTFBC with multiple subcarriers. The linearly transformed QOSTFBC devel
oped in this work achieves both full spatial and full multipath diversities, and also
has the fast ML decodings. Simulations for these schemes for MIMOOFDM systems
with and without clipping have been presented to illustrate the theory.
The main goal of Chapter 3 is to modify the repeating process and adjust
their phases so that the PAPR of coded OFDM systems is reduced, and in the
meantime the full spatial and multipath diversities and the fast ML decoding are
still maintained. In particular, we propose to use Chu sequences [38, 39] for the
phase adjustments and show that the discrete PAPR can be reduced by Γ times for
any SFC from the repeating, where Γ is the times of the repeating across subcarriers.
Also, a new repetition method has been introduced so that the PAPR part caused by
the repetition is reduced to 0 dB after the phase adjustments using Chu sequences.
One of the most eﬃcient ways to reduce the PAPR is clipping [34] that,
however, induces clipping noise. In Chapter 4, we consider clipped MIMOOFDM
systems where OSTFBC or QOSTFBC is used. By applying the clipping noise
model from Bussgang’s theorem used in, for example [35][37], we derive fast (single
symbol) ML decoding algorithms for OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in clipped MIMO
OFDM systems. Interestingly, the fast ML decoding properties for OSTFBC and
rotated QOSTFBC [9][25] in MIMOOFDM systems without clipping are still main
tained in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. It should be emphasized that the newly
developed fast ML decoding for rotated QOSTBC proposed in [18][25] for MIMO
channels with white noise still has the singlesymbol (or complex symbolwise) de
coding property in clipped MIMOOFDM systems.
In Chapter 4, we also develop a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for
an MIMOOFDM system. By utilizing the code structure at the data subcarriers,
we can separate clipping distortions from multiple transmit antennas and calculate
the statistics of the clipping noise. Using the estimated CR from the decisionaided
5
clipping ratio estimation, any clipping noise mitigation method that requires to
know CR, such as [27][29] or clipping noise model based ML decoding proposed in
Chapter 4 can be used to improve the performance of an clipped OFDM system.
From Chapter 5, we start to discuss the second aspect of this research. The
spacetimefrequency coded cooperative OFDM systems are ﬁrst introduced in this
chapter. Then interference caused by the time delay in cooperative OFDM systems
is investigated. When the time delays from relay nodes are not larger than the
CP length, the interferences from the relays due to the time delays do not appear.
However, when the time delays are larger than the CP length, the interferences
occur. Note that, diﬀerent from a conventional pointtopoint OFDM system where
the time delay spread is mainly determined by the signal bandwidth and thus the
CP length can be predetermined, the time delays from relay nodes may vary and
depend on a particular scenario in a cooperative system and thus a predetermined
CP length always larger than the time delays may not be possible.
In Chapter 6, we are interested in the Alamouti coded OFDM systems for
cooperative communications when the CP length is less than the time delays from
the relay nodes. By taking the advantage of the Alamouti code structure between
two OFDM symbol blocks, we propose a time domain interference cancellation algo
rithm to mitigate the interferences from time domain received signals. The channels
from relay nodes to destination node we consider in this research are assumed ﬂat
fading.
Finally, in Chapter 7, we summarize our conclusion and list some interesting
topics for future study.
1.4 Notation
In what follows, boldface English letters represent vectors and matrices
and nonboldface English letters represent scalars unless it is speciﬁed. Super
scripts
T
,
∗
, and
H
stand for transpose, conjugate and Hermitian, respectively.
6
diag(d
0
, d
1
, , d
N−1
) or diag(d
n
, 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1) denotes an N N diagonal
matrix with diagonal scalar entries d
0
, , d
N−1
. a denotes the norm of vector a
as a =
_
i
[a
i
[
2
if a = (a
i
). I
N
represents the identity matrix of size N N.
The Kronecker product is denoted by ⊗, i.e., A⊗ B = (a
ij
B), and the Hadamard
product is denoted by ◦, i.e., A ◦ B = (a
ij
b
ij
), where A = (a
ij
) and B = (b
ij
).
i =
√
−1. 1
Γ×1
= (1, , 1
. ¸¸ .
Γ
)
T
.
7
Chapter 2
OSTFBC AND QOSTFBC CODED MIMOOFDM
SYSTEMS
This chapter starts from describing a spacetimefrequency coded MIMO
OFDM channel/signal model. Later, in particular, OSTFBC and QOSTFBC con
cepts are discussed. Finally, performance comparison of coding schemes is presented.
2.1 MIMOOFDM System
2.1.1 MIMOOFDM Channel
Consider an MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh fading channel with M
t
transmit antennas, M
r
receive antennas, and L independent propagation paths be
tween each pair of transmit and receive antennas. We assume that the channel is
quasistatic or called block fading channel, i.e., the channel coeﬃcients remain ﬁxed
through one code block. The channel impulse response is denoted by
h
i,j
(t) =
L−1
l=0
α
i,j
(l)δ(t −τ
l
), (2.1)
where j and i denote the jth transmit antenna and the ith receive antenna for
j = 1, 2, , M
t
and i = 1, 2, , M
r
, respectively, l denotes the lth propagation
path between each pair of transmit and receive antennas, l = 0, 1, , L−1, τ
l
is the
corresponding time delay of each path. For Rayleigh fading, the channel coeﬃcient
α
i,j
(l) is a zeromean complex Gaussian random variable with variance σ
2
l
. We
assume that α
i,j
(l) are i.i.d. random variables for any i, j, l. In order to normalize
8
the received signal power, the variances σ
2
l
are set to satisfy
L−1
l=0
σ
2
l
= 1 and for
convenience we use equal power delay proﬁle for multipaths, and thus σ
2
l
=
1
L
.
For an MIMOOFDM system with N subcarriers, the corresponding channel
frequency response for the nth OFDM subcarrier is given by
H
i,j
(n) =
L−1
l=0
α
i,j
(l) exp(−i
2πn
T
s
τ
l
), (2.2)
where i =
√
−1, n represents the nth subcarrier, n = 0, 1, 2, , N−1, and T
s
is the
duration of one OFDM symbol. We represent a vector of (H
i,1
(n), H
i,2
(n), , H
i,M
t
(n))
T
as H
i
(n) and (H
T
i
(0), H
T
i
(1), , H
T
i
(N −1))
T
as H
i
, where
T
stands for transpose.
and
H =
_
(H
1
)
T
, (H
2
)
T
, , (H
M
r
)
T
_
T
. (2.3)
2.1.2 SpaceTimeFrequency Code
For a spacetimefrequency coded MIMOOFDM system, we represent a
coded symbol sent from the nth subcarrier at the jth transmit antenna during
the tth OFDM symbol period as C
t
j
(n) for t = 1, 2, , M
b
. We represent C(n) as
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
C
1
1
(n) C
1
2
(n) C
1
M
t
(n)
C
2
1
(n) C
2
2
(n) C
2
M
t
(n)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
C
M
b
1
(n) C
M
b
2
(n) C
M
b
M
t
(n)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
M
b
×M
t
. (2.4)
The encoded spacetimefrequency block code is represented by
C = diag(C(0), C(1), , C(N −1))
M
b
N×M
t
N
. (2.5)
9
2.1.3 Received MIMOOFDM Signal
At the receiver, after the cyclic preﬁx removal and FFT, the received fre
quency domain signal of the nth subcarrier at the ith receive antenna in the tth
OFDM symbol period is
Y
t
i
(n) =
_
ρ
M
t
M
t
j=1
C
t
j
(n)H
i,j
(n) + N
t
i
(n), i = 1, 2, , M
r
. (2.6)
The normalization factor
ρ
M
t
is used to normalize the power of the received signal,
in which ρ is the signaltonoise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. N
t
i
(n) is the additive
white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at the nth subcarrier and its variance σ
2
n
is assumed
σ
2
n
= 1.
Received signals at the ith receive antenna from the nth subcarrier in a vector
form are
Y
i
(n) =
_
ρ
M
t
C(n)H
i
(n) +N
i
(n). (2.7)
where Y
i
(n) = (Y
1
i
(n), Y
2
i
(n), , Y
M
b
i
(n))
T
and N
i
(n) = (N
1
i
(n), N
2
i
(n), , N
M
b
i
(n))
T
.
Further stacking the received signals into vector form, we represent Y
i
=
(Y
T
i
(0), Y
T
i
(1), , Y
T
i
(N − 1))
T
, N
i
= (N
T
i
(0), N
T
i
(1), , N
T
i
(N − 1))
T
. So we
have
Y
i
=
_
ρ
M
t
CH
i
+N
i
. (2.8)
For M
r
receive antennas, let
X = diag(C, , C
. ¸¸ .
M
r
)
M
r
M
b
N×M
r
M
t
N
, (2.9)
and
Y =
_
(Y
1
)
T
, (Y
2
)
T
, , (Y
M
r
)
T
_
.
Then, the overall vectormatrix form of the transmitreceive signal model becomes
Y =
_
ρ
M
t
XH+N.
10
Substituting (2.2) into (2.8), with some matrix permutations as [8], (2.8) can
be rewritten into
Y
i
=
_
ρ
M
t
Gh
i
+N
i
, (2.10)
and
G = ((I
M
b
⊗D
0
)C, (I
M
b
⊗D
1
)C, , (I
M
b
⊗D
L−1
)C), (2.11)
where
C =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
C(0)
C(1)
.
.
.
C(N −1)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
M
b
N×M
t
. (2.12)
D
l
= diag(1, e
−i2π
τ
l
T
s
, , e
−i2π(N−1)
τ
l
T
s
), h
i
= (h
T
i
(0), h
T
i
(1), , h
T
i
(L − 1))
T
, and
h
i
(l) = (α
i,1
(l), α
i,2
(l), , α
i,M
t
(l))
T
. This form of received signals is used to discuss
the full diversity property for our STFBC design in Chapter 3.4.3.
2.1.4 ML decoding
If the additive noises are Gaussian, given X and H, the conditional random
vector Y is a vector of joint Gaussian random variables. The ML decoding for joint
Gaussian random variables as
ˆ
C = arg min
C∈C
(Y−
_
ρ
M
t
XH)
H
Σ
−1
(Y−
_
ρ
M
t
XH), (2.13)
where Σ is a covariance matrix of the random vector Y, and the decoded codeword
ˆ
C belongs to ( that is a set of spacetime/frequency codewords from a given space
time/frequency block code.
11
When the additive noises are white, the covariance matrix becomes Σ =
σ
2
n
I
M
r
M
b
N
, where I
m
is the mm identity matrix, and the ML decoding is simpliﬁed
as
ˆ
C = arg min
C∈C
Y−
_
ρ
M
t
XH
2
= arg min
C∈C
¦tr(Y
H
Y) −
_
ρ
M
t
tr(Y
H
XH+H
H
X
H
Y)
+
ρ
M
t
tr(H
H
(X
H
X)H)¦, (2.14)
where the norm   is the Euclidean distance,
X
H
X = diag(C
H
C, , C
H
C
. ¸¸ .
M
r
)
M
r
M
t
N×M
r
M
t
N
(2.15)
Note that, generally, (2.15), the last item of (2.14), decides the decoding
complexity because quadratic term of transmitted symbols may appear and only
appear in this item. We will discuss decoding complexity in detail in Chapter 4.
2.2 OSTFBC and QOSTFBC Coded MIMOOFDM
2.2.1 OSTFBC
The simplest OSTBC is Alamouti code [9] for two transmit antennas of block
size M
b
= 2. For the OSTFBC proposed in [8], we simply repeat OSTBC [9] as:
S
k
= I
Γ
⊗
_
_
S
1,k
S
2,k
−S
∗
2,k
S
∗
1,k
_
_
, (2.16)
where S
i,k
are i.i.d. information symbols, k is the index number of independent
STBC blocks, and k = 1, 2, ,
N
Γ
. Γ = 2
log
2
L
is the number of the times a symbol
is repeated.
For an Nsubcarrier STFBC block,
N
Γ
STBC blocks are assigned to N sub
carriers with each of them repeated by Γ times. So a whole encoded STF block code
is represented by
C = diag(S
1
, S
2
, , SN
Γ
)
M
b
N×M
t
N
. (2.17)
12
We encode and decode S
k
independently for k. Without loss generality, in
this chapter, we only consider the ﬁrst block with subcarriers from 0 to Γ −1.
Thus,
C = S
1
= I
Γ
⊗
_
_
S
1,1
S
2,1
−S
∗
2,1
S
∗
1,1
_
_
. (2.18)
The repetition across subcarriers is to achieve the full multipath diversity as
ﬁrst shown by Su et al in [3].
It is obvious that code word C has orthogonal structure. So similar to
the single subcarrier Alamouti spacetime code, quadratic term in (2.15) becomes
C
H
C = I
Γ
⊗
_
_
[S
1,1
[
2
+[S
2,1
[
2
0
0 [S
1,1
[
2
+[S
2,1
[
2
_
_
. There is no cross quadratic term
in the objective function (2.14), so we can make decision on each symbol individually
at the receiver. We call this decoding has symbolwise decoding complexity. Note
that, there is an assumption that noise is AWGN, so we can use objective function
(2.14). If the noise is Gaussian but not white, which is the case in Chapter 4, we
have to consider decoding objective function (2.13). ML decoding with objective
function (2.13) may not have symbol wise decoding complexity for OSTFBC coded
MIMOOFDM systems.
OSTBC with more transmit antennas can replace Alamouti code in (2.16) to
construct OSTFBC with more transmit antennas. Compared to the OSTBC code,
the OSTFBC achieves more diversity gain from multipaths at the cost of the lower
symbol rate because of the repetition. It is shown in [8] that the above OSTFBC
can achieve the fulldiversity order M
t
M
r
L and symbolwise decoding.
2.2.2 QOSTFBC
Similar to the OSTFBC from the OSTBC code, Alamouti code, QOSTFBC
can be obtained by repeating QOSTBC code [15][17] across frequency subcarriers
[30, 31].
13
For example, QOSTFBC for 4 transmit antennas is
S
k
= I
Γ
⊗
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
S
1,k
S
2,k
S
3,k
S
4,k
−S
∗
2,k
S
∗
1,k
−S
∗
4,k
S
∗
3,k
S
3,k
S
4,k
S
1,k
S
2,k
−S
∗
4,k
S
∗
3,k
−S
∗
2,k
S
∗
1,k
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (2.19)
A whole encoded QOSTF block code C is achieved by substituting (2.19)
into (2.17).
Similar to OSTFBC we talked in previous subsection. All block S
k
are inde
pendent for decoding and encoding. For convenience, we only consider ﬁrst block.
C = S
1
= I
Γ
⊗
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
S
1,1
S
2,1
S
3,1
S
4,1
−S
∗
2,1
S
∗
1,1
−S
∗
4,1
S
∗
3,1
S
3,1
S
4,1
S
1,1
S
2,1
−S
∗
4,1
S
∗
3,1
−S
∗
2,1
S
∗
1,1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (2.20)
Thus, quadratic term in (2.15) becomes
C
H
C = I
Γ
⊗Ω, (2.21)
where
Ω =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
P 0 Q 0
0 P 0 Q
Q 0 P 0
0 Q 0 P
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(2.22)
P =
4
i=1
[S
i,1
[
2
and
Q =
2
i=1
(S
i,1
S
∗
i+2,1
+ S
∗
i,1
S
i+2,1
). (2.23)
14
Due to the lack of the orthogonality, there are two shortcomings of the
above QOSTFBC compared to an OSTFBC. The ﬁrst shortcoming is that the
rank/diversity order of the above QOSTFBC is only
M
t
2
M
r
L. The second short
coming is that, if (2.21) is plugged into the ML decoding objective function (2.14),
at the receiver, when the noise is AWGN, the ML decoding becomes symbolpair
wise decoding due to the cross terms of S
i,1
and S
i+2,1
in (2.23) in the objective
functions.
2.2.3 Linear Transformation for Fast Decoding and Full Diversity
In order to achieve the full diversity, M
t
M
r
L in this case, symbol constellation
rotations for S
i+2,1
from S
i,1
has been proposed in [18, 19, 20], and optimal rotation
angles have been obtained in [20] to maximize the diversity product, where the ML
decoding is still symbolpairwise decoding.
By splitting the real and imaginary parts of S
i,1
and S
i+2,1
in the P and
Q terms in (2.23) and rotating these real and imaginary parts properly [21, 22,
23, 24, 25], the above symbolpairwise ML decoding can be reduced to symbol
wise decoding (singlesymbol decoding) and in the meantime, the diversity product
can be maximized. Optimal rotations for square QAM signal constellations were
obtained in [21, 22, 23, 24] and general optimal linear transformation for general
rectangular signal constellations were obtained in [25]. In the following, we brieﬂy
describe the general optimal linear transformation presented in [25] for QOSTBC
to achieve both symbolwise ML decoding and maximal diversity product.
The main idea is to linearly transform the real and imaginary parts of each
two information symbols to split the P and Q terms in (2.23) into linear summa
tions of quadratic terms of two real variables. Let o denote a rectangular QAM
15
constellation of total N
1
N
2
points:
o =
_
n
1
d
2
+i
n
2
d
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
n
i
∈ ¦−(2N
i
−1), −(2N
i
−3), , −1, 1, , 2N
i
−3, 2N
i
−1¦, i = 1, 2
_
,
(2.24)
where d is the distance of the closest points in each direction. The encoding is the
following.
Step 1 Binary information bits are mapped to 4 information symbols in o: Z
i
=
a
i
+ib
i
∈ o where a
i
and b
i
are real for i = 1, 2, 3, 4.
Step 2 Linearly transform 8 real numbers a
i
and b
i
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4 into another 8
real numbers p
i
and q
i
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4 as follows:
(p
i
, q
i
, p
i+2
, q
i+2
)
T
= U(a
i
, b
i
, a
i+2
, b
i+2
)
T
, i = 1, 2, (2.25)
where U is a 4 4 matrix with all real entries and deﬁned later.
Step 3 Form new 4 complex symbols from the above p
i
and q
i
: S
i
= p
i
+ iq
i
for
i = 1, 2, 3, 4. Then, these 4 symbols S
i
are input to the QOSTBC C in (2.20)
to be connected to a subcarrier in an MIMOOFDM system.
The optimal linear transform U in Step 2 is obtained in [25] to achieve both the
optimal diversity product and the symbolwise ML decoding as follows.
Let
ε
1
=
4N
2
1
−1
2(2N
2
1
+ 2N
2
2
−1)
, ε
2
=
4N
2
2
−1
2(2N
2
1
+ 2N
2
2
−1)
, α = arctan(2), η =
¸
5
12(1 + ε
1
ε
2
)
,
and
R
1
=
_
_
cos(α) sin(α)
sin(α) −cos(α)
_
_
, P =
_
_
0 1
1 0
_
_
, Σ =
_
_
1 + ε
1
1 −2ε
1
1 −2ε
1
2 −ε
1
_
_
.
(2.26)
16
Denote a diagonalization of symmetric matrix Σ as Σ = V
T
DV, where D =
diag(λ
1
, λ
2
), λ
1
, λ
2
are the eigenvalues of Σ and V is an orthogonal matrix. Let
W
1
= ηV
T
_
_
√
λ
1
0
0
√
λ
2
_
_
V, W
2
= ηV
T
_
_
√
λ
2
0
0
√
λ
1
_
_
VP, R
2
= −PR
1
P.
(2.27)
Then, the linear transform U is one of the following three U
i
for i = 1, 2, 3:
U
1
=
_
_
W
1
W
2
W
1
R
1
W
2
R
2
_
_
, U
2
= U
1
P
2
, U
3
= U
1
P
3
, (2.28)
where
P
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
and P
3
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
The ML decoding objective function then becomes:
Y−
_
ρ
M
t
XH
2
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
4
i=1
f
i
(a
i
, b
i
), if U = U
1
,
2
i=1
f
i
(a
i
, a
i+2
) +
2
i=1
f
i+2
(b
i
, b
i+2
), if U = U
2
,
2
i=1
f
i
(a
i
, b
i+2
) +
2
i=1
f
i+2
(b
i
, a
i+2
), if U = U
3
,
(2.29)
where f
i
(x, y) are known quadratic forms of real variables x and y. Thus, the ML
decoding of the linearly transformed QOSTBC becomes
arg min
C∈C
Y−
_
ρ
M
t
XH
2
←→arg min
a
i
,b
i
f
i
(a
i
, b
i
), i = 1, 2, 3, 4, (2.30)
for example when U = U
1
. As a special case when signal constellation o is a square
QAM, i.e., N
1
= N
2
, the above linear transform U can be simpliﬁed as the following
orthogonal matrix:
U
1
=
1
√
2
_
_
I
2
I
2
R
1
−R
1
_
_
. (2.31)
17
As a ﬁnal remark, as long as the decoding objective function is composed of
some linear functions of P and Q in (2.23) of complex symbols S
i
and some linear
functions of S
i
and S
∗
i
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, the above optimal linear transformation
theory applies, which will be the case for clipped MIMOOFDM systems as we shall
see later.
Similar to OSTFBC, the repetition of QOSTFBC in the frequency domain
can exploit the multipath diversity in MIMOOFDM systems. It is stated as the
following theorem whose proof is similar to the one for OSTFBC in [8] and the one
from repeating in [3]. The details of the proof are omitted.
Theorem 1 For a MIMOOFDM system with M
t
transmit antennas and M
r
receive
antennas, and L independent paths, the linearly transformed QOSTFBC achieves the
full diversity of diversity order M
t
M
r
L.
Note that QOSTBC is a special case of QOSTFBC when Γ = 1.
2.3 Performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM Sys
tems
We compare OSTBC code, OSTFBC code, and linearly transformed QOSTFBC
code in MIMOOFDM systems. In this simulation, an MIMO frequencyselective
Rayleigh channel is characterized by a tworay, i.e., L = 2, equal power delay proﬁle
in which the second path delay τ is 0.5µs. An OFDM with N = 64 subcarriers
is used. The time duration of one OFDM symbol is T
s
= 3.2µs. In this case, the
repetition times Γ = L = 2.
Because of the repetition over the subcarriers, the STFBCs have lower sym
bol rates than the original STBC. In order to compare the performances for the
same transmission bit rate, we assign larger constellations for STFBCs. In Fig. 2.1,
OSTBC uses BPSK modulation, while OSTFBC and QOSTFBC use 4QAM. The
upper curve marked by + is for the OSTBC over an 2 1 MIMOOFDM system,
18
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
1bit/s/Hz
2 × 1 OSTBC (BPSK)
2 × 1 OSTFBC (4QAM)
4 × 1 transformed QOSTFBC (4QAM)
Figure 2.1: Performance comparison among the spacetime block code and space
timefrequency block code without clipping for 1 receiver antenna in
MIMOOFDM systems.
i.e., M
t
= 2, M
r
= 1. In this case, the code has diversity gain M
t
M
r
= 2. The
middle curve marked with is for the OSTFBC over a 21 MIMOOFDM system,
i.e., M
t
= 2, M
r
= 1. In this case, the code achieve the extra multipath diversity, so
diversity gain is M
t
M
r
L = 4. The lowest curve marked by ∇is for the linearly trans
formed QOSTFBC as in Chapter 2.2, where the diversity gain is 8. One can clearly
see the performance diﬀerence. At the same bit transmission rate, the transformed
QOSTFBC has highest diversity gain among three codes and indeed achieves the
best performance.
19
Chapter 3
PRECODING FOR PAPR REDUCTION AT
TRANSMITTER USING CHU SEQUENCES
A family of spacetimefrequency codes proposed in Chapter 2 can achieve the
full spatial and multipath diversities for MIMOOFDM systems and in the meantime
they have the fast singlesymbol ML decoding by using OSTBC and QOSTBC across
multiple antennas and OFDM symbols, and also repeating across subcarriers.
Although the repetition across subcarriers can achieve the multipath diver
sity, it causes high PAPR. The main goal of this chapter is to modify the repeating
process and adjust phases for each repetition so that the PAPR of the OFDM sys
tem is reduced, and in the meantime the full spatial and multipath diversities and
the fast ML decoding are still maintained. In particular, we propose to use Chu
sequences [38, 39] for the phase adjustments and show that the discrete PAPR can
be reduced by Γ times for any SFC from the repeating, where Γ is the times of the
repeating across subcarriers.
3.1 Deﬁnition of PAPR in OFDM Systems
For an OFDM system, the timedomain baseband signal can be represented
as
a(t) =
1
√
N
N−1
n=0
A(n) exp(i2πnt/T
s
), 0 ≤ t ≤ T
s
, (3.1)
20
where A(0), A(1), ..., A(N−1) are complex information symbols transmitted through
N subcarriers. The PAPR is deﬁned as
PAPR =
max[[a(t)[
2
]
E[[a(t)[
2
]
, (3.2)
where E() denotes the expectation. By sampling the above signal a(t) with sam
pling interval length ∆t = T
s
/N, we get a discrete time domain signal a = (a(n)) =
(a(nT
s
/N)) = IDFT(A, N) and the discrete PAPR is deﬁned by max[[a(n)[
2
]/E[[a(n)[
2
].
In what follows, we are mainly concerned with discrete PAPR unless otherwise spec
iﬁed.
3.2 PAPR of OFDM Vectors with Repeated Symbols
For the spacetimefrequency coding described in the preceding chapter, we
repeat an information symbol Γ times across subcarriers for achieving the multipath
diversity. So we need to analyze PAPR of OFDM vectors with repeated symbols.
An input sequence of N/Γ information symbols can be represented as
ˆ
o
i
= (S
i,1
, S
i,2
, , S
i,
N
Γ
)
T
, (3.3)
where S
i,k
are i.i.d. information symbols, k is the index number of independent
STBC blocks, and k = 1, 2, ,
N
Γ
. Γ = 2
log
2
L
is the number of the times a symbol
is repeated.
Corresponding discrete time domain signal is
ˆs
i
= IDFT(
ˆ
o
i
,
N
Γ
). (3.4)
The N/Γ information symbols in
ˆ
o
i
(3.3) are repeated Γ times to obtain an OFDM
vector of size N 1:
o
i
=
ˆ
o
i
⊗1
Γ×1
, (3.5)
21
Then the time domain signal of o
i
is
s
i
(n) =
1
√
N
N
Γ
−1
l=0
_
S
i,(l+1)
Γ−1
γ=0
exp(
i2πn(Γl + γ)
N
)
_
=
1
√
N
N
Γ
−1
l=0
S
i,(l+1)
exp(
i2πnΓl
N
)
Γ−1
γ=0
exp(
i2πnγ
N
). (3.6)
We deﬁne two sequences as
˜ s
i
(n) =
N
Γ
−1
l=0
S
i,(l+1)
exp(
i2πnΓl
N
)
λ
1
(n) =
Γ−1
γ=0
exp(
i2πnγ
N
), (3.7)
where ¦
˜ s
i
(n)
√
N/Γ
¦ is the periodic extension of ˆs
i
in (3.4) and ¦
λ
1
(n)
√
N
¦ is Npoint IDFT of
sequence 1
Γ×1
padding N −Γ zeros at its end. Fig. 3.1 shows examples of sequence
¦
λ
1
(n)
√
N
¦ for Γ = 2 or Γ = 4 when N = 64. Clearly its PAPR aﬀects the PAPR of the
OFDM signal s
i
(n). We next propose two methods to adjust the above repeating
process and add a phase to an information symbol at each repeat so that the PAPR
of s
i
(n) can be reduced.
3.3 PAPR Reduction by Phase Adjustment in the Repetition
In this subsection, we propose to use a Chu sequence to adjust the phases
in the repetition. From [38, 39], a Chu sequence, a polyphase sequence, has perfect
cyclic autocorrelation. We represent a Chu sequence as Θ = ¦e
iα(0)
, e
iα(1)
, , e
iα(Γ−1)
¦,
where
α(n) =
_
_
_
π
Γ
(n + 1)n, Γ odd,
π
Γ
n
2
, Γ even,
0 ≤ n ≤ Γ −1. (3.8)
Let o
i
=
ˆ
o
i
⊗Θ. Then,
s
i
(n) =
1
√
N
N
Γ
−1
l=0
_
S
i,(l+1)
Γ−1
γ=0
exp
_
i(
2πn(Γl + γ)
N
+ α(γ))
_
_
22
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Amplitude of Sequence θ
1
(n),(N=64,Γ=2)
Amplitude of Sequence λ
1
(n),(N=64,Γ=2)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Amplitude of Sequence θ
1
(n),(N=64,Γ=4)
Amplitude of Sequence λ
1
(n),(N=64,Γ=4)
Figure 3.1: Signal amplitudes from repetition with and without phase adjustment.
=
1
√
N
N
Γ
−1
l=0
S
i,(l+1)
exp(
i2πnΓl
N
)
Γ−1
γ=0
exp
_
i(
2πnγ
N
+ α(γ))
_
. (3.9)
We deﬁne a sequence as
θ
1
(n) =
Γ−1
γ=0
exp
_
i(
2πnγ
N
+ α(γ))
_
, (3.10)
where ¦
θ
1
(n)
√
N
¦ = IDFT(Θ, N).
In Fig. 3.1, solid lines show the amplitude of θ
1
(n) in (3.10). From the ﬁgure,
when Γ = 4, θ
1
(n) has lower PAPR than λ
1
(n) in (3.6). From (3.10), max([θ
1
(n)[
2
) =
8, when n =
5
8
N. Since the mean [θ
1
(n)[
2
is 4, we have PAPR= 2, which is about
3dB lower than λ
1
(n). However if Γ = 2, θ
1
(n) achieves the same PAPR as λ
1
(n).
When Chu sequence Θ is used to replace 1
Γ×1
, it means that we ﬁrstly rotate
an information symbol by a set of phases and then repeat phase shifted symbols at
diﬀerent subcarriers. Then, the signal λ
1
(n) of the Npoint IDFT of 1
Γ×1
padding
N − Γ zeros is replaced by θ
1
(n), the Npoint IDFT of Θ padding N − Γ zeros.
23
Although we may use a random phased sequence of length Γ, its Npoint IDFT
after padding N − Γ zeros at its end will never have a constant magnitude (0 dB
PAPR). In order to have a constant magnitude IDFT of a length Γ sequence, the
IDFT size has to be Γ too, which motivates the next method that is to change the
way of repetition.
Note that, it is not hard to check that the above phase adjustment does not
change the full diversity of the spacetimefrequency code, i.e., the diversity order
is still M
t
M
r
L, as before.
3.4 PAPR Reduction by New Repetition Method and Phase Adjust
ment
In this chapter, we ﬁrst propose a new repetition of information symbols, then
use a Chu sequence to adjust the phases of the information symbols, and ﬁnally we
present the full diversity property of an adjusted spacetimefrequency code.
3.4.1 New Repetition Method
We redesign o
i
in (3.5) as
o
i
= 1
Γ×1
⊗
ˆ
o
i
. (3.11)
Then, the time domain signal is
s
i
(n) =
1
√
N
N
Γ
−1
l=0
_
S
i,(l+1)
Γ−1
γ=0
exp(
i2πn(
N
Γ
γ + l)
N
)
_
=
1
√
N
N
Γ
−1
l=0
S
i,(l+1)
exp(
i2πnl
N
)
Γ−1
γ=0
exp(
i2πnγ
Γ
). (3.12)
24
We deﬁne two sequences as
ˇ s
i
(n) =
N
Γ
−1
l=0
S
i,(l+1)
exp(
i2πnl
N
)
λ
2
(n) =
Γ−1
γ=0
exp(
i2πnγ
Γ
), (3.13)
where ¦
ˇ s
i
(n)
√
N
¦ = IDFT(
ˆ
o
i
, N) and
λ
2
(n)
√
Γ
is the periodic extension of IDFT(1
Γ×1
, Γ).
As one can see now, the signal
λ
2
(n)
√
Γ
in (3.12) is the Γpoint IDFT of 1
Γ×1
of length
Γ.
3.4.2 Phase Adjustment for PAPR Reduction Using Chu Sequences
We replace 1
Γ×1
in (3.11) by a Chu sequence Θ of length Γ to obtain
o
i
= Θ⊗
ˆ
o
i
. (3.14)
Thus, the time domain signal is
s
i
(n) =
1
√
N
N
Γ
−1
l=0
_
S
i,(l+1)
Γ−1
γ=0
exp
_
i(
2πn(
N
Γ
γ + l)
N
+ α(γ))
__
=
1
√
N
N
Γ
−1
l=0
S
i,(l+1)
exp(
i2πnl
N
)
Γ−1
γ=0
exp
_
i(
2πnγ
Γ
+ α(γ))
_
, (3.15)
We deﬁne a sequence as
θ
2
(n) =
Γ−1
γ=0
exp
_
i(
2πnγ
Γ
+ α(γ))
_
, (3.16)
where
θ
2
(n)
√
Γ
is the periodic extension of IDFT(Θ, Γ). Since a Chu sequence has the
perfect autocorrelation [38, 39], the absolute value of its Γpoint IDFT is constant,
i.e.,
¸
¸
¸
¸
θ
2
(n)
√
Γ
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 1 for all n, (3.17)
25
which means that its PAPR is 0 dB and it is already optimal. Comparing to the
PAPR of the OFDM signal in (3.12) before the phase adjustment, the PAPR of the
signal in (3.15) after the phase adjustment using a Chu sequence is reduced by Γ
times. This implies the following result.
As a remark, it is not hard to see that any other sequence with perfect
autocorrelation property, i.e., its IDFT of its length has constant magnitude, will
work for the above PAPR reduction.
We now see some examples of PAPR distributions for discrete OFDM signals
via computer simulations. The complementary cumulative distribution function,
CCDF(x) =Pr(PAPR> x), is shown in Fig. 3.2. The number of subcarriers is
64 and each subcarrier is modulated by 16QAM. The repetition factor is Γ = 4.
The dot line is for the case of the original repetition without phase rotation, and
the solid line is for the case of the original repetition but with Chu sequence phase
rotation, and the dashed line is for case of the new repetition with Chu sequence
phase rotation. It is shown that discrete OFDM signals by the new repetition with
Chu sequence has the lowest PAPR in statistics, while the PAPR of the original
repeating OFDM signals is the highest. In particular, for CCDF(x) = 10
−3
, the
PAPR is reduced by more than 2.5 dB by the new repetition with Chu sequence.
Fig. 3.3 shows the approximation of the PAPR CCDF of the ideal band
limited (analog) OFDM signals. The ideally bandlimited (analog) OFDM signal
is generated by oversampling the signal by a factor of sixteen. Unlike to discrete
signals, the new repetition can not achieve lower PAPR than the original repetition,
however the Chu sequence still helps to reduce the PAPR.
26
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
CCDF(x)
x (dB)
P
r
(
P
A
P
R
>
x
)
New Repetition with Chu Sequence
Original Repetition with Chu Sequence
Original Repetition
Figure 3.2: Comparison of the complementary CDF of the PAPR of the discrete
OFDM signals with repetition factor Γ = 4.
27
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
CCDF(x)
x (dB)
P
r
(
P
A
P
R
>
x
)
New Repetition with Chu Sequence
Original Repetition with Chu Sequence
Original Repetition
Figure 3.3: Comparison of the complementary CDF of the PAPR of the ideally
bandlimited (analog) OFDM signals with repetition factor Γ = 4.
28
3.4.3 Full Diversity of STFBC from the New Repetition
We now go back to the spacetimefrequency coded MIMOOFDM system
described in the preceding chapters. Let
C(n)
∆
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
C
1
1
(n) C
1
2
(n) C
1
M
t
(n)
C
2
1
(n) C
2
2
(n) C
2
M
t
(n)
.
.
.
C
M
b
1
(n) C
M
b
2
(n) C
M
b
M
t
(n)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
M
b
×M
t
(3.18)
as (2.4) and C(n) be a spacetime code of size M
b
M
t
, such as the 2 2 Alamouti
code for 2 antennas and the 4 4 QOSTBC for 4 antennas as used in the preceding
chapter. The spacetimefrequency code C described before is that the columns
of C(n) are assigned to transmitters and the rows of C(n) are assigned to OFDM
symbols and each element in C(n) is repeated by Γ ≥ L times across subcarriers
along index n, i.e., C
t
j
(n
1
+ (m−1)Γ) = C
t
j
(n
2
+ (m−1)Γ) for 0 ≤ n
1
, n
2
≤ Γ −1
for any ﬁxed m with 1 ≤ m ≤
N
Γ
and 1 ≤ t ≤ M
b
, 1 ≤ j ≤ M
t
. By following
[3], it is shown in [8] that if the original spacetime code C(n) has full diversity, the
spacetimefrequency code C from the original repetition has diversity order M
t
M
r
L
when M
b
= M
t
.
The question now is whether the spacetimefrequency code with the new
repetition and phase adjustment in the preceding two subsections, Chapters 3.4.1
and 3.4.2, for a full diversity spacetime code C(n) still has the full diversity. The
following result provides an answer for this question.
Theorem 2 Let C(n) be a full diversity spacetime code of size M
b
M
t
, its columns
are assigned to transmitters and its rows are assigned to OFDM symbols. Let the
symbols (or components) of C(n) are repeated and phase adjusted as (3.11) and
(3.14) across subcarriers, i.e., along index n, respectively, and Γ ≥ L where L is the
29
number of multipaths of distinct time delays τ
l
, 0 ≤ l ≤ L −1. Then, such a space
timefrequency code has full diversity, i.e., achieves the diversity order M
t
M
r
L, if
τ
p
−τ
q
T
s
N
Γ
,= an integer, for p ,= q. (3.19)
Proof: For any two distinct spacetimefrequency code matrices C and
ˆ
C, let
their diﬀerence matrix be
˜
C = C −
ˆ
C ,= 0. Without loss of generality, we may
assume
˜
C(1) = C(1) −
ˆ
C(1) ,= 0. Substituting
˜
C into (2.11), we have
˜
G = [(I
M
b
⊗D
0
)
˜
C, (I
M
b
⊗D
1
)
˜
C, , (I
M
b
⊗D
L−1
)
˜
C]. (3.20)
We extract the submatrix associated with
˜
C(1) from
˜
G as in Appendix of [8]:
B = ((diag(Θ)V) ⊗I
M
b
)(I
L
⊗
˜
C(1)), (3.21)
where
V =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1 1
ζ
N
Γ
τ
0
ζ
N
Γ
τ
1
ζ
N
Γ
τ
L−1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ζ
(Γ−1)
N
Γ
τ
0
ζ
(Γ−1)
N
Γ
τ
1
ζ
(Γ−1)
N
Γ
τ
L−1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (3.22)
where ζ = e
−i2π/T
s
. We then write the submatrix of the ﬁrst L rows of V as
¯
V =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1 1
ζ
N
Γ
τ
0
ζ
N
Γ
τ
1
ζ
N
Γ
τ
L−1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ζ
(L−1)
N
Γ
τ
0
ζ
(L−1)
N
Γ
τ
1
ζ
(L−1)
N
Γ
τ
L−1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (3.23)
Similar to the proofs in [8, 3], our spacetimefrequency code achieve the diversity
order M
b
M
t
L if rank(
¯
V) = L, i.e., it is full rank, which is checked as follows.
Since
¯
V is a Vandermonde matrix, we have
det(
¯
V) =
0≤q<p≤L−1
(ζ
N
Γ
τ
p
−ζ
N
Γ
τ
q
). (3.24)
30
The square matrix
¯
V is of full rank if and only if det(
¯
V) ,= 0. So for any pair of τ
q
and τ
p
,
rank(
¯
V) = L
⇐⇒ det(
¯
V) ,= 0 ⇐⇒ζ
N
Γ
τ
p
,= ζ
N
Γ
τ
q
, for p ,= q
⇐⇒ e
−i2π
τ
p
T
s
N
Γ
,= e
−i2π
τ
q
T
s
N
Γ
, for p ,= q
⇐⇒
τ
p
−τ
q
T
s
N
Γ
,= an integer, for p ,= q. (3.25)
We normalize the time diﬀerence by T
c
, the duration of a chip, so
τ
p
−τ
q
T
c
= ∆N
p,q
, (3.26)
where ∆N
p,q
is the number of chips that delay between qth and pth multipaths spans
over.
Since
T
s
T
c
= N,
(3.25) ⇐⇒
∆N
p,q
T
c
NT
c
N
Γ
,= an integer, for p ,= q
⇐⇒
∆N
p,q
Γ
,= an integer, for p ,= q. (3.27)
In general, ∆N
p,q
is not necessary to be an integer. So, if ∆N
p,q
is not an
integer, the above condition is automatically satisﬁed. In case when ∆N
p,q
is an
integer, we need to choose Γ that does not divide ∆N
p,q
for any p, q or adjust T
c
so that
∆N
p,q
Γ
is not an integer. When L multipaths are of time delays τ
l
= lT
c
,
0 ≤ l ≤ L −1, the above condition is then also satisﬁed.
Note that, for the original repeating (3.5) used in [3, 8], in the above proof,
the factor
N
Γ
does not appear on the exponential of ζ in (3.22) and (3.23) and
τ
p
−τ
q
T
s
can be only a fraction and thus the above condition is naturally satisﬁed.
From the above proof, one can see that the form of a Chu sequence Θ does
not aﬀect the full diversity property of the STFBC, while the repetition method
does.
31
Since the result in Theorem 2 is for a general full diversity spacetime code
C(n) of size M
b
M
t
, it holds for the Alamouti code for two transmit antennas and
the linearly transformed QOSTBC for four transmit antennas as described before.
3.4.4 Fast Decoding
From (2.14), we have
ˆ
C = arg min
C∈C
¦tr(Y
H
Y) −
_
ρ
M
t
tr(Y
H
XH+H
H
X
H
Y)
+
ρ
M
t
tr(H
H
(X
H
X)H)¦. (3.28)
where X
H
X = I
M
r
⊗C
H
C.
For OSTFBC, substituting (3.14) into (2.16) and (2.17), we have
C
H
C = diag(Θ
∗
◦ Θ) ⊗diag
_
_
_
_
R
k
0
0 R
k
_
_
, 1 ≤ k ≤
N
Γ
_
_
= I
Γ
⊗diag
_
_
_
_
R
k
0
0 R
k
_
_
, 1 ≤ k ≤
N
Γ
_
_
, (3.29)
where R
k
=
2
i=1
[S
i,k
[
2
.
For QOSTFBC, substituting (3.14) into (2.19) and (2.17), we have
C
H
C = diag(Θ
∗
◦ Θ) ⊗diag
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
P 0 Q 0
0 P 0 Q
Q 0 P 0
0 Q 0 P
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, 1 ≤ k ≤
N
Γ
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(3.30)
where P and Q are deﬁned as (2.23).
For both cases, the decoding equations satisfy the fast ML decoding condition
we have discussed in Chapter 2.2.
32
3.5 Performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM with
Clipping
In this chapter, we compare performance of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in
MIMOOFDM systems, where the original repetition and the new repetition with
phase adjustments are applied.
In our simulation systems, we use clipping process at the transmitter. The
clipping process we use is
[˜ a(n)[ =
_
_
_
[a(n)[, if [a(n)[ ≤ A
max
A
max
, if [a(n)[ > A
max
, (3.31)
where A
max
is the maximum amplitude of signals allowed by the nonlinear ampliﬁer.
The clipping ratio r is deﬁned by
r =
A
max
√
P
in
, (3.32)
where P
in
is the average signal power before clipping.
In Fig. 3.4 and Fig. 3.5, the MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh channel
characterized by a fourray, i.e., L = 4, equal power delay proﬁle in which the delays
are [0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.45]µs. In this case, the repetition times Γ = L = 4. Note that
these systems do satisfy the fulldiversity condition we obtained in Theorem 2 in
Chapter 3.4.3.
In these simulations, 16QAM is used. In Fig. 3.4, 21 OSTFBC is used, and
in Fig. 3.5, 4 1 linearly transformed QOSTFBC [25] is used. In Fig. 3.4 and Fig.
3.5, the dashed curves are for the original repetition algorithm proposed in [8], and
the dot curves are for original repetition algorithm with phase adjustments, and the
solid curves are for our newly proposed repetition algorithm with phase adjustments.
As one can see, in all cases of diﬀerent clipping ratios, Chu sequences for the phase
adjustment in the original repetition method help to reduce the PAPR, and our
newly proposed repetition algorithm and phase adjustments using Chu sequences
always achieve the best performances than the original repetition algorithm does.
33
8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
1bit/s/Hz
Original Repetition
Original Repetition with Chu Sequences
New Repetition with Chu Sequences
γ=1.2
γ=1.5
γ=2.0
Figure 3.4: Performance comparison of clipped 21 OFDM OSTFBC with Γ = 4.
34
8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
1bit/s/Hz
Original Repetition
Original Repetition with Chu Sequences
New Repetition with Chu Sequences
γ=1.2
γ=1.5
γ=2.0
Figure 3.5: Performance comparison of clipped 4 1 OFDM linearly transformed
QOSTFBC with Γ = 4.
35
Chapter 4
CLIPPING NOISE MODEL BASED ML DECODING AT
RECEIVER
An important issue for OFDM systems is their high PAPR and it is important
to reduce the PAPR in a practical (power eﬃcient) system. One of the most eﬃcient
ways to reduce the PAPR is clipping [34] that, however, induces clipping noise and
the induced clipping noise in an MIMOOFDM system may not be white and thus
the fast ML decoding for an OSTBC or QOSTBC coded system may not hold.
When the additive noise is not white, ML decoding for spatially colored noised [26]
needs to be considered.
In this chapter, we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTFBC
or QOSTFBC is used. By applying the clipping noise model from Bussgang’s the
orem used in, for example [35][37], we derive fast (singlesymbol) ML decoding
algorithms for OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. In
terestingly, the fast ML decoding properties for OSTFBC and rotated QOSTFBC
[9][25] in MIMOOFDM systems without clipping are still maintained in clipped
MIMOOFDM systems. It should be emphasized that the newly developed fast
ML decoding for rotated QOSTFBC proposed in [18][25] for MIMO channels with
white noise still has the singlesymbol (or complex symbolwise) decoding property
in clipped MIMOOFDM systems.
Above decoding algorithm requires the knowledge of the clipping ratio (CR)
at the receiver. However, in some applications, for example in interference channels,
36
it is may be possible that the CR is not known at the receiver. A clipping ratio es
timation method has been proposed for single antenna OFDM systems in [33]. This
clipping ratio estimation method can be applied to pilottonebased OFDM systems
only. By calculating the statistics of the clipping noise at the pilot subcarriers, the
CR can be estimated from the statistical clipping noise model given in [36][37]. In
this chapter, we also develop a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for a clipped
MIMOOFDM systems where OSTBC and QOSTBC are used at the transmitter
and the CR is not known at the receiver.
4.1 Clipping Process and Clipping Noise Model in an OFDM System
We ﬁrst review the clipped signal and clipping noise models described in [35]
[37] and then extend this model developed for SISO systems to MIMO systems which
results in a spatially colored noise model. For an OFDM system, the timedomain
baseband signal can be represented as
s(t) =
1
√
N
N−1
n=0
A
n
exp(i2πnt/T
s
), 0 ≤ t ≤ T
s
, (4.1)
where A
0
, A
1
, ..., A
N−1
are the original complex information symbols transmitted
through N subcarriers.
By oversampling the above signal s(t) at a time interval length ∆t = T
s
/(JN),
where J is a oversampling factor, we get a discrete time domain signal
s(k) =
1
√
J
s(kT/(JN)) = a(k)exp(iφ(k)), k = 0, . . . , JN −1, (4.2)
where a(k) is the amplitude of s(k) and φ(k) is the phase.
The clipping process can be represented by
˜ a(k) =
_
_
_
a(k), if a(k) ≤ A
max
A
max
, if a(k) > A
max
, (4.3)
˜ s(k) = ˜ a(k)exp(iφ(k)). (4.4)
37
where A
max
is the maximum amplitude of signals allowed by a nonlinear ampliﬁer.
If the amplitude of signal s(k) is above A
max
, it is clipped. The clipping ratio r is
deﬁned as
r =
A
max
√
P
in
, (4.5)
where P
in
is the average signal constellation power before clipping, i.e., the mean
power of C(n) in (2.4). In this work, we use normalized information symbols at
the transmitter so that P
in
= 1. The clipping ratio is a very important factor that
aﬀects the BER performance and PAPR after the clipping.
After clipping, sequence ˜ s(k) passes through a lowpass equivalent band pass
ﬁlter (BPF)[35]. The outofband radiation is eliminated. However the distortion
caused by clipping can not be eliminated by the ﬁlter.
The clipped time domain signal ˜ s(k) can be modelled as the summation of
an attenuated signal component and the clipping distortion [35][36] as
˜ s(k) = αs(k) + d(k), (4.6)
where α is the attenuation factor deﬁned as
α = 1 −e
−r
2
+
√
πr
2
erfc(r), (4.7)
and d(k) is the clipping distortion. Thus, the frequency domain signal converted
from the clipped time domain signal ˜ s(k) can be written as
¯
S(n) = αS(n) + D(n), (4.8)
where S(n) and D(n) are the DFTs of s(k) and d(k), respectively. Note that, if
S(n) is not i.i.d.,
¯
S(n) is not i.i.d. either. In this case, channel interleaving and
deinterleaving can eliminate the statistical dependence of S(n). Thus, we assume
that S(n) is i.i.d. From [35][36], the distortion in the frequency domain is a complex
Gaussian random variable with zero mean. In [37], the clipping distortion variance
is calculated as
σ
2
D
= P
in
(1 −e
−r
2
−α
2
). (4.9)
38
Thus, at the receiver, the received signal in the frequency domain is
Y (n) = α
_
ρ
M
t
H(n)S(n) +
_
ρ
M
t
H(n)D(n) + N(n), (4.10)
where N(n) is the additive Gaussian noise at the nth subcarrier and independent of
the distortion. So, (Y (n)[S(n), H(n)) is a Gaussian random variable and its variance
is
ρ
M
t
[H(n)[
2
σ
2
D
+ σ
2
n
, (4.11)
where M
t
= 1 in the single antenna case. We assume that the receiver knows the
clipping level as a system design parameter and thus the receiver can calculate the
attenuation factor and the clipping distortion variance as (4.7) and (4.9), respec
tively. From the above equation, one can see the diﬀerence between the channel
AWGN and the clipping distortion. The distortion caused by the clipping at the
transmitter depends on the transmitted signal and increases with the transmitted
signal power. Since the distortion is passed through the channel, the distortion is
faded through the channel as a transmitted signal is.
Although the above model is for single antenna OFDM systems, it also applies
to any pair transmit and receive antennas in MIMOOFDM systems. For an MIMO
OFDM system, with C in (2.5), the signal model in (2.8) becomes
Y
i
=
_
ρ
M
t
¯
CH
i
+N
i
= α
_
ρ
M
t
CH
i
+
_
ρ
M
t
DH
i
+N
i
. (4.12)
where D is the distortion matrix. The detailed form of D depends on the detailed
form of the STFBC C. In the following, OSTFBC and QOSTFBC for C will be
considered. There are at least two ways to decode (4.12). One is to directly decode
C without the consideration of the clipping distortion D. In this case, the AWGN
is only considered and the fast decoding algorithms described in Chapter 2.2 apply.
39
The other is to decode C by considering the clipping noise in the overall additive
noise
_
ρ
M
t
DH
i
+N
i
that may not be white. Thus, ML decoding for spatially colored noise [26] needs to
be considered. The goal of the following discussions is to derive fast ML decoding
algorithms for OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM systems when the
above clipping noise model is used, and we show that the fast (complex) symbol
wise decoding algorithms for the OSTFBC and linearly transformed QOSTFBC
described in Chapter 2.2 can be maintained.
4.2 SingleSymbol ML Decoding for OSTFBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM
Systems
Let us ﬁrst recall the OSTFBC structure (2.16) and (2.17) introduced in
Section 2.2.1.
S
k
= I
Γ
⊗
_
_
S
1,k
S
2,k
−S
∗
2,k
S
∗
1,k
_
_
, (4.13)
and
C = diag(S
1
, S
2
, , SN
Γ
)
M
b
N×M
t
N
. (4.14)
Without loss of generality, we only consider Alamouti code and Γ = 2. In
this case, the distortion matrix D is
D = diag(D
1
, D
2
, , DN
Γ
)
M
b
N×M
t
N
. (4.15)
where
D
k
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
D
1,k
(0) D
2,k
(0) 0 0
−D
∗
2,k
(0) D
∗
1,k
(0) 0 0
0 0 D
1,k
(1) D
2,k
(1)
0 0 −D
∗
2,k
(1) D
∗
1,k
(1)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (4.16)
40
where D
i,k
(γ) is the additive distortion of γth repetition of S
i,k
. Because clipping
is a nonlinear process, so the distortion caused by clipping is not simply repeated γ
times, i.e. D
i,k
(0) ,= D
i,k
(1). Since the information symbols S
i,k
are independent in
terms of i, the corresponding distortions D
i,k
(γ) are also independent in terms of i.
We also approximately treat distortions from diﬀerent subcarriers independent, i.e.
D
i,k
(γ) are independent in terms of γ and k as [36]. Considering the correlation of
D
i,k
(γ) with diﬀerent γ and k may improve performance at the cost of a very high
computational complexity. So it is not considered in this research.
Thus, based on the model described in Chapter 4.1, D
i,k
(γ) are independent
complex Gaussian random variables with zero mean and covariances:
E[D
i,k
(n)D
∗
j,h
(γ)] =
_
_
_
σ
2
D
, if i = j , n = γ and k = h
0, otherwise
, (4.17)
where σ
2
D
is given in (4.9).
Because we treat D
k
independently in term of k, without loss generality, in
this chapter we consider D
1
only i.e.
N
Γ
= 1, D = D
1
, and C = S
1
. We drop the
index k.
The covariance matrix of the received signal Y given C and H can be calcu
lated as follows from (4.17). From (4.12), it is not hard to see
Σ = Cov(Y, Y[C, H) = (Σ
i,j
)
1≤i,j≤M
r
, (4.18)
where Σ
i,j
= E[DH
i
H
H
j
D
H
] + E[N
i
N
H
j
], thus
Σ
i,j
=
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
0
0 A
ij
(1)I
2
_
_
4×4
(4.19)
is the (i, j)th block in Σ, where
A
ij
(γ) =
_
_
_
ρ
M
t
σ
2
D
([H
i,1
(γ)[
2
+[H
i,2
(γ)[
2
) + σ
2
n
, if i = j,
ρ
M
t
σ
2
D
(H
i,1
(γ)H
∗
j,1
(γ) + H
i,2
(γ)H
∗
j,2
(γ)), if i ,= j.
(4.20)
41
Lemma 1 If matrix Σ =
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
0
0 A
ij
(1)I
2
_
_
_
_
1≤i,j≤M
with constants A
ij
(γ)
has an inverse, then its inverse Σ
−1
also has the form Σ
−1
=
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
0
0 A
ij
(1)I
2
_
_
_
_
1≤i,j≤M
where A
ij
(γ) are constants.
Proof: A 2 2 matrix A
ij
(γ)I
2
is equivalent to a scalar number A
ij
(γ) in
terms of the arithmetic operations of complex numbers. Thus matrix Σ is equiva
lent to
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0) 0
0 A
ij
(1)
_
_
_
_
1≤i,j≤M
in terms of complex number arithmetic op
erations by using the mapping from A
ij
(γ)I
2
to A
ij
(γ). Let the inverse matrix of
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0) 0
0 A
ij
(1)
_
_
_
_
1≤i,j≤M
be
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0) 0
0 A
ij
(1)
_
_
_
_
1≤i,j≤M
that is equiva
lent to
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
0
0 A
ij
(1)I
2
_
_
_
_
1≤i,j≤M
. Lemma 1 is proved.
With this lemma, we next derive the ML decoding (2.13) when Σ has the
above form (4.18) and then
Σ
−1
=
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
0
0 A
ij
(1)I
2
_
_
_
_
1≤i,j≤M
. (4.21)
Let
V
i
(γ) = Y
i
(γ) −α
_
ρ
M
t
C(γ)H
i
(γ), i = 1, 2, , M
r
, and γ = 0, 1. (4.22)
Substitute (4.21) and (4.22) into (2.13),
ˆ
C = arg min
C∈C
M
r
i=1
M
r
j=1
1
γ=0
V
H
i
(γ)A
ij
(γ)I
2
V
j
(γ)
= arg min
C∈C
M
r
i=1
M
r
j=1
1
γ=0
A
ij
(γ)V
H
i
(γ)V
j
(γ). (4.23)
42
In objective function (4.23), the quadratic form of complex symbols is
C
H
(γ)C(γ) =
_
_
S
1
S
2
−S
∗
2
S
∗
1
_
_
H
_
_
S
1
S
2
−S
∗
2
S
∗
1
_
_
=
_
_
[S
1
[
2
+[S
2
[
2
0
0 [S
1
[
2
+[S
2
[
2
_
_
, γ = 0, 1. (4.24)
So
A
ij
(γ)V
H
i
(γ)V
j
(γ) =
2
l=1
f
i,j,l
(S
l
), (4.25)
where each f
i,j,l
(x) is a known quadratic form of complex variable x. Thus, the ML
decoding of the OSTFBC in the clipped MIMOOFDM system is
ˆ
C = arg min
C∈C
(Y−α
_
ρ
M
t
XH)
H
Σ
−1
(Y−α
_
ρ
M
t
XH)
←→ (
ˆ
S
1
,
ˆ
S
2
) = arg min
S
1
,S
2
2
i=1
f
i
(S
i
), (4.26)
where each f
i
(x) is a known quadratic form of complex variable x, which is similar to
the ML decoding of the OSTBC in an MIMOOFDM system without the clipping,
i.e., symbolwise decoding.
4.3 SingleSymbol ML Decoding for QOSTFBC and Linearly Trans
formed QOSTBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM Systems
We now consider the QOSTFBC (2.19) for a clipped MIMOOFDM system,
where the complex symbols S
i,k
= p
i,k
+ iq
i,k
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, may (for linearly trans
formed QOSTBC [25]) or may not (original QOSTBC) be obtained by linearly trans
forming the original complex information symbols Z
i,k
= a
i,k
+ ib
i,k
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4,
[25]:
(p
i,k
, q
i,k
, p
i+2,k
, q
i+2,k
)
T
= U(a
i,k
, b
i,k
, a
i+2,k
, b
i+2,k
)
T
, i = 1, 2,
where U is the linear transform matrix from [25].
43
Similar to Chapter 4.2, we only consider Γ = 2. In this case, the distortion
matrix D is
D = diag(D
1
, D
2
, , DN
Γ
)
M
b
N×M
t
N
, (4.27)
where
D
k
=
_
_
D
k
(0) 0
0 D
k
(1)
_
_
, (4.28)
where
D
k
(γ) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
D
1,k
(γ) D
2,k
(γ) D
3,k
(γ) D
4,k
(γ)
−D
∗
2,k
(γ) D
∗
1,k
(γ) −D
∗
4,k
(γ) D
∗
3,k
(γ)
D
3,k
(γ) D
4,k
(γ) D
1,k
(γ) D
2,k
(γ)
−D
∗
4,k
(γ) D
∗
3,k
(γ) −D
∗
2,k
(γ) D
∗
1,k
(γ)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (4.29)
Similar to the OSTFBC case in Chapter 4.2, in order to derive the ML decoding of a
QOSTFBC in a clipped MIMOOFDM system, we need to calculate the covariance
matrix of the total noise terms including both the clipped noise and AWGN terms.
To do so, we need to calculate the correlations between the distortions D
i,k
(γ) for
i = 1, 2, 3, 4. When the information symbols S
i,k
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, are independent
each other, the distortions D
i,k
(γ), i = 1, 2, 3, 4, are also independent in terms of
i. When the linearly transformed QOSTFBC is used, since S
i,k
are obtained from
linearly transforming independent symbols Z
i,k
, complex symbols S
i,k
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4,
in general, may not be uncorrelated. However, when the linear transformation is
unitary, complex symbols S
i,k
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, are uncorrelated too. Based on this
observation, in what follows, we only consider the case when a signal constellation
o is a square QAM. In this case, the linear transform U in [25] is unitary. Thus, all
reals p
i,k
, q
i,k
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4 are uncorrelated and therefore complex symbols S
i,k
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4 are uncorrelated. Hence, in this case, it is reasonable to assume
that the distortions D
i,k
(γ) for i = 1, 2, 3, 4 are also uncorrelated, which has been
veriﬁed by our numerous simulations. Since they are Gaussian with zero mean, the
distortions D
i,k
(γ) for i = 1, 2, 3, 4 are independent and thus we also have (4.17) for
44
i, j = 1, 2, 3, 4. For the same reason of Section 4.2, we set D = D
1
and C = S
1
, and
drop the index k in derivation.
With (4.17), by some algebra, the conditional covariance matrix can be cal
culated as
Σ = Cov(Y, Y[C, H) = (Σ
i,j
)
1≤i,j≤M
r
, (4.30)
where
Σ
i,j
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
B
ij
(0)I
2
0 0
B
ij
(0)I
2
A
ij
(0)I
2
0 0
0 0 A
ij
(1)I
2
B
ij
(1)I
2
0 0 B
ij
(1)I
2
A
ij
(1)I
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(4.31)
is the (i, j) block in Σ, where
A
ij
(γ) =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ρ
M
t
σ
2
D
([H
i,1
(γ)[
2
+[H
i,2
(γ)[
2
+[H
i,3
(γ)[
2
+[H
i,4
(γ)[
2
)
+σ
2
n
, if i = j,
ρ
M
t
σ
2
D
(H
i,1
(γ)H
∗
j,1
(γ) + H
i,2
(γ)H
∗
j,2
(γ) + H
i,3
(γ)H
∗
j,3
(γ)
+H
i,4
(γ)H
∗
j,4
(γ)), if i ,= j,
(4.32)
B
ij
(γ) =
ρ
M
t
σ
2
D
(H
i,1
(γ)H
∗
j,3
(γ) + H
i,3
(γ)H
∗
j,1
(γ) + H
i,2
(γ)H
∗
j,4
(γ)
+H
i,4
(γ)H
∗
j,2
(γ)).
(4.33)
Lemma 2 If a block matrix Σ has the form in (4.30) with constants A
ij
(γ) and
B
ij
(γ), 1 ≤ i, j ≤ M
r
, and has an inverse, then its inverse matrix Σ
−1
is also a
block matrix of the same form as Σ.
Σ
−1
=
_
Σ
i,j
_
1≤i,j≤M
r
(4.34)
45
where
Σ
i,j
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
B
ij
(0)I
2
0 0
B
ij
(0)I
2
A
ij
(0)I
2
0 0
0 0 A
ij
(1)I
2
B
ij
(1)I
2
0 0 B
ij
(1)I
2
A
ij
(1)I
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (4.35)
for some constants A
ij
(γ) and B
ij
(γ), 1 ≤ i, j ≤ M
r
.
Proof: Similar to the proof of Lemma 1, we map a 22 matrix AI
2
to complex
number A and thus the set of 2 2 matrices ¦AI
2
¦ for all complex numbers A is
isomorphic to the complex number ﬁeld and the set of 8 8 matrices
Σ
i,j
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
B
ij
(0)I
2
0 0
B
ij
(0)I
2
A
ij
(0)I
2
0 0
0 0 A
ij
(1)I
2
B
ij
(1)I
2
0 0 B
ij
(1)I
2
A
ij
(1)I
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(4.36)
is isomorphic to the following set of 4 4 matrices
/=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
A
ij
(0) B
ij
(0) 0 0
B
ij
(0) A
ij
(0) 0 0
0 0 A
ij
(1) B
ij
(1)
0 0 B
ij
(1) A
ij
(1)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
: for complex numbers A
ij
(γ), B
ij
(γ)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(4.37)
Therefore, the set of matrices Σ = (Σ
ij
)
1≤i,j≤M
r
where Σ
ij
has the form in (4.36)
is isomorphic to the set of matrices ¦(M
ij
)
1≤i,j≤M
r
[ M
ij
∈ /¦. It is not hard to
see that all the arithmetic operations and matrix inverses of 4 4 matrices in set
/ are closed, i.e., the results of the arithmetic operations and inverses of matrices
in / are also in /. Therefore, the inverse of any block matrix (M
ij
)
1≤i,j≤M
r
for
M
ij
∈ / also has the block matrix form (
¯
M
ij
)
1≤i,j≤M
r
for
¯
M
ij
∈ /, which is
equivalent to say that the inverse of any matrix Σ = (Σ
ij
)
1≤i,j≤M
r
where Σ
ij
has the
46
form in (4.36) also has the form (
¯
Σ
ij
)
1≤i,j≤M
r
where
¯
Σ
ij
has the form in (4.36). This
proves Lemma 2.
We next derive the ML decoding (2.13) for QOSTBC C and Σ with the form
(4.30). Let
V
i
(γ) = Y
i
(γ) −α
_
ρ
M
t
C(γ)H
i
(γ), (4.38)
and
Υ
i,j
(γ) =
_
_
A
ij
(γ)I
2
B
ij
(γ)I
2
B
ij
(γ)I
2
A
ij
(γ)I
2
_
_
, (4.39)
which is the submatrix (4.35). i, j = 1, 2, , M
r
and γ = 0, 1.
Substitute (4.34) and (4.38) into (2.13), the ML decoding becomes
ˆ
C = arg min
C∈C
i
j
γ
V
H
i
(γ)Υ
i,j
(γ)V
j
(γ). (4.40)
In order to simplify the above ML decoding, we ﬁrst have the following lemma.
Lemma 3 If matrices Υ
i,j
(γ) have the following form
Υ
i,j
(γ) =
_
_
A
ij
(γ)I
2
B
ij
(γ)I
2
B
ij
(γ)I
2
A
ij
(γ)I
2
_
_
, (4.41)
where A
ij
(γ) and B
ij
(γ) are known constants, then V
H
i
(γ)Υ
i,j
(γ)V
j
(γ) is a linear
function of
4
i=1
[S
i
[
2
and
2
i=1
(S
i
S
∗
i+2
+ S
∗
i
S
i+2
), and S
i
, S
∗
i
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, i.e.,
V
H
i
(γ)Υ
i,j
(γ)V
j
(γ) = g
i,j,1
(
4
l=1
[S
l
[
2
)
+g
i,j,2
(
2
l=1
(S
l
S
∗
l+2
+ S
∗
l
S
l+2
))
+g
i,j,3
(S
1
, , S
4
, S
∗
1
, , S
∗
4
), (4.42)
where g
i,j,1
(x) and g
i,j,2
(x) are two known linear functions of variable x, and g
i,j,3
()
is also a known linear function of all its arguments.
47
Proof: Let
J
4
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (4.43)
Then,
V
H
i
(γ)Υ
i,j
(γ)V
j
(γ) = V
H
i
(γ)(A
ij
(γ)I
4
+ B
ij
(γ)J
4
)V
j
(γ)
= A
ij
(γ)V
H
i
(γ)V
j
(γ) + B
ij
(γ)V
H
i
(γ)J
4
V
j
(γ). (4.44)
The ﬁrst term in the right hand side of (4.44) is
V
H
i
(γ)V
j
(γ) = Y
H
i
(γ)Y
j
(γ) − α
_
ρ
M
t
(Y
H
i
(γ)C(γ)H
j
(γ) +H
H
i
(γ)C
H
(γ)Y
j
(γ))
+ α
2
ρ
M
t
(H
H
i
(γ)(C
H
(γ)C(γ))H
j
(γ)) (4.45)
and the second term in the right hand side of (4.44) is
V
H
i
(γ)J
4
V
j
(γ) = Y
H
i
(γ)J
4
Y
j
(γ)
−α
_
ρ
M
t
(Y
H
i
(γ)J
4
C(γ)H
j
(γ) +H
H
i
(γ)C
H
(γ)J
4
Y
j
(γ))
+α
2
ρ
M
t
(H
H
i
(γ)(C
H
(γ)J
4
C(γ))H
j
(γ)). (4.46)
While
C(γ)
H
C(γ) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
−S
∗
2
S
∗
1
−S
∗
4
S
∗
3
S
3
S
4
S
1
S
2
−S
∗
4
S
∗
3
−S
∗
2
S
∗
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
H
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
−S
∗
2
S
∗
1
−S
∗
4
S
∗
3
S
3
S
4
S
1
S
2
−S
∗
4
S
∗
3
−S
∗
2
S
∗
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
= Ω (4.47)
for QOSTFBC C in (2.19), it is also easy to check that
C(γ)
H
J
4
C(γ) =
_
_
QI
2
PI
2
PI
2
QI
2
_
_
, (4.48)
48
where P and Q have the forms in (2.23). By plugging (4.47), (2.23), and (4.48) into
(4.45) and (4.46) and then (4.44), the decomposition (4.42) can be obtained and
therefore Lemma 3 is proved.
From Lemma 2 and then Lemma 3, the ML decoding objective function in
(4.42) of a QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM has the same form as that of the
QOSTFBC in an MIMO system. Therefore, the linear transformation technique for
the QOSTFBC described in Chapter 2.2.3 for MIMOOFDM without the clipping
also applies to the clipped MIMOOFDM. In other words, we have the following
result.
Theorem 3 By following the encoding steps of linear transformation in Chapter
2.2.3 with independent complex information symbols Z
i
= a
i
+ ib
i
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4,
the ML decoding of the linearly transformed QOSTBC in a clipped MIMOOFDM
system is (complex) symbolwise decoding, i.e., the ML decoding objective function
has the following decomposition
(Y−α
_
ρ
M
t
XH)
H
Σ
−1
(Y−α
_
ρ
M
t
XH) =
4
i=1
f
i
(a
i
, b
i
), (4.49)
where f
i
(x, y) are known quadratic forms of real variables x and y.
As a remark, in the above ML decoding, the inverse Σ
−1
of the covariance
matrix Σ of the form in (4.30) is needed. Although the size of Σ is 8M
r
8M
r
, it
is structured and its inverse is equivalent to the inverse of a M
r
M
r
block matrix
with 4 4 block matrices in set / deﬁned in (4.37) as explained in the proof of
Lemma 2. Note that every element M
ij
in set / can be represented by
M
ij
=
_
_
A
ij
(0)I
2
+ B
ij
(0)J
2
0
0 A
ij
(1)I
2
+ B
ij
(1)J
2
_
_
where A
ij
(γ) and B
ij
(γ) are two complex numbers and
J
2
=
_
_
0 1
1 0
_
_
.
49
Also note that not only the matrix multiplications, additions, and inverses are closed
in /, but also the matrix multiplication of elements in / is commutative, i.e.,
M
1
ij
M
2
ij
= M
2
ij
M
1
ij
when M
1
ij
, M
2
ij
∈ /. The numerical operations over set /
are similar to that over a number ﬁeld. Thus, 8M
r
8M
r
matrix Σ is essentially
equivalent to an M
r
M
r
matrix and therefore its inverse is essentially an inverse
of M
r
M
r
matrix inverse, where M
r
is the number of receive antennas. As a ﬁnal
remark, although Theorem 3 is for a linearly transformed QOSTFBC, when the
linear transformation is the identity matrix, the linearly transformed QOSTFBC
goes back to an original QOSTFBC. In other words, the result in Theorem 3 also
applies to an original QOSTFBC without any linear transformation.
4.4 Clipping Ratio Estimation
The decoding algorithm proposed in previous chapters requires the knowledge
of the clipping ratio (CR) at the receiver. However, in some applications, for example
in interference channels, it is may be possible that the CR is not known at the
receiver. In this chapter, we consider the case that we do not know the clipping
ratio at the receiver and propose a decisionaided algorithm to estimate it. We ﬁrst
derive the CR estimation theorem for MIMOOFDM system and then propose a
decision aided clipping ratio estimation algorithm. For convenient, we discuss the
clipping ratio estimation algorithm only for STBC coded MIMOOFDM systems,
i.e., the repeating factor Γ = 1. The algorithm and derivation can be easily extended
to STFBC coded MIMOOFDM systems, which we describe previously.
4.4.1 CR Estimation Theorem for STBC Coded MIMOOFDM Systems
A clipping ratio estimation method has been proposed for single antenna
OFDM systems in [33]. This clipping ratio estimation method can be applied to
pilottonebased OFDM systems only. By calculating the statistics of the clipping
50
noise at the pilot subcarriers, the CR can be estimated from the statistical clipping
noise model given in [36][37].
In this research, we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTBC
and QOSTBC are used at the transmitter and the CR is not known at the re
ceiver. For MIMOOFDM systems, through a multiple transmit antenna channel,
the distortion from diﬀerent transmit antennas are added to one received signal.
If we subtract pilot symbols from received signals as [33], we can not get an esti
mation of the distortion as what can be obtained in [33] for single antenna case,
rather we get an estimate of the combination of the distortions from all transmitted
antennas. Thus, the pilottonebased clipping ratio estimation method in [33] is
not applicable to MIMOOFDM systems. Based on this observation, we develop
a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for an MIMOOFDM system. By utiliz
ing the code structure at the data subcarriers, we can separate clipping distortions
from multiple transmit antennas and calculate the statistics of the clipping noise.
Because we use decoded symbols to estimate the clipping distortion at the receiver,
we call our method decisionaided clipping ratio estimation. The diﬀerence between
our method and the pilottonebased CR estimation in [33] is the way how receiver
calculates the statistic of the clipping noise. CR estimation and statistical clipping
noise model used for both methods are same. Compared to the pilottonebased
CR estimation, our method does not have any restriction to pilot patterns and is
able to use more estimation samples from the data subcarriers than only pilot sub
carriers. Using the estimated CR by the decisionaided clipping ratio estimation,
any clipping noise mitigation method that requires to know CR, such as [27][29] or
clipping noise model based ML decoding can be used to improve the performance
of an clipped OFDM system.
We now develop a decision aided CR estimation algorithm by calculating
the distortion from data subcarriers instead of pilot subcarriers. Moreover for an
51
STBC coded MIMOOFDM system, codewords transmitted at data subcarriers have
orthogonal or quasiorthogonal structure in the space and time domains. So it is
easy to calculate the distortion from data subcarriers, if we know data symbols at
the receiver. In our algorithm, we ﬁrst make decisions on data symbols without
considering the clipping noise. This initial decision on the data symbols is used to
estimate the CR at the receiver. Then the ML decoding with the estimated CR is
implemented to make new decision on the data symbols.
Without loss of generality, we use Alamouti code as an example to describe
our CR estimation algorithm in the following discussion. Similar discussion can be
easily extended to other STBC coded MIMOOFDM system such as other OSTBC
and QOSTBC coded MIMOOFDM systems.
The received signal in the frequency domain is
Y
i
(n) = α
_
ρ
M
t
C(n)H
i
(n) +
_
ρ
M
t
D
n
H
i
(n) +N
i
(n),
where n = 1, 2, , N. Because, in this section, repeating factor Γ = 1,
D
n
=
_
_
D
1,n
(0) D
2,n
(0)
−D
∗
2,n
(0) D
∗
1,n
(0)
_
_
. (4.50)
We use Z(n) to represent the overall additive noise and distortion as
Z(n) =
_
_
Z
1
(n)
Z
2
(n)
_
_
=
_
ρ
M
t
D
n
H
i
(n) +N
i
(n)
= Y
i
(n) −α
_
ρ
M
t
C(n)H
i
(n). (4.51)
For the Alamouti code, we derive an equivalent equation
_
_
Z
1
(n)
Z
∗
2
(n)
_
_
=
_
ρ
M
t
H
i
(n)
_
_
D
1,n
(0)
D
2,n
(0)
_
_
+
_
_
N
1
i
(n)
N
2∗
i
(n)
_
_
, (4.52)
where H
i
(n) is
H
i
(n) =
_
_
H
i,1
(n) H
i,2
(n)
H
∗
i,2
(n) −H
∗
i,1
(n)
_
_
. (4.53)
52
We deﬁne a vector parameter β as
β =
_
_
β
1
β
2
_
_
= (αH
i
(n))
−1
_
_
Z
1
(n)
Z
∗
2
(n)
_
_
, (4.54)
where β
1
and β
2
are i.i.d. random variables.
Note that, for the clipped MIMOOFDM system, the pilot symbols are also
clipped by the nonlinear ampliﬁer or by the deliberate clipping procedure. So the
channel frequency response estimated by the pilotbased method is not the estima
tion of the channel frequency response H
i
(n), but the attenuated channel frequency
response αH
i
(n). Without knowing CR, we can not calculate the attenuation factor
α at the receiver. Thus, we use attenuated channel frequency response αH
i
(n) in
(4.54) as a whole parameter/variable.
For low CR and high SNR case, the clipping distortion dominates the additive
noise Z(n). Similar to [33], we ignore the AWGN item N
i
(n) in (4.51). Thus, the
variance of random variables β
i
is
σ
2
β
∆
= σ
2
β
1
= σ
2
β
2
≈
ρ
M
t
σ
2
D
α
2
. (4.55)
From the statistical model of the clipping distortion we derived in Chapter
4.1, we can have
σ
2
D
α
2
=
1 −e
−r
2
−
_
1 −e
−r
2
+
√
πr
2
erfc(r)
_
2
_
1 −e
−r
2
+
√
πr
2
erfc(r)
_
2
. (4.56)
Substituting (4.56) into (4.55), σ
2
β
is a function of its only variable r, where
r is the clipping ratio we want to estimate at the receiver.
If we know σ
2
β
at the receiver, the clipping ratio can be numerically solved
from (4.55) and (4.56).
53
4.4.2 Decision Aided CR Estimation Procedure
Based on the above derivation, we have the following CR estimation method.
At the receiver, we ﬁrst do the ML decoding as
ˆ
C(n) = arg min
C(n)∈C
M
r
i=1
Y
i
(n) −
_
ρ
M
t
C(n)
¯
αH
i
(n)
2
, (4.57)
where
¯
αH
i
(n) is the attenuated channel estimation.
In this step, we ignore the clipping distortion term
_
ρ
M
t
D
n
H
i
(n) in equation
(4.12) and
´
C(n) is the initial hard decision we make on the transmitted codeword.
Secondly, we approximately assume that
´
C(n) is the codeword C(n) we trans
mitted and subtract the signal term from the received signal to calculate the overall
noise Z(n) as (4.51).
Thirdly, the parameter β is calculated by (4.54). Then σ
2
β
is the average
power of a number of samples of
ˆ
β. The more samples of
ˆ
β we use, the more
accurate the statistics of the average power we can estimate.
Finally, the clipping ratio r can be estimated by numerically solving equation
(4.55) with average σ
2
β
.
With the estimated clipping ratio, the clipping noise model based ML decod
ing [30] can be used. The new objective function for ML decoding is
ˆ
C = arg min
C∈C
(Y
i
(n) −
_
ρ
M
t
C(n)H
i
(n))
H
Σ
−1
(Y
i
(n)
−
_
ρ
M
t
C(n)H
i
(n)), (4.58)
where Σ is a function of the clipping ratio, which has been shown in Chapter 4.2 to
have the fast single symbol decoding although the noise is colored.
54
4.5 Simulation Results
4.5.1 Performance of Clipping Noise Model Based ML Decoding with
Perfect CR at the receiver
In the following simulations, the MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh channel
is characterized by a tworay, i.e., L = 2, equal power delay proﬁle in which the
second path delay τ is 0.5µs. An OFDM with N = 64 subcarriers is used. The time
duration of one OFDM symbol is T
s
= 3.2µs. We only choose OSTFBC as (2.16)
and QOSTFBC as (2.19) with Γ = 2 for examples. Since these two codes have the
same symbol rate, they have the same bit rate if the same signal constellation o
is used. In our simulations, the signal constellation o is always 16QAM and the
throughput is 4 bits/s/Hz.
In Fig. 4.1 Fig. 4.2, we compare the decoding performances of OSTFBC
and QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM systems between the original decoding
algorithms without considering the clipping noise and with considering the clipping
noise and our newly developed ML decoding algorithm. We concatenate a rate 1/2
convolutional encoder of generator [133,171] with OSTFBC or QOSTFBC encoder.
We implement the decoding of OSTFBC or QOSTFBC with hard outputs and then
the harddecision Viterbi decoder for the convolutional code is used. The dashed
lines are for the original decoding without considering the clipping noise, and the
solid lines are for our newly developed ML decoding algorithms with considering
the clipping noise. As one can see, in all cases, our newly developed ML decoding
algorithms always achieve better performance than the original decoding algorithm
does without considering the clipping noise eﬀect. When clipping ratio is smaller, the
variance of the clipping distortion is larger, and the improvement is more signiﬁcant.
If the transmitted SNR is increased, the variance of the clipping distortion is also
linearly increased, and the performance improvement is increased too.
55
10 12 14 16 18 20
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Original Decoding
New Decoding
NonClipped
γ=1.0
γ=1.2
γ=1.5
(a)
6 8 10 12 14 16
10
−7
10
−6
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Original Decoding
New Decoding
Nonclipped
γ=1.0
γ=1.2
γ=1.5
(b)
Figure 4.1: BER performance comparison of OSTFBC in clipped 2 2 OFDM
systems: (a) no convolutional code is added; (b) a convolutional code
is added.
56
10 12 14 16 18 20
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Original Decoding
New Decoding
NonClipped
γ=1.0
γ=1.2
γ=1.5
(a)
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10
−6
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Original Decoding
New Decoding
Nonclipped
γ=1.0
γ=1.2
γ=1.5
(b)
Figure 4.2: BER performance comparison of QOSTFBC in clipped 4 2 OFDM
systems: (a) no convolutional code is added; (b) a convolutional code
is added.
57
4.5.2 Performance of Clipping Noise Model Based ML Decoding with
Estimated CR at the receiver
In this chapter, we ﬁrst show the minimum mean square error (MMSE) of the
estimated CR by the decision aided CR estimation algorithm. We then compare the
decoding performances of the two diﬀerent decoding methods for the STBC coded
MIMOOFDM systems with the estimated CR with the clipping noise model and
without the clipping noise model.
In the following simulations, the MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh channel
is characterized by a tworay, i.e., L = 2, equal power delay proﬁle in which the
second path delay τ is 0.5µs. An OFDM with N = 64 subcarriers is used. The time
duration of one OFDM symbol is T
s
= 3.2µs.
Fig. 4.3 shows the MMSE of the estimated CR by the decision aided CR
estimation algorithm with Alamouti OSTBC code and linear transformed QOSTBC
code. From this ﬁgure, the MMSE of the estimation decreases when the system SNR
increases. At the high SNR, the estimation error is very small and the estimation
algorithm is eﬀective. Also it is easy to see that there are more errors when CR is
large. Because, at the high CR, distortion is small compared to AWGN, so AWGN
domains the statistical property of the noise term in equation (4.12) and causes the
large estimation error for CR. Although the estimation method is more accurate for
small CR, the estimation error is reduced to very small for large CR at large SNR
as shown in Fig. 4.3.
In Fig. 4.4, we show the performances of the clipping noise model based
ML decoding proposed in [30] by using our estimated CR. The case of 4 transmit
and 1 receiver antenna QOSTBC with the linear transformation [25] is considered.
We assume that we know the attenuated channel response αH at the receiver. In
the ﬁgure, curves marked by o are for the ML decoding without using the clipping
noise model, and curves marked by _ are for the clipping noise model based ML
58
10 15 20 25 30
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
SNR(dB)
M
M
S
E
o
f
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
d
C
R
Linear transformed QOSTBC code with 4 Tx and 1 Rx
CR=2.0
CR=1.8
CR=1.6
CR=1.4
CR=1.2
10 15 20 25 30
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
SNR(dB)
M
M
S
E
o
f
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
d
C
R
Alamouti code
CR=2.0
CR=1.8
CR=1.6
CR=1.4
CR=1.2
Figure 4.3: MMSE of estimated CR.
59
decoding with estimated clipping ratio, and curves marked by are for the clipping
noise model based ML decoding with perfect clipping ratio. From the ﬁgure, we can
see that if we do not know CR at the receiver, the CR estimation can improve the
decoding performance. And accurate CR estimation at high SNR and low CR can
achieve nearly the same decoding performance as the one with the perfect known
CR.
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
10
−6
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Decoding with unknown CR
Decoding with estimated CR
Decoding with perfect CR
γ=1.0
γ=1.2
γ=1.5
Figure 4.4: Performance of clipping noise model based ML decoding; 4 transmit
antennas and 1 receive antenna linear transformed QOSTBC
In [28], the authors proposed an iterative decoding to cancel the clipping
noise. After we estimate the CR at the receiver, we can also apply this itera
tive decoding method to improve the performance. In Fig. 4.5, the same coded
MIMOOFDM system is simulated as Fig. 4.4. Iterative decoding at the receiver
is implemented. Iteration number is 1. Simulation results show that the iterative
60
decoding with estimated CR can always improve the decoding performance under
diﬀerent clipping ratios. For large SNR and low CR, the improvement is signiﬁcant.
10 12 14 16 18 20
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Non iterative decoding
Iterative decoding with estimated CR
γ=1.0
γ=1.2
γ=1.5
Figure 4.5: Performance of iterative decoding; iteration number is 1.
61
Chapter 5
ALAMOUTI CODED COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEM
From this chapter, we begin to discuss another important wireless communi
cation system, cooperative OFDM system. Firstly, we describe the Alamouti coded
cooperative OFDM channel/signal model. Consider a cooperative system with one
source node, one destination node and two relay nodes. The source node ﬁrst trans
mits information to both relay nodes. We only adopt the decodeandforward (DF)
protocol, so it is assumed that information symbols are correctly detected by relay
nodes and then sent to the destination node.
5.1 Cooperative OFDM Channel Model
Every relay node has only one transmit antenna, and destination node has
M
r
receive antennas. We assume that the channel is quasistatic (block fading)
ﬂat fading, i.e., the channel coeﬃcients remain ﬁxed through one code block. The
channel impulse response is denoted by
h
k
i,j
(t) = a
k
i,j
δ(t −τ
k
i,j
), (5.1)
where j and i denote the jth relay node and the ith receive antenna for j = 1, 2
and i = 1, 2, , M
r
, respectively, k is the OFDM symbol/block index, τ
k
i,j
is the
corresponding time delay of each path. When there exist timing errors, τ
k
i,1
,= τ
k
i,2
.
For Rayleigh fading, the channel coeﬃcient a
k
i,j
is a zeromean complex Gaussian
random variable. We assume that a
k
i,j
are i.i.d. random variables in terms of k, i, j
with variance σ
2
a
. In order to normalize the received signal power, the variance
62
σ
2
a
= 1. For convenience, we assume that the timing delay τ
k
i,j
is rounded to the
nearest sampling position, so
τ
k
i,j
N
T
s
is an index number always, where T
s
is the
duration of one OFDM symbol.
For an OFDM system with N subcarriers, the corresponding channel fre
quency response for the nth OFDM subcarrier is denoted by H
k
i,j
(n). Since we
assume channels are ﬂat fading, so channel coeﬃcients in the frequency domain are
H
k
i,j
(n) = a
k
i,j
exp(−i
2πn
T
s
τ
k
i,j
) (5.2)
where n represents the nth subcarrier, n = 0, 1, 2, , N −1.
5.2 Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM System Without Timing Er
rors/Delays
We next ﬁrst consider the Alamouti coded cooperative OFDM signals without
timing errors at the destination to see both structures of the signals in the time and
the frequency domains. These structures will be used later for the interference
cancellation.
After relay nodes detect the information symbols sent from the source node,
the detected symbols are encoded into Alamouti code in a distributed way at two
relay nodes as
C
k
(n) =
_
_
S
k
1
(n) S
k
2
(n)
−(S
k
2
(n))
∗
(S
k
1
(n))
∗
_
_
, (5.3)
where S
k
1
(n) and S
k
2
(n) are two independent information symbols. C
k
(n) is a space
time codeword carried by nth subcarrier and is independent in terms of n. According
to this code structure, the ﬁrst column is transmitted by ﬁrst relay node in two
consecutive OFDM symbol periods, while the second column is sent by the second
relay node.
We represent frequency domain symbol sequence and time domain signal se
quence as vectors S
k
i
= [S
k
i
(0), S
k
i
(1), , S
k
i
(N−1)], and s
k
i
= [s
k
i
(0), s
k
i
(1), , s
k
i
(N−
63
1)] = IDFT(S
k
i
), respectively. After IDFT, a CP sequence of length
cp
is added to
each OFDM time domain sequence. The ﬁnal transmitted signals at the relay nodes
are shown as Fig. 5.1, where
c
2k
j
= [c
2k
j
(0), c
2k
j
(1), , c
2k
j
(N −1)], (5.4)
which is a discrete time domain sequence that is sent by the jth relay node in the
ﬁrst OFDM symbol period of the kth Alamouti coded block, and
c
2k+1
j
= [c
2k+1
j
(0), c
2k+1
j
(1), , c
2k+1
j
(N −1)], (5.5)
which is a discrete time domain sequence that is sent by the jth relay node in the
second OFDM symbol period of the kth Alamouti coded block. Thus, c
2k
1
, c
2k
2
, c
2k+1
1
,
and c
2k+1
2
are the corresponding time domain sequences after the IDFT of S
k
1
, S
k
2
,
−(S
k
2
)
∗
, and (S
k
1
)
∗
, respectively. From the IDFT property, it is not diﬃcult to show
that the time domain sequences have the following relationship in the frequency
domain due to the Alamouti code structure:
c
2k
1
(m) = s
k
1
(m),
c
2k
2
(m) = s
k
2
(m),
c
2k+1
1
(m) = −
_
s
k
2
((N −m))
N
_
∗
,
c
2k+1
2
(m) =
_
s
k
1
((N −m))
N
_
∗
(5.6)
When there is no time delays/errors from two relay nodes, i.e., τ
k
i,1
= τ
k
i,2
= 0, the
two discrete time domain received sequences of two OFDM symbols at destination
node are
y
2k
i
(m) =
_
ρ
2
_
c
2k
1
(m)a
k
i,1
+ c
2k
2
(m)a
k
i,2
_
+ w
2k
i
(m),
y
2k+1
i
(m) =
_
ρ
2
_
c
2k+1
1
(m)a
k
i,1
+ c
2k+1
2
(m)a
k
i,2
_
+ w
2k+1
i
(m), (5.7)
where w
2k
i
(m) and w
2k+1
i
(m) are the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with
zeromean and unitvariance. Denote y
2k
i
= [y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ N − 1], which is
64
c
2k−1
1
CP c
2k
1
CP c
2k+1
1
c
2k−1
2
CP c
2k
2
CP c
2k+1
2
Figure 5.1: Time domain transmitted signals at the relay nodes.
the received sequence in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period of the kth Alamouti coded
block, and y
2k+1
i
= [y
2k+1
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ N−1], which is the received sequence in the
second OFDM symbol period of the kth Alamouti coded block. The normalization
factor
ρ
2
is used to normalize the power of the received signal, in which ρ is the
signaltonoise ratio (SNR) at the receiver.
After CP removal and DFT transformation, the received signals for two con
secutive OFDM symbol periods on the nth subcarrier in the kth coded block are,
Y
2k
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
(S
k
1
(n)a
k
i,1
+ S
k
2
(n)a
k
i,2
) + W
2k
i
(n), (5.8)
Y
2k+1
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
(−(S
k
2
(n))
∗
a
k
i,1
+ (S
k
1
(n))
∗
a
k
i,2
) + W
2k+1
i
(n),
where W
2k
i
(n) and W
2k+1
i
(n) are the frequency domain AWGN. For convenience, we
also represent a vector of (H
k
i,1
(n), H
k
i,2
(n))
T
as H
k
i
(n), and Y
k
i
(n) = (Y
2k
i
(n), Y
2k+1
i
(n))
T
,
and W
k
i
(n) = (W
2k
i
(n), W
2k+1
i
(n))
T
. Then, the received signals in vector form be
come
Y
k
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
C
k
(n)H
k
i
(n) +W
k
i
(n). (5.9)
For M
r
receive antennas, let
B
k
(n) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
C
k
(n) 0 0 0
0 C
k
(n) 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0
.
.
.
C
k
(n) 0
0 0 . . . 0 C
k
(n)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2M
r
×2M
r
, (5.10)
65
and
Y
k
(n) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Y
k
1
(n)
Y
k
2
(n)
.
.
.
Y
k
M
r
(n)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, H
k
(n) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
H
k
1
(n)
H
k
2
(n)
.
.
.
H
k
M
r
(n)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, W
k
(n) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
W
k
1
(n)
W
k
2
(n)
.
.
.
W
k
M
r
(n)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
Then, the overall vectormatrix form of the transmitreceive signal model at the nth
subcarrier becomes
Y
k
(n) =
_
ρ
2
B
k
(n)H
k
(n) +W
k
(n).
Since the additive noises are white Gaussian, the ML decoding is
¦
ˆ
S
k
1
(n),
ˆ
S
k
2
(n)¦ = arg min
ˆ
B
k
(n)∈C
Y
k
(n) −
_
ρ
2
ˆ
B
k
(n)H
k
(n)
2
, (5.11)
where ( is a set of spacetime codewords from a given spacetime block code.
5.3 Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM System With Timing Errors
and Interblock Interferences
We next consider the case when there are timing errors at the destination
node. We assume at the receiver, the timing errors are known. Without loss of
generality, we always synchronize the receiver to the signals from the ﬁrst relay node,
and assume that the signals from the second relay node arrive at the destination
node τ samples later than the signals from the ﬁrst relay node, i.e., τ
k
i,1
= 0 and
Nτ
k
i,2
T
s
= τ.
When τ is less than
cp
, discrete received signals in the time domain are
y
2k
i
(m) =
_
ρ
2
_
c
2k
1
(m)a
k
i,1
+ c
2k
2
((m−τ))
N
a
k
i,2
_
+ w
2k
i
(m),
y
2k+1
i
(m) =
_
ρ
2
_
c
2k+1
1
(m)a
k
i,1
+ c
2k+1
2
((m−τ))
N
a
k
i,2
_
+ w
2k+1
i
(m). (5.12)
66
In the frequency domain, signals from the second relay node have a phase change.
Y
2k
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
(S
k
1
(n)a
k
i,1
+ S
k
2
(n)a
k
i,2
exp(−i
2πn
T
s
τ)) + W
2k
i
(n),
Y
2k+1
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
(−(S
k
2
(n))
∗
a
k
i,1
+ (S
k
1
(n))
∗
a
k
i,2
exp(−i
2πn
T
s
τ))
+W
2k+1
i
(n). (5.13)
From (5.13), received signals have no interference. And if we know delay τ at the
receiver, the Alamouti code orthogonal structure still holds and OFDM transmission
eliminates the interference by covering the delay with enough CP [48].
When τ is larger than
cp
, the timing error causes interblock interferences
in the time domain and destroys the frequency orthogonality of OFDM. Next, we
derive the interference signal models in the time domain and the frequency domain,
respectively. Those interference signal models, especially the one in the time domain,
are used for designing interference cancellation algorithm in next chapters.
Time domain received signals are
y
2k
i
(m) =
_
ρ
2
_
c
2k
1
(m)a
k
i,1
+
_
c
2k
2
((m−τ))
N
+ d
2k
(m)
_
a
k
i,2
_
+ w
2k
i
(m),
y
2k+1
i
(m) =
_
ρ
2
_
c
2k+1
1
(m)a
k
i,1
+
_
c
2k+1
2
((m−τ))
N
+ d
2k+1
(m)
_
a
k
i,2
_
+w
2k+1
i
(m), (5.14)
where d
2k
(m) and d
2k+1
(m) are the interblock interference. Denote the diﬀerence
between the delay τ and the CP length as ∆ = τ −
cp
. Thus,
d
2k
(m) =
_
_
_
c
2k−1
2
(N −∆ + m) −s
k
2
(N −τ + m), if 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1
0, if m ≥ ∆
,
d
2k+1
(m) =
_
_
_
s
k
2
(N −∆ + m) −(s
k
1
(τ −m))
∗
, if 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1
0, if m ≥ ∆
. (5.15)
Note that, in the time domain only the ﬁrst ∆ samples in one OFDM symbol period
suﬀer the interference.
67
In the frequency domain, we have
Y
2k
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
_
S
k
1
(n)a
k
i,1
+ S
k
2
(n)a
k
i,2
exp(−i
2πn
N
τ) + D
2k
(n)a
k
i,2
_
+ W
2k
i
(n), (5.16)
Y
2k+1
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
_
−(S
k
2
(n))
∗
a
k
i,1
+ (S
k
1
(n))
∗
a
k
i,2
exp(−i
2πn
N
τ) + D
2k+1
(n)a
k
i,2
_
+ W
2k+1
i
(n),
where
D
2k
(n) =
1
√
N
τ−1
m=0
d
2k
(m) exp(−i
2πn
N
m),
D
2k+1
(n) =
1
√
N
τ−1
m=0
d
2k+1
(m) exp(−i
2πn
N
m). (5.17)
If we denote the interference matrix as
D
k
(n) =
_
_
0, D
2k
(n) exp(i
2πn
N
τ)
0, D
2k+1
(n) exp(i
2πn
N
τ)
_
_
. (5.18)
Then, we have a frequency domain received signal matrixvector form as
Y
k
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
_
C
k
(n) +D
k
(n)
_
H
k
i
(n) +W
k
i
(n). (5.19)
After we separate the interference from transmitted symbols, we have Alamouti
orthogonal code C
k
(n) in (5.19) and the additive interference and noise terms as
E
k
i
(n) =
_
ρ
2
D
k
(n)H
k
i
(n) +W
k
i
(n). (5.20)
68
Chapter 6
TIME DOMAIN INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION
FOR ALAMOUTI CODED COOPERATIVE OFDM
SYSTEMS WITH INSUFFICIENT CP
In this chapter, we propose our interference cancellation method for the case
∗
when
cp
< τ ≤ N − 1 We divide the problem into three cases. In Chapter 6.1,
we discuss the case when
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
. In Chapter 6.2, we discuss the case
when 2
cp
< τ ≤ N −
cp
− 1. Finally, in Chapter 6.3, we consider the case when
N−
cp
−1 < τ ≤ N−1. Note, there is an assumption that N ≥ 3
cp
, which usually
hold for practical OFDM systems.
6.1 Interference Cancellation when
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
In this chapter, we propose a time domain interference cancellation algorithm
when
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
. The basic idea is as follows.
Fig. 6.1 shows the time domain sequences transmitted from both relay nodes,
when
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
. In the ﬁgure, the ﬁrst row is the discrete time domain sequence
transmitted from the ﬁrst relay node, while the second row is from the second relay
node. We separate the data sequences from CP sequences by black blocks. T
cp
is the synchronized CP period at the receiver, while T
s1
and T
s2
are the ﬁrst and
∗
Note that when τ > N, the interference and the current signal are independent
and a spacetime code structure may not help and thus this case is not the
interest of this work.
69
CP CP
CP CP
s1
T
s2
T T
cp
T
cp
1
B
2
B
1
E
2
E
2
G
1
s
D 1
s
E
2
s
D 2
s
E
1
s
J
2
s
J
1
s
T
2
s
T 2
s
P
1
A
2
A
1
C
2
C
1
F
2
F
1
D
2
D
2
1
k
c
2 1
1
k
c
2 1
2
k
c
2
2
k
c
W
Figure 6.1: Received sequences in time domain
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
.
the second synchronized OFDM symbol periods, respectively. At the receiver, we
assume that we always synchronize to the ﬁrst relay node whose signals arrive at
the receiver ﬁrst. Because of the delay, the transmitted sequences from the second
relay node are not synchronized at the receiver. CP sequences fall into synchronized
OFDM symbol periods and partial data sequences fall into synchronized CP periods
as shown in Fig. 6.1. Received sequences are superposition of both sequences from
the ﬁrst and the second relay nodes.
We deﬁne several segments and samples in the time domain sequences, which
are shown in Fig. 6.1 by capital letters deﬁned in (6.1)(6.13) later. Any two
segments with the same capital letter are the transmitted time domain sequences
arriving at receiver at the same time. In Fig. 6.1, segments A
2
and [s
γ2
, E
2
], which
are time domain signals from previous OFDM symbol periods, fall into OFDM
symbol periods T
s1
and T
s2
, respectively, and cause interferences. Because of the
delay, segments D
2
and [s
µ2
, G
2
] are the data signals that are cut oﬀ from the OFDM
symbol periods T
s1
and T
s2
, respectively, while their front remaining parts of the
CP length are the same as the CP and therefore are kept. So in order to cancel the
interferences and satisfy the frequency orthogonality of OFDM, we need to subtract
A
2
and [s
γ2
, E
2
] out from the received signals and reconstruct D
2
and [s
µ2
, G
2
] to
replace A
2
and [s
γ2
, E
2
], respectively. Due to the Alamouti code structure, the
70
coded OFDM sequences have the relationship (5.3) in the frequency domain and
the relationship (5.6) in the time domain. The two time domain signal sequences
c
2k
1
and c
2k+1
2
in the two consecutive OFDM symbols consist of the same samples
in conjugate in reversed order, while sequences c
2k+1
1
and c
2k
2
also consist of the
same samples in negative conjugate and in reversed order. The main idea of our
interference cancellation algorithm is to use this property to estimate and cancel the
interferences in time domain as follows.
In Fig. 6.1, segments F
1
and C
2
consist of the same information of trans
mitted signals, while segments F
2
and C
1
also consist of the same information of
transmitted signals. Thus, we can approximately solve for those transmitted signals
from the received signals in the time domain and therefore we can solve for F
1
. Since
segment D
1
is the cyclic repetition of F
1
in the CP, a solution for F
1
also provides a
solution for D
1
. Using a solved D
1
, we may solve for segment D
2
in the time domain
from the received signal that is a superposition of the segments D
1
and D
2
. Note
that at the receiver, we already have the decision on the previous Alamouti coded
OFDM block. After the IDFT on the previous decoded code sequence, segment A
2
is known at the receiver. Then replacing segment A
2
by a solution of segment D
2
,
we can mitigate the interference for the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period.
For the second OFDM symbol period, E
1
and E
2
consist of the same infor
mation about transmitted signals. The diﬀerence between E
1
and E
2
is that E
2
is
the reverse of E
1
and each element in E
1
is the negative conjugate of an element in
E
2
. From this time domain property, we ﬁrst solve for E
2
from the received signals.
Then, B
2
is the repetition of E
2
and thus can be obtained from E
2
. With B
2
and
the received signal that is B
1
+ B
2
, we can solve for B
1
. Since segment B
1
is a
reversed conjugate segment of G
2
, with B
1
we can get G
2
. Finally, we replace E
2
by G
2
to cancel the interference for the second OFDM period.
In the second period, there is an individual sample s
γ2
in front of segment E
2
71
causing interference too. We want to replace it by data signal s
µ2
. Signals s
α1
, s
α2
,
s
β1
, s
β2
, s
γ1
, s
γ2
, s
θ1
, s
θ2
, and s
µ2
have a relationship in the time domain. So we
can estimate them from the time domain received signals. Then, replacing s
γ2
by
s
µ2
from the received signal, we can cancel all interferences for both OFDM symbol
periods in one Alamouti coded block. In the next chapters, we shall derive the
detailed algorithms.
6.1.1 Transmitted sequences and interference sequences
Before we introduce our method, we ﬁrst deﬁne some important transmit
signal sequences. We use these sequences to describe our method in this chapter
later.
Subsequences in transmit signal sequences from the ﬁrst relay are
s
A
1
= [c
2k
1
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = [s
k
1
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.1)
which is the subsequence that consists of ﬁrst ∆ samples in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol
period. And
s
B
1
= [c
2k
1
(m),
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ τ −1] = [s
k
1
(
cp
+ m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.2)
which is the subsequence that includes ∆− 1 samples from the
cp
+ 2th to τth in
the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
C
1
= [c
2k
1
(m), 2
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ 2
cp
+ ∆]
= [s
k
1
(2
cp
+ m + 1), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.3)
which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the 2
cp
+2th to 2
cp
+∆+1th
in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
E
1
= [c
2k+1
1
(m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = [−(s
k
2
(N −m))
∗
, 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.4)
72
which is the subsequence that consists of ∆−1 samples from the second to ∆th in
the second OFDM symbol period. And
s
F
1
= [c
2k+1
1
(m), N −
cp
≤ m ≤ N −
cp
+ ∆−1]
= [−(s
k
2
(
cp
−m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.5)
which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the N −
cp
+ 1th to N −
cp
+ ∆th in the second OFDM symbol period.
Subsequences in transmit signal sequences from the second relay are
s
A
2
= [c
2k−1
2
(m), N −∆ ≤ m ≤ N −1], (6.6)
which is an interference subsequence from previous coded OFDM block.
And
s
C
2
= [c
2k
2
(m),
cp
−∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤
cp
]
= [s
k
2
(
cp
−∆ + m + 1), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.7)
which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the
cp
−∆+2th to
cp
+1th
in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
D
2
= [c
2k
2
(m), N −τ ≤ m ≤ N −
cp
−1]
= [s
k
2
(N −τ + m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.8)
which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the N−τ +1th to N−
cp
th
in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
E
2
= [c
2k
2
(m), N −∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N −1]
= [s
k
2
(N −∆ + m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.9)
which is the subsequence that includes last ∆−1 samples in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol
period. And
s
F
2
= [c
2k+1
2
(m), N −2
cp
−∆ ≤ m ≤ N −2
cp
−1]
= [(s
k
1
(2
cp
+ ∆−m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.10)
73
which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the N − 2
cp
− ∆ + 1th to
N −2
cp
th in the second OFDM symbol period. And
s
G
2
= [c
2k+1
2
(m), N −τ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N −
cp
−1]
= [(s
k
1
(τ −m))
∗
, 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.11)
which is the subsequence that includes ∆ − 1 samples from the N − τ + 2th to
N −
cp
th in the second OFDM symbol period.
Two subsequences in CP are
s
D
1
= [−(s
k
2
(
cp
−m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.12)
which is the subsequence that consists of ﬁrst ∆ samples in the second CP of a
coded block from the ﬁrst relay node. And
s
B
2
= [s
k
2
(N −∆ + m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1], (6.13)
which is the subsequence that consists of last ∆ − 1 samples in the ﬁrst CP of a
coded block from the second relay node.
Formulas (6.2) and (6.11) show that
s
G
2
= (flip(s
B
1
))
∗
. (6.14)
From Fig. 6.1 one can see that there are two symbols in front of s
B
1
and s
G
2
,
respectively. The reason why these symbols are separated from sequences s
B
1
and
s
G
2
is because if we include those symbols into the two sequences, we will not have
the relationship (6.14). These individual samples are deﬁned separately as follow.
s
α1
= c
2k
1
(
cp
) = s
k
1
(
cp
), which is the last time domain sample before s
B
1
.
s
α2
= s
k
2
(N −∆), which is the last time domain sample in CP before s
B
2
.
s
β1
= c
2k
1
(τ) = s
k
1
(τ), which is the ﬁrst time domain sample after s
B
1
.
s
β2
= c
2k
2
(0) = s
k
2
(0), which is the ﬁrst time domain sample after s
B
2
.
74
s
γ1
= c
2k+1
1
(0) = −(s
k
2
(0))
∗
, which is the only one time domain sample be
tween CP period and s
E
1
.
s
γ2
= c
2k
2
(N −∆) = s
k
2
(N −∆), which is the last time domain sample before
s
E
2
.
s
θ1
= c
2k+1
1
(∆) = −(s
k
2
(N −∆))
∗
, which is the ﬁrst time domain sample after
s
E
1
.
s
θ2
= (s
k
1
(
cp
))
∗
, which is the ﬁrst time domain sample after s
E
2
and the ﬁrst
time domain sample in CP of the second OFDM block.
s
µ2
= c
2k+1
2
(N − τ) = (s
k
1
(τ))
∗
, which is the last time domain sample before
s
G
2
.
After we have all the above subsequences and symbols deﬁned, we can easily
describe the interference sequences as
d
2k
= [d
2k
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = s
A
2
−s
D
2
,
d
2k+1
= [d
2k+1
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = [s
γ2
, s
E
2
] −[s
µ2
, s
G
2
]. (6.15)
Sequences s
A
2
, s
D
2
, s
E
2
, and s
G
2
are intuitively shown in Fig. 6.1. In next chapter,
we show how to use the relationships among all the subsequences to estimate and
mitigate the interference sequences in (6.15).
6.1.2 Estimation of interference sequences
The interference sequences are shown in (6.15) where sequence s
A
2
is the
interference from the last Alamouti coded OFDM block. We already have decision
on the previous coded OFDM block. After IDFT on the previous decoded code
sequence, ˆs
A
2
, an estimation of sequence s
A
2
, is known at the receiver. Now, we
need to estimate other subsequences in (6.15) at the receiver.
From the deﬁnitions of (6.3), (6.7), (6.5), and (6.10), we have
s
C
2
= −(flip(s
F
1
))
∗
,
s
F
2
= (flip(s
C
1
))
∗
. (6.16)
75
Deﬁne their corresponding received sequences in the time domain as
y
C
i
∆
= [y
2k
i
(m), 2
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ 2
cp
+ ∆] =
_
ρ
2
s
C
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
C
2
h
k
i,2
+w
C
i
,
y
F
i
∆
= [y
2k+1
i
(m), N −
cp
≤ m ≤ N −
cp
+ ∆−1]
=
_
ρ
2
s
F
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
F
2
h
k
i,2
+w
F
i
. (6.17)
Substituting (6.3), (6.7), (6.5), and (6.10) into (6.17), for 2
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ 2
cp
+ ∆,
we obtain
_
_
_
y
2k
i
(m) =
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
s
k
1
(m) +
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
s
k
2
(m−τ) + w
2k
i
(m),
y
2k+1
i
(N + τ −m) = −
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
(s
k
2
(m−τ))
∗
+
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
(s
k
1
(m))
∗
+ w
2k+1
i
(N + τ −m).
(6.18)
At the receiver, we have the time domain received signal y
2k
i
(m) for any i, k, and m.
Thus, for 2
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ 2
cp
+ ∆,
_
¸
_
¸
_
ˆ s
k
1
(m) =
h
k
i,2
(y
2k+1
i
(N+τ−m))
∗
+(h
k
i,1
)
∗
y
2k
i
(m)
√
ρ
2
(h
k
i,1

2
+h
k
i,2

2
)
,
ˆ s
k
2
(m−τ) =
(h
k
i,2
)
∗
y
2k
i
(m)−h
k
i,1
(y
2k+1
i
(N+τ−m))
∗
√
ρ
2
(h
k
i,1

2
+h
k
i,2

2
)
.
(6.19)
and an estimation ˆs
F
1
of sequence s
F
1
is then
ˆs
F
1
= (−(ˆ s
k
2
(
cp
))
∗
, −(ˆ s
k
2
(
cp
−1))
∗
, , −(ˆ s
k
2
(
cp
−∆ + 2))
∗
, −(ˆ s
k
2
(
cp
−∆ + 1))
∗
).
(6.20)
Note that the sequence s
D
1
in CP is the repetition of the sequence s
F
1
in the second
OFDM symbol period as shown in Fig. 6.1. So ˆs
D
1
, an estimation of the subsequence
s
D
1
, can be set to equal to ˆs
F
1
.
We also denote the partial received sequence in CP as
y
D
i
∆
=
_
ρ
2
s
D
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
D
2
h
k
i,2
+w
D
i
. (6.21)
Thus,
ˆs
D
2
=
_
2
ρ
y
D
i
−ˆs
D
1
h
k
i,1
h
k
i,2
, (6.22)
76
which gives an estimate of sequence s
D
2
in the time domain.
In the second OFDM period, we denote y
E
i
as the received time domain
sequence that includes the ﬁrst ∆−1 samples that are suﬀered by the interference:
y
E
i
∆
= [y
2k+1
i
(m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] =
_
ρ
2
s
E
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
E
2
h
k
i,2
+w
E
i
. (6.23)
Interestingly, the elements of sequence s
E
1
are the negative conjugate of the elements
in sequence s
E
2
in the reversed order, i.e. s
E
1
= −(flip(s
E
2
))
∗
. Substituting (6.4)
and (6.9) into (6.23), we obtain, for 1 ≤ m ≤ ¸
∆
2
,
_
_
_
y
2k+1
i
(m) = −
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
(s
k
2
(N −m))
∗
+
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
s
k
2
(N −∆ + m) + w
2k+1
i
(m),
y
2k+1
i
(∆−m) = −
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
(s
k
2
(N −∆ + m))
∗
+
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
s
k
2
(N −m) + w
2k+1
i
(∆−m).
(6.24)
Thus, for 1 ≤ m ≤ ¸
∆
2
, we have
_
¸
_
¸
_
ˆ s
k
2
(N −m) =
(h
k
i,2
)
∗
y
2k+1
i
(∆−m)+h
k
i,1
(y
2k+1
i
(m))
∗
√
ρ
2
(h
k
i,2

2
−h
k
i,1

2
)
,
ˆ s
k
2
(N −∆ + m) =
h
k
i,1
(y
2k+1
i
(∆−m))
∗
+(h
k
i,2
)
∗
y
2k+1
i
(m)
√
ρ
2
(h
k
i,2

2
−h
k
i,1

2
)
.
(6.25)
An estimation of s
E
2
is then
ˆs
E
2
=
_
ˆ s
k
2
(N −∆ + 1), , ˆ s
k
2
(N −2), ˆ s
k
2
(N −1)
_
. (6.26)
Due to CP we know that sequences s
B
2
and s
E
2
are the same as shown in
Fig. 6.1. So ˆs
E
2
is also an estimation of s
B
2
. Deﬁne received sequence as
y
B
i
∆
= [y
2k
i
(m),
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ τ −1] =
_
ρ
2
s
B
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
B
2
h
k
i,2
+w
B
i
.(6.27)
Then sequence s
B
1
can be estimated as follows:
ˆs
B
1
=
_
2
ρ
y
B
i
−ˆs
E
2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.28)
Note that sequence s
B
1
is the conjugate of s
G
2
in reversed order, i.e., s
G
2
= (flip(s
B
1
))
∗
.
If we take conjugate on ˆs
B
1
and reverse the sequence, we get an estimate ˆs
G
2
of se
quence s
G
2
.
77
By far, we have estimated all the subsequences in the interferences. However
there are several individual samples in the interferences that have not been estimated
yet such as s
γ2
and s
µ2
. In order to estimate those time domain samples, we deﬁne
four received signals as
y
α
i
∆
= y
2k
i
(
cp
) =
_
ρ
2
s
α1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
α2
h
k
i,2
+ w
2k
i
(
cp
)
=
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
s
k
1
(
cp
) +
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
s
k
2
(N −∆) + w
2k
i
(
cp
),
y
β
i
∆
= y
2k
i
(τ) =
_
ρ
2
s
β1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
β2
h
k
i,2
+ w
2k
i
(τ)
=
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
s
k
1
(τ) +
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
s
k
2
(0) + w
2k
i
(τ),
y
γ
i
∆
= y
2k+1
i
(0) =
_
ρ
2
s
γ1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
γ2
h
k
i,2
+ w
2k+1
i
(0)
= −
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
(s
k
2
(0))
∗
+
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
s
k
2
(N −∆) + w
2k+1
i
(0),
y
θ
i
∆
= y
2k+1
i
(∆) =
_
ρ
2
s
θ1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
θ2
h
k
i,2
+ w
2k+1
i
(∆)
= −
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
(s
k
2
(N −∆))
∗
+
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
(s
k
1
(
cp
))
∗
+ w
2k+1
i
(∆). (6.29)
By solving (6.29), we can estimate s
k
2
(0), s
k
2
(N −∆) and s
k
1
(τ) as
ˆ s
k
2
(N −∆) =
(h
k
i,2
)
∗
y
2k
i
(
cp
) −h
k
i,1
(y
2k+1
i
(∆))
∗
_
ρ
2
([h
k
i,1
[
2
+[h
k
i,2
[
2
)
,
ˆ s
k
2
(0) =
_
ρ
2
(h
k
i,2
)
∗
(ˆ s
k
2
(N −∆))
∗
−(y
2k+1
i
(0))
∗
_
ρ
2
(h
k
i,1
)
∗
,
ˆ s
k
1
(τ) =
y
2k
i
(τ) −
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,2
ˆ s
k
2
(0)
_
ρ
2
h
k
i,1
. (6.30)
Then ˆ s
γ2
= ˆ s
k
2
(N −∆) and ˆ s
µ2
= (ˆ s
k
1
(τ))
∗
.
6.1.3 Interference Cancellation
In the time domain, during the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period, only the ﬁrst ∆
samples are interfered. We denote y
A
i
as the received time domain sequence that
78
includes the ﬁrst ∆ samples suﬀered from the interference:
y
A
i
∆
= [y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] =
_
ρ
2
s
A
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
A
2
h
k
i,2
+w
A
i
=
_
ρ
2
s
A
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
D
2
h
k
i,2
+
_
ρ
2
(s
A
2
−s
D
2
)h
k
i,2
+w
A
i
. (6.31)
As in (6.15), s
A
2
−s
D
2
is the total interference. We can mitigate this interference by
subtracting ˆs
A
2
−ˆs
D
2
and a new received sequence after the interference cancellation
is
˜ y
A
i
∆
= [˜ y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = y
A
i
−
_
ρ
2
(ˆs
A
2
−ˆs
D
2
)h
k
i,2
. (6.32)
For the second OFDM symbol period in a coded OFDM block, [s
γ
i
, s
E
2
] −
[s
µ
i
, s
G
2
] is the time domain interference. Received sequence [y
γ
i
, y
E
i
] consists of the
ﬁrst ∆ received samples, which are suﬀered from the interference [s
γ
i
, s
E
2
] −[s
µ
i
, s
G
2
],
in the second OFDM period. So we mitigate the interference as
˜ y
γ
i
∆
= ˜ y
2k+1
i
(0) = y
γ
i
−
_
ρ
2
(ˆ s
γ2
− ˆ s
µ2
)h
k
i,2
. (6.33)
Then,
˜ y
E
i
∆
= [˜ y
2k+1
i
(m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = y
E
i
−
_
ρ
2
(ˆs
E
2
−ˆs
G
2
)h
k
i,2
. (6.34)
After the above interference cancellation process, we have two new received
signal sequences ˜ y
2k
i
= [˜ y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ N − 1] and ˜ y
2k+1
i
= [˜ y
2k+1
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤
N −1], where
˜ y
2k
i
(m) =
_
_
_
˜ y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1
y
2k
i
(m), ∆ ≤ m ≤ N −1,
(6.35)
and
˜ y
2k+1
i
(m) =
_
_
_
˜ y
2k+1
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1
y
2k+1
i
(m), ∆ ≤ m ≤ N −1.
(6.36)
79
T
cp
s1
T
1
A
2
A
1
H
2
H
1
B
2
B
1
C
2
C
1
D
2
D
1
I
2
I
1
E
2
E
1
F
2
F
2
G
2
J
T
cp
s2
T
1
s
E 1
s
D
2
s
D 2
s
E
1
s
J
2
s
J
1
s
T
2
s
T
2
s
P
CP CP
CP CP
2
1
k
c
2 1
1
k
c
2
2
k
c
2 1
2
k
c
W
Figure 6.2: Received sequences in time domain N −
cp
−1 ≥ τ > 2
cp
.
After the DFT, the new time domain received sequences are transferred into the
frequency domain signals and then the common Alamouti coded OFDM signal de
tection can be applied. In Chapter 6.4, our simulation will show that signiﬁcant per
formance improvement with our interference cancellation method can be achieved.
As a remark, one can see that in the above interference sequence estimation,
one needs to divide the channel coeﬃcients h
k
i,j
that may have small values at the
receiver. Since these channel coeﬃcients are assumed known at the receiver, in prac
tice one may implement the above interference sequence estimation and interference
cancellation only when the channel coeﬃcients are not too small, i.e., one may set
a threshold, as what we shall do in our simulations later.
6.2 Interference cancellation when N −
cp
−1 ≥ τ > 2
cp
In Chapter 6.1, we considered the case when delay τ satisﬁes condition of
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
. In this chapter, we consider the case when N −
cp
−1 ≥ τ > 2
cp
. If
τ > 2
cp
, the interference sequence is longer than CP sequence. Although the basic
idea is the same, some subsequences that we estimate in the previous chapter need to
be estimated in a diﬀerent way and the derivation is little more complicated. Fig. 6.2
shows the time domain sequences from both relay nodes, when N−
cp
−1 ≥ τ > 2
cp
.
When the delay is longer, more samples fall into next OFDM period and become
interference.
From Fig. 6.2, [A
2
, s
α2
, H
2
] is the interference from the last Alamouti coded
OFDM block. We assume that its estimation is obtained by decoding the previous
80
Alamouti coded OFDM block. The way that we estimate D
2
, E
2
, and G
2
is the
same as Chapter 6.1 except that they are longer now.
We next discuss how to estimate two new interference segments I
2
and J
2
shown in Fig. 6.2. The segments I
1
and I
2
consist of the same information about
transmitted signals. The diﬀerence between I
1
and I
2
is that I
2
is the reverse of
I
1
and each element in I
1
is the negative conjugate of an element in I
2
. From this
time domain property, we can solve I
2
from the received signals. Because J
2
has the
same samples as H
1
in the reversed order and conjugate, so instead of estimating J
2
directly, we estimate H
1
ﬁrst. We already assume that we have an estimation of H
2
.
The sequence H
1
can be estimated by subtracting estimation of H
2
from received
signals. Then an estimation of J
2
is easy to obtain by reversing the estimation of
H
1
in its conjugate. Similar to Chapter 6.1, we ﬁrst deﬁne several segments and
samples in the time domain. All segments are shown/located in Fig. 6.2 by capital
letters that are deﬁned in (6.37)(6.46) next.
6.2.1 Transmitted Sequences and Interference Sequences
Besides the subsequences similar to the subsequences deﬁned in Chapter 6.1,
we will also deﬁne some new segments such as H
1
, I
1
, and J
1
shown in Fig. 6.2.
Some subsequences in transmit signal sequences from the ﬁrst relay are
s
A
1
= [c
2k
1
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1] = [s
k
1
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.37)
which is the subsequence that consists of the ﬁrst
cp
samples in the ﬁrst OFDM
symbol period. And
s
H
1
= [c
2k
1
(m),
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1]
= [s
k
1
(
cp
+ m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−
cp
−1], (6.38)
81
which is the subsequence that includes ∆ −
cp
− 1 samples from the
cp
+ 2th to
∆th positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
B
1
= [c
2k
1
(m), ∆ ≤ m ≤ τ −1] = [s
k
1
(∆ + m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.39)
which is the subsequence that includes
cp
samples from the ∆+1th to τth positions
in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
C
1
= [c
2k
1
(m), τ + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ +
cp
]
= [s
k
1
(τ + 1 + m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.40)
which is the subsequence that includes
cp
samples from the τ +2th to τ +
cp
+1th
positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
I
1
= [c
2k+1
1
(m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−
cp
−1]
= [−(s
k
2
(N −m))
∗
, 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−
cp
−1], (6.41)
which is the subsequence that includes ∆ −
cp
− 1 samples from the second to
∆−
cp
th positions in the second OFDM symbol period. And
s
E
1
= [c
2k+1
1
(m), ∆−
cp
≤ m ≤ ∆−1]
= [−(s
k
2
(N −∆ +
cp
−m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.42)
which is the subsequence that includes
cp
samples from the ∆ −
cp
+ 1th to ∆th
positions in the second OFDM symbol period. And
s
F
1
= [c
2k+1
1
(m), N −
cp
≤ m ≤ N −1]
= [−(s
k
2
(
cp
−m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.43)
which is the subsequence that consists of the last
cp
samples in the second OFDM
symbol period.
Some subsequences in transmit signal sequences from the second relay are
s
A
2
= [c
2k−1
2
(m), N −∆ ≤ m ≤ N −∆ +
cp
−1], (6.44)
82
and
s
H
2
= [c
2k−1
2
(m), N −∆ +
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ N −1], (6.45)
which are interference subsequences from the previous Alamouti coded OFDM block.
And
s
C
2
= [c
2k
2
(m), 1 ≤ m ≤
cp
] = [s
k
2
(1 + m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.46)
which is the subsequence that includes the
cp
samples from the second to
cp
+1th
positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
D
2
= [c
2k
2
(m), N −τ ≤ m ≤ N −∆−1]
= [s
k
2
(N −τ + m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.47)
which is the subsequence that includes the
cp
samples from the N − τ + 1th to
N −∆th positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
I
2
= [c
2k
2
(m), N −∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N −
cp
−1]
= [s
k
2
(N −∆ + m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−
cp
−1], (6.48)
which is the subsequence that includes the ∆−
cp
−1 samples from the N−∆+2th
to the N −
cp
th positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And
s
E
2
= [c
2k
2
(m), N −
cp
≤ m ≤ N −1]
= [s
k
2
(N −
cp
+ m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.49)
which is the subsequence that includes the last
cp
samples in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol
period. And
s
F
2
= [c
2k+1
2
(m), N −
cp
−τ ≤ m ≤ N −τ −1]
= [(s
k
1
(
cp
+ τ −m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.50)
83
which is the subsequence that includes the
cp
samples from the N −
cp
− τ + 1th
to the N −τth positions in the second OFDM symbol period. And
s
G
2
= [c
2k+1
2
(m), N −τ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N −∆]
= [(s
k
1
(τ −1 −m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.51)
which is the subsequence that includes the
cp
samples from the N −τ +2th to the
N −∆ + 1th positions in the second OFDM symbol period. And
s
J
2
= [c
2k+1
2
(m), N −∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N −
cp
−1]
= [(s
k
1
(∆−m))
∗
, 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−
cp
−1], (6.52)
which is the subsequence that includes the ∆−
cp
−1 samples from the N−∆+2th
to the N −
cp
th positions in the second OFDM symbol period.
Two CP sequences are
s
D
1
= [−(s
k
2
(
cp
−m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.53)
which is the second CP sequence of an Alamouti coded block from the ﬁrst relay
node. And
s
B
2
= [s
k
2
(N −
cp
+ m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1], (6.54)
which is the ﬁrst CP sequence of an Alamouti coded block from the second relay
node.
Except s
α2
, the other individual samples are deﬁned exactly the same as those
deﬁned in Chapter 6.1. We only give a deﬁnition for s
α2
as s
α2
= c
2k−1
2
(N−∆+
cp
),
which is a time domain sample between s
A
2
and s
H
2
.
Then interference sequences are
d
2k
= [d
2k
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = [s
A
2
, s
α2
, s
H
2
] −[s
D
2
, s
γ2
, s
I
2
],
d
2k+1
= [d
2k+1
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = [s
γ2
, s
I
2
, s
E
2
] −[s
µ2
, s
G
2
, s
J
2
]. (6.55)
84
The main idea in our interference cancellation method is still to estimate the
interference subsequences in (6.55). In next chapter, we show how to estimate all
subsequences in (6.55) in the time domain.
6.2.2 Estimation of Interference Sequences
In this chapter, we estimate time domain interference sequences in (6.55).
From Fig. 6.2 and as what we have deﬁned, [s
A
2
, s
α2
, s
H
2
] is the interference from
the last Alamouti coded OFDM block. We assume that its estimation [ˆs
A
2
, ˆ s
α2
, ˆs
H
2
]
is obtained by decoding the previous Alamouti coded OFDM block. The interference
sequences s
D
2
, s
E
2
, and s
G
2
are estimated the same as Chapter 6.1. We will mainly
describe how we estimate the new interference sequences s
I
2
and s
J
2
in this chapter.
Although s
F
1
does not appear in (6.55) and does not cause interferences,
it helps us to estimate other subsequences that may cause interferences. So we
estimate this subsequence ﬁrst. Similar to Chapter 6.1, we deﬁne the following
received signals
y
C
i
∆
= [y
2k
i
(m), τ + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ +
cp
] =
_
ρ
2
s
C
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
C
2
h
k
i,2
+w
C
i
y
F
i
∆
= [y
2k+1
i
(m), N −
cp
≤ m ≤ N −1]
=
_
ρ
2
s
F
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
F
2
h
k
i,2
+w
F
i
(6.56)
Using (6.43) and (6.50), (6.56) can be expanded to systems of equations (6.18) for
τ +1 ≤ m ≤ τ +
cp
. By solving (6.18), for τ +1 ≤ m ≤ τ +
cp
, we can have estimated
samples ˆ s
k
1
(m) and ˆ s
k
2
(m−τ) as (6.19), and a sequence ˆs
F
1
as an estimation of s
F
1
is
ˆs
F
1
= [−(ˆ s
k
2
(
cp
−m))
∗
, 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1]. (6.57)
Since CP sequence s
D
1
is exactly the repetition of s
F
1
, ˆs
F
1
is also an estimation for
s
D
1
.
85
We denote the received sequence during the CP period as
y
D
i
∆
=
_
ρ
2
s
D
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
D
2
h
k
i,2
+w
D
i
. (6.58)
From (6.58), if we have ˆs
F
1
as estimation of s
D
1
, the sequence s
D
2
can be estimated
by subtracting ˆs
F
1
from the received signals as
ˆs
D
2
=
_
2
ρ
y
D
i
−ˆs
F
1
h
k
i,1
h
k
i,2
. (6.59)
Next, we estimate two important subsequences s
I
2
and s
E
2
. At the receiver,
corresponding received sequence is
y
IE
i
∆
= [y
2k+1
i
(m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1]
=
_
ρ
2
[s
I
1
, s
E
1
]h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
[s
I
2
, s
E
2
]h
k
i,2
+w
IE
i
. (6.60)
Using (6.53), (6.49), (6.41), and (6.48), equation (6.60) can be expanded to systems
of equations (6.24) for 1 ≤ m ≤ ¸
∆
2
. By solving these equations, we can get
estimations ˆ s
k
2
(N − m) and ˆ s
k
2
(N − ∆ + m) for s
k
2
(N − m) and s
k
2
(N − ∆ + m),
respectively, as (6.25) for 1 ≤ m ≤ ¸
∆
2
. Thus, an estimation of s
I
2
is
ˆs
I
2
= [ˆ s
k
2
(m), N −∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N −
cp
−1]. (6.61)
and an estimation of s
E
2
is
ˆs
E
2
= [ˆ s
k
2
(m), N −
cp
≤ m ≤ N −1]. (6.62)
Since s
B
2
is the exact repetition of s
E
2
, we can use ˆs
E
2
as an estimation of s
B
2
. Its
corresponding received signal sequence y
B
i
is
y
B
i
∆
= [y
2k
i
(m), ∆ ≤ m ≤ τ −1] =
_
ρ
2
s
B
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
B
2
h
k
i,2
+w
B
i
. (6.63)
From (6.63), if we have ˆs
E
2
as estimation of s
B
2
, sequence s
B
1
can be estimated by
subtracting ˆs
E
2
from the above received signals as
ˆs
B
1
=
_
2
ρ
y
B
i
−ˆs
E
2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.64)
86
Since s
G
2
has the same samples as s
B
1
but in the reversed order and conjugated, we
can obtain an estimation of s
G
2
as
ˆs
G
2
= (flip(ˆs
B
1
))
∗
. (6.65)
We next want to estimate s
J
2
. Since s
J
2
has the same samples as s
H
1
but
in the reversed order and conjugated, instead of estimating s
J
1
directly, we may
estimate s
H
1
ﬁrst. The corresponding received signal sequence y
H
i
is
y
H
i
∆
= [y
2k
i
(m),
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] =
=
_
ρ
2
s
H
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
H
2
h
k
i,2
+w
H
i
. (6.66)
We have already assumed that we have ˆs
H
2
as an estimation of s
H
2
from the previous
decoded Alamouti coded OFDM block in the beginning of this subsection. Thus,
sequence s
H
1
can be estimated by subtracting ˆs
H
2
from the above received signals
as
ˆs
H
1
=
_
2
ρ
y
H
i
−ˆs
H
2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.67)
Then, we get an estimation of s
J
2
as
ˆs
J
2
= (flip(ˆs
H
1
))
∗
. (6.68)
Note that individual symbols s
α2
, s
θ2
, and s
µ2
are also interferences in (6.55).
Note that we already have ˆ s
α2
, an estimate from the previous decoded Alamouti
coded OFDM block. We next use the received signals deﬁned in (6.29) to estimate
the two individual time domain samples. Sample s
α1
can be estimated by subtracting
ˆ s
α2
from the received signals as
ˆ s
α1
=
_
2
ρ
y
α
i
− ˆ s
α2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.69)
From its deﬁnition, s
θ2
is the conjugate of s
α1
and thus ˆ s
θ2
= (ˆ s
α1
)
∗
.
87
Sample s
θ1
can be estimated by subtracting ˆ s
θ2
from the received signals as
ˆ s
θ1
=
_
2
ρ
y
θ
i
− ˆ s
θ2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.70)
Similarly, we have an estimation of s
γ2
that is equal to the negative conjugate of
ˆ s
θ1
, i.e., ˆ s
γ2
= −(ˆ s
θ1
)
∗
, and can estimate s
γ1
as
ˆ s
γ1
=
_
2
ρ
y
γ
i
− ˆ s
γ2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.71)
Also, we have an estimation of s
β2
that is equal to the negative conjugate of ˆ s
γ1
,
i.e., ˆ s
β2
= −(ˆ s
γ1
)
∗
, and can estimate s
β1
as
ˆ s
β1
=
_
2
ρ
y
β
i
− ˆ s
β2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.72)
Finally, s
µ2
is equal to the conjugate of s
β1
, i.e., ˆ s
µ2
= (ˆ s
β1
)
∗
.
6.2.3 Interference Cancellation
For the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period, interfered received signals are
y
A
i
∆
= [y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1] =
_
ρ
2
s
A
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
A
2
h
k
i,2
+w
A
i
=
_
ρ
2
s
A
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
D
2
h
k
i,2
+
_
ρ
2
(s
A
2
−s
D
2
)h
k
i,2
+w
A
i
. (6.73)
and
y
H
i
∆
= [y
2k
i
(m),
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] =
_
ρ
2
s
H
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
H
2
h
k
i,2
+w
H
i
=
_
ρ
2
s
H
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
I
2
h
k
i,2
+
_
ρ
2
(s
H
2
−s
I
2
)h
k
i,2
+w
H
i
. (6.74)
The new received sequences after the interference cancellation are
˜ y
A
i
∆
= [˜ y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤
cp
−1] = y
A
i
−
_
ρ
2
(ˆs
A
2
−ˆs
D
2
)h
k
i,2
, (6.75)
88
and
˜ y
H
i
∆
= [˜ y
2k
i
(m),
cp
+ 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1] = y
H
i
−
_
ρ
2
(ˆs
H
2
−ˆs
I
2
)h
k
i,2
, (6.76)
and
˜ y
α
i
∆
= ˜ y
2k
i
(
cp
) = y
α
i
−
_
ρ
2
(ˆ s
α2
− ˆ s
γ2
)h
k
i,2
. (6.77)
From (6.55), [s
γ2
, s
I
2
, s
E
2
] −[s
µ2
, s
G
2
, s
J
2
] is the time domain interference for
the second OFDM symbol period in an Alamouti coded OFDM block. Received
sequence [y
γ
i
, y
IE
i
] consists of the ﬁrst ∆ received samples, which are suﬀered from
the interference [s
γ2
, s
I
2
, s
E
2
] −[s
µ2
, s
G
2
, s
J
2
], in the second OFDM period. The new
received time domain sequences after the interference cancellation are
˜ y
IE
i
∆
= [˜ y
2k+1
i
(m), 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1]
= y
IE
i
−
_
ρ
2
([ˆs
I
2
, ˆs
E
2
] −[ˆs
G
2
, ˆs
J
2
])h
k
i,2
, (6.78)
and
˜ y
γ
i
∆
= ˜ y
2k+1
i
(0) = y
γ
i
−
_
ρ
2
(ˆ s
γ2
− ˆ s
µ2
)h
k
i,2
. (6.79)
Therefore, after the above interference cancellation process we have two new
received sequences ˜ y
2k
i
= [˜ y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ N −1] and ˜ y
2k+1
i
= [˜ y
2k+1
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤
N −1], where
˜ y
2k
i
(m) =
_
_
_
˜ y
2k
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1
y
2k
i
(m), ∆ ≤ m ≤ N −1,
(6.80)
and
˜ y
2k+1
i
(m) =
_
_
_
˜ y
2k+1
i
(m), 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆−1
y
2k+1
i
(m), ∆ ≤ m ≤ N −1.
(6.81)
After the DFT, the new time domain received sequences are transferred into the
frequency domain sequences and then the common Alamouti coded OFDM signal
detection can be applied as before.
89
T
cp
s1
T
1
A
2
A
1
H
2
H
1
B
2
B
1
C
2
C
1
D
2
D
1
I
2
I
1
E
2
E
1
F
2
F
2
G
2
J
T
cp
s2
T
1
s
E 1
s
D
2
s
D 2
s
E
1
s
J
2
s
J
1
s
T
2
s
T
2
s
P
CP CP
CP CP
2
1
k
c
2 1
1
k
c
2
2
k
c
2 1
2
k
c
W
1
K
2
K
Figure 6.3: Received sequences in time domain N −1 ≥ τ > N −
cp
−1.
6.3 Interference cancellation when N −1 ≥ τ > N −
cp
−1
In this chapter, we consider the case when N−
cp
−1 < τ ≤ N−1. The idea
is similar to before. All the subsequences and individual samples deﬁned in Chapter
6.2 are the same in this chapter, except s
C
1
, s
C
2
, s
F
1
, and s
F
2
. Because the delay is
too long, those sequences are cut oﬀ. The interference sequences deﬁned in (6.55)
are also the same in this chapter. So we still need to estimate the subsequences in
(6.55) to cancel the interferences. We estimate subsequences s
I
2
, s
E
2
, s
G
2
, and s
J
2
in the exact same way as Chapter 6.2. Also all the individual samples deﬁned in
Chapter 6.1 and Chapter 6.2 are estimated as Chapter 6.2. The only diﬀerence is
to estimate subsequence s
D
2
. We next mainly discuss how to estimate s
D
2
when
N −1 ≥ τ > N −
cp
−1.
In order to calculate s
D
2
, we need to deﬁne two new sequences. One is
s
K
1
= [c
2k+1
2
(m), ∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ] = [−(s
k
2
(N −∆−m))
∗
, 1 ≤ m ≤
cp
], (6.82)
which is the subsequence that includes
cp
samples from the ∆ + 2th to τ + 1th
positions in the second OFDM symbol period. The other is
s
K
2
= [(s
k
1
(
cp
−m))
∗
, 1 ≤ m ≤
cp
], (6.83)
which is a sequence that includes samples from the second to the last positions in
the second CP period and the ﬁrst data sample in the second OFDM symbol period.
Both sequence locations are shown in Fig. 6.3.
90
Firstly, we have an estimate ˆs
A
2
of s
A
2
from the decision of the previous
Alamouti coded OFDM block. From (6.73), one can see that y
A
i
is a superposition
of the time domain signals s
A
1
and s
A
2
. Thus, we have
ˆs
A
1
=
_
2
ρ
y
A
i
−ˆs
A
2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.84)
From (6.37) and (6.83), we have
s
K
2
= (flip(s
A
1
))
∗
.
Considering the received the signal sequence
y
K
i
∆
= [y
2k+1
i
(m), ∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ] =
_
ρ
2
s
K
1
h
k
i,1
+
_
ρ
2
s
K
2
h
k
i,2
+w
K
i
, (6.85)
we have
ˆs
K
1
=
_
2
ρ
y
K
i
−ˆs
K
2
h
k
i,2
h
k
i,1
. (6.86)
From (6.47) and (6.82), we have
s
D
2
= −(flip(s
K
1
))
∗
,
and thus, we have an estimate ˆs
D
2
as
ˆs
D
2
= −(flip(ˆs
K
1
))
∗
. (6.87)
The remaining parts are the same as previous chapters.
6.4 Simulation
In this chapter, we present some numerical simulations to show the per
formance of our proposed interference cancellation algorithm for Alamouti coded
cooperative OFDM systems. In the following simulations, two relay ﬂat fading
Rayleigh channel is used. An OFDM with N = 64 subcarriers and
cp
= 16 CP are
used. In our simulations, the signal constellation o is 4QAM and the throughput
91
is 2 bits/s/Hz. As we mentioned before, the channel coeﬃcient values aﬀect the
performance of our interference cancellation algorithm. Small value of channel co
eﬃcients causes inaccurate interference estimation and performance loss. In order
to avoid this problem, in our simulations, we set up thresholds as T
h
= 0.1 and
T
∆h
= 0.1. Only when ([h
k
i,1
[
2
− [h
k
i,2
[
2
) > T
∆h
, we use the interference sequence
estimation (6.25) where dividing ([h
k
i,1
[
2
− [h
k
i,2
[
2
) is needed. Otherwise, we do not
implement the interference cancellation. Only when [h
k
i,1
[ > T
h
, we do the interfer
ence sequence estimation such as (6.28) and (6.64) where dividing h
k
i,1
is needed,
and only when [h
k
i,2
[ > T
h
, we do the interference sequence estimation such as (6.22)
and (6.59) where dividing h
k
i,2
is needed. Otherwise no interference cancellation is
implemented.
In Fig. 6.46.6, we compare the decoding performances between the decodings
with interference cancellation and without interference cancellation under diﬀerent
lengths of delays for all three cases we discussed in Chapters 6.16.3. The dashed
lines are for the decoding without considering the interference cancellation, and the
solid lines are for the decoding with our newly developed interference cancellation
algorithm, and dotted line is for the decoding without interference when τ ≤
cp
.
We simulate two diﬀerent length delays for each case. As one can see, at a high
SNR, for all diﬀerent delay cases, our interference cancellation algorithm always
helps the decoding to achieve better performance than the decoding algorithm does
without cancelling the interference. Because the interference increases linearly with
transmit signal power, the decoding without interference cancellation has an error
ﬂoor. Increasing SNR does not help the decoding performance. However, our inter
ference cancellation algorithm can eﬃciently mitigate the interference. Especially
at high SNR and when the timing errors are not too large, the estimation of the
interference in the time domain is more accurate and therefore more interference is
cancelled from the received signals at the receiver. Hence, at a reasonably high SNR,
92
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=24,l
cp
=16)
Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=24,l
cp
=16)
Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=21,l
cp
=16)
Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=21,l
cp
=16)
No interference (τ ≤ l
cp
)
Figure 6.4: Performance comparison when
cp
< τ ≤ 2
cp
.
our interference cancellation helps the decoding to avoid the error ﬂoor and achieve
a signiﬁcantly better improvement. The performance gap between the decodings
without interference cancellation and the decoding with interference cancellation
becomes more signiﬁcant. When the timing errors are too large, although our pro
posed interference cancellation algorithm can still improve the performance, error
ﬂoor may exist, which can be seen from Fig. 6.6. At a low SNR, the interference
estimation may not be accurate and the interference cancellation may not work well.
Decoding performance after the interference cancellation may be even slightly worse
than the direct decoding without any interference cancellation.
93
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=36,l
cp
=16)
Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=36,l
cp
=16)
Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=40,l
cp
=16)
Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=40,l
cp
=16)
Figure 6.5: Performance comparison when N −
cp
−1 ≥ τ > 2
cp
.
94
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
SNR(dB)
B
E
R
Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=50,l
cp
=16)
Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=50,l
cp
=16)
Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=54,l
cp
=16)
Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=54,l
cp
=16)
Figure 6.6: Performance comparison when N −1 ≥ τ > N −
cp
−1.
95
Chapter 7
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
7.1 Conclusions and Contributions
Research has been carried out in two aspects of wireless communications
systems. Spacetime/frequency coded MIMOOFDM systems and spacetime coded
cooperative OFDM systems are well studied. The contributions that have been
made in this dissertation and the conclusions drawn from these contributions can
be summarized as follows:
• Linearly transformed QOSTFBC to achieve both full spatial and full multipath
diversities
We generalize the STFC proposed in [8] from OSTBC to QOSTBC that
possesses higher rate than the OSTBC for more than two transmit antennas. Similar
to the OSTFBC from the OSTBC code, Alamouti code, QOSTFBC can be obtained
by repeating QOSTBC code [15][17] across frequency subcarriers [30, 31]. The
repetition of QOSTFBC in the frequency domain can exploit the multipath diversity
in MIMOOFDM systems.
Compared to OSTFBC, due to the lack of the orthogonality, there are two
shortcomings of the above QOSTFBC. The ﬁrst shortcoming is that the rank/diversity
order of the above QOSTFBC is only
M
t
2
M
r
L. The second shortcoming is that, if
(2.21) is plugged into the ML decoding objective function (2.14), at the receiver,
when the noise is AWGN, the ML decoding becomes symbolpairwise decoding due
to the cross terms of S
i
and S
i+2
in (2.23) in the objective functions.
96
In order to achieve full spatial diversity and fast decoding, we show that
linearly transformation method for single subcarrier QOSTBC is also applied to
QOSTFBC with multiple subcarriers. The linearly transformed QOSTFBC devel
oped in this work achieves both full spatial and full multipath diversities, and also
have the fast ML decodings. Simulations for these schemes for MIMOOFDM sys
tems with and without clipping have been presented to illustrate the theory.
• PAPR Reduction for Repetition SpaceTimeFrequency Coded MIMOOFDM
Systems Using Chu Sequences
For MIMOOFDM systems, various spacetime/frequency codes have been devel
oped to achieve both spatial and multipath diversities by coding across subcarriers
and multiple antennas and/or across OFDM symbols over the time, see, for exam
ple, [1][8]. One of the important methods to achieve the full multipath diversity is
repeating across the subcarriers obtained by Su et al in [3]. However, most of the
existing spacetime/frequency codes to achieve the spatial and multipath diversities
do not have fast ML decoding. Recently, a family of spacetimefrequency codes
have been proposed in [8] to achieve the full spatial and multipath diversities for
MIMOOFDM systems and in the meantime they have the fast singlesymbol ML
decoding by using OSTBC, see for example, [9][14], across multiple antennas and
OFDM symbols, and also repeating across subcarriers.
Although the repetition across subcarriers can achieve the multipath diver
sity, it causes high PAPR. The main goal of our research is to modify the repeating
process and adjust their phases so that the PAPR of the OFDM system is reduced,
and in the meantime the full spatial and multipath diversities and the fast ML de
coding are still maintained. In particular, we propose to use Chu sequences [38, 39]
for the phase adjustments and show that the discrete PAPR can be reduced by Γ
times for any SFC from the repeating, where Γ is the times of the repeating across
subcarriers. Also, a new repetition method has been introduced so that the PAPR
97
part caused by the repetition is reduced to 0 dB after the phase adjustments using
Chu sequences.
• SingleSymbol ML Decoding for Orthogonal and QuasiOrthogonal STFBC in
Clipped MIMOOFDM Systems Using A Clipping Noise Model with Gaussian
Approximation
An important issue for OFDM systems is their high PAPR and it is important
to reduce the PAPR in a practical (power eﬃcient) system. One of the most eﬃcient
ways to reduce the PAPR is clipping [34] that, however, induces clipping noise and
the induced clipping noise in an MIMOOFDM system may not be white and thus
the fast ML decoding for an OSTBC or QOSTBC coded system may not hold.
When the additive noise is not white, ML decoding for spatially colored noised [26]
needs to be considered.
In this work, we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTFBC
or QOSTFBC is used. By extending the clipping noise model from Bussgang’s
theorem used in, for example [35][37], we derive a spatially colored noise model for
ML decoding. We have presented the fast (singlesymbol) ML decoding algorithms
for OSTFBC and QOSTFBC with or without linear transformations in clipped
MIMOOFDM systems. Interestingly, the fast ML decoding properties for OSTBC
and rotated QOSTBC [9][25] in MIMOOFDM systems without clipping are still
maintained in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. It should be emphasized that the
newly developed fast ML decoding for rotated QOSTBC proposed in [18][25] for
MIMO channels with white noise still has the singlesymbol (or complex symbol
wise) decoding property in clipped MIMOOFDM systems.
The simulations presented in this dissertation shows the performance im
provement by using our newly developed fast ML decoding when the clipping noise
is considered over the one when the clipping noise is not considered.
• Decision Aided Clipping Ratio Estimation for STBC Coded MIMOOFDM
98
Clipping is an eﬃcient way to reduce the PAPR in an OFDM system. However
clipping induces clipping noise. Many clipping noise mitigation methods have been
proposed in the literature. Some of them are based on the DAR and clipping noise
cancellation [27][29] and some of them apply statistical clipping noise models to the
ML decoding [30]. All of these methods require the knowledge of the clipping ratio
(CR) at the receiver. However, in some applications, for example in interference
channels, it is may be possible that the CR is not known at the receiver. A clip
ping ratio estimation method has been proposed for single antenna OFDM systems
in [33]. This clipping ratio estimation method can be applied to pilottonebased
OFDM systems only. By calculating the statistics of the clipping noise at the pilot
subcarriers, the CR can be estimated from the statistical clipping noise model given
in [36][37].
In this research, we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTBC
and QOSTBC are used at the transmitter and the CR is not known at the re
ceiver. For MIMOOFDM systems, through a multiple transmit antenna channel,
the distortion from diﬀerent transmit antennas are added to one received signal.
If we subtract pilot symbols from received signals as [33], we can not get an esti
mation of the distortion as what can be obtained in [33] for single antenna case,
rather we get an estimate of the combination of the distortions from all transmitted
antennas. Thus, the pilottonebased clipping ratio estimation method in [33] is
not applicable to MIMOOFDM systems. Based on this observation, we develop
a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for an MIMOOFDM system. By utiliz
ing the code structure at the data subcarriers, we can separate clipping distortions
from multiple transmit antennas and calculate the statistics of the clipping noise.
Because we use decoded symbols to estimate the clipping distortion at the receiver,
we call our method decisionaided clipping ratio estimation. The diﬀerence between
our method and the pilottonebased CR estimation in [33] is the way how receiver
99
calculates the statistic of the clipping noise. CR estimation and statistical clipping
noise model used for both methods are same. Compared to the pilottonebased
CR estimation, our method does not have any restriction to pilot patterns and is
able to use more estimation samples from the data subcarriers than only pilot sub
carriers. Using the estimated CR by the decisionaided clipping ratio estimation,
any clipping noise mitigation method that requires to know CR, such as [27][29] or
clipping noise model based ML decoding can be used to improve the performance
of an clipped OFDM system.
Simulation results have shown that the CR estimation method is eﬀective
and can improve the performance for the clipping noise model based ML decoding.
Although we only discussed the performance for the clipping noise model based ML
decoding and the iterative clipping noise mitigation decoding in Chapter 4, many
other clipping noise mitigation methods that require to know CR also can use our
decision aided CR estimation method to improve their decoding performances.
• Time Domain Interference Cancellation for Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM
Systems with Insuﬃcient CP
It is wellknown that spacetime coding can be applied in both MIMO and co
operative systems to achieve spatial diversity [40]–[43], where multiple transmissions
are received at the receiver. A major diﬀerence between MIMO and cooperative sys
tems is that unlike an MIMO system, multiple transmissions from relay nodes in a
cooperative system may not be well synchronized and a spacetime code achieving
spatial diversity for an MIMO system may not do in a cooperative system. This
issue has been studied lately in for example [48]–[53]. The idea is to treat paths
from relay nodes to destination node as multipaths and use OFDM transmissions at
relay nodes to combat the time delays, and then uses spacetime/frequency coding
to achieve the multipath (cooperative spatial in this case) diversity. For the OFDM
approach, when the time delays from relay nodes are not larger than the CP length,
100
the interferences from the relays due to the time delays do not appear. However,
when the time delays are larger than the CP length, the interferences occur. Note
that, diﬀerent from a conventional pointtopoint OFDM system where the time
delay spread is mainly determined by the signal bandwidth and thus the CP length
can be predetermined, the time delays from relay nodes may vary and depend on
a particular scenario in a cooperative system and thus a predetermined CP length
always larger than the time delays may not be possible.
In this research, we considered Alamouti coded cooperative OFDM system
with insuﬃcient CP that may occur due to the variable (possibly unpredictable) de
lays from relay nodes. Insuﬃcient length CP causes intersymbol/block interferences.
We proposed a time domain interference cancellation algorithm for ﬂat fading chan
nels by fully taking the advantage of the Alamouti code structure in the frequency
domain. Simulation results show that our algorithm is eﬃcient at reasonably high
channel SNR and a signiﬁcant decoding performance improvement can be achieved.
7.2 Future Work
The work presented here constitutes only a small portion of what can be
done in this fruitful area. Some of the problems that might be of interest for future
research are as follows:
• PAPR reduction encoding
High PAPR is an important issue for OFDM systems. There are many PAPR re
duction algorithms for single antenna OFDM systems or MIMOOFDM systems.
We have proposed a PAPR reduction encoding method for the MIMOOFDM sys
tems coded by a family of STFBC that repeat STBC across frequency subcarriers.
However, for the STFBC that is not constructed by repeating across subcarriers, the
PAPR reduction method by Chu sequence phase shifting may not be applied. It is
101
very interesting to analyze the property of PAPR for diﬀerent STFBC and develop
corresponding PAPR reduction methods for them.
• Clipping noise reconstruction and iterative estimation of clipping noise
In this research, we generalized the clipping noise model from SISOOFDM systems
to MIMOOFDM systems and proposed the clipping noise model based ML decoding
for STFBC coded MIMOOFDM systems. A future consideration is on other clip
ping noise mitigation methods such as the DAR[27], iterative estimation and cancel
lation of clipping noise[28]. Those clipping noise mitigation methods were proposed
specially for single antenna OFDM systems. The application of those methods to
MIMOOFDM systems is an interesting subject for further investigations. Combi
nation of those clipping noise mitigation methods with spacetimefrequency coded
MIMOOFDM systems may induce some interested properties and issues.
• Interference cancellation for cooperative OFDM systems with Insuﬃcient CP
under frequencyselective channels
In this research, we develop a time domain interference cancellation for Alamouti
coded cooperative OFDM systems with insuﬃcient CP. However, we assume that
channels are ﬂat fading. Our derivation and design are based on this assumption.
The interference cancellation algorithm is only applied to the ﬂat fading channels.
For frequencyselective channels, each relay path has more than one multipath.
Signals from each path arrive at the receiver with diﬀerent time delay. Unlike to
ﬂat fading channel, we can not only consider the delay from diﬀerent relay path,
but also the delay from multipath of frequencyselective channels. So the analysis of
interference caused by time error for frequencyselective channels is diﬀerent to the
analysis for ﬂat fading channels and more complicated. How to combat against the
interference caused by time error for frequencyselective channels is very interesting
topic in the future.
102
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SPACETIME/FREQUENCY CODED MIMO AND COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEMS
by Zhefeng Li
Approved: Kenneth E. Barner, Ph.D. Chair of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Approved: Michael J. Chajes, Ph.D. Dean of the College of Engineering
Approved: Debra Hess Norris, M.S. Vice Provost for Graduate and Professional Education
I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it meets the academic and professional standard required by the University as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Signed: XiangGen Xia, Ph.D. Professor in charge of dissertation
I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it meets the academic and professional standard required by the University as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Signed: Leonard J. Cimini, Jr., Ph.D. Member of dissertation committee
I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it meets the academic and professional standard required by the University as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Signed: Javier GarciaFrias, Ph.D. Member of dissertation committee
I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it meets the academic and professional standard required by the University as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Signed: ChienChung Shen, Ph.D. Member of dissertation committee
It was a wonderful experience to take Dr. XiangGen Xia. GarciaFrias and Dr. Dr. I would like to express my gratitude to my advisor. iv .ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS As always. I would like to thank Dr. Shen’s class of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing. His enthusiasm and eﬀorts show us how to become a successful researcher. the completion of this dissertation would not be possible without the support of many people. For more than four years. Dr. He is always very kindly and supportive and I will always feel thankful to him for all his help and advice. This really makes my research go faster and deeper. Shen for his insightful comments and suggestion about my research. GarciaFrias for his encouragement and practical advice for my research. Cimini. His lectures for Digital Communications and Wireless Communications open a door through research for me and lead me into the wireless communication area. good teaching. His enthusiasm. his inspiration. and lots of great ideas. He is not only an advisor who teaches me. Cimini is not only a famous researcher and also a very good teacher. Shen. he is also a friend who is studying and working with me. Dr. I am grateful to Dr. who have greatly contributed to my doctoral studies and have been so kind to serve on the dissertation committee. he kept providing encouragement. He is an expert in wireless networks and his idea and knowledge brought great value for my research from a diﬀerent point of view. I would like to thank Dr. and his great eﬀorts to explain things clearly and simply help me to obtain the solid foundation about information theorem and channel coding theorem.
Lu. But I never stopped. I know that they are always proud of what I accomplished. Guo. I did feel frustrated. v . Xiantao. This dissertation is dedicated to my father Jilie and my mother Yuheng. Bo. Thanks Yue. This dissertation is not an easy task for me. Zheng. Kejing. Because I know that my parents always support me and love me. Xiaowei.I also would like to thank my friends and colleagues who provided a stimulating and fun environment in which to learn and grow. Tianyi. I did hesitate. and Huimin for all the help. Xu.
. 12 QOSTFBC . . . . . . . xi Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION . . . Outline and Contributions Notation . . . . . . 15 18 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . .3 Performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM Systems vi . . . .2. . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . 13 Linear Transformation for Fast Decoding and Full Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SpaceTimeFrequency Code . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .1. 9 . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MIMOOFDM . . . .2 MIMOOFDM Channel . . . . . . . . . 11 OSTFBC and QOSTFBC Coded MIMOOFDM . . . . . . ix ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . .1 1. .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MIMOOFDM System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .3 OSTFBC . . . . . . . . Received MIMOOFDM Signal ML decoding . . 10 . 2. .3 1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 2. 1 1 3 4 6 8 8 2 OSTFBC AND QOSTFBC CODED MIMOOFDM SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooperative OFDM . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . PAPR Reduction by Phase Adjustment in the Repetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . Phase Adjustment for PAPR Reduction Using Chu Sequences Full Diversity of STFBC from the New Repetition . . . . . . . . . SingleSymbol ML Decoding for QOSTFBC and Linearly Transformed QOSTBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM Systems . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . 55 4. . . . .5. . 58 vii . . . . . . . 54 Simulation Results . . .2 3. .4.4. . .5 New Repetition Method . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Decision Aided CR Estimation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Decoding . . . . . . .2 Performance of Clipping Noise Model with Perfect CR at the receiver .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . 33 4 CLIPPING NOISE MODEL BASED ML DECODING AT RECEIVER . .4 Clipping Process and Clipping Noise Model in an OFDM System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4.2 3. . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . Clipping Ratio Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Based ML . . . . .1 4. . . . .5 37 40 43 50 CR Estimation Theorem for STBC Coded MIMOOFDM Systems . . . . . Performance of Clipping Noise Model with Estimated CR at the receiver . PAPR of OFDM Vectors with Repeated Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 21 22 24 24 25 29 32 Performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM with Clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Deﬁnition of PAPR in OFDM Systems . . . . . . . . . . . Fast Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . SingleSymbol ML Decoding for OSTFBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM Systems . . . Based ML . .4. .4. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. . . .1 4.1 3. . . .1 3. . . .3 PRECODING FOR PAPR REDUCTION AT TRANSMITTER USING CHU SEQUENCES . . PAPR Reduction by New Repetition Method and Phase Adjustment 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4.3 3. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 75 Interference Cancellation . . . . . . . . . .3 Cooperative OFDM Channel Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 With Timing Errors and . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . 66 6 TIME DOMAIN INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION FOR ALAMOUTI CODED COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEMS WITH INSUFFICIENT CP . . . . . .2 cp <τ ≤2 cp .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 6. . . . . . 62 5. . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . 69 Transmitted sequences and interference sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Interference cancellation when N − 1 ≥ τ > N − cp − 1 . . . . . . .2 Conclusions and Contributions . . . . . .3 −1≥τ >2 cp .5 ALAMOUTI CODED COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Interference Cancellation when 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .1.2. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Estimation of interference sequences . . . . . . Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM System Errors/Delays . . . . 91 7 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK . 96 7. . . . 80 Transmitted Sequences and Interference Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 6. . . . . . . . 103 viii . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . 96 Future Work . . . . Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM System Interblock Interferences . . . 88 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . 78 cp Interference cancellation when N − 6.2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Without Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Interference Cancellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . 81 Estimation of Interference Sequences . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 61 ix 3. . .1 Performance comparison among the spacetime block code and spacetimefrequency block code without clipping for 1 receiver antenna in MIMOOFDM systems. . . . . . . . .2 3. . 56 BER performance comparison of QOSTFBC in clipped 4 × 2 OFDM systems: (a) no convolutional code is added. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Signal amplitudes from repetition with and without phase adjustment. . . iteration number is 1. . . 60 Performance of iterative decoding. . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Performance comparison of clipped 2 × 1 OFDM OSTFBC with Γ = 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Performance of clipping noise model based ML decoding. . . (b) a convolutional code is added. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . .5 .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Comparison of the complementary CDF of the PAPR of the ideally bandlimited (analog) OFDM signals with repetition factor Γ = 4. . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 2. . . 34 Performance comparison of clipped 4 × 1 OFDM linearly transformed QOSTFBC with Γ = 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 BER performance comparison of OSTFBC in clipped 2 × 2 OFDM systems: (a) no convolutional code is added. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 MMSE of estimated CR. . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. 4 transmit antennas and 1 receive antenna linear transformed QOSTBC . . . . . (b) a convolutional code is added. . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . 23 Comparison of the complementary CDF of the PAPR of the discrete OFDM signals with repetition factor Γ = 4. .3 3. . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . .
. . . . . 65 Received sequences in time domain cp <τ ≤2 cp cp . 80 Received sequences in time domain N − 1 ≥ τ > N − Performance comparison when cp − 1. . . . Performance comparison when N − −1≥τ >2 cp . . . . . . . .5.5 6. . . 70 cp . . . . . . . . .1 6. . Received sequences in time domain N − −1≥τ >2 cp . . . . . . 93 cp . .3 6.1 6. . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . .6 Time domain transmitted signals at the relay nodes. 95 x . 94 Performance comparison when N − 1 ≥ τ > N − − 1. .4 6. . 90 <τ ≤2 cp cp . . . .
Spacetime/Frequency Coding (SFC) can achieve the spatial and multipath diversities for a MIMOOFDM system by coding across multiple antennas and subcarriers. The second goal of this research is to develop fast ML decoding algorithms for Orthogonal SpaceTimeFrequency Block Codes (OSTFBC) and Quasi Orthogonal SpaceTimeFrequency Block Codes (QOSTFBC) xi . An important issue for OFDM systems is their high PAPR and it is important to reduce the PAPR in a practical (power eﬃcient) system. we develop a precoding algorithm for PeaktoAverage Power Ratio (PAPR) reduction and a clipping noise model based Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoding algorithm for SpaceTimeFrequency Block Codes (STFBC) coded MIMOOFDM systems.11n and 802. including the clipping distortion. the overall additive noise. In particular.ABSTRACT Spacetimefrequency coded MultipleInput and MultipleOutput Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMOOFDM) systems have recently attracted much attention for broadband wireless communications including recent IEEE standards 802. After the clipping in an MIMOOFDM system. The ﬁrst goal of this research is to modify the repeating process and adjust phases of coded symbols so that the PAPR of the OFDM system is reduced. In particular. In this research. may not be white. we propose to use Chu sequences for phase adjustment and show that the discrete PAPR can be reduced by Γ times where Γ is the times of the repeating across subcarriers.16e. Another eﬃcient way to reduce the PAPR in OFDM systems is clipping. we focus on a family of spacetimefrequency codes proposed by Zhang et al to achieve both full spatial and multipath diversities by using Orthogonal SpaceTime Block Codes (OSTBC).
With this approach. when the Cyclic Preﬁx (CP) length is less than the time delay length. the clipping ratio needs to be known at the receiver. cooperative OFDM system is investigated too.in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. By using a clipping noise model with Gaussian approximation. we consider Alamouti coded OFDM systems in cooperative communications where the CP length may be less than the time delay length. too. In order to apply the clipping noise model based ML decoding. we propose a time domain interference cancellation algorithm. in this work. xii . OFDM transmission has been proposed for cooperative communications to combat the time delays from the relay nodes. So a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for MIMOOFDM systems is proposed in our research. where the paths from relay nodes to destination node are treated as multipaths and spacetime (or frequency) coding is used to achieve the spatial (or multipath) diversity. By taking the advantage of the Alamouti code structure. Except for MIMOOFDM systems. We also consider the case when the clipping ratio is not known at the receiver. our newly proposed fast ML decoding algorithms improve the system performance without increasing the decoding complexity. interblock interference occurs. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the improvement. In this research.
Combination of MIMO systems with OFDM technology is a promising system for broadband wireless communications. 1. For MIMOOFDM systems.11n and 802. the symbol period becomes smaller relative to the channel delay spread. One of the important methods to achieve the full multipath diversity is repeating across the subcarriers obtained by Su et al in [3]. and therefore we have to cope with frequencyselectivity fading.16e. various spacetime/frequency codes have been developed to achieve both spatial and multipath diversities by coding across subcarriers and multiple antennas and/or across OFDM symbols over the time. and cause a high performance degradation. Spacetime coded MIMOOFDM systems have recently attracted much attention for broadband wireless communications including recent IEEE standards 802. 1 .1 MIMOOFDM The MIMO channel is constructed with multiple transmit antennas and multiple receive antennas. OFDM modulation is used to eliminate or reduce the ISI caused by the multipath environments. see. For broadband wireless systems. So in frequency selective fading channel. we summarize our work and contributions. Then. for example. [1][8]. Large delay spread induces InterSymbol Interference (ISI).Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter. we ﬁrst brieﬂy introduce MIMOOFDM systems and cooperative OFDM systems. MIMO systems can achieve large gains in capacity of communication over wireless channels.
Recently. This is an important issue for OFDM systems and reducing the PAPR is important in a practical (power eﬃcient) system. see for example. Some of them are based on the decisionaided reconstruction (DAR) and clipping noise cancellation [27][29] and some of them apply statistical clipping noise models to the ML decoding [31]. OSTBC [9][13] and QuasiOrthogonal SpaceTime Block Codes (QOSTBC) [15][25] play important roles since they can achieve full spatial diversity and have fast ML decoding algorithms [9][25] when the additive noise is white. Although the repetition across subcarriers can achieve the multipath diversity. and also repeating across subcarriers. in some applications. induces clipping noise and the induced clipping noise in an MIMOOFDM system may not be white and thus the fast ML decoding for an OSTBC or QOSTBC coded system may not hold. a family of spacetimefrequency codes have been proposed in [8] to achieve the full spatial and multipath diversities for MIMOOFDM systems and in the meantime they have the fast singlesymbol ML decoding by using OSTBC. When the additive noise is not white. However. ML decoding for spatially colored noised [26] needs to be considered. A clipping ratio estimation method has been proposed for single antenna OFDM 2 . Many clipping noise mitigation methods have been proposed in the literature. [9][14]. however. it causes high PAPR. for example in interference channels. All of these methods require the knowledge of the clipping ratio (CR) at the receiver. Among the spacetime codes used in MIMOOFDM systems. most of the existing spacetime/frequency codes to achieve the spatial and multipath diversities do not have fast ML decoding. One of the most eﬃcient ways to reduce the PAPR is clipping [34] that. across multiple antennas and OFDM symbols. it is may be possible that the CR is not known at the receiver.However.
cooperative systems utilize the beneﬁts of multiple antennas transmission with only one antenna at each node. where there are two major approaches. where multiple transmissions are received at the receiver.systems in [33]. It is wellknown that spacetime coding can be applied in both MIMO and cooperative systems to achieve spatial diversity [40]–[43]. However. The ﬁrst spacetime coded OFDM system in cooperative communications was proposed by Mei et al in [48] where Alamouti code is used. It is more practical for some communication applications. 1. and then uses spacetime/frequency coding to achieve the multipath (cooperative spatial in this case) diversity. A major diﬀerence between MIMO and cooperative systems is that unlike an MIMO system. the interferences from the relays due to the time delays do not appear.2 Cooperative OFDM Cooperative transmission. when the time delays from relay nodes are not larger than the CP length. can achieve diversity gain as MIMO systems do. One approach is from time domain considerations [44]–[47] and the other approach is from frequency domain considerations [48]–[53]. which uses a group of communication nodes to transmit coded symbols together. the CR can be estimated from the statistical clipping noise model given in [36][37]. Compared to MIMO systems. By calculating the statistics of the clipping noise at the pilot subcarriers. This clipping ratio estimation method can be applied to pilottonebased OFDM systems only. which require multiple transmit antennas. multiple transmissions from relay nodes in a cooperative system may not be well synchronized and a spacetime code achieving spatial diversity for an MIMO system may not do in a cooperative system. This issue has been studied lately in for example [44]–[53]. the 3 . when the time delays are larger than the CP length. For the OFDM approach. The idea for the frequency domain consideration is to treat paths from relay nodes to destination node as multipaths and use OFDM transmissions at relay nodes to combat the time delays.
In order to achieve full spatial diversity and fast decoding. Compared to OSTFBC. 31]. The second shortcoming is that the ML decoding for QOSTFBC becomes symbolpairwise decoding. In Chapter 2. there are two shortcomings of the above QOSTFBC. Similar to the OSTFBC from the OSTBC code. Note that. The second aspect is on cooperative OFDM systems. The repetition of QOSTFBC in the frequency domain can exploit the multipath diversity in MIMOOFDM systems. We also generalize the STFC proposed in [8] from OSTBC to QOSTBC that possesses higher rate than the OSTBC for more than two transmit antennas.interferences occur. QOSTFBC can be obtained by repeating QOSTBC code [15][17] across frequency subcarriers [30. The ﬁrst shortcoming is that the above QOSTFBC can not achieve full spatial diversity. the contributions are mainly from two aspects. particular Alamouti code. The main goal is to reduce the transmission PAPR at the transmitter and improving the decoding performance at the receiver by modelling clipping distortion. which is more complicated than symbolwise ML decoding for OSTFBC. The MIMOOFDM systems are ﬁrst considered. The interference caused by time error of cooperative OFDM systems is studied and a time domain interference cancellation method is proposed in this research. due to the lack of the orthogonality. 1. we show that linearly transformation method for single subcarrier QOSTBC is also applied to 4 . we ﬁrst describe a spacetimefrequency coded MIMOOFDM system model. the time delays from relay nodes may vary and depend on a particular scenario in a cooperative system and thus a predetermined CP length always larger than the time delays may not be possible. diﬀerent from a conventional pointtopoint OFDM system where the time delay spread is mainly determined by the signal bandwidth and thus the CP length can be predetermined.3 Outline and Contributions In this research.
The linearly transformed QOSTFBC developed in this work achieves both full spatial and full multipath diversities. and also has the fast ML decodings. a new repetition method has been introduced so that the PAPR part caused by the repetition is reduced to 0 dB after the phase adjustments using Chu sequences. By applying the clipping noise model from Bussgang’s theorem used in.QOSTFBC with multiple subcarriers. Also. we can separate clipping distortions from multiple transmit antennas and calculate the statistics of the clipping noise. we also develop a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for an MIMOOFDM system. Interestingly. One of the most eﬃcient ways to reduce the PAPR is clipping [34] that. however. The main goal of Chapter 3 is to modify the repeating process and adjust their phases so that the PAPR of coded OFDM systems is reduced. 39] for the phase adjustments and show that the discrete PAPR can be reduced by Γ times for any SFC from the repeating. we derive fast (singlesymbol) ML decoding algorithms for OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. In Chapter 4. induces clipping noise. for example [35][37]. where Γ is the times of the repeating across subcarriers. In particular. we propose to use Chu sequences [38. In Chapter 4. By utilizing the code structure at the data subcarriers. and in the meantime the full spatial and multipath diversities and the fast ML decoding are still maintained. Simulations for these schemes for MIMOOFDM systems with and without clipping have been presented to illustrate the theory. the fast ML decoding properties for OSTFBC and rotated QOSTFBC [9][25] in MIMOOFDM systems without clipping are still maintained in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. It should be emphasized that the newly developed fast ML decoding for rotated QOSTBC proposed in [18][25] for MIMO channels with white noise still has the singlesymbol (or complex symbolwise) decoding property in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTFBC or QOSTFBC is used. Using the estimated CR from the decisionaided 5 .
Then interference caused by the time delay in cooperative OFDM systems is investigated. such as [27][29] or clipping noise model based ML decoding proposed in Chapter 4 can be used to improve the performance of an clipped OFDM system. Note that. the interferences occur. and H stand for transpose. when the time delays are larger than the CP length. any clipping noise mitigation method that requires to know CR. the interferences from the relays due to the time delays do not appear. ∗ .4 Notation In what follows. we are interested in the Alamouti coded OFDM systems for cooperative communications when the CP length is less than the time delays from the relay nodes. In Chapter 6. we propose a time domain interference cancellation algorithm to mitigate the interferences from time domain received signals. in Chapter 7. the time delays from relay nodes may vary and depend on a particular scenario in a cooperative system and thus a predetermined CP length always larger than the time delays may not be possible. Superscripts T . The channels from relay nodes to destination node we consider in this research are assumed ﬂat fading. 6 . boldface English letters represent vectors and matrices and nonboldface English letters represent scalars unless it is speciﬁed. 1. The spacetimefrequency coded cooperative OFDM systems are ﬁrst introduced in this chapter. However. When the time delays from relay nodes are not larger than the CP length. From Chapter 5. we start to discuss the second aspect of this research. conjugate and Hermitian.clipping ratio estimation. diﬀerent from a conventional pointtopoint OFDM system where the time delay spread is mainly determined by the signal bandwidth and thus the CP length can be predetermined. respectively. Finally. we summarize our conclusion and list some interesting topics for future study. By taking the advantage of the Alamouti code structure between two OFDM symbol blocks.
1Γ×1 = (1.e. Γ 7 . IN represents the identity matrix of size N × N .e. dN −1 ) or diag(dn .. The Kronecker product is denoted by ⊗. 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1) denotes an N × N diagonal matrix with diagonal scalar entries d0 . dN −1 . · · · . · · · . d1 . where A = (aij ) and B = (bij )..diag(d0 . √ i = −1. A ◦ B = (aij bij ). A ⊗ B = (aij B). · · · . a denotes the norm of vector a as a = i ai 2 if a = (ai ). and the Hadamard product is denoted by ◦. 1)T . i. i.
In order to normalize 8 .i. · · · . We assume that αi. performance comparison of coding schemes is presented. the channel coeﬃcients remain ﬁxed through one code block. · · · .j (l) is a zeromean complex Gaussian random variable with variance σl2 . l denotes the lth propagation path between each pair of transmit and receive antennas. OSTFBC and QOSTFBC concepts are discussed. Mr receive antennas.1) where j and i denote the jth transmit antenna and the ith receive antenna for j = 1.e. For Rayleigh fading. the channel coeﬃcient αi. 1. · · · .1 2. random variables for any i.Chapter 2 OSTFBC AND QOSTFBC CODED MIMOOFDM SYSTEMS This chapter starts from describing a spacetimefrequency coded MIMOOFDM channel/signal model. Mt and i = 1. l.. 2.j (t) = l=0 αi.1 MIMOOFDM System MIMOOFDM Channel Consider an MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh fading channel with Mt transmit antennas. and L independent propagation paths between each pair of transmit and receive antennas. τl is the corresponding time delay of each path. 2. i.j (l)δ(t − τl ).j (l) are i. L−1. We assume that the channel is quasistatic or called block fading channel. l = 0. 2. in particular. Later. respectively. Finally. The channel impulse response is denoted by L−1 hi.1.d. Mr . j. (2.
n represents the nth subcarrier. 1. M M M C1 b (n) C2 b (n) · · · CMtb (n) 1 C1 (n) 1 C2 (n) 1 CMt (n) Mb ×Mt . We represent C(n) as T .3) ··· 2 2 2 C1 (n) C2 (n) · · · CMt (n) . (HMr )T 2. .1 (n). the corresponding channel frequency response for the nth OFDM subcarrier is given by L−1 Hi. i i i and H = (H1 )T . 2. we represent a coded symbol sent from the nth subcarrier at the jth transmit antenna during t the tth OFDM symbol period as Cj (n) for t = 1. · · · . the variances σl2 are set to satisfy L−1 l=0 σl2 = 1 and for 1 convenience we use equal power delay proﬁle for multipaths. . Ts (2. N −1. . . · · · . 2. We represent a vector of (Hi. HT (1). · · · .2) where i = √ −1. · · · . (2. and Ts is the duration of one OFDM symbol. . (2. Hi. C(1). n = 0.. and thus σl2 = L .5) 9 . where T stands for transpose.j (n) = l=0 αi.2 SpaceTimeFrequency Code For a spacetimefrequency coded MIMOOFDM system. · · · . . Mb .j (l) exp(−i 2πn τl ). . Hi. . C(N − 1))Mb N ×Mt N . · · · .4) The encoded spacetimefrequency block code is represented by C = diag(C(0). (H2 )T .the received signal power.2 (n).Mt (n))T as Hi (n) and (HT (0). . For an MIMOOFDM system with N subcarriers. . HT (N − 1))T as Hi .1. (2.
6) The normalization factor ρ Mt is used to normalize the power of the received signal.2. YiMb (n))T and Ni (n) = (Ni1 (n). after the cyclic preﬁx removal and FFT.7) where Yi (n) = (Yi1 (n). Yi2 (n). Mr . Yi (N − 1))T . (Y2 )T . · · · .9) and Y = (Y1 )T . the overall vectormatrix form of the transmitreceive signal model becomes Y= ρ XH + N. Further stacking the received signals into vector form.8) (2. · · · .j (n) + Nit (n). the received fre quency domain signal of the nth subcarrier at the ith receive antenna in the tth OFDM symbol period is Yit (n) = ρ Mt Mt t Cj (n)Hi. C)Mr Mb N ×Mr Mt N .3 Received MIMOOFDM Signal At the receiver. So we i i i have Yi = For Mr receive antennas. · · · . Yi (1).1. NiMb (n))T . (YMr )T . Mt 10 . NT (N − 1))T . we represent Yi = T T T (Yi (0). Mt (2. j=1 (2. i = 1. Mt (2. Ni = (NT (0). in which ρ is the signaltonoise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Received signals at the ith receive antenna from the nth subcarrier in a vector form are Yi (n) = ρ C(n)Hi (n) + Ni (n). Mr ρ CHi + Ni . let X = diag(C. · · · . · · · . · · · . Then. NT (1). Nit (n) is the additive 2 white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at the nth subcarrier and its variance σn is assumed 2 σn = 1. 2. · · · . Ni2 (n).
. . The ML decoding for joint Gaussian random variables as ˆ C = arg min(Y − C∈C ρ XH)H Σ−1 (Y − Mt ρ XH). given X and H.··· . · · · .13) where Σ is a covariance matrix of the random vector Y. and i i i hi (l) = (αi.Mt (l))T . e . hT (1). (IMb ⊗ DL−1 )C).8).12) Dl = diag(1. This form of received signals is used to discuss the full diversity property for our STFBC design in Chapter 3. αi. the conditional random vector Y is a vector of joint Gaussian random variables. (2. · · · .4 ML decoding If the additive noises are Gaussian. (IMb ⊗ D1 )C. (2.Substituting (2. hT (L − 1))T . C(N − 1) Mb N ×Mt . Mt (2. and the decoded codeword ˆ C belongs to C that is a set of spacetime/frequency codewords from a given spacetime/frequency block code.1. 2.2 (l).1 (l). where C= τ −i2π Tl s ρ Ghi + Ni . 11 . Mt (2.10) (2. · · · .11) C(0) C(1) . hi = (hT (0). with some matrix permutations as [8].8) can be rewritten into Yi = and G = ((IMb ⊗ D0 )C.e τ −i2π(N −1) Tl s ). αi.3.2) into (2.4.
· · · .i. S N )Mb N ×Mt N . N .2 2. XH X = diag(CH C.k S1.k .14) is the Euclidean distance. S2 . For the OSTFBC proposed in [8]. k is the index number of independent STBC blocks. (2.k S2.When the additive noises are white.15) Note that.k where Si. For an Nsubcarrier STFBC block. and k = 1. and the ML decoding is simpliﬁed as ˆ C = arg min Y − C∈C ρ XH Mt 2 = arg min{tr(YH Y) − C∈C ρ + tr(HH (XH X)H)}. decides the decoding complexity because quadratic term of transmitted symbols may appear and only appear in this item. (2. N Γ log2 L is the number of the times a symbol STBC blocks are assigned to N sub carriers with each of them repeated by Γ times. Γ = 2 Γ is repeated.16) Sk = IΓ ⊗ ∗ ∗ −S2. We will discuss decoding complexity in detail in Chapter 4. CH C)Mr Mt N ×Mr Mt N Mr (2.2. the covariance matrix becomes Σ = 2 σn IMr Mb N . Mt where the norm · ρ tr(YH XH + HH XH Y) Mt (2. Γ (2. where Im is the m×m identity matrix. we simply repeat OSTBC [9] as: S1. information symbols.d.17) 12 . · · · .15).1 OSTFBC and QOSTFBC Coded MIMOOFDM OSTFBC The simplest OSTBC is Alamouti code [9] for two transmit antennas of block size Mb = 2. · · · . 2.k are i. So a whole encoded STF block code is represented by C = diag(S1 . generally.14). 2. the last item of (2.
1 ∗ −S2.1  + S2.16) to construct OSTFBC with more transmit antennas. there is an assumption that noise is AWGN. Note that. so we can make decision on each symbol individually at the receiver. We call this decoding has symbolwise decoding complexity.1  in the objective function (2.1 ∗ S1. so we can use objective function (2.18) The repetition across subcarriers is to achieve the full multipath diversity as ﬁrst shown by Su et al in [3]. Without loss generality. the OSTFBC achieves more diversity gain from multipaths at the cost of the lower symbol rate because of the repetition. It is obvious that code word C has orthogonal structure. 2.1 . we have to consider decoding objective function (2. Alamouti code. 31].1  0 . we only consider the ﬁrst block with subcarriers from 0 to Γ − 1. (2. in this chapter.We encode and decode Sk independently for k. If the noise is Gaussian but not white. ML decoding with objective function (2.2.14). C = S1 = IΓ ⊗ S1. Thus.15) becomes 2 2 S1.14). There is no cross quadratic term CH C = IΓ ⊗ 2 2 0 S1. OSTBC with more transmit antennas can replace Alamouti code in (2. which is the case in Chapter 4. It is shown in [8] that the above OSTFBC can achieve the fulldiversity order Mt Mr L and symbolwise decoding.13) may not have symbol wise decoding complexity for OSTFBC coded MIMOOFDM systems. 13 .1  + S2. quadratic term in (2.13).2 QOSTFBC Similar to the OSTFBC from the OSTBC code. QOSTFBC can be obtained by repeating QOSTBC code [15][17] across frequency subcarriers [30.1 S2. Compared to the OSTBC code. So similar to the single subcarrier Alamouti spacetime code.
20) ∗ ∗ ∗ S3.k S2.1 S2.k ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ −S2.k S1.1 S4.k S3. i=1 Q = (2.For example.22) P = i=1 2 Si.17).k S3.k −S2.k S4. S1.1 ).19) into (2. quadratic term in (2. where P 0 Ω= Q 0 4 (2. we only consider ﬁrst block.k −S4.1 ∗ S1.1 S2. All block Sk are independent for decoding and encoding. (2.1 2 and ∗ ∗ (Si.1 S1.1 S1.k Sk = IΓ ⊗ S3.k ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ −S4.k S4.k S2.1 −S2.1 ∗ S3.k S3.21) P 0 Q 0 P 0 Q 0 P 0 Q 0 (2.1 Thus.1 S4.1 C = S1 = IΓ ⊗ S3.1 S3.15) becomes CH C = IΓ ⊗ Ω. Similar to OSTFBC we talked in previous subsection.1 + Si.1 ∗ −S4. QOSTFBC for 4 transmit antennas is S1.k .1 ∗ −S4. For convenience.23) 14 .k S1.19) A whole encoded QOSTF block code C is achieved by substituting (2.k S1.1 . (2.1 ∗ −S2.1 Si+2.1 Si+2.
Optimal rotations for square QAM signal constellations were obtained in [21. 22.1 and Si+2.2.1 in (2. By splitting the real and imaginary parts of Si. 25]. 2. the ML decoding becomes symbolpairwise decoding due to the cross terms of Si. and optimal rotation angles have been obtained in [20] to maximize the diversity product.23) in the objective functions. 2 The second short coming is that. 20]. In the following. 19.23) into linear summations of quadratic terms of two real variables.21) is plugged into the ML decoding objective function (2. the diversity product can be maximized. Let S denote a rectangular QAM 15 . 22. we brieﬂy describe the general optimal linear transformation presented in [25] for QOSTBC to achieve both symbolwise ML decoding and maximal diversity product. there are two shortcomings of the above QOSTFBC compared to an OSTFBC.1 in the P and Q terms in (2. symbol constellation rotations for Si+2. the above symbolpairwise ML decoding can be reduced to symbolwise decoding (singlesymbol decoding) and in the meantime.1 has been proposed in [18. when the noise is AWGN. if (2. at the receiver.1 and Si+2. Mt Mr L in this case.23) and rotating these real and imaginary parts properly [21.1 from Si. 23.3 Linear Transformation for Fast Decoding and Full Diversity In order to achieve the full diversity. 24.14). The ﬁrst shortcoming is that the rank/diversity order of the above QOSTFBC is only Mt Mr L. The main idea is to linearly transform the real and imaginary parts of each two information symbols to split the P and Q terms in (2. where the ML decoding is still symbolpairwise decoding. 24] and general optimal linear transformation for general rectangular signal constellations were obtained in [25].Due to the lack of the orthogonality. 23.
2. Σ = 2 2 4N1 − 1 4N2 − 1 . i = 1. these 4 symbols Si are input to the QOSTBC C in (2. 4 into another 8 real numbers pi and qi for i = 1. 12(1 + ε1 ε2 ) 16 . −(2Ni − 3). Let ε1 = and R1 = cos(α) sin(α) sin(α) − cos(α) 0 1 1 0 1 + ε1 1 − 2ε1 1 − 2ε1 2 − ε1 . 2. pi+2 . Then. bi+2 )T . 2 2 (2. η = 2 2 2 2 2(2N1 + 2N2 − 1) 2(2N1 + 2N2 − 1) (2. P = . Step 1 Binary information bits are mapped to 4 information symbols in S: Zi = ai + ibi ∈ S where ai and bi are real for i = 1.26) . where U is a 4 × 4 matrix with all real entries and deﬁned later.20) to be connected to a subcarrier in an MIMOOFDM system. The encoding is the following. Step 3 Form new 4 complex symbols from the above pi and qi : Si = pi + iqi for i = 1. 2. qi+2 )T = U(ai . Step 2 Linearly transform 8 real numbers ai and bi for i = 1. 3. 3. −1. qi . i = 1.25) 5 . 4 as follows: (pi . 3. The optimal linear transform U in Step 2 is obtained in [25] to achieve both the optimal diversity product and the symbolwise ML decoding as follows. 2Ni − 3. · · · . 1. 2 . · · · . (2. α = arctan(2). 2.constellation of total N1 N2 points: S= n2 d n1 d +i ni ∈ {−(2Ni − 1).24) where d is the distance of the closest points in each direction. 2Ni − 1}. 3. ai+2 . ε2 = . 4. bi . 2. 4.
W2 = ηV √ VP. i. y) are known quadratic forms of real variables x and y. ai .27) Then. λ2 are the eigenvalues of Σ and V is an orthogonal matrix. if U = U2 . U1 = (2. Thus.e. 0 0 λ2 λ1 (2.bi (2. 3. and P3 = P2 = 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 The ML decoding objective function then becomes: 4 f (a . i=1 i=1 i i i+2 Mt 2 2 i=1 fi+2 (bi .29) where fi (x. ai+2 ). if U = U3 . bi+2 ) + (2. 4. U2 = U1 P2 . the above linear transform U can be simpliﬁed as the following orthogonal matrix: I2 I2 (2. U3 = U1 P3 . λ2 ).. where D = diag(λ1 . Let √ √ λ1 0 λ2 0 T W1 = ηVT √ V. i=1 i i i ρ 2 XH 2 = Y− f (a . 2. the ML decoding of the linearly transformed QOSTBC becomes arg min Y − C∈C ρ XH Mt 2 ←→ arg min fi (ai .28) W 1 R 1 W2 R 2 where 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 . As a special case when signal constellation S is a square QAM. λ1 . b ).30) for example when U = U1 . if U = U1 . the linear transform U is one of the following three Ui for i = 1. bi+2 ). i=1 fi (ai . R2 = −PR1 P. bi ). 2. a ) + 2 fi+2 (bi . 3: W1 W2 . N1 = N2 .31) 1 .Denote a diagonalization of symmetric matrix Σ as Σ = VT DV. i = 1. U1 = √ 2 R1 −R1 17 .
Because of the repetition over the subcarriers.3 Performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM Systems We compare OSTBC code. as long as the decoding objective function is composed of some linear functions of P and Q in (2. the above optimal linear transformation theory applies. an MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh channel is characterized by a tworay. In this simulation.e. In this case. 3. and linearly transformed QOSTFBC code in MIMOOFDM systems. In Fig. which will be the case for clipped MIMOOFDM systems as we shall see later.5µs. Theorem 1 For a MIMOOFDM system with Mt transmit antennas and Mr receive antennas. the linearly transformed QOSTFBC achieves the full diversity of diversity order Mt Mr L. Similar to OSTFBC. L = 2. the STFBCs have lower symbol rates than the original STBC.1.As a ﬁnal remark. An OFDM with N = 64 subcarriers is used.23) of complex symbols Si and some linear functions of Si and Si∗ for i = 1. 4. 2. while OSTFBC and QOSTFBC use 4QAM. OSTFBC code. 2. It is stated as the following theorem whose proof is similar to the one for OSTFBC in [8] and the one from repeating in [3]. equal power delay proﬁle in which the second path delay τ is 0. we assign larger constellations for STFBCs.. The details of the proof are omitted. 18 . i. 2.2µs. OSTBC uses BPSK modulation. the repetition of QOSTFBC in the frequency domain can exploit the multipath diversity in MIMOOFDM systems. Note that QOSTBC is a special case of QOSTFBC when Γ = 1. the repetition times Γ = L = 2. The time duration of one OFDM symbol is Ts = 3. The upper curve marked by + is for the OSTBC over an 2 × 1 MIMOOFDM system. and L independent paths. In order to compare the performances for the same transmission bit rate.
2.. so diversity gain is Mt Mr L = 4. The middle curve marked with × is for the OSTFBC over a 2 × 1 MIMOOFDM system. In this case.10 −1 1bit/s/Hz 10 −2 BER 10 −3 10 −4 2 × 1 OSTBC (BPSK) 2 × 1 OSTFBC (4QAM) 4 × 1 transformed QOSTFBC (4QAM) 2 4 6 8 SNR(dB) 10 12 14 Figure 2. the code achieve the extra multipath diversity. i. One can clearly see the performance diﬀerence. The lowest curve marked by is for the linearly transformed QOSTFBC as in Chapter 2. the code has diversity gain Mt Mr = 2.e. Mt = 2. i.. In this case. the transformed QOSTFBC has highest diversity gain among three codes and indeed achieves the best performance. Mr = 1.e. Mr = 1. Mt = 2. 19 . where the diversity gain is 8. At the same bit transmission rate.1: Performance comparison among the spacetime block code and spacetimefrequency block code without clipping for 1 receiver antenna in MIMOOFDM systems.
The main goal of this chapter is to modify the repeating process and adjust phases for each repetition so that the PAPR of the OFDM system is reduced. In particular. it causes high PAPR. 0 ≤ t ≤ Ts .1 Deﬁnition of PAPR in OFDM Systems For an OFDM system. we propose to use Chu sequences [38. where Γ is the times of the repeating across subcarriers.Chapter 3 PRECODING FOR PAPR REDUCTION AT TRANSMITTER USING CHU SEQUENCES A family of spacetimefrequency codes proposed in Chapter 2 can achieve the full spatial and multipath diversities for MIMOOFDM systems and in the meantime they have the fast singlesymbol ML decoding by using OSTBC and QOSTBC across multiple antennas and OFDM symbols. n=0 (3. and in the meantime the full spatial and multipath diversities and the fast ML decoding are still maintained. 3.1) 20 . the timedomain baseband signal can be represented as 1 a(t) = √ N N −1 A(n) exp(i2πnt/Ts ). 39] for the phase adjustments and show that the discrete PAPR can be reduced by Γ times for any SFC from the repeating. and also repeating across subcarriers. Although the repetition across subcarriers can achieve the multipath diversity.
A(1). information symbols. we are mainly concerned with discrete PAPR unless otherwise speciﬁed. A(N −1) are complex information symbols transmitted through N subcarriers. we repeat an information symbol Γ times across subcarriers for achieving the multipath diversity. N ) and the discrete PAPR is deﬁned by max[a(n)2 ]/E[a(n)2 ].where A(0). In what follows. and k = 1. N )T . Corresponding discrete time domain signal is ˆ N ˆi = IDFT(Si . 3. An input sequence of N/Γ information symbols can be represented as ˆ Si = (Si. E[a(t)2 ] (3.. (3.3) are repeated Γ times to obtain an OFDM vector of size N × 1: ˆ Si = Si ⊗ 1Γ×1 .4) log2 L is the number of the times a symbol ˆ The N/Γ information symbols in Si (3. Si.. The PAPR is deﬁned as PAPR = max[a(t)2 ] .2 PAPR of OFDM Vectors with Repeated Symbols For the spacetimefrequency coding described in the preceding chapter. 2.2) where E(·) denotes the expectation. k is the index number of independent STBC blocks. N . ). s Γ (3. .d. we get a discrete time domain signal a = (a(n)) = (a(nTs /N )) = IDFT(A. So we need to analyze PAPR of OFDM vectors with repeated symbols. Si.k are i. Γ = 2 Γ is repeated. Γ (3.3) where Si. · · · .1 ..2 .i.5) 21 . · · · . By sampling the above signal a(t) with sampling interval length ∆t = Ts /N .
where α(n) = ˆ Let Si = Si ⊗ Θ.(l+1) l=0 γ=0 exp i( 22 2πn(Γl + γ) + α(γ)) N . N s ˜ 1 where { √i (n) } is the periodic extension of ˆi in (3. a polyphase sequence. Γ 0 ≤ n ≤ Γ − 1. π 2 n. (3. a Chu sequence.Then the time domain signal of Si is 1 si (n) = √ N 1 = √ N N Γ −1 Γ−1 Si. Γ odd. 1 si (n) = √ N N Γ π (n Γ + 1)n. 3.(l+1) exp( l=0 i2πnΓl i2πnγ )· exp( ).4) and { λ√(n) } is Npoint IDFT of s N N/Γ sequence 1Γ×1 padding N − Γ zeros at its end.7) λ1 (n) = i2πnγ ). · · · . N N γ=0 (3. Then. Fig. We represent a Chu sequence as Θ = {eiα(0) . we propose to use a Chu sequence to adjust the phases in the repetition.(l+1) l=0 N Γ exp( γ=0 i2πn(Γl + γ) ) N Γ−1 −1 Si. 39].8) −1 Γ−1 Si. Clearly its PAPR aﬀects the PAPR of the N OFDM signal si (n). We next propose two methods to adjust the above repeating process and add a phase to an information symbol at each repeat so that the PAPR of si (n) can be reduced. eiα(1) .6) We deﬁne two sequences as N Γ −1 si (n) = ˜ l=0 Γ−1 Si. Γ even. has perfect cyclic autocorrelation.3 PAPR Reduction by Phase Adjustment in the Repetition In this subsection.(l+1) exp( exp( γ=0 i2πnΓl ) N (3. From [38. eiα(Γ−1) }. 3.1 shows examples of sequence 1 { λ√(n) } for Γ = 2 or Γ = 4 when N = 64.
Γ=2) 1 1.5 Amplitude of Sequence λ1 (n). N (3.10).5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Amplitude of Sequence θ1 (n).Γ=2) 1 0.Γ=4) 1 Figure 3. the Npoint IDFT of Θ padding N − Γ zeros. when n = 8 N . solid lines show the amplitude of θ1 (n) in (3. which is about 3dB lower than λ1 (n). 3. 23 . when Γ = 4.(N=64.Γ=4) Amplitude of Sequence λ (n). N ).6). it means that we ﬁrstly rotate an information symbol by a set of phases and then repeat phase shifted symbols at diﬀerent subcarriers.1: Signal amplitudes from repetition with and without phase adjustment. the signal λ1 (n) of the Npoint IDFT of 1Γ×1 padding N − Γ zeros is replaced by θ1 (n).10) In Fig.5 2 1.2 Amplitude of Sequence θ (n).5 3 2. N N γ=0 Γ−1 (3. Then. From the ﬁgure. From (3. However if Γ = 2. When Chu sequence Θ is used to replace 1Γ×1 .(N=64. we have PAPR= 2.9) We deﬁne a sequence as Γ−1 θ1 (n) = γ=0 1 where { θ√(n) } = IDFT(Θ. N exp i( 2πnγ + α(γ)) . 1 = √ N N Γ −1 Si.1. θ1 (n) achieves the same PAPR as λ1 (n). max(θ1 (n)2 ) = 5 8.5 1 0.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 4 3.(N=64.(l+1) exp( l=0 i2πnΓl 2πnγ exp i( )· + α(γ)) . Since the mean θ1 (n)2 is 4.(N=64.10). θ1 (n) has lower PAPR than λ1 (n) in (3.
the diversity order is still Mt Mr L.12) 24 .Although we may use a random phased sequence of length Γ. N Γ γ=0 (3. 3. Note that.1 New Repetition Method We redesign Si in (3. 3. the time domain signal is 1 si (n) = √ N 1 = √ N N Γ (3..11) −1 Γ−1 Si. it is not hard to check that the above phase adjustment does not change the full diversity of the spacetimefrequency code. Then.4. and ﬁnally we present the full diversity property of an adjusted spacetimefrequency code. then use a Chu sequence to adjust the phases of the information symbols.5) as ˆ Si = 1Γ×1 ⊗ Si . as before.4 PAPR Reduction by New Repetition Method and Phase Adjustment In this chapter.(l+1) l=0 N Γ exp( γ=0 i2πn( N γ + l) Γ ) N Γ−1 −1 l=0 i2πnl i2πnγ Si. In order to have a constant magnitude IDFT of a length Γ sequence.(l+1) exp( )· exp( ). which motivates the next method that is to change the way of repetition. its Npoint IDFT after padding N − Γ zeros at its end will never have a constant magnitude (0 dB PAPR).e. we ﬁrst propose a new repetition of information symbols. the IDFT size has to be Γ too. i.
4. (3.13) λ2 (n) = ˇi ˆ where { s√(n) } = IDFT(Si .2 λ2 (n) √ is the periodic extension of IDFT(1Γ×1 . Γ (3. the absolute value of its Γpoint IDFT is constant. 3.12) is the Γpoint IDFT of 1Γ×1 of length Γ Phase Adjustment for PAPR Reduction Using Chu Sequences We replace 1Γ×1 in (3. Γ As one can see now..16) where θ2 (n) √ Γ is the periodic extension of IDFT(Θ. Γ λ2 (n) √ in (3. Γ). i.(l+1) exp( l=0 2πnγ i2πnl exp i( )· + α(γ)) .e.14) Thus.17) .We deﬁne two sequences as N Γ −1 si (n) = ˇ l=0 Γ−1 Si. θ2 (n) √ = 1 for all n.11) by a Chu sequence Θ of length Γ to obtain ˆ Si = Θ ⊗ Si .(l+1) l=0 N Γ exp i( γ=0 2πn( N γ + l) Γ + α(γ)) N −1 Si. Γ 25 (3.(l+1) exp( exp( γ=0 i2πnl ) N (3. (3. the signal Γ. Γ).15) N Γ γ=0 Γ−1 We deﬁne a sequence as Γ−1 θ2 (n) = γ=0 exp i( 2πnγ + α(γ)) . Since a Chu sequence has the perfect autocorrelation [38. the time domain signal is 1 si (n) = √ N 1 = √ N N Γ −1 Γ−1 Si. N ) and N i2πnγ ). 39].
which means that its PAPR is 0 dB and it is already optimal. Comparing to the PAPR of the OFDM signal in (3.12) before the phase adjustment, the PAPR of the signal in (3.15) after the phase adjustment using a Chu sequence is reduced by Γ times. This implies the following result. As a remark, it is not hard to see that any other sequence with perfect autocorrelation property, i.e., its IDFT of its length has constant magnitude, will work for the above PAPR reduction. We now see some examples of PAPR distributions for discrete OFDM signals via computer simulations. The complementary cumulative distribution function, CCDF(x) =Pr(PAPR> x), is shown in Fig. 3.2. The number of subcarriers is 64 and each subcarrier is modulated by 16QAM. The repetition factor is Γ = 4. The dot line is for the case of the original repetition without phase rotation, and the solid line is for the case of the original repetition but with Chu sequence phase rotation, and the dashed line is for case of the new repetition with Chu sequence phase rotation. It is shown that discrete OFDM signals by the new repetition with Chu sequence has the lowest PAPR in statistics, while the PAPR of the original repeating OFDM signals is the highest. In particular, for CCDF(x) = 10−3 , the PAPR is reduced by more than 2.5 dB by the new repetition with Chu sequence. Fig. 3.3 shows the approximation of the PAPR CCDF of the ideal bandlimited (analog) OFDM signals. The ideally bandlimited (analog) OFDM signal is generated by oversampling the signal by a factor of sixteen. Unlike to discrete signals, the new repetition can not achieve lower PAPR than the original repetition, however the Chu sequence still helps to reduce the PAPR.
26
10
0
CCDF(x)
10
−1
Pr(PAPR>x)
10
−2
10
−3
10
−4
New Repetition with Chu Sequence Original Repetition with Chu Sequence Original Repetition 2 3 4 5 x (dB) 6 7 8
Figure 3.2: Comparison of the complementary CDF of the PAPR of the discrete OFDM signals with repetition factor Γ = 4.
27
10
0
CCDF(x)
10
−1
Pr(PAPR>x)
10
−2
10
−3
10
−4
10
−5
New Repetition with Chu Sequence Original Repetition with Chu Sequence Original Repetition 2 3 4 5 x (dB) 6 7 8
Figure 3.3: Comparison of the complementary CDF of the PAPR of the ideally bandlimited (analog) OFDM signals with repetition factor Γ = 4.
28
i. M M M C1 b (n) C2 b (n) · · · CMtb (n) Mb ×Mt (3.4. Chapters 3..2.4.3 Full Diversity of STFBC from the New Repetition We now go back to the spacetimefrequency coded MIMOOFDM system described in the preceding chapters.11) and (3.3. the spacetimefrequency code C from the original repetition has diversity order Mt Mr L when Mb = Mt . 1 ≤ j ≤ Mt . its columns are assigned to transmitters and its rows are assigned to OFDM symbols. it is shown in [8] that if the original spacetime code C(n) has full diversity. for a full diversity spacetime code C(n) still has the full diversity. Cj (n1 + (m − 1)Γ) = Cj (n2 + (m − 1)Γ) for 0 ≤ n1 . . along index n. and Γ ≥ L where L is the 29 ..18) as (2.1 and 3. By following [3].14) across subcarriers.e. . Theorem 2 Let C(n) be a full diversity spacetime code of size Mb ×Mt .4) and C(n) be a spacetime code of size Mb × Mt .4. The question now is whether the spacetimefrequency code with the new repetition and phase adjustment in the preceding two subsections. i. such as the 2 × 2 Alamouti code for 2 antennas and the 4 × 4 QOSTBC for 4 antennas as used in the preceding chapter. n2 ≤ Γ − 1 N Γ for any ﬁxed m with 1 ≤ m ≤ and 1 ≤ t ≤ Mb .e. The spacetimefrequency code C described before is that the columns of C(n) are assigned to transmitters and the rows of C(n) are assigned to OFDM symbols and each element in C(n) is repeated by Γ ≥ L times across subcarriers t t along index n. Let 1 1 C 1 (n) C2 (n) · · · CMt (n) 1 2 2 2 C2 (n) · · · CMt (n) ∆ C1 (n) C(n) = . respectively. The following result provides an answer for this question. Let the symbols (or components) of C(n) are repeated and phase adjusted as (3.
. 30 N N (3. . (3. we have det(V) = 0≤q<p≤L−1 (ζ Γ τp − ζ Γ τq ). N . rows of V as . . . we have ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ G = [(IMb ⊗ D0 )C. we may ˜ ˆ ˜ assume C(1) = C(1) − C(1) = 0.e.21) 1 ζ N τ Γ 1 ··· ··· . Substituting C into (2.. N . achieves the diversity order Mt Mr L. i.e. which is checked as follows.. where V= 1 ζ N τ Γ 0 (3. i. let ˜ ˆ their diﬀerence matrix be C = C − C = 0. . . Without loss of generality. · · · . (IMb ⊗ DL−1 )C].24) . . for p = q. ζ 1 N τ Γ L−1 . Since V is a Vandermonde matrix. our spacetimefrequency code achieve the diversity order Mb Mt L if rank(V) = L.. . . N N N ζ (L−1) Γ τ0 ζ (L−1) Γ τ1 · · · ζ (L−1) Γ τL−1 (3. . (3. 3]. .11). Ts Γ (3. it is full rank. 0 ≤ l ≤ L − 1. (IMb ⊗ D1 )C. such a spacetimefrequency code has full diversity. N . . Then. if τ p − τq N = an integer. We then write the submatrix of the ﬁrst L 1 1 ··· 1 N N N ζ Γ τ0 ζ Γ τ1 ··· ζ Γ τL−1 V= . .number of multipaths of distinct time delays τl .22) ζ (Γ−1) Γ τ0 ζ (Γ−1) Γ τ1 · · · ζ (Γ−1) Γ τL−1 where ζ = e−i2π/Ts . . .23) Similar to the proofs in [8. .. .19) ˆ Proof: For any two distinct spacetimefrequency code matrices C and C.20) ˜ ˜ We extract the submatrix associated with C(1) from G as in Appendix of [8]: ˜ B = ((diag(Θ)V) ⊗ IMb )(IL ⊗ C(1)).
(3. Ts Γ τp N τq N N N (3. so τp − τq = ∆Np. ∆Np.q Tc N = an integer. 8].23) and can be only a fraction and thus the above condition is naturally satisﬁed. When L multipaths are of time delays τl = lTc .27) In general. for p = q N Tc Γ ∆Np. the duration of a chip.q is not necessary to be an integer. Tc over.q Γ is not an integer.q is an integer. Γ (3.q is the number of chips that delay between qth and pth multipaths spans = N.The square matrix V is of full rank if and only if det(V) = 0.25) We normalize the time diﬀerence by Tc . for p = q e−i2π Ts Γ = e−i2π Ts Γ . 0 ≤ l ≤ L − 1. the factor N Γ τp −τq Ts does not appear on the exponential of ζ in (3. for p = q τp − τ q N = an integer. So. In case when ∆Np. Since Ts Tc (3.q . in the above proof. rank(V) = L ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ det(V) = 0 ⇐⇒ ζ Γ τp = ζ Γ τq . one can see that the form of a Chu sequence Θ does not aﬀect the full diversity property of the STFBC.5) used in [3.q ⇐⇒ = an integer. the above condition is automatically satisﬁed. Note that. if ∆Np.q is not an integer.22) and (3.q for any p.25) ⇐⇒ ∆Np. for p = q. From the above proof. we need to choose Γ that does not divide ∆Np. So for any pair of τq and τp . the above condition is then also satisﬁed. while the repetition method does. for the original repeating (3. q or adjust Tc so that ∆Np. for p = q. 31 .26) where ∆Np.
14).23). we have ˆ C = arg min{tr(YH Y) − C∈C + ρ tr(HH (XH X)H)}.29) Si.Since the result in Theorem 2 is for a general full diversity spacetime code C(n) of size Mb × Mt .17).17).16) and (2. substituting (3. the decoding equations satisfy the fast ML decoding condition we have discussed in Chapter 2. substituting (3.2.4 Fast Decoding From (2. 32 .1 ≤ k ≤ N.1 ≤ k ≤ N Γ 0 P 0 Q 0 P For QOSTFBC. into (2.4.1 ≤ k ≤ N CH C = diag(Θ∗ ◦ Θ) ⊗ diag Γ 0 Rk Rk 0 .k 2 .19) and (2. we have Rk 0 .14) into (2. it holds for the Alamouti code for two transmit antennas and the linearly transformed QOSTBC for four transmit antennas as described before. = IΓ ⊗ diag Γ 0 Rk where Rk = 2 i=1 (3. we have 0 Q 0 P 0 Q . Mt ρ tr(YH XH + HH XH Y) Mt (3. (3. 3.28) where XH X = IMr ⊗ CH C.14) P 0 H ∗ C C = diag(Θ ◦ Θ) ⊗ diag Q 0 where P and Q are deﬁned as (2.30) For both cases. For OSTFBC.
in all cases of diﬀerent clipping ratios.15. if a(n) ≤ A max ˜(n) = a .4. the repetition times Γ = L = 4.5 Performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM with Clipping In this chapter. In Fig. 2×1 OSTFBC is used. 3. L = 4. and in Fig. and the dot curves are for original repetition algorithm with phase adjustments. In these simulations. 16QAM is used. The clipping ratio r is deﬁned by Amax r=√ .45]µs. In Fig. Pin where Pin is the average signal power before clipping. In this case.5. 3. equal power delay proﬁle in which the delays are [0.5. we use clipping process at the transmitter.4 and Fig. i. 0. A . 3. 3. the MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh channel characterized by a fourray. if a(n) > A max max (3. Note that these systems do satisfy the fulldiversity condition we obtained in Theorem 2 in Chapter 3.31) where Amax is the maximum amplitude of signals allowed by the nonlinear ampliﬁer. In our simulation systems. In Fig. Chu sequences for the phase adjustment in the original repetition method help to reduce the PAPR. 4 × 1 linearly transformed QOSTFBC [25] is used. As one can see.3.5. where the original repetition and the new repetition with phase adjustments are applied. the dashed curves are for the original repetition algorithm proposed in [8].. and our newly proposed repetition algorithm and phase adjustments using Chu sequences always achieve the best performances than the original repetition algorithm does. 0. and the solid curves are for our newly proposed repetition algorithm with phase adjustments.32) .4. 0. we compare performance of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in MIMOOFDM systems.3.3.e. 3. 3.4 and Fig. 33 (3. The clipping process we use is a(n).
34 .5 γ=2.10 0 1bit/s/Hz γ=1.0 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 Original Repetition Original Repetition with Chu Sequences New Repetition with Chu Sequences 8 10 12 14 SNR(dB) 16 18 20 Figure 3.4: Performance comparison of clipped 2×1 OFDM OSTFBC with Γ = 4.2 10 −1 10 BER −2 γ=1.
2 10 −1 10 BER −2 γ=1.0 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 Original Repetition Original Repetition with Chu Sequences New Repetition with Chu Sequences 8 10 12 14 SNR(dB) 16 18 20 Figure 3.5 γ=2.10 0 1bit/s/Hz γ=1. 35 .5: Performance comparison of clipped 4 × 1 OFDM linearly transformed QOSTFBC with Γ = 4.
One of the most eﬃcient ways to reduce the PAPR is clipping [34] that. It should be emphasized that the newly developed fast ML decoding for rotated QOSTFBC proposed in [18][25] for MIMO channels with white noise still has the singlesymbol (or complex symbolwise) decoding property in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. ML decoding for spatially colored noised [26] needs to be considered. In this chapter. the fast ML decoding properties for OSTFBC and rotated QOSTFBC [9][25] in MIMOOFDM systems without clipping are still maintained in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. in some applications. By applying the clipping noise model from Bussgang’s theorem used in. for example in interference channels.Chapter 4 CLIPPING NOISE MODEL BASED ML DECODING AT RECEIVER An important issue for OFDM systems is their high PAPR and it is important to reduce the PAPR in a practical (power eﬃcient) system. we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTFBC or QOSTFBC is used. When the additive noise is not white. for example [35][37]. we derive fast (singlesymbol) ML decoding algorithms for OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. however. Above decoding algorithm requires the knowledge of the clipping ratio (CR) at the receiver. 36 . induces clipping noise and the induced clipping noise in an MIMOOFDM system may not be white and thus the fast ML decoding for an OSTBC or QOSTBC coded system may not hold. However. Interestingly.
.3) (4. AN −1 are the original complex information symbols transmitted through N subcarriers. By calculating the statistics of the clipping noise at the pilot subcarriers.4) . J where a(k) is the amplitude of s(k) and φ(k) is the phase. A clipping ratio estimation method has been proposed for single antenna OFDM systems in [33].1 Clipping Process and Clipping Noise Model in an OFDM System We ﬁrst review the clipped signal and clipping noise models described in [35][37] and then extend this model developed for SISO systems to MIMO systems which results in a spatially colored noise model. A1 . the timedomain baseband signal can be represented as 1 s(t) = √ N N −1 An exp(i2πnt/Ts ).. . where J is a oversampling factor. ˜ ˜ 37 (4. This clipping ratio estimation method can be applied to pilottonebased OFDM systems only. By oversampling the above signal s(t) at a time interval length ∆t = Ts /(JN ).. the CR can be estimated from the statistical clipping noise model given in [36][37]. k = 0. we get a discrete time domain signal 1 s(k) = √ s(kT /(JN )) = a(k)exp(iφ(k)). . n=0 (4. A . For an OFDM system. In this chapter. if a(k) > A max max s(k) = a(k)exp(iφ(k)). JN − 1.it is may be possible that the CR is not known at the receiver. The clipping process can be represented by a(k). . if a(k) ≤ A max a(k) = ˜ . 4. . we also develop a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for a clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTBC and QOSTBC are used at the transmitter and the CR is not known at the receiver.2) (4. 0 ≤ t ≤ Ts ..1) where A0 .
i.8) (4. If the amplitude of signal s(k) is above Amax . Thus. it is clipped. However the distortion caused by clipping can not be eliminated by the ﬁlter.d.9) 38 .6) (4. The clipping ratio is a very important factor that aﬀects the BER performance and PAPR after the clipping. the clipping distortion variance is calculated as 2 σD = Pin (1 − e−r − α2 ). Thus. The outofband radiation is eliminated.e. In [37].where Amax is the maximum amplitude of signals allowed by a nonlinear ampliﬁer. if S(n) is not i. From [35][36]. either. ˜ where α is the attenuation factor deﬁned as √ πr −r2 α=1−e + erfc(r).. (4. channel interleaving and deinterleaving can eliminate the statistical dependence of S(n). 2 (4. 2 from the clipped time domain signal s(k) can be written as ˜ S(n) = αS(n) + D(n). Note that.4).i. the frequency domain signal converted where S(n) and D(n) are the DFTs of s(k) and d(k). The clipping ratio r is deﬁned as Amax r=√ . the mean where Pin power of C(n) in (2. i. the distortion in the frequency domain is a complex Gaussian random variable with zero mean. respectively. we assume that S(n) is i.i. we use normalized information symbols at the transmitter so that Pin = 1.d. sequence s(k) passes through a lowpass equivalent band pass ˜ ﬁlter (BPF)[35].. The clipped time domain signal s(k) can be modelled as the summation of ˜ an attenuated signal component and the clipping distortion [35][36] as s(k) = αs(k) + d(k). (4. S(n) is not i.d. In this case. After clipping. In this work.5) Pin is the average signal constellation power before clipping.7) and d(k) is the clipping distortion.
One is to directly decode C without the consideration of the clipping distortion D. In this case.8) becomes Yi = ρ CHi + Ni Mt ρ ρ = α CHi + DHi + Ni . 39 . one can see the diﬀerence between the channel AWGN and the clipping distortion.2 apply.9). respectively. So. OSTFBC and QOSTFBC for C will be considered. Since the distortion is passed through the channel. We assume that the receiver knows the clipping level as a system design parameter and thus the receiver can calculate the attenuation factor and the clipping distortion variance as (4. The detailed form of D depends on the detailed form of the STFBC C. In the following. From the above equation. (Y (n)S(n). For an MIMOOFDM system.11) where Mt = 1 in the single antenna case. Mt Mt (4.Thus. the signal model in (2. at the receiver. the AWGN is only considered and the fast decoding algorithms described in Chapter 2. Mt (4.10) where N (n) is the additive Gaussian noise at the nth subcarrier and independent of the distortion.12). There are at least two ways to decode (4. it also applies to any pair transmit and receive antennas in MIMOOFDM systems. the distortion is faded through the channel as a transmitted signal is.7) and (4. Although the above model is for single antenna OFDM systems. Mt (4. The distortion caused by the clipping at the transmitter depends on the transmitted signal and increases with the transmitted signal power. the received signal in the frequency domain is Y (n) = α ρ H(n)S(n) + Mt ρ H(n)D(n) + N (n).12) where D is the distortion matrix. with C in (2.5). H(n)) is a Gaussian random variable and its variance is ρ 2 2 H(n)2 σD + σn .
k (0) 0 0 ∗ ∗ −D2.k (1) D2.17) introduced in Section 2. we only consider Alamouti code and Γ = 2.k S1. (4.16) 40 . · · · . and we show that the fast (complex) symbolwise decoding algorithms for the OSTFBC and linearly transformed QOSTFBC described in Chapter 2. D N )Mb N ×Mt N .2 can be maintained. The goal of the following discussions is to derive fast ML decoding algorithms for OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM systems when the above clipping noise model is used.k ∗ ∗ −S2.k (0) D2. Thus.1.k (0) 0 0 Dk = 0 0 D1.13) (4.k S2.k (0) D1. Sk = IΓ ⊗ and C = diag(S1 .14) Without loss of generality. S2 . D2 .2. 4. S N )Mb N ×Mt N .15) . In this case.k . Γ S1. the distortion matrix D is D = diag(D1 .2 SingleSymbol ML Decoding for OSTFBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM Systems Let us ﬁrst recall the OSTFBC structure (2. Γ (4.16) and (2.k (1) (4.The other is to decode C by considering the clipping noise in the overall additive noise ρ DHi + Ni Mt that may not be white. where D1. ML decoding for spatially colored noise [26] needs to be considered. · · · .k (1) ∗ ∗ 0 0 −D2.k (1) D1.
The covariance matrix of the received signal Y given C and H can be calculated as follows from (4.17) Because we treat Dk independently in term of k.2 (γ)2 ) + σn . From (4.k (n)Dj. n = γ and k = h D ∗ E[Di.e.j≤Mr . if i = j.e.12). (4. (4.17). We also approximately treat distortions from diﬀerent subcarriers independent. where Aij (γ) = ρ 2 σ (Hi. Considering the correlation of Di.e.1. otherwise 2 where σD is given in (4. j)th block in Σ. based on the model described in Chapter 4. the corresponding distortions Di. Di.k (γ) are independent complex Gaussian random variables with zero mean and covariances: σ 2 . D = D1 . So it is not considered in this research.where Di.j = E[DHi HH DH ] + E[Ni NH ]. index k.k . ρ 2 ∗ σ (Hi. Because clipping is a nonlinear process.19) 4×4 if i = j.9).k (0) = Di. i.k (γ) is the additive distortion of γth repetition of Si.h (γ)] = . in this chapter we consider D1 only i. Since the information symbols Si. thus j j Aij (0)I2 0 Σi. without loss generality. Di. Di.20) 41 .k (γ) are also independent in terms of i. 0.k (γ) with diﬀerent γ and k may improve performance at the cost of a very high computational complexity.2 (γ)Hj.2 (γ)). so the distortion caused by clipping is not simply repeated γ times.j )1≤i.1 (γ)Hj. where Σi. N Γ = 1. it is not hard to see Σ = Cov(Y. Thus.k (1).j = 0 Aij (1)I2 is the (i.k (γ) are independent in terms of γ and k as [36]. We drop the (4.1 (γ) Mt D ∗ + Hi.18) (4. if i = j .k are independent in terms of i. and C = S1 . YC.1 (γ)2 Mt D 2 + Hi. i. H) = (Σi.
j≤M 0 Aij (0)I2 . (4.21) Substitute (4. lent to 0 Aij (1)I2 With this lemma. and γ = 0. Thus matrix Σ is equiva Aij (0) 0 lent to in terms of complex number arithmetic op0 Aij (1) erations by using the mapping from Aij (γ)I2 to Aij (γ). Proof: A 2 × 2 matrix Aij (γ)I2 is equivalent to a scalar number Aij (γ) in terms of the arithmetic operations of complex numbers.j≤M has an inverse.j≤M 1≤i.22) Aij (0)I2 0 0 Aij (1)I2 1≤i.Let the inverse matrix of Aij (0) 0 Aij (0) 0 that is equivabe 0 Aij (1) 0 Aij (1) 1≤i.18) and then Σ−1 = Let Vi (γ) = Yi (γ) − α ρ C(γ)Hi (γ).j≤M . Lemma 1 is proved.j≤M Aij (0)I2 0 0 Aij (1)I2 1≤i.j≤M 1≤i.21) and (4. Mt (4.22) into (2. 1. then its inverse Σ−1 also has the form Σ−1 = where Aij (γ) are constants. · · · .23) 42 .13) when Σ has the above form (4. 2. we next derive the ML decoding (2. i=1 j=1 γ=0 = arg min C∈C (4.j≤M 1≤i.13). Lemma 1 If matrix Σ = Aij (0)I2 0 0 Aij (1)I2 with constants Aij (γ) 1≤i. Mr . ˆ C = arg min C∈C Mr Mr 1 H Vi (γ)Aij (γ)I2 Vj (γ) i=1 j=1 γ=0 Mr Mr 1 H Aij (γ)Vi (γ)Vj (γ). i = 1.
2.3 SingleSymbol ML Decoding for QOSTFBC and Linearly Transformed QOSTBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM Systems We now consider the QOSTFBC (2.j. qi+2. the ML decoding of the OSTFBC in the clipped MIMOOFDM system is ˆ C = arg min(Y − α C∈C 2 ρ XH)H Σ−1 (Y − α Mt fi (Si ).l (x) is a known quadratic form of complex variable x.k . where the complex symbols Si.23). 1.k = ai.k + ibi.26) ←→ ˆ ˆ (S1 . 3. i = 1.k . where U is the linear transform matrix from [25].e. pi+2.S2 i=1 where each fi (x) is a known quadratic form of complex variable x.. symbolwise decoding.k + iqi. 2. 2. 4.25) where each fi.k . S2 ) = arg min S1 . bi.k )T = U(ai. qi. may (for linearly transformed QOSTBC [25]) or may not (original QOSTBC) be obtained by linearly transforming the original complex information symbols Zi.k .l (Sl ).k . (4.j. ρ XH) Mt (4.k )T . bi+2. [25]: (pi.k . 3. i. which is similar to the ML decoding of the OSTBC in an MIMOOFDM system without the clipping.k = pi. 4. i = 1. γ = 0.k . (4. 4. i = 1. Thus. the quadratic form of complex symbols is CH (γ)C(γ) = = So H Aij (γ)Vi (γ)Vj (γ) H S1 S 2 ∗ −S2 ∗ S1 S1 S2 ∗ −S2 ∗ S1 .k . 43 . ai+2.24) S1 2 + S2 2 0 2 0 S1  + S2  2 2 = l=1 fi.19) for a clipped MIMOOFDM system.In objective function (4.
4 are independent and thus we also have (4.k (γ) (4.k (γ) ∗ −D2. in this case. 2. we need to calculate the correlations between the distortions Di. 2.k (γ) −D4. Hence. are independent each other.k (γ) ∗ −D4.k . In this case. 2.k (γ) D4. 3. 4 are uncorrelated. 2.k for i = 1. qi. complex symbols Si. D4. When the information symbols Si. Since they are Gaussian with zero mean. the distortions Di. When the linearly transformed QOSTFBC is used. 3.Similar to Chapter 4.k for i = 1. 2.k (γ) D1. 2.k (γ) Dk (γ) = D3. To do so.k (γ) 0 Dk (1) .k (γ) ∗ ∗ ∗ D3. 2. i = 1. 3.k (γ) (4.k (γ) D1. since Si. i = 1. all reals pi. i = 1.2. ∗ ∗ ∗ D1.k (γ) D3. we only consider Γ = 2. Thus. we need to calculate the covariance matrix of the total noise terms including both the clipped noise and AWGN terms.k (γ) for i = 1.k (γ) . 3. 3. in what follows. 3. in order to derive the ML decoding of a QOSTFBC in a clipped MIMOOFDM system. · · · .k (γ) D3.k . D N )Mb N ×Mt N . Γ (4. we only consider the case when a signal constellation S is a square QAM. 2. 2. 3. 4.k .k (γ) −D2. i = 1. may not be uncorrelated. 4. the distortions Di. 4. the linear transform U in [25] is unitary.2. Based on this observation. complex symbols Si.k . 4 are also uncorrelated.27) where Dk = Dk (0) 0 D2.k (γ) for i = 1. However.k (γ) D2. 3.k (γ).k .17) for 44 . D2 . 4. 4 are uncorrelated and therefore complex symbols Si. it is reasonable to assume that the distortions Di.28) where D1. the distortion matrix D is D = diag(D1 . In this case. 3. are uncorrelated too. are also independent in terms of i. 4.29) Similar to the OSTFBC case in Chapter 4.k are obtained from linearly transforming independent symbols Zi.k (γ) for i = 1. in general. which has been veriﬁed by our numerous simulations. when the linear transformation is unitary.
if i = j.32) ∗ +Hi.1 (γ) + Hi. where Aij (γ) = ρ 2 σ (Hi.1 (γ)Hj.2 (γ)Hj.3 (γ)Hj.4 (γ)2 ) (4.2 (γ)).30) with constants Aij (γ) and Bij (γ).3 (γ)2 + Hi. j) block in Σ. if i = j. where A (0)I2 Bij (0)I2 0 0 ij Bij (0)I2 Aij (0)I2 0 0 = 0 0 Aij (1)I2 Bij (1)I2 0 0 Bij (1)I2 Aij (1)I2 (4. 3.j (4.3 (γ)Hj. Σ−1 = Σi. ∗ ∗ + Hi.j≤Mr . and drop the index k in derivation. by some algebra.4 (γ) (4.j )1≤i.4 (γ)Hj. 2. j ≤ Mr . 1 ≤ i. For the same reason of Section 4.33) Lemma 2 If a block matrix Σ has the form in (4. we set D = D1 and C = S1 . j = 1.30) Σi.4 (γ)). ρ 2 ∗ σ (Hi. then its inverse matrix Σ−1 is also a block matrix of the same form as Σ. YC.31) is the (i.17).3 (γ) Mt D ∗ +Hi.2.1 (γ) Mt D ∗ ∗ + Hi.1 (γ)Hj.34) 45 .1 (γ)2 Mt D 2 +σn . 4. and has an inverse.3 (γ) + Hi.2 (γ)Hj.j 1≤i.2 (γ)2 + Hi.4 (γ)Hj. With (4. H) = (Σi.j≤Mr (4. Bij (γ) = ρ 2 ∗ σ (Hi.i.2 (γ) + Hi. the conditional covariance matrix can be calculated as Σ = Cov(Y.
which is equivalent to say that the inverse of any matrix Σ = (Σij )1≤i.. we map a 2×2 matrix AI2 to complex number A and thus the set of 2 × 2 matrices {AI2 } for all complex numbers A is isomorphic to the complex number ﬁeld and the set of 8 × 8 matrices Aij (0)I2 Bij (0)I2 0 0 Bij (0)I2 Aij (0)I2 0 0 Σi.j≤Mr where Σij has the 46 .j (4.j≤Mr for ¯ ¯ Mij ∈ M also has the block matrix form (Mij )1≤i. It is not hard to see that all the arithmetic operations and matrix inverses of 4 × 4 matrices in set M are closed.35) for some constants Aij (γ) and Bij (γ). the results of the arithmetic operations and inverses of matrices in M are also in M. j ≤ Mr .j = 0 0 Aij (1)I2 Bij (1)I2 0 0 Bij (1)I2 Aij (1)I2 (4. i. the inverse of any block matrix (Mij )1≤i. Proof: Similar to the proof of Lemma 1. Bij (γ) . Therefore.37) Therefore. 1 ≤ i. the set of matrices Σ = (Σij )1≤i.j≤Mr where Σij has the form in (4.36) is isomorphic to the following set of 4 × 4 matrices Aij (0) Bij (0) 0 0 B (0) A (0) 0 0 ij ij : for complex numbers Aij (γ). M= 0 0 Aij (1) Bij (1) 0 0 Bij (1) Aij (1) (4.36) is isomorphic to the set of matrices {(Mij )1≤i.where Bij (0)I2 Aij (0)I2 0 0 = 0 0 Aij (1)I2 Bij (1)I2 0 0 Bij (1)I2 Aij (1)I2 Aij (0)I2 Bij (0)I2 0 0 .e.j≤Mr for Mij ∈ M. Σi.j≤Mr  Mij ∈ M}.
41) H where Aij (γ) and Bij (γ) are known constants. 4 H Vi (γ)Υi. then Vi (γ)Υi. (4.30).j (γ) have the following form Aij (γ)I2 Bij (γ)I2 . 2. Υi.40) In order to simplify the above ML decoding.36) also has the form (Σij )1≤i.j. · · · . · · · . Si∗ . i = 1..j (γ) = Aij (γ)I2 Bij (γ)I2 Bij (γ)I2 Aij (γ)I2 ρ C(γ)Hi (γ).38) which is the submatrix (4.j. S4 ).j≤Mr where Σij has the form in (4.38) into (2.39) (4. 2. Mt . This proves Lemma 2. S4 .j (γ)Vj (γ) is a linear function of 4 i=1 Si 2 and 2 ∗ i=1 (Si Si+2 + Si∗ Si+2 ).1 ( l=1 Sl 2 ) 2 ∗ (Sl Sl+2 + Sl∗ Sl+2 )) l=1 +gi. the ML decoding becomes ˆ C = arg min C∈C i j γ H Vi (γ)Υi.e.3 (·) is also a known linear function of all its arguments. and Si .13) for QOSTBC C and Σ with the form (4.j (γ)Vj (γ).34) and (4.2 ( ∗ ∗ +gi.j.j (γ) = Bij (γ)I2 Aij (γ)I2 (4.42) where gi. j = 1.j. 1. (4. (4.36). Let Vi (γ) = Yi (γ) − α and Υi.3 (S1 . 4. · · · . i. We next derive the ML decoding (2.35).13).j (γ)Vj (γ) = gi. Substitute (4.2 (x) are two known linear functions of variable x.1 (x) and gi. and gi. 47 . S1 . we ﬁrst have the following lemma. Lemma 3 If matrices Υi. 3. Mr and γ = 0.¯ ¯ form in (4. i.j.j.
C(γ)H J4 C(γ) = P I2 QI2 48 (4.47) for QOSTFBC C in (2. 0 0 0 0 (4.j (γ)Vj (γ) = Vi (γ)(Aij (γ)I4 + Bij (γ)J4 )Vj (γ) H H = Aij (γ)Vi (γ)Vj (γ) + Bij (γ)Vi (γ)J4 Vj (γ).44) The ﬁrst term in the right hand side of (4.19). (4.48) .Proof: Let 0 0 0 0 J4 = 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 .45) Mt i and the second term in the right hand side of (4. it is also easy to check that QI2 P I2 . H H Vi (γ)Υi.44) is H H Vi (γ)J4 Vj (γ) = Yi (γ)J4 Yj (γ) ρ −α (YH (γ)J4 C(γ)Hj (γ) + HH (γ)CH (γ)J4 Yj (γ)) i Mt i ρ +α2 (HH (γ)(CH (γ)J4 C(γ))Hj (γ)).43) Then.44) is H H Vi (γ)Vj (γ) = Yi (γ)Yj (γ) − α ρ (YH (γ)C(γ)Hj (γ) + HH (γ)CH (γ)Yj (γ)) i Mt i ρ + α2 (HH (γ)(CH (γ)C(γ))Hj (γ)) (4.46) Mt i While S1 ∗ −S2 C(γ)H C(γ) = S3 ∗ −S4 = Ω S2 ∗ S1 H S3 S 4 ∗ −S4 S2 ∗ S1 S4 S1 ∗ ∗ S3 −S2 ∗ S3 S2 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ −S2 S3 ∗ −S4 S3 S 4 ∗ −S4 ∗ S3 S4 S1 ∗ ∗ S3 −S2 S2 ∗ S1 (4. (4.
44). J2 = 1 0 49 . and (4.2. From Lemma 2 and then Lemma 3.e.47). the ML decoding objective function has the following decomposition (Y − α ρ XH)H Σ−1 (Y − α Mt ρ XH) = Mt 4 fi (ai . the decomposition (4. 4. the ML decoding objective function in (4. Although the size of Σ is 8Mr × 8Mr .37) as explained in the proof of Lemma 2. Note that every element Mij in set M can be represented by Aij (0)I2 + Bij (0)J2 0 Mij = 0 Aij (1)I2 + Bij (1)J2 where Aij (γ) and Bij (γ) are two complex numbers and 0 1 .46) and then (4.23). we have the following result. it is structured and its inverse is equivalent to the inverse of a Mr × Mr block matrix with 4 × 4 block matrices in set M deﬁned in (4.. in the above ML decoding. 2. Therefore. In other words. (2.42) of a QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM has the same form as that of the QOSTFBC in an MIMO system. i. y) are known quadratic forms of real variables x and y.48) into (4.where P and Q have the forms in (2. Theorem 3 By following the encoding steps of linear transformation in Chapter 2.3 for MIMOOFDM without the clipping also applies to the clipped MIMOOFDM.30) is needed.45) and (4.23). the ML decoding of the linearly transformed QOSTBC in a clipped MIMOOFDM system is (complex) symbolwise decoding. As a remark.2. the linear transformation technique for the QOSTFBC described in Chapter 2.42) can be obtained and therefore Lemma 3 is proved. the inverse Σ−1 of the covariance matrix Σ of the form in (4. i=1 (4. By plugging (4.49) where fi (x.3 with independent complex information symbols Zi = ai + ibi for i = 1. bi ). 3.
This clipping ratio estimation method can be applied to pilottonebased OFDM systems only. in some applications.1 CR Estimation Theorem for STBC Coded MIMOOFDM Systems A clipping ratio estimation method has been proposed for single antenna OFDM systems in [33]. where Mr is the number of receive antennas. Thus.. However. and inverses are closed in M. 8Mr × 8Mr matrix Σ is essentially equivalent to an Mr × Mr matrix and therefore its inverse is essentially an inverse of Mr × Mr matrix inverse. it is may be possible that the CR is not known at the receiver. the repeating factor Γ = 1. i.4. We ﬁrst derive the CR estimation theorem for MIMOOFDM system and then propose a decision aided clipping ratio estimation algorithm.. when the linear transformation is the identity matrix. although Theorem 3 is for a linearly transformed QOSTFBC. i. we consider the case that we do not know the clipping ratio at the receiver and propose a decisionaided algorithm to estimate it.e. additions. but also the matrix multiplication of elements in M is commutative. The algorithm and derivation can be easily extended to STFBC coded MIMOOFDM systems. the result in Theorem 3 also applies to an original QOSTFBC without any linear transformation. for example in interference channels. For convenient. which we describe previously. The numerical operations over set M ij ij ij ij ij ij are similar to that over a number ﬁeld. In other words.e. we discuss the clipping ratio estimation algorithm only for STBC coded MIMOOFDM systems.4 Clipping Ratio Estimation The decoding algorithm proposed in previous chapters requires the knowledge of the clipping ratio (CR) at the receiver. As a ﬁnal remark. the linearly transformed QOSTFBC goes back to an original QOSTFBC.Also note that not only the matrix multiplications. M2 ∈ M. 4. By calculating the statistics of the clipping 50 . In this chapter. M1 M2 = M2 M1 when M1 . 4.
the pilottonebased clipping ratio estimation method in [33] is not applicable to MIMOOFDM systems. Moreover for an 51 . our method does not have any restriction to pilot patterns and is able to use more estimation samples from the data subcarriers than only pilot subcarriers. the CR can be estimated from the statistical clipping noise model given in [36][37]. we develop a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for an MIMOOFDM system. The diﬀerence between our method and the pilottonebased CR estimation in [33] is the way how receiver calculates the statistic of the clipping noise. Thus. the distortion from diﬀerent transmit antennas are added to one received signal. Based on this observation. By utilizing the code structure at the data subcarriers. such as [27][29] or clipping noise model based ML decoding can be used to improve the performance of an clipped OFDM system. rather we get an estimate of the combination of the distortions from all transmitted antennas. Compared to the pilottonebased CR estimation. we can not get an estimation of the distortion as what can be obtained in [33] for single antenna case. through a multiple transmit antenna channel. In this research. Using the estimated CR by the decisionaided clipping ratio estimation. any clipping noise mitigation method that requires to know CR. For MIMOOFDM systems. If we subtract pilot symbols from received signals as [33]. Because we use decoded symbols to estimate the clipping distortion at the receiver.noise at the pilot subcarriers. we call our method decisionaided clipping ratio estimation. we can separate clipping distortions from multiple transmit antennas and calculate the statistics of the clipping noise. CR estimation and statistical clipping noise model used for both methods are same. we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTBC and QOSTBC are used at the transmitter and the CR is not known at the receiver. We now develop a decision aided CR estimation algorithm by calculating the distortion from data subcarriers instead of pilot subcarriers.
n (0) D1. repeating factor Γ = 1.n (0) D2.2 (n) (4. if we know data symbols at the receiver.50) (4. Without loss of generality. we derive an equivalent equation 1 N (n) D1. we ﬁrst make decisions on data symbols without considering the clipping noise. D1. in this section.1 (n) ∗ Hi.STBC coded MIMOOFDM system.51) For the Alamouti code.53) 52 . Dn = ∗ ∗ −D2.n (0) Z2 (n) where Hi (n) is Hi (n) = Hi.2 (n) ∗ −Hi. Then the ML decoding with the estimated CR is implemented to make new decision on the data symbols. we use Alamouti code as an example to describe our CR estimation algorithm in the following discussion. Mt (4. Mt where n = 1. Similar discussion can be easily extended to other STBC coded MIMOOFDM system such as other OSTBC and QOSTBC coded MIMOOFDM systems. + i = 1 Hi (n) ∗ Mt Ni2∗ (n) D2.n (0) . The received signal in the frequency domain is Yi (n) = α ρ C(n)Hi (n) + Mt ρ Dn Hi (n) + Ni (n). codewords transmitted at data subcarriers have orthogonal or quasiorthogonal structure in the space and time domains. · · · .1 (n) . 2. This initial decision on the data symbols is used to estimate the CR at the receiver.n (0) We use Z(n) to represent the overall additive noise and distortion as Z1 (n) ρ = Z(n) = Dn Hi (n) + Ni (n) Mt Z2 (n) = Yi (n) − α ρ C(n)Hi (n). (4. So it is easy to calculate the distortion from data subcarriers.52) Hi. N . In our algorithm.n (0) Z (n) ρ . Because.
2 If we know σβ at the receiver.56). β= ∗ β2 Z2 (n) where β1 and β2 are i. For low CR and high SNR case.55).56) 2 Substituting (4. we can not calculate the attenuation factor α at the receiver. we ignore the AWGN item Ni (n) in (4. Mt α 2 (4.i.d. 53 . the clipping distortion dominates the additive noise Z(n). but the attenuated channel frequency response αHi (n).55) From the statistical model of the clipping distortion we derived in Chapter 4. the pilot symbols are also clipped by the nonlinear ampliﬁer or by the deliberate clipping procedure.We deﬁne a vector parameter β as β1 Z (n) = (αHi (n))−1 1 .1.54) as a whole parameter/variable. Thus. So the channel frequency response estimated by the pilotbased method is not the estimation of the channel frequency response Hi (n). for the clipped MIMOOFDM system. where r is the clipping ratio we want to estimate at the receiver. (4.54) Note that.51).56) into (4. the clipping ratio can be numerically solved from (4. we use attenuated channel frequency response αHi (n) in (4. random variables. the variance of random variables βi is 2 2 2 σβ = σβ1 = σβ2 ≈ ∆ 2 ρ σD .55) and (4. Thus. Without knowing CR. σβ is a function of its only variable r. we can have 2 σD α2 = 1 − e−r − 1 − e−r + 1− e−r2 + √ 2 2 √ πr erfc(r) 2 2 2 πr erfc(r) 2 . Similar to [33]. (4.
57) where αHi (n) is the attenuated channel estimation.55) with average σβ . Finally. In this step. the more accurate the statistics of the average power we can estimate. Secondly. which has been shown in Chapter 4.51). Mt (4.4. The more samples of β we use. With the estimated clipping ratio. Then σβ is the average ˆ ˆ power of a number of samples of β. we ignore the clipping distortion term ρ Dn Hi (n) Mt in equation (4.2 Decision Aided CR Estimation Procedure Based on the above derivation. Mt where Σ is a function of the clipping ratio. 54 . the clipping ratio r can be estimated by numerically solving equation 2 (4. we have the following CR estimation method. the clipping noise model based ML decoding [30] can be used.2 to have the fast single symbol decoding although the noise is colored.58) − ρ C(n)Hi (n)). we ﬁrst do the ML decoding as ˆ C(n) = arg min Mr C(n)∈C Yi (n) − i=1 ρ C(n)αHi (n) 2 . The new objective function for ML decoding is ˆ C = arg min(Yi (n) − C∈C ρ C(n)Hi (n))H Σ−1 (Yi (n) Mt (4. we approximately assume that C(n) is the codeword C(n) we transmitted and subtract the signal term from the received signal to calculate the overall noise Z(n) as (4.54).12) and C(n) is the initial hard decision we make on the transmitted codeword. 2 Thirdly. the parameter β is calculated by (4.4. At the receiver.
Since these two codes have the same symbol rate. and the solid lines are for our newly developed ML decoding algorithms with considering the clipping noise. When clipping ratio is smaller.2.16) and QOSTFBC as (2. The time duration of one OFDM symbol is Ts = 3. and the improvement is more signiﬁcant.5µs.. 55 .4. An OFDM with N = 64 subcarriers is used.Fig. the MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh channel is characterized by a tworay. L = 2. 4. and the performance improvement is increased too. i.19) with Γ = 2 for examples. In Fig.171] with OSTFBC or QOSTFBC encoder. in all cases. equal power delay proﬁle in which the second path delay τ is 0. they have the same bit rate if the same signal constellation S is used. The dashed lines are for the original decoding without considering the clipping noise. 4.1 Simulation Results Performance of Clipping Noise Model Based ML Decoding with Perfect CR at the receiver In the following simulations. the signal constellation S is always 16QAM and the throughput is 4 bits/s/Hz. We concatenate a rate 1/2 convolutional encoder of generator [133.e. the variance of the clipping distortion is also linearly increased.5 4. We only choose OSTFBC as (2.5.2µs. If the transmitted SNR is increased. our newly developed ML decoding algorithms always achieve better performance than the original decoding algorithm does without considering the clipping noise eﬀect. we compare the decoding performances of OSTFBC and QOSTFBC in clipped MIMOOFDM systems between the original decoding algorithms without considering the clipping noise and with considering the clipping noise and our newly developed ML decoding algorithm. We implement the decoding of OSTFBC or QOSTFBC with hard outputs and then the harddecision Viterbi decoder for the convolutional code is used. As one can see.1. the variance of the clipping distortion is larger. In our simulations.
5 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 Original Decoding New Decoding NonClipped 12 14 SNR(dB) 16 18 20 10 (a) 10 0 γ=1.0 10 −1 γ=1.0 10 −1 10 −2 γ=1.5 10 BER 10 −3 −4 10 −5 10 −6 10 −7 Original Decoding New Decoding Nonclipped 6 8 10 SNR(dB) 12 14 16 (b) Figure 4.2 γ=1.1: BER performance comparison of OSTFBC in clipped 2 × 2 OFDM systems: (a) no convolutional code is added. 56 . (b) a convolutional code is added.2 10 BER −2 γ=1.10 0 γ=1.
0 10 −1 10 −2 γ=1.5 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 Original Decoding New Decoding NonClipped 12 14 SNR(dB) 16 18 20 10 (a) 10 0 γ=1.2 10 BER −2 γ=1.0 10 −1 γ=1. (b) a convolutional code is added.2 BER 10 −3 γ=1.5 10 −4 10 −5 10 −6 Original Decoding New Decoding Nonclipped 6 8 10 12 14 SNR(dB) 16 18 20 (b) Figure 4. 57 .10 0 γ=1.2: BER performance comparison of QOSTFBC in clipped 4 × 2 OFDM systems: (a) no convolutional code is added.
4.5.2
Performance of Clipping Noise Model Based ML Decoding with Estimated CR at the receiver In this chapter, we ﬁrst show the minimum mean square error (MMSE) of the
estimated CR by the decision aided CR estimation algorithm. We then compare the decoding performances of the two diﬀerent decoding methods for the STBC coded MIMOOFDM systems with the estimated CR with the clipping noise model and without the clipping noise model. In the following simulations, the MIMO frequencyselective Rayleigh channel is characterized by a tworay, i.e., L = 2, equal power delay proﬁle in which the second path delay τ is 0.5µs. An OFDM with N = 64 subcarriers is used. The time duration of one OFDM symbol is Ts = 3.2µs. Fig. 4.3 shows the MMSE of the estimated CR by the decision aided CR estimation algorithm with Alamouti OSTBC code and linear transformed QOSTBC code. From this ﬁgure, the MMSE of the estimation decreases when the system SNR increases. At the high SNR, the estimation error is very small and the estimation algorithm is eﬀective. Also it is easy to see that there are more errors when CR is large. Because, at the high CR, distortion is small compared to AWGN, so AWGN domains the statistical property of the noise term in equation (4.12) and causes the large estimation error for CR. Although the estimation method is more accurate for small CR, the estimation error is reduced to very small for large CR at large SNR as shown in Fig. 4.3. In Fig. 4.4, we show the performances of the clipping noise model based ML decoding proposed in [30] by using our estimated CR. The case of 4 transmit and 1 receiver antenna QOSTBC with the linear transformation [25] is considered. We assume that we know the attenuated channel response αH at the receiver. In the ﬁgure, curves marked by o are for the ML decoding without using the clipping noise model, and curves marked by are for the clipping noise model based ML
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Alamouti code MMSE of Estimated CR 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 10 20 25 SNR(dB) Linear transformed QOSTBC code with 4 Tx and 1 Rx CR=2.0 CR=1.8 CR=1.6 CR=1.4 CR=1.2 15 30 CR=2.0 CR=1.8 CR=1.6 CR=1.4 CR=1.2
MMSE of Estimated CR
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 10 15 20 SNR(dB) 25 30
Figure 4.3: MMSE of estimated CR.
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decoding with estimated clipping ratio, and curves marked by × are for the clipping noise model based ML decoding with perfect clipping ratio. From the ﬁgure, we can see that if we do not know CR at the receiver, the CR estimation can improve the decoding performance. And accurate CR estimation at high SNR and low CR can achieve nearly the same decoding performance as the one with the perfect known CR.
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Figure 4.4: Performance of clipping noise model based ML decoding; 4 transmit antennas and 1 receive antenna linear transformed QOSTBC In [28], the authors proposed an iterative decoding to cancel the clipping noise. After we estimate the CR at the receiver, we can also apply this iterative decoding method to improve the performance. In Fig. 4.5, the same coded MIMOOFDM system is simulated as Fig. 4.4. Iterative decoding at the receiver is implemented. Iteration number is 1. Simulation results show that the iterative
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5 BER 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 10 12 14 SNR(dB) 16 18 20 Figure 4. 61 . the improvement is signiﬁcant.5: Performance of iterative decoding.0 γ=1. −1 10 γ=1.2 10 −2 Non iterative decoding Iterative decoding with estimated CR γ=1. iteration number is 1. For large SNR and low CR.decoding with estimated CR can always improve the decoding performance under diﬀerent clipping ratios.
2 k and i = 1. The source node ﬁrst transmits information to both relay nodes. k is the OFDM symbol/block index. one destination node and two relay nodes. Consider a cooperative system with one source node. 2.j is the k k corresponding time delay of each path. We only adopt the decodeandforward (DF) protocol. the channel coeﬃcient ak is a zeromean complex Gaussian i. we describe the Alamouti coded cooperative OFDM channel/signal model. 5.Chapter 5 ALAMOUTI CODED COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEM From this chapter.2 .i. cooperative OFDM system. random variables in terms of k.e. We assume that ak are i. and destination node has Mr receive antennas. The channel impulse response is denoted by k hk (t) = ak δ(t − τi.j i. i.j 2 with variance σa . For Rayleigh fading.. When there exist timing errors.1 = τi.d. the variance 62 .j (5. we begin to discuss another important wireless communication system. We assume that the channel is quasistatic (block fading) ﬂat fading. Mr .j random variable. i. the channel coeﬃcients remain ﬁxed through one code block. respectively. τi. i. so it is assumed that information symbols are correctly detected by relay nodes and then sent to the destination node. In order to normalize the received signal power. · · · . Firstly. τi.j ). j i.1) where j and i denote the jth relay node and the ith receive antenna for j = 1.1 Cooperative OFDM Channel Model Every relay node has only one transmit antenna.
1. the ﬁrst column is transmitted by ﬁrst relay node in two consecutive OFDM symbol periods. Sik (N −1)]. 2. so channel coeﬃcients in the frequency domain are k Hi.j 2πn k τ ) Ts i.3) k k where S1 (n) and S2 (n) are two independent information symbols.j is rounded to the nearest sampling position. According to this code structure. For an OFDM system with N subcarriers.j (n) = ak exp(−i i.2 Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM System Without Timing Errors/Delays We next ﬁrst consider the Alamouti coded cooperative OFDM signals without timing errors at the destination to see both structures of the signals in the time and the frequency domains. For convenience. the detected symbols are encoded into Alamouti code in a distributed way at two relay nodes as Ck (n) = k S1 (n) k −(S2 (n))∗ k S2 (n) k (S1 (n))∗ . (5. After relay nodes detect the information symbols sent from the source node. Ck (n) is a space time codeword carried by nth subcarrier and is independent in terms of n. where Ts is the duration of one OFDM symbol. we assume that the timing delay τi.j (n). the corresponding channel frek quency response for the nth OFDM subcarrier is denoted by Hi.j N Ts is an index number always.2 k σa = 1. Sik (1). · · · . so k τi. 5. These structures will be used later for the interference cancellation. while the second column is sent by the second relay node. sk (N − i i i i i 63 . · · · . sk (1).j (5. · · · . N − 1. and sk = [sk (0).2) where n represents the nth subcarrier. Since we assume channels are ﬂat fading. We represent frequency domain symbol sequence and time domain signal sequence as vectors Sk = [Sik (0). n = 0.
1 1 c2k (m) = sk (m). i. τi. the two discrete time domain received sequences of two OFDM symbols at destination node are 2k yi (m) = 2k+1 yi (m) = ρ 2k 2k c1 (m)ak + c2k (m)ak + wi (m).4) which is a discrete time domain sequence that is sent by the jth relay node in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period of the kth Alamouti coded block. i. From the IDFT property.7) 2k+1 2k where wi (m) and wi (m) are the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with 2k 2k zeromean and unitvariance. c2k (N − 1)]. Denote yi = [yi (m). c2k . it is not diﬃcult to show 2 1 that the time domain sequences have the following relationship in the frequency domain due to the Alamouti code structure: c2k (m) = sk (m). respectively. The ﬁnal transmitted signals at the relay nodes (5. i. c2k (1). and c2k+1 = [c2k+1 (0). 0 ≤ m ≤ N − 1].1 2 i. Thus. · · · . 1 1 2 2k+1 and c2 are the corresponding time domain sequences after the IDFT of Sk .6) k k When there is no time delays/errors from two relay nodes. where c2k = [c2k (0). 2 2 c2k+1 (m) = − sk ((N − m))N 1 2 c2k+1 (m) = 2 sk ((N − m))N 1 ∗ ∗ . and (Sk )∗ . c2k+1 (N − 1)].1)] = IDFT(Sk ).2 = 0. Sk . 1 2 −(Sk )∗ . · · · . which is 64 .2 2 ρ 2k+1 2k+1 c (m)ak + c2k+1 (m)ak + wi (m).1 = τi. c2k+1 (1). j j j j cp is added to each OFDM time domain sequence.1.5) which is a discrete time domain sequence that is sent by the jth relay node in the second OFDM symbol period of the kth Alamouti coded block.2 2 1 (5.e. a CP sequence of length i are shown as Fig. (5. c2k+1 . respectively. 5. j j j j (5.1 2 i. c2k . After IDFT..
. .1 i. the received signals for two consecutive OFDM symbol periods on the nth subcarrier in the kth coded block are. and Yi (n) = (Yi2k (n). .··· ··· c2k−1 1 c2k−1 2 CP CP c2k 1 c2k 2 CP CP c2k+1 1 c2k+1 2 ··· ··· Figure 5. let Ck (n) 0 0 ··· 0 0 Ck (n) 0 ··· 0 . . For convenience..1 i. .. 0 0 Ck (n) 0 0 0 . 0 Ck (n) 65 . 0 ≤ m ≤ N − 1].9) For Mr receive antennas. the received signals in vector form be come k Yi (n) = ρ k k C (n)Hk (n) + Wi (n). (5.. . Yi2k+1 (n))T . . . in which ρ is the signaltonoise ratio (SNR) at the receiver.. . Wi2k+1 (n))T . i.10) . Then.2 2 1 ρ k k (−(S2 (n))∗ ak + (S1 (n))∗ ak ) + Wi2k+1 (n). the received sequence in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period of the kth Alamouti coded 2k+1 2k+1 block. i. which is the received sequence in the second OFDM symbol period of the kth Alamouti coded block..2 (n))T as Hk (n). After CP removal and DFT transformation.8) where Wi2k (n) and Wi2k+1 (n) are the frequency domain AWGN. i k and Wi (n) = (Wi2k (n). ..2 2 (5.. . and yi = [yi (m). Yi2k (n) = Yi2k+1 (n) = ρ k k (S (n)ak + S2 (n)ak ) + Wi2k (n). Hi. i 2 2Mr ×2Mr (5. we k k k also represent a vector of (Hi.1 (n). Bk (n) = . The normalization factor ρ 2 is used to normalize the power of the received signal.1: Time domain transmitted signals at the relay nodes.
1 2 i. i.2 2 1 66 . Without loss of generality.2 2 1 ρ 2k+1 2k+1 c (m)ak + c2k+1 ((m − τ ))N ak + wi (m).e. (5. . . we always synchronize the receiver to the signals from the ﬁrst relay node. .12) i. Wk (n) = . τi. S2 (n)} = arg min Yk (n) − ρ ˆk B (n)Hk (n) 2 . 2 Since the additive noises are white Gaussian. . . H (n) = . i. Hk r (n) M k W2 (n) .. We assume at the receiver. and assume that the signals from the second relay node arrive at the destination k node τ samples later than the signals from the ﬁrst relay node. the overall vectormatrix form of the transmitreceive signal model at the nth subcarrier becomes Yk (n) = ρ k B (n)Hk (n) + Wk (n). discrete received signals in the time domain are ρ 2k 2k c (m)ak + c2k ((m − τ ))N ak + wi (m). k YMr (n) k Y1 (n) Hk (n) 1 k W1 (n) . the ML decoding is ˆk ˆk {S1 (n). the timing errors are known.11) ˆ Bk (n)∈C where C is a set of spacetime codewords from a given spacetime block code.3 Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM System With Timing Errors and Interblock Interferences We next consider the case when there are timing errors at the destination node.2 Ts = τ.1 = 0 and k N τi. k WMr (n) Then. k Hk (n) 2 .and k Y2 (n) k Y (n) = . 5. 2 (5.1 2 i. When τ is less than 2k yi (m) = 2k+1 yi (m) = cp . .
In the frequency domain. i. especially the one in the time domain. Denote the diﬀerence between the delay τ d2k (m) = 2k+1 d (m) = and the CP length as ∆ = τ − cp .15) Note that. if m ≥ ∆ . Next. c2k−1 (N − ∆ + m) − sk (N − τ + m).2 2 1 2k+1 +wi (m).2 2 Ts ρ 2πn k k Yi2k+1 (n) = (−(S2 (n))∗ ak + (S1 (n))∗ ak exp(−i τ )) i. Those interference signal models. Time domain received signals are ρ 2k 2k c1 (m)ak + c2k ((m − τ ))N + d2k (m) ak + wi (m). the timing error causes interblock interferences in the time domain and destroys the frequency orthogonality of OFDM. in the time domain only the ﬁrst ∆ samples in one OFDM symbol period suﬀer the interference.2 2 Ts +Wi2k+1 (n). respectively.14) 2k yi (m) = where d2k (m) and d2k+1 (m) are the interblock interference. received signals have no interference.2 2 ρ 2k+1 2k+1 c (m)ak + c2k+1 ((m − τ ))N + d2k+1 (m) ak yi (m) = i. When τ is larger than cp . if 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1 2 2 0. signals from the second relay node have a phase change. the Alamouti code orthogonal structure still holds and OFDM transmission eliminates the interference by covering the delay with enough CP [48].13).1 2 i. And if we know delay τ at the receiver. (5.13) From (5. sk (N − ∆ + m) − (sk (τ − m))∗ .1 2 i. 67 . i. are used for designing interference cancellation algorithm in next chapters. if 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1 1 2 0. we derive the interference signal models in the time domain and the frequency domain. if m ≥ ∆ (5. Thus. ρ k 2πn k (S1 (n)ak + S2 (n)ak exp(−i τ )) + Wi2k (n).1 i.1 i. . Yi2k (n) = (5.
we have Yi2k (n) = Yi2k+1 (n) = where 1 D (n) = √ N 2k τ −1 ρ 2 ρ 2 2πn (5.1 i.2 N 2πn k k −(S2 (n))∗ ak + (S1 (n))∗ ak exp(−i τ ) + D2k+1 (n)ak + Wi2k+1 (n).19) After we separate the interference from transmitted symbols. N 2πn m). we have Alamouti orthogonal code Ck (n) in (5.In the frequency domain. Dk (n) = 0. D (n) exp(i N τ ) . i 2 (5.1 i. D2k+1 (n) exp(i 2πn τ ) N Then.16) τ ) + D2k (n)ak + Wi2k (n).2 d2k (m) exp(−i m=0 τ −1 2πn m).20) 68 .18) ρ k Ck (n) + Dk (n) Hk (n) + Wi (n).17) 1 D2k+1 (n) = √ N d2k+1 (m) exp(−i m=0 If we denote the interference matrix as 2πn 2k 0.2 i.19) and the additive interference and noise terms as Ek (n) = i ρ k k D (n)Hk (n) + Wi (n). N (5.2 N k k S1 (n)ak + S2 (n)ak exp(−i i. i 2 (5. we have a frequency domain received signal matrixvector form as k Yi (n) = (5. i. i.
Chapter 6 TIME DOMAIN INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION FOR ALAMOUTI CODED COOPERATIVE OFDM SYSTEMS WITH INSUFFICIENT CP In this chapter. we propose a time domain interference cancellation algorithm when cp <τ ≤2 cp .1 shows the time domain sequences transmitted from both relay nodes. cp we discuss the case when when 2 N− cp < τ ≤ 2 cp . we discuss the case <τ ≤N− cp − 1. in Chapter 6. In Chapter 6. while the second row is from the second relay node. while Ts1 and Ts2 are the ﬁrst and ∗ Note that when τ > N . In the ﬁgure. Finally. when cp <τ ≤2 cp . there is an assumption that N ≥ 3 which usually hold for practical OFDM systems. the ﬁrst row is the discrete time domain sequence transmitted from the ﬁrst relay node. cp − 1 < τ ≤ N − 1. we consider the case when cp . In Chapter 6. We separate the data sequences from CP sequences by black blocks. The basic idea is as follows. 69 .1 Interference Cancellation when cp <τ ≤2 cp In this chapter. 6. Note. the interference and the current signal are independent and a spacetime code structure may not help and thus this case is not the interest of this work. Tcp is the synchronized CP period at the receiver.3.1. we propose our interference cancellation method for the case∗ when cp < τ ≤ N − 1 We divide the problem into three cases. Fig.2. 6.
At the receiver. E2 ]. the transmitted sequences from the second relay node are not synchronized at the receiver. we need to subtract A2 and [sγ2 .1 by capital letters deﬁned in (6. Any two segments with the same capital letter are the transmitted time domain sequences arriving at receiver at the same time. G2 ] to replace A2 and [sγ2 . which are time domain signals from previous OFDM symbol periods. while their front remaining parts of the CP length are the same as the CP and therefore are kept. and cause interferences. In Fig. 6. Received sequences are superposition of both sequences from the ﬁrst and the second relay nodes. respectively. fall into OFDM symbol periods Ts1 and Ts2 . So in order to cancel the interferences and satisfy the frequency orthogonality of OFDM. 6. 6.1: Received sequences in time domain cp <τ ≤2 cp .Tcp s 1 Ts1 s 1 Tcp s1 C1 D1 CP Ts2 s E1 2 c1 k 1 1 A1 CP B1 2 c1 k F1 s 2 s 2 s 2 s E2 2 s 2 A2 CP B2 C2 c 2k 2 D2 F2 CP G2 c 2k 1 2 Figure 6. the second synchronized OFDM symbol periods. segments D2 and [sµ2 . We deﬁne several segments and samples in the time domain sequences. E2 ]. which are shown in Fig. respectively. Due to the Alamouti code structure.1. G2 ] are the data signals that are cut oﬀ from the OFDM symbol periods Ts1 and Ts2 . the 70 . Because of the delay. E2 ] out from the received signals and reconstruct D2 and [sµ2 .13) later. segments A2 and [sγ2 . respectively. Because of the delay.1. respectively. CP sequences fall into synchronized OFDM symbol periods and partial data sequences fall into synchronized CP periods as shown in Fig. we assume that we always synchronize to the ﬁrst relay node whose signals arrive at the receiver ﬁrst.1)(6.
Then replacing segment A2 by a solution of segment D2 . The two time domain signal sequences 2k+1 c2k and c2 in the two consecutive OFDM symbols consist of the same samples 1 in conjugate in reversed order. segment A2 is known at the receiver. Then. B2 is the repetition of E2 and thus can be obtained from E2 . Since segment D1 is the cyclic repetition of F1 in the CP.1. After the IDFT on the previous decoded code sequence. In the second period. The main idea of our interference cancellation algorithm is to use this property to estimate and cancel the interferences in time domain as follows. a solution for F1 also provides a solution for D1 . In Fig. we already have the decision on the previous Alamouti coded OFDM block. Note that at the receiver. E1 and E2 consist of the same information about transmitted signals. Since segment B1 is a reversed conjugate segment of G2 . there is an individual sample sγ2 in front of segment E2 71 . we can solve for B1 . segments F1 and C2 consist of the same information of transmitted signals. while segments F2 and C1 also consist of the same information of transmitted signals. The diﬀerence between E1 and E2 is that E2 is the reverse of E1 and each element in E1 is the negative conjugate of an element in E2 .6) in the time domain. with B1 we can get G2 . Finally. With B2 and the received signal that is B1 + B2 . we can approximately solve for those transmitted signals from the received signals in the time domain and therefore we can solve for F1 . Thus. we replace E2 by G2 to cancel the interference for the second OFDM period. we ﬁrst solve for E2 from the received signals. we may solve for segment D2 in the time domain from the received signal that is a superposition of the segments D1 and D2 . we can mitigate the interference for the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period.3) in the frequency domain and the relationship (5. while sequences c2k+1 and c2k also consist of the 1 2 same samples in negative conjugate and in reversed order. 6. For the second OFDM symbol period.coded OFDM sequences have the relationship (5. From this time domain property. Using a solved D1 .
causing interference too.1 Transmitted sequences and interference sequences Before we introduce our method.2) cp which is the subsequence that includes ∆ − 1 samples from the the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. In the next chapters.3) to 2 cp +∆+1th + m + 1). sγ2 .4) 1 2 72 . 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. And sC1 = [c2k (m). Subsequences in transmit signal sequences from the ﬁrst relay are sA1 = [c2k (m). 6. 2 1 = [sk (2 1 cp cp + 2th to τ th in +1≤m≤2 cp + ∆] (6. Then. 1 1 (6. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = [sk (m). (6. We want to replace it by data signal sµ2 . and sµ2 have a relationship in the time domain. replacing sγ2 by sµ2 from the received signal. (6. sθ1 . 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = [−(sk (N − m))∗ . We use these sequences to describe our method in this chapter later. we can cancel all interferences for both OFDM symbol periods in one Alamouti coded block. sθ2 . sβ1 . we shall derive the detailed algorithms. we ﬁrst deﬁne some important transmit signal sequences. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. sα2 . So we can estimate them from the time domain received signals.1. 1 cp + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ − 1] = [sk ( 1 cp + m). cp +2th which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the 2 in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. And sE1 = [c2k+1 (m). sβ2 . sγ1 . 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. Signals sα1 .1) which is the subsequence that consists of ﬁrst ∆ samples in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And sB1 = [c2k (m).
2 (6. N − 2 2 = [(sk (2 1 cp cp −∆≤m≤N −2 cp − 1] (6.6) which is an interference subsequence from previous coded OFDM block.10) + ∆ − m))∗ . And sF1 = [c2k+1 (m). N − ∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N − 1] 2 = [sk (N − ∆ + m). cp − ∆ + 2th (6. And sE2 = [c2k (m). 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. 2 (6. 2 = [sk ( 2 cp cp −∆+1≤m≤ cp ] − ∆ + m + 1). Subsequences in transmit signal sequences from the second relay are sA2 = [c2k−1 (m). And sF2 = [c2k+1 (m). 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. N − ∆ ≤ m ≤ N − 1]. which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the N − cp + 1th to N − + ∆th in the second OFDM symbol period. 2 which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the N − τ + 1th to N − in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period.5) cp − m))∗ . 73 . N − 1 = [−(sk ( 2 cp cp ≤m≤N− cp + ∆ − 1] (6.7) to cp + 1th which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. N − τ ≤ m ≤ N − 2 cp − 1] (6. And sD2 = [c2k (m). 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1].9) which is the subsequence that includes last ∆ − 1 samples in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period.8) cp th = [sk (N − τ + m).which is the subsequence that consists of ∆ − 1 samples from the second to ∆th in the second OFDM symbol period. And sC2 = [c2k (m).
we will not have the relationship (6.1 one can see that there are two symbols in front of sB1 and sG2 . which is the ﬁrst time domain sample after sB2 . which is the ﬁrst time domain sample after sB1 . (6. (6.11) which is the subsequence that includes ∆ − 1 samples from the N − τ + 2th to N− cp th in the second OFDM symbol period. 1 cp − 1] (6. 6. And sG2 = [c2k+1 (m). These individual samples are deﬁned separately as follow. 2 2 74 . N − τ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N − 2 = [(sk (τ − m))∗ . Two subsequences in CP are sD1 = [−(sk ( 2 cp − m))∗ . The reason why these symbols are separated from sequences sB1 and sG2 is because if we include those symbols into the two sequences.14) From Fig.13) which is the subsequence that consists of last ∆ − 1 samples in the ﬁrst CP of a coded block from the second relay node. which is the last time domain sample in CP before sB2 . which is the last time domain sample before sB1 . respectively.14). 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. And sB2 = [sk (N − ∆ + m).12) which is the subsequence that consists of ﬁrst ∆ samples in the second CP of a coded block from the ﬁrst relay node.11) show that sG2 = (f lip(sB1 ))∗ . sα1 = c2k ( 1 cp ) = sk ( 1 cp ). 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1]. sα2 = sk (N − ∆). 1 1 sβ2 = c2k (0) = sk (0). 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1].2) and (6. 2 sβ1 = c2k (τ ) = sk (τ ). Formulas (6. 2 (6.which is the subsequence that includes ∆ samples from the N − 2 N −2 cp th cp − ∆ + 1th to in the second OFDM symbol period.
1. sE2 ] − [sµ2 .15) Sequences sA2 . After IDFT on the previous decoded code sequence. (6. sE2 . From the deﬁnitions of (6. After we have all the above subsequences and symbols deﬁned. an estimation of sequence sA2 . (6. we show how to use the relationships among all the subsequences to estimate and mitigate the interference sequences in (6.15). 75 (6. sθ2 = (sk ( 1 ∗ cp )) .sγ1 = c2k+1 (0) = −(sk (0))∗ .5). 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = sA2 − sD2 .3). We already have decision on the previous coded OFDM block. sD2 .1. d2k+1 = [d2k+1 (m).16) . which is the last time domain sample before 2 2 sE2 . In next chapter.2 Estimation of interference sequences The interference sequences are shown in (6. sG2 ].15) at the receiver. 2k+1 sµ2 = c2 (N − τ ) = (sk (τ ))∗ . sF2 = (f lip(sC1 ))∗ . sθ1 = c2k+1 (∆) = −(sk (N − ∆))∗ . and sG2 are intuitively shown in Fig. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = [sγ2 .7). which is the last time domain sample before 1 sG2 . we have sC2 = −(f lip(sF1 ))∗ . we s need to estimate other subsequences in (6. which is the ﬁrst time domain sample after sE2 and the ﬁrst time domain sample in CP of the second OFDM block. is known at the receiver. (6. which is the only one time domain sample be1 2 tween CP period and sE1 . 6. ˆA2 . Now. and (6. 6. which is the ﬁrst time domain sample after 1 2 sE1 .10).15) where sequence sA2 is the interference from the last Alamouti coded OFDM block. sγ2 = c2k (N − ∆) = sk (N − ∆). we can easily describe the interference sequences as d2k = [d2k (m).
5).2 1 2k At the receiver. k.Deﬁne their corresponding received sequences in the time domain as C 2k yi = [yi (m). −(ˆk ( s2 cp − ∆ + 1))∗ ). ˆD2 = s hk i.2 2 2k − τ ) + wi (m). s We also denote the partial received sequence in CP as D yi = ∆ ρ sD hk + 2 1 i. for 2 we obtain y 2k (m) i +1≤m≤2 cp + ∆. 2 2 i.22) .19) (hk 2 +hk 2 ) i.1 (6. N − cp ≤ m ≤ N − ρ ρ F = sF1 hk + sF hk + wi .1 1 + ρ k k h s (m 2 i.17) cp Substituting (6.1 2 2 2 i.1 sk (m − τ ) = ˆ2 (hk 2 +hk 2 ) i.3). and (6.2 i.10) into (6.1 i. can be set to equal to ˆF1 . . i. (6.2 and an estimation ˆF1 of sequence sF1 is then s ˆF1 = (−(ˆk ( s s2 ∗ sk cp )) .1 ρ C sC hk + wi . Thus. (6. and m.1 i. 2k+1 + wi (N + τ − m). So ˆD1 . = 2k+1 2k hk (yi (N +τ −m))∗ +(hk )∗ yi (m) i.2 76 . −(ˆ2 ( cp − 1))∗ .2 + ∆ − 1] (6. (6. −(ˆk ( s2 cp − ∆ + 2))∗ . we have the time domain received signal yi (m) for any i.1 2 − τ ))∗ + ρ k h (sk (m))∗ 2 i. 2 ∆ ∆ cp +1≤m≤2 cp + ∆] = cp ρ sC hk + 2 1 i. = ρ k k h s (m) 2 i. (6. for 2 cp +1≤m≤2 sk (m) ˆ1 cp + ∆.21) Thus. an estimation of the subsequence s sD1 .2 − ˆD1 hk s i. (6. 2 2 i.17). 6. · · · .1 2 D y ρ i ρ D sD hk + wi .20) Note that the sequence sD1 in CP is the repetition of the sequence sF1 in the second OFDM symbol period as shown in Fig.2 i i.1 i 2 √ρ √ρ 2 .2 2k+1 F yi = [yi (m).2 k )∗ y 2k (m)−hk (y 2k+1 (N +τ −m))∗ (hi. (6.7).1.18) y 2k+1 (N + τ − m) = − i ρ k h (sk (m 2 i.
2 2 √ρ √ρ 2 .1 2 2 i. Deﬁne received sequence as s B 2k yi = [yi (m).e.2 i.2 i. the elements of sequence sE1 are the negative conjugate of the elements in sequence sE2 in the reversed order.24) Thus. · · · . . we obtain.2 2 (6.1 2 2 i.2 Then sequence sB1 can be estimated as follows: ˆB1 = s 2 B y ρ i − ˆE2 hk s i.2 hk i. we denote yi as the received time domain sequence that includes the ﬁrst ∆ − 1 samples that are suﬀered by the interference: 2k+1 E yi = [yi (m).1.e. i.1 sk (N − ∆ + m) = ˆ2 An estimation of sE2 is then (hk 2 −hk 2 ) i..(6.2 2 y 2k+1 (∆ − m) = − ρ hk (sk (N − ∆ + m))∗ + ρ hk sk (N − m) + w2k+1 (∆ − m). we get an estimate ˆG2 of ses s quence sG2 . (6. for 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ . 77 . sk (N − 1) .26) Due to CP we know that sequences sB2 and sE2 are the same as shown in Fig.23). for 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ .2 i. sG2 = (f lip(sB1 ))∗ .9) into (6. s ˆ2 ˆ2 ˆ2 (6. i i 2 i. 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = ∆ ρ sE1 hk + i. If we take conjugate on ˆB1 and reverse the sequence. we have 2 sk (N − m) ˆ2 = 2k+1 2k+1 (hk )∗ yi (∆−m)+hk (yi (m))∗ i. 6.which gives an estimate of sequence sD2 in the time domain. So ˆE2 is also an estimation of sB2 .1 i. Substituting (6.1 2k+1 2k+1 hk (yi (∆−m))∗ +(hk )∗ yi (m) i.1 . E In the second OFDM period.4) and (6. i. 2 2k+1 y 2k+1 (m) = − ρ hk (sk (N − m))∗ + ρ hk sk (N − ∆ + m) + wi (m).27) 2 2 i. sk (N − 2). (6.2 2 Interestingly.23) i.1 2 ρ E sE2 hk + wi . (6.25) (hk 2 −hk 2 ) i.28) Note that sequence sB1 is the conjugate of sG2 in reversed order. sE1 = −(f lip(sE2 ))∗ . i 2 i.1 ˆE2 = sk (N − ∆ + 1). ∆ cp + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ − 1] = ρ sB hk + 2 1 i.1 ρ B sB hk + wi .
2 2 ρ ρ 2k+1 2k+1 sθ1 hk + sθ2 hk + wi (∆) yi (∆) = i.2 2 2 ρ k k ρ k k 2k hi. (6.2 2 2 ρ k k ρ k k 2k+1 − hi.1 ρ (hk 2 + hk 2 ) i. ˆ ˆ2 ˆ s1 6.1. 2 2 i. However there are several individual samples in the interferences that have not been estimated yet such as sγ2 and sµ2 .1 i. In order to estimate those time domain samples. sk (N − ∆) and sk (τ ) as 1 2 2 sk (N − ∆) = ˆ2 sk (0) ˆ2 = 2k (hk )∗ yi ( i.2 ) (ˆ2 (N − ∆))∗ − s 2 ρ (hk )∗ i.29) By solving (6.2 2 2 ρ k k ρ k k 2k hi.1 i.2 1 cp ) = (6. .2 cp ) 2k+1 − hk (yi (∆))∗ i.3 Interference Cancellation In the time domain.1 2 ρ k k 2k ˆ yi (τ ) − 2 hi. only the ﬁrst ∆ A samples are interfered.1 .1 (s2 (0))∗ + hi. we can estimate sk (0).2 s2 (0) .1 s1 ( cp ) + h s (N − ∆) + wi ( cp ).2 s2 (N − ∆) + wi (0).1 i.1 i.By far.1 i.1 (s2 (N − ∆))∗ + h (s ( cp ))∗ + wi (∆).2 2 ρ k ∗ k (hi. ρ k h 2 i.2 2 2 ρ k k ρ k k 2k+1 − hi. we have estimated all the subsequences in the interferences. during the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. 2 2 i.29).2 2 ρ ρ 2k 2k yi (τ ) = sβ1 hk + sβ2 hk + wi (τ ) i. 2 2 i.1 s1 (τ ) + h s (0) + wi (τ ). We denote yi as the received time domain sequence that 78 .2 2 ρ ρ 2k+1 2k+1 yi (0) = sγ1 hk + sγ2 hk + wi (0) i. we deﬁne four received signals as 2k α yi = yi ( ∆ = β yi = ∆ = γ yi = ∆ = θ yi = ∆ = ρ ρ 2k sα1 hk + sα2 hk + wi ( cp ) i.30) 2k+1 (yi (0))∗ sk (τ ) = ˆ1 Then sγ2 = sk (N − ∆) and sµ2 = (ˆk (τ ))∗ .
36) 79 . s s i. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1 ˜i 2k yi (m) = ˜ y 2k (m).1 ρ sD hk + 2 2 i.1 i. sG2 ] is the time domain interference.33) Then. 0 ≤ m ≤ signal sequences yi = [˜i (m). s s i. yi ] consists of the i ﬁrst ∆ received samples. i y 2k+1 (m).34) After the above interference cancellation process.32) For the second OFDM symbol period in a coded OFDM block. i i in the second OFDM period. sE2 ] − [sµ . which are suﬀered from the interference [sγ . 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = yi − y 2k ∆ ρ (ˆA2 − ˆD2 )hk .2 2 2 (6. Received sequence [yi . sA2 − sD2 is the total interference. We can mitigate this interference by subtracting ˆA2 −ˆD2 and a new received sequence after the interference cancellation s s is A ˜A yi = [˜i (m). ∆ ≤ m ≤ N − 1. we have two new received ˜ 2k ˜ 2k+1 = [˜i (m). 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1 ˜i 2k+1 yi (m) = ˜ y 2k+1 (m). 0 ≤ m ≤ N − 1] and yi y 2k y 2k+1 N − 1]. sE2 ] − i γ E [sµ . i (6.31) As in (6. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = ∆ = ρ sA hk + 2 1 i. ∆ ≤ m ≤ N − 1.2 2 2 ρ A (sA − sD2 )hk + wi .2 2 2 (6. So we mitigate the interference as γ yi = yi (0) = yi − ˜γ ˜2k+1 ∆ ρ (ˆγ2 − sµ2 )hk . s ˆ i.2 ρ ρ A sA1 hk + sA2 hk + wi i. sG2 ].2 2 (6.35) and (6. [sγ . E ˜E yi = [˜i (m). 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = yi − y 2k+1 ∆ ρ (ˆE − ˆG2 )hk .2 2 (6. i.includes the ﬁrst ∆ samples suﬀered from the interference: A 2k yi = [yi (m).15). where y 2k (m).
2. 6. one can see that in the above interference sequence estimation. H2 ] is the interference from the last Alamouti coded OFDM block. one may set a threshold. After the DFT.2 Interference cancellation when N − cp −1≥τ >2 cp In Chapter 6. some subsequences that we estimate in the previous chapter need to be estimated in a diﬀerent way and the derivation is little more complicated. i. more samples fall into next OFDM period and become interference. we consider the case when N − cp − 1 ≥τ >2 cp . sα2 .1. When the delay is longer. in practice one may implement the above interference sequence estimation and interference cancellation only when the channel coeﬃcients are not too small.e. From Fig. Fig. Although the basic idea is the same. we considered the case when delay τ satisﬁes condition of cp <τ ≤2 cp .2: Received sequences in time domain N − cp −1≥τ >2 cp .j receiver. 6.. As a remark. In this chapter. If τ >2 the interference sequence is longer than CP sequence.4. when N − cp −1 ≥τ >2 cp . We assume that its estimation is obtained by decoding the previous 80 . our simulation will show that signiﬁcant performance improvement with our interference cancellation method can be achieved.Tcp s 1 Ts1 s 1 Tcp s1 Ts2 s1 A1 CP H1 B1 s s C1 2 c1 k D1 CP I1 s E1 2 c1 k 1 F1 s 2 2 2 2 s 2 A2 H 2 B2 CP C2 c2 k 2 D2 I2 E2 CP F2 c2k 2 1 G2 J2 Figure 6. 6. as what we shall do in our simulations later. Since these channel coeﬃcients are assumed known at the receiver. cp . the new time domain received sequences are transferred into the frequency domain signals and then the common Alamouti coded OFDM signal detection can be applied. [A2 . In Chapter 6.2 shows the time domain sequences from both relay nodes. one needs to divide the channel coeﬃcients hk that may have small values at the i.
The sequence H1 can be estimated by subtracting estimation of H2 from received signals. Similar to Chapter 6.2. The diﬀerence between I1 and I2 is that I2 is the reverse of I1 and each element in I1 is the negative conjugate of an element in I2 .46) next. and J1 shown in Fig. The way that we estimate D2 . From this time domain property.2 by capital letters that are deﬁned in (6. and G2 is the same as Chapter 6. we will also deﬁne some new segments such as H1 . we can solve I2 from the received signals. And sH1 = [c2k (m). 0 ≤ m ≤ 1 cp cp − 1]. we ﬁrst deﬁne several segments and samples in the time domain. 6. Because J2 has the same samples as H1 in the reversed order and conjugate. 6.1. We already assume that we have an estimation of H2 .2.38) 81 . 0 ≤ m ≤ 1 cp − 1] = [sk (m). The segments I1 and I2 consist of the same information about transmitted signals. we estimate H1 ﬁrst. We next discuss how to estimate two new interference segments I2 and J2 shown in Fig. 1 = [sk ( 1 cp cp samples in the ﬁrst OFDM + 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] cp + m).Alamouti coded OFDM block.37) which is the subsequence that consists of the ﬁrst symbol period. Then an estimation of J2 is easy to obtain by reversing the estimation of H1 in its conjugate.1 Transmitted Sequences and Interference Sequences Besides the subsequences similar to the subsequences deﬁned in Chapter 6. 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − − 1]. (6. E2 .2.37)(6. so instead of estimating J2 directly. I1 . 6.1 except that they are longer now. 6. Some subsequences in transmit signal sequences from the ﬁrst relay are sA1 = [c2k (m). (6. All segments are shown/located in Fig.1.
0 ≤ m ≤ cp cp − 1].41) − 1 samples from the second to positions in the second OFDM symbol period. 0 ≤ m ≤ 1 1 which is the subsequence that includes in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. (6. N − ∆ ≤ m ≤ N − ∆ + 2 82 cp − 1]. And sB1 = [c2k (m). And sE1 = [c2k+1 (m). τ + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ + 1 = [sk (τ + 1 + m). N − 1 = [−(sk ( 2 cp cp ≤ m ≤ N − 1] cp − m))∗ .40) + 1th samples from the τ + 2th to τ + positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. cp (6.43) which is the subsequence that consists of the last symbol period. (6.42) + 1th to ∆th which is the subsequence that includes cp samples from the ∆ − positions in the second OFDM symbol period.39) samples from the ∆ + 1th to τ th positions − 1]. And sC1 = [c2k (m). ∆ ≤ m ≤ τ − 1] = [sk (∆ + m). 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 2 which is the subsequence that includes ∆ − ∆− cp th cp − 1]. And sI1 = [c2k+1 (m). samples in the second OFDM Some subsequences in transmit signal sequences from the second relay are sA2 = [c2k−1 (m).44) . And sF1 = [c2k+1 (m). cp (6. 0 ≤ m ≤ 1 which is the subsequence that includes cp cp ] cp cp cp − 1].which is the subsequence that includes ∆ − cp − 1 samples from the cp + 2th to ∆th positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1 cp − 1] cp = [−(sk (N − m))∗ . 0 ≤ m ≤ cp − 1]. ∆ − 1 = [−(sk (N − ∆ + 2 cp ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] − m))∗ . (6. (6.
N − ∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N − 2 = [sk (N − ∆ + m). And sI2 = [c2k (m). And sD2 = [c2k (m). N − τ ≤ m ≤ N − ∆ − 1] 2 = [sk (N − τ + m).47) samples from the N − τ + 1th to N − ∆th positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. 1 ≤ m ≤ 2 cp ] = [sk (1 + m). (6. 0 ≤ m ≤ − 1]. And sC2 = [c2k (m). (6. 0 ≤ m ≤ 2 cp cp − 1]. 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 2 which is the subsequence that includes the ∆ − to the N − cp th cp − 1 cp cp − 1] (6. (6.49) which is the subsequence that includes the last period. N − ∆ + 2 cp + 1 ≤ m ≤ N − 1]. (6. cp (6.45) which are interference subsequences from the previous Alamouti coded OFDM block.and sH2 = [c2k−1 (m). 0 ≤ m ≤ cp − 1].48) − 1].46) + 1th which is the subsequence that includes the samples from the second to positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. N − 2 = [(sk ( 1 cp cp samples in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol − τ ≤ m ≤ N − τ − 1] cp + τ − m))∗ . samples from the N − ∆ + 2th positions in the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period. And sF2 = [c2k+1 (m). And sE2 = [c2k (m). 0 ≤ m ≤ 2 which is the subsequence that includes the cp cp − 1].50) 83 . N − 2 = [sk (N − 2 cp cp ≤ m ≤ N − 1] cp + m).
the other individual samples are deﬁned exactly the same as those deﬁned in Chapter 6. (6. Then interference sequences are d2k = [d2k (m). sH2 ] − [sD2 . N − ∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N − 2 = [(sk (∆ − m))∗ . 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = [sγ2 . And sJ2 = [c2k+1 (m). sγ2 . And sB2 = [sk (N − 2 cp + m).which is the subsequence that includes the cp samples from the N − cp − τ + 1th to the N − τ th positions in the second OFDM symbol period.55) 84 cp ). samples from the N − ∆ + 2th positions in the second OFDM symbol period. sI2 ]. We only give a deﬁnition for sα2 as sα2 = c2k−1 (N − ∆ + 2 which is a time domain sample between sA2 and sH2 . sG2 . (6. And sG2 = [c2k+1 (m). Two CP sequences are sD1 = [−(sk ( 2 cp − m))∗ .54) which is the ﬁrst CP sequence of an Alamouti coded block from the second relay node.53) which is the second CP sequence of an Alamouti coded block from the ﬁrst relay node. Except sα2 . sα2 . 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = [sA2 . sE2 ] − [sµ2 .52) − 1]. (6. d2k+1 = [d2k+1 (m).1. 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1 which is the subsequence that includes the ∆ − to the N − cp th cp − 1 cp cp − 1] (6. . 0 ≤ m ≤ 1 which is the subsequence that includes the cp cp − 1]. sJ2 ]. 0 ≤ m ≤ cp − 1]. (6. sI2 . 0 ≤ m ≤ cp − 1].51) samples from the N − τ + 2th to the N − ∆ + 1th positions in the second OFDM symbol period. N − τ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N − ∆] 2 = [(sk (τ − 1 − m))∗ .
we can have estimated samples sk (m) and sk (m − τ ) as (6. We assume that its estimation [ˆA2 . τ + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ + ∆ ∆ cp ] = ρ sC hk + 2 1 i. sE2 .1 i. Similar to Chapter 6. We will mainly describe how we estimate the new interference sequences sI2 and sJ2 in this chapter. By solving (6. and sG2 are estimated the same as Chapter 6.18). The interference sequences sD2 . we show how to estimate all subsequences in (6. In next chapter. N − cp ≤ m ≤ N − 1] ρ ρ F sF1 hk + sF2 hk + wi = i. From Fig.55). sH2 ] is the interference from the last Alamouti coded OFDM block. ˆF1 is also an estimation for s sD1 .55) in the time domain. we deﬁne the following received signals C 2k yi = [yi (m).2 and as what we have deﬁned. So we estimate this subsequence ﬁrst. (6. [sA2 .2 2k+1 F yi = [yi (m).19).56) Using (6.56) can be expanded to systems of equations (6. (6.The main idea in our interference cancellation method is still to estimate the interference subsequences in (6. sα2 .1.2. 6.55) and does not cause interferences.2 2 2 (6. 0 ≤ m ≤ cp − 1]. Although sF1 does not appear in (6. it helps us to estimate other subsequences that may cause interferences.55). 6. for τ +1 ≤ m ≤ τ + cp .1 ρ C sC hk + wi 2 2 i.18) for τ +1 ≤ m ≤ τ + cp . we estimate time domain interference sequences in (6.57) Since CP sequence sD1 is exactly the repetition of sF1 .1.50).2 Estimation of Interference Sequences In this chapter. ˆH2 ] s ˆ s is obtained by decoding the previous Alamouti coded OFDM block.43) and (6. 85 . sα2 . and a sequence ˆF1 as an estimation of sF1 ˆ1 ˆ2 s is ˆF1 = [−(ˆk ( s s2 cp − m))∗ .
i. we can get estimations sk (N − m) and sk (N − ∆ + m) for sk (N − m) and sk (N − ∆ + m).58).1 2 ρ D sD2 hk + wi .24) for 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ 2 . the sequence sD2 can be estimated s by subtracting ˆF1 from the received signals as s ˆD2 = s 2 D y ρ i − ˆF1 hk s i. equation (6.49).63).63) From (6. N − s s2 cp − 1]. Thus. sE1 ]hk + [sI . and (6. (6. we estimate two important subsequences sI2 and sE2 .We denote the received sequence during the CP period as D yi = ∆ ρ sD1 hk + i.61) ≤ m ≤ N − 1]. N − ∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ N − s s2 and an estimation of sE2 is ˆE2 = [ˆk (m).2 2 (6. (6. i. (6. ∆ ≤ m ≤ τ − 1] = ∆ ρ sB1 hk + i. (6. sE ]hk + wi .1 hk i.62) Since sB2 is the exact repetition of sE2 .2 ∆ (6.1 2 2 2 2 i. By solving these equations. sequence sB1 can be estimated by s subtracting ˆE2 from the above received signals as s ˆB1 = s 2 B y ρ i − ˆE2 hk s i.2 2 (6. At the receiver.48). if we have ˆE2 as estimation of sB2 .41). corresponding received sequence is 2k+1 IE yi = [yi (m). Its s B corresponding received signal sequence yi is B 2k yi = [yi (m).59) Next.58) From (6. as (6.25) for 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ 2 . we can use ˆE2 as an estimation of sB2 . (6.2 hk i.60) Using (6.2 . i. (6.60) can be expanded to systems of equations (6. 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] ρ ρ IE = [sI1 .53).64) .1 2 ρ B sB2 hk + wi . an estimation of sI2 is cp ˆI2 = [ˆk (m). ˆ2 ˆ2 2 2 respectively.1 86 . if we have ˆF1 as estimation of sD1 .
Note that we already have sα2 .2 hk i. The corresponding received signal sequence yi is H 2k yi = [yi (m). (6. Sample sα1 can be estimated by subtracting sα2 from the received signals as ˆ sα1 = ˆ 2 α y ρ i − sα2 hk ˆ i. (6. sθ2 .67) Note that individual symbols sα2 .2 ∆ (6.2 hk i. Since sJ2 has the same samples as sH1 but in the reversed order and conjugated.29) to estimate the two individual time domain samples. s s (6. we may H estimate sH1 ﬁrst. cp + 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = ρ ρ H = sH1 hk + sH hk + wi . and sµ2 are also interferences in (6.1 2 2 2 i. an estimate from the previous decoded Alamouti ˆ coded OFDM block. i. we can obtain an estimation of sG2 as ˆG2 = (f lip(ˆB1 ))∗ .55). We next use the received signals deﬁned in (6. ˆ s 87 . Thus. s s (6.69) From its deﬁnition.68) 2 H y ρ i − ˆH2 hk s i. sequence sH1 can be estimated by subtracting ˆH2 from the above received signals s as ˆH1 = s Then.1 .1 . instead of estimating sJ1 directly.65) We next want to estimate sJ2 . we get an estimation of sJ2 as ˆJ2 = (f lip(ˆH1 ))∗ .66) We have already assumed that we have ˆH2 as an estimation of sH2 from the previous s decoded Alamouti coded OFDM block in the beginning of this subsection. sθ2 is the conjugate of sα1 and thus sθ2 = (ˆα1 )∗ .Since sG2 has the same samples as sB1 but in the reversed order and conjugated.
2 (6. sβ2 = −(ˆγ1 )∗ .1 ρ H sH hk + wi 2 2 i. ∆ cp + 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = ρ sI hk + 2 2 i.Sample sθ1 can be estimated by subtracting sθ2 from the received signals as ˆ sθ1 = ˆ 2 θ y ρ i − sθ2 hk ˆ i..72) Finally. ˆ s 6.e. we have an estimation of sγ2 that is equal to the negative conjugate of sθ1 .2 hk i. ˆ i..2 ρ sH hk + 2 1 i.70) Similarly. and can estimate sβ1 as ˆ s sβ1 = ˆ 2 β y ρ i − sβ2 hk ˆ i. sγ2 = −(ˆθ1 )∗ .2. interfered received signals are A 2k yi = [yi (m).71) Also.1 ρ sD hk + 2 2 i. (6. s s i. we have an estimation of sβ2 that is equal to the negative conjugate of sγ1 .1 .e.2 ρ A (sA − sD2 )hk + wi . 0 ≤ m ≤ y 2k ∆ cp A − 1] = yi − ρ (ˆA − ˆD2 )hk .2 (6.1 ρ H (sH2 − sI2 )hk + wi . sµ2 is equal to the conjugate of sβ1 .e. (6.74) = ρ sH hk + 2 1 i.. sµ2 = (ˆβ1 )∗ .1 . i.2 hk i.2 2 2 H 2k yi = [yi (m). i.2 2 The new received sequences after the interference cancellation are ˜A yi = [˜i (m).1 .2 2 2 (6. i. and can estimate sγ1 as ˆ ˆ s sγ1 = ˆ 2 γ y ρ i − sγ2 hk ˆ i.73) = and ρ sA hk + 2 1 i.2 hk i. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ cp − 1] = ρ sA hk + 2 1 i.3 Interference Cancellation For the ﬁrst OFDM symbol period.75) 88 . i.1 ρ A sA hk + wi 2 2 i. (6.
which are suﬀered from the interference [sγ2 .2 2 (6. yi ] consists of the ﬁrst ∆ received samples. sJ2 ]. ∆ ≤ m ≤ N − 1. after the above interference cancellation process we have two new ˜ 2k ˜ 2k+1 = [˜i (m). 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1 ˜i yi (m) = ˜2k y 2k (m).79) Therefore.76) ρ (ˆα2 − sγ2 )hk .78) ρ (ˆγ2 − sµ2 )hk .80) and (6. 89 . s s i. sG2 . s ˆ i. y 2k and yi = yi ( ˜α ˜2k ∆ cp ) α = yi − ∆ cp H + 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] = yi − ρ (ˆH2 − ˆI2 )hk . i (6. in the second OFDM period. 0 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1 ˜i yi (m) = ˜2k+1 y 2k+1 (m).and ˜H yi = [˜i (m).2 2 (6. 0 ≤ m ≤ N − 1] and yi y 2k y 2k+1 N − 1]. [sγ2 . sE2 ] − [sµ2 . s s = yi − s s i.55).77) From (6. the new time domain received sequences are transferred into the frequency domain sequences and then the common Alamouti coded OFDM signal detection can be applied as before.81) After the DFT. 0 ≤ m ≤ received sequences yi = [˜i (m). ∆ ≤ m ≤ N − 1. ˆJ2 ])hk .2 2 (6. Received γ IE sequence [yi . sJ2 ] is the time domain interference for the second OFDM symbol period in an Alamouti coded OFDM block. i y 2k+1 (m). 1 ≤ m ≤ ∆ − 1] yi y 2k+1 ρ IE ([ˆI2 . sG2 . sI2 . The new received time domain sequences after the interference cancellation are ˜ IE = [˜i (m). sI2 . sE2 ] − [sµ2 . s ˆ i. ˆE2 ] − [ˆG2 . where y 2k (m).2 2 and γ yi = yi (0) = yi − ˜γ ˜2k+1 ∆ ∆ (6.
and sJ2 in the exact same way as Chapter 6.3. ∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ ] = [−(sk (N − ∆ − m))∗ .55) are also the same in this chapter. sG2 .2. (6. we need to deﬁne two new sequences. We next mainly discuss how to estimate sD2 when N −1≥τ >N − cp − 1. and sF2 . those sequences are cut oﬀ. Because the delay is too long. The other is sK2 = [(sk ( 1 cp − m))∗ . except sC1 .1 and Chapter 6. The only diﬀerence is to estimate subsequence sD2 .3 Interference cancellation when N − 1 ≥ τ > N − In this chapter. 1 ≤ m ≤ 2 2 which is the subsequence that includes cp (6.82) cp ].2 are estimated as Chapter 6. sC2 . sE2 .83) which is a sequence that includes samples from the second to the last positions in the second CP period and the ﬁrst data sample in the second OFDM symbol period.55) to cancel the interferences.2.2 are the same in this chapter. 6. So we still need to estimate the subsequences in (6. −1 < τ ≤ N − 1. Also all the individual samples deﬁned in Chapter 6. We estimate subsequences sI2 . In order to calculate sD2 . 1 ≤ m ≤ cp ]. All the subsequences and individual samples deﬁned in Chapter 6.3: Received sequences in time domain N − 1 ≥ τ > N − 6. we consider the case when N − cp − 1 cp cp − 1. samples from the ∆ + 2th to τ + 1th positions in the second OFDM symbol period. sF1 . The idea is similar to before. The interference sequences deﬁned in (6. One is sK1 = [c2k+1 (m).Tcp s1 Ts1 s1 Tcp s1 Ts2 s1 A1 CP H1 2 c1 k B1 s C1 D1 CP I1 2 c1 k 1 E1 s2 K1 F1 s s2 2 s2 2 A2 H2 B2 CP C2 D2 c2k 2 I2 E2 K 2 F2 CP G2 c2k 1 2 J2 Figure 6. 90 . Both sequence locations are shown in Fig.
s s The remaining parts are the same as previous chapters. (6.84) ρ sK hk + 2 1 i. two relay ﬂat fading Rayleigh channel is used.47) and (6. 6. we have ˆA1 = s From (6.2 we have ˆK1 = s From (6. one can see that yi is a superposition of the time domain signals sA1 and sA2 .4 Simulation In this chapter. An OFDM with N = 64 subcarriers and cp 2 K y ρ i − ˆK2 hk s i.1 ρ K sK hk + wi .73). From (6. Thus.86) (6.37) and (6. we have sK2 = (f lip(sA1 ))∗ .85) 2 2 i. In our simulations.1 . and thus. we have sD2 = −(f lip(sK1 ))∗ .Firstly. In the following simulations. (6. we present some numerical simulations to show the performance of our proposed interference cancellation algorithm for Alamouti coded cooperative OFDM systems.87) = 16 CP are used. we have an estimate ˆA2 of sA2 from the decision of the previous s A Alamouti coded OFDM block.1 . we have an estimate ˆD2 as s ˆD2 = −(f lip(ˆK1 ))∗ . ∆ + 1 ≤ m ≤ τ ] = ∆ 2 A y ρ i − ˆA2 hk s i.83).2 hk i. (6. the signal constellation S is 4QAM and the throughput 91 .2 hk i.82). Considering the received the signal sequence 2k+1 K yi = [yi (m).
is 2 bits/s/Hz.1 and T∆h = 0. our interference cancellation algorithm always helps the decoding to achieve better performance than the decoding algorithm does without cancelling the interference.1 i.28) and (6. Because the interference increases linearly with transmit signal power. for all diﬀerent delay cases. we use the interference sequence i. at a reasonably high SNR.1 i. However. Especially at high SNR and when the timing errors are not too large. i. Only when hk  > Th .22) i. at a high SNR. the channel coeﬃcient values aﬀect the performance of our interference cancellation algorithm.16. 92 . in our simulations.46. In Fig.1 and only when hk  > Th . Increasing SNR does not help the decoding performance.2 estimation (6. the estimation of the interference in the time domain is more accurate and therefore more interference is cancelled from the received signals at the receiver. Otherwise no interference cancellation is i.1 ence sequence estimation such as (6.1.6.2 and (6. Only when (hk 2 − hk 2 ) > T∆h .59) where dividing hk is needed.25) where dividing (hk 2 − hk 2 ) is needed. we do the interference sequence estimation such as (6. Hence.2 implemented. Small value of channel coeﬃcients causes inaccurate interference estimation and performance loss. 6. we set up thresholds as Th = 0. the decoding without interference cancellation has an error ﬂoor.2 implement the interference cancellation. We simulate two diﬀerent length delays for each case.64) where dividing hk is needed. Otherwise. we do not i. our interference cancellation algorithm can eﬃciently mitigate the interference. The dashed lines are for the decoding without considering the interference cancellation. As one can see. we compare the decoding performances between the decodings with interference cancellation and without interference cancellation under diﬀerent lengths of delays for all three cases we discussed in Chapters 6. and the solid lines are for the decoding with our newly developed interference cancellation algorithm. In order to avoid this problem. As we mentioned before. and dotted line is for the decoding without interference when τ ≤ cp .3. we do the interferi.
which can be seen from Fig. 93 .lcp=16) Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=24.lcp=16) Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=21.4: Performance comparison when cp <τ ≤2 cp . The performance gap between the decodings without interference cancellation and the decoding with interference cancellation becomes more signiﬁcant. Decoding performance after the interference cancellation may be even slightly worse than the direct decoding without any interference cancellation. the interference estimation may not be accurate and the interference cancellation may not work well. although our proposed interference cancellation algorithm can still improve the performance.lcp=16) Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=21.6. When the timing errors are too large. At a low SNR. error ﬂoor may exist. our interference cancellation helps the decoding to avoid the error ﬂoor and achieve a signiﬁcantly better improvement.lcp=16) No interference (τ ≤ lcp) 10 BER 10 −2 −3 10 −4 10 −5 6 8 10 12 14 16 SNR(dB) 18 20 22 24 26 Figure 6.10 0 10 −1 Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=24. 6.
5: Performance comparison when N − cp −1≥τ >2 cp .lcp=16) 10 −1 BER 10 −2 10 −3 0 5 10 15 SNR(dB) 20 25 30 Figure 6. 94 .lcp=16) Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=40.lcp=16) Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=36.lcp=16) Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=40.10 0 Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=36.
lcp=16) Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=50.6: Performance comparison when N − 1 ≥ τ > N − cp − 1.lcp=16) Decoding with interference cancellation(τ=54. 95 .lcp=16) BER 10 −1 10 −2 0 5 10 15 SNR(dB) 20 25 30 Figure 6.lcp=16) Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=54.10 0 Decoding without interference cancellation(τ=50.
96 . Alamouti code. when the noise is AWGN. if (2. there are two shortcomings of the above QOSTFBC. 2 The second shortcoming is that.Chapter 7 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 7. 31]. at the receiver. due to the lack of the orthogonality. The ﬁrst shortcoming is that the rank/diversity order of the above QOSTFBC is only Mt Mr L.23) in the objective functions. the ML decoding becomes symbolpairwise decoding due to the cross terms of Si and Si+2 in (2. QOSTFBC can be obtained by repeating QOSTBC code [15][17] across frequency subcarriers [30. The contributions that have been made in this dissertation and the conclusions drawn from these contributions can be summarized as follows: • Linearly transformed QOSTFBC to achieve both full spatial and full multipath diversities We generalize the STFC proposed in [8] from OSTBC to QOSTBC that possesses higher rate than the OSTBC for more than two transmit antennas.14).21) is plugged into the ML decoding objective function (2. The repetition of QOSTFBC in the frequency domain can exploit the multipath diversity in MIMOOFDM systems. Spacetime/frequency coded MIMOOFDM systems and spacetime coded cooperative OFDM systems are well studied. Compared to OSTFBC. Similar to the OSTFBC from the OSTBC code.1 Conclusions and Contributions Research has been carried out in two aspects of wireless communications systems.
see. Although the repetition across subcarriers can achieve the multipath diversity. The linearly transformed QOSTFBC developed in this work achieves both full spatial and full multipath diversities. • PAPR Reduction for Repetition SpaceTimeFrequency Coded MIMOOFDM Systems Using Chu Sequences For MIMOOFDM systems. a family of spacetimefrequency codes have been proposed in [8] to achieve the full spatial and multipath diversities for MIMOOFDM systems and in the meantime they have the fast singlesymbol ML decoding by using OSTBC. The main goal of our research is to modify the repeating process and adjust their phases so that the PAPR of the OFDM system is reduced. across multiple antennas and OFDM symbols. In particular.In order to achieve full spatial diversity and fast decoding. [1][8]. One of the important methods to achieve the full multipath diversity is repeating across the subcarriers obtained by Su et al in [3]. various spacetime/frequency codes have been developed to achieve both spatial and multipath diversities by coding across subcarriers and multiple antennas and/or across OFDM symbols over the time. most of the existing spacetime/frequency codes to achieve the spatial and multipath diversities do not have fast ML decoding. Also. [9][14]. a new repetition method has been introduced so that the PAPR 97 . for example. we show that linearly transformation method for single subcarrier QOSTBC is also applied to QOSTFBC with multiple subcarriers. and also have the fast ML decodings. we propose to use Chu sequences [38. Recently. 39] for the phase adjustments and show that the discrete PAPR can be reduced by Γ times for any SFC from the repeating. and also repeating across subcarriers. Simulations for these schemes for MIMOOFDM systems with and without clipping have been presented to illustrate the theory. and in the meantime the full spatial and multipath diversities and the fast ML decoding are still maintained. where Γ is the times of the repeating across subcarriers. see for example. However. it causes high PAPR.
we derive a spatially colored noise model for ML decoding. By extending the clipping noise model from Bussgang’s theorem used in. however. It should be emphasized that the newly developed fast ML decoding for rotated QOSTBC proposed in [18][25] for MIMO channels with white noise still has the singlesymbol (or complex symbolwise) decoding property in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. In this work. The simulations presented in this dissertation shows the performance improvement by using our newly developed fast ML decoding when the clipping noise is considered over the one when the clipping noise is not considered. for example [35][37]. the fast ML decoding properties for OSTBC and rotated QOSTBC [9][25] in MIMOOFDM systems without clipping are still maintained in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. When the additive noise is not white. We have presented the fast (singlesymbol) ML decoding algorithms for OSTFBC and QOSTFBC with or without linear transformations in clipped MIMOOFDM systems. Interestingly. induces clipping noise and the induced clipping noise in an MIMOOFDM system may not be white and thus the fast ML decoding for an OSTBC or QOSTBC coded system may not hold. One of the most eﬃcient ways to reduce the PAPR is clipping [34] that. • SingleSymbol ML Decoding for Orthogonal and QuasiOrthogonal STFBC in Clipped MIMOOFDM Systems Using A Clipping Noise Model with Gaussian Approximation An important issue for OFDM systems is their high PAPR and it is important to reduce the PAPR in a practical (power eﬃcient) system. • Decision Aided Clipping Ratio Estimation for STBC Coded MIMOOFDM 98 .part caused by the repetition is reduced to 0 dB after the phase adjustments using Chu sequences. ML decoding for spatially colored noised [26] needs to be considered. we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTFBC or QOSTFBC is used.
Clipping is an eﬃcient way to reduce the PAPR in an OFDM system. Some of them are based on the DAR and clipping noise cancellation [27][29] and some of them apply statistical clipping noise models to the ML decoding [30]. we consider clipped MIMOOFDM systems where OSTBC and QOSTBC are used at the transmitter and the CR is not known at the receiver. Because we use decoded symbols to estimate the clipping distortion at the receiver. in some applications. it is may be possible that the CR is not known at the receiver. for example in interference channels. through a multiple transmit antenna channel. we develop a decisionaided clipping ratio estimation for an MIMOOFDM system. This clipping ratio estimation method can be applied to pilottonebased OFDM systems only. All of these methods require the knowledge of the clipping ratio (CR) at the receiver. Thus. the distortion from diﬀerent transmit antennas are added to one received signal. The diﬀerence between our method and the pilottonebased CR estimation in [33] is the way how receiver 99 . For MIMOOFDM systems. In this research. the CR can be estimated from the statistical clipping noise model given in [36][37]. A clipping ratio estimation method has been proposed for single antenna OFDM systems in [33]. Based on this observation. rather we get an estimate of the combination of the distortions from all transmitted antennas. However. we can separate clipping distortions from multiple transmit antennas and calculate the statistics of the clipping noise. Many clipping noise mitigation methods have been proposed in the literature. By utilizing the code structure at the data subcarriers. If we subtract pilot symbols from received signals as [33]. we can not get an estimation of the distortion as what can be obtained in [33] for single antenna case. we call our method decisionaided clipping ratio estimation. the pilottonebased clipping ratio estimation method in [33] is not applicable to MIMOOFDM systems. By calculating the statistics of the clipping noise at the pilot subcarriers. However clipping induces clipping noise.
• Time Domain Interference Cancellation for Alamouti Coded Cooperative OFDM Systems with Insuﬃcient CP It is wellknown that spacetime coding can be applied in both MIMO and cooperative systems to achieve spatial diversity [40]–[43]. multiple transmissions from relay nodes in a cooperative system may not be well synchronized and a spacetime code achieving spatial diversity for an MIMO system may not do in a cooperative system. where multiple transmissions are received at the receiver. such as [27][29] or clipping noise model based ML decoding can be used to improve the performance of an clipped OFDM system. when the time delays from relay nodes are not larger than the CP length. Using the estimated CR by the decisionaided clipping ratio estimation. many other clipping noise mitigation methods that require to know CR also can use our decision aided CR estimation method to improve their decoding performances. and then uses spacetime/frequency coding to achieve the multipath (cooperative spatial in this case) diversity. Compared to the pilottonebased CR estimation.calculates the statistic of the clipping noise. This issue has been studied lately in for example [48]–[53]. any clipping noise mitigation method that requires to know CR. A major diﬀerence between MIMO and cooperative systems is that unlike an MIMO system. The idea is to treat paths from relay nodes to destination node as multipaths and use OFDM transmissions at relay nodes to combat the time delays. Simulation results have shown that the CR estimation method is eﬀective and can improve the performance for the clipping noise model based ML decoding. Although we only discussed the performance for the clipping noise model based ML decoding and the iterative clipping noise mitigation decoding in Chapter 4. CR estimation and statistical clipping noise model used for both methods are same. 100 . For the OFDM approach. our method does not have any restriction to pilot patterns and is able to use more estimation samples from the data subcarriers than only pilot subcarriers.
We proposed a time domain interference cancellation algorithm for ﬂat fading channels by fully taking the advantage of the Alamouti code structure in the frequency domain. we considered Alamouti coded cooperative OFDM system with insuﬃcient CP that may occur due to the variable (possibly unpredictable) delays from relay nodes. Note that. We have proposed a PAPR reduction encoding method for the MIMOOFDM systems coded by a family of STFBC that repeat STBC across frequency subcarriers. Simulation results show that our algorithm is eﬃcient at reasonably high channel SNR and a signiﬁcant decoding performance improvement can be achieved. when the time delays are larger than the CP length. Some of the problems that might be of interest for future research are as follows: • PAPR reduction encoding High PAPR is an important issue for OFDM systems. However. for the STFBC that is not constructed by repeating across subcarriers. 7. the interferences occur.the interferences from the relays due to the time delays do not appear.2 Future Work The work presented here constitutes only a small portion of what can be done in this fruitful area. the PAPR reduction method by Chu sequence phase shifting may not be applied. It is 101 . However. Insuﬃcient length CP causes intersymbol/block interferences. There are many PAPR reduction algorithms for single antenna OFDM systems or MIMOOFDM systems. diﬀerent from a conventional pointtopoint OFDM system where the time delay spread is mainly determined by the signal bandwidth and thus the CP length can be predetermined. In this research. the time delays from relay nodes may vary and depend on a particular scenario in a cooperative system and thus a predetermined CP length always larger than the time delays may not be possible.
we assume that channels are ﬂat fading. iterative estimation and cancellation of clipping noise[28]. The interference cancellation algorithm is only applied to the ﬂat fading channels. Those clipping noise mitigation methods were proposed specially for single antenna OFDM systems. • Interference cancellation for cooperative OFDM systems with Insuﬃcient CP under frequencyselective channels In this research. For frequencyselective channels. Combination of those clipping noise mitigation methods with spacetimefrequency coded MIMOOFDM systems may induce some interested properties and issues. Unlike to ﬂat fading channel. 102 . we generalized the clipping noise model from SISOOFDM systems to MIMOOFDM systems and proposed the clipping noise model based ML decoding for STFBC coded MIMOOFDM systems. The application of those methods to MIMOOFDM systems is an interesting subject for further investigations. but also the delay from multipath of frequencyselective channels. each relay path has more than one multipath. • Clipping noise reconstruction and iterative estimation of clipping noise In this research. we can not only consider the delay from diﬀerent relay path. Signals from each path arrive at the receiver with diﬀerent time delay. How to combat against the interference caused by time error for frequencyselective channels is very interesting topic in the future. However. Our derivation and design are based on this assumption. So the analysis of interference caused by time error for frequencyselective channels is diﬀerent to the analysis for ﬂat fading channels and more complicated.very interesting to analyze the property of PAPR for diﬀerent STFBC and develop corresponding PAPR reduction methods for them. A future consideration is on other clipping noise mitigation methods such as the DAR[27]. we develop a time domain interference cancellation for Alamouti coded cooperative OFDM systems with insuﬃcient CP.
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