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500 journals in Business, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Science, Technology and Medicine. Online access is available at http://online.sagepub.com which permits access to the full text of individual articles. To provide further assistance in undertaking assignments and topic discussion, specific articles are identified for each of the text’s 12 chapters. CHAPTER 1 The topics for which specific articles are identified include the size of the SME, the future performance trends of a sector of industry, defining entrepreneurship, the appeal of self employment and the factors influencing the growth of small firms. SMALL FIRMS AND EMPLOYMENT (1) The Determinants of Employment Creation in Small Regional Firms, Gregory T. Papanikos, International Regional Science Review, Apr 2004; vol. 27: pp. 187– 204. This article examines the determinants of employment creation in small regional firms. A number of factors are considered that account for the external and internal environment of the firm. A simple theoretical model of employment creation is developed where the determinants of a firm’s employment are the volume of production, the capital of the firm, and the uncertainty of the demand as evaluated by the individual entrepreneur. Employment is found to be positively related to sales, the amount of required paperwork, the application of new production processes, and the openness of the establishment to new ideas. (2) The UK Government Small Business Model-a Review, Alan Leyshon, International Small Business Journal, 1982; vol. 1: pp. 58–66. This article provides a useful analysis of the factors beginning to be perceived as influencing employment levels in the SME sector during the early years of the restructuring of the UK economy as large firms downsized or moved their operations offshore. (3) Business Ownership and Sectoral Growth: An Empirical Analysis of 21 OECD Countries, André Van Stel and Martin Carree, International Small Business Journal, Aug 2004; vol. 22: pp. 389–419. We investigate the development of business ownership (self-employment) rates over time at the sectoral level and the effect of these rates on sectoral output growth. In an earlier exercise, Carree et al. (2002) presented an analysis of the interrelationship between economy-wide business ownership rates and economic development. Their analysis raised an important research question: to what 1
extent do differences in business ownership rates at the economy-wide level reflect differences in the sectoral structures of economies or differences in business ownership rates at the sectoral level? The current article investigates this question making use of a sectoral data base of 21 OECD countries for the period 1970–98. Estimation results suggest that there is, on average, a too low business ownership rate in manufacturing and a too high business ownership rate in services. (4) Employment Growth in New Independent Owner-Managed Firms in Great Britain, Paul Westhead and Sue Birley, International Small Business Journal, Apr 1995; vol. 13: pp. 11–34. This study explores employment change in 408 independent, owner-managed new firms in Great Britain which had received their first order between 1986 and 1990. In order to unravel the factors associated with standardised employment change in new independent firms, exploratory bivariate correlation analysis was used. Eighty-eight variables were identified from the literature and they relate to the ‘internal’ characteristics of the principal owner-manager and the business as well as a range of variables which capture various aspects of the ‘external’ environment. Bivariate correlation analysis results are presented for separate sub-samples of ‘manufacturing’ and ‘service’ firms. Moreover, in order to identify the combination of factors associated with employment change in surveyed new firms the data were further subjected to multiple correlation and regression analysis. (5) Latino Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship in the United States: An Overview of the Literature and Data Sources, Bárbara J. Robles and Héctor CorderoGuzmán, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Sep 2007; vol. 613: pp. 18–31. While significant attention has been paid to the growth of the Latino population and its contribution to the U.S. labour market, less scholarly and popular media attention has focused on Latino self-employment, entrepreneurship, and business growth. A review of interdisciplinary research literature on Latino entrepreneurship over the past 25 years indicates a gap in our knowledge about the accelerated growth in Latino small business ownership across the United States. The authors provide an overview of the current state of research on Latino entrepreneurial activities and recommend a broader research agenda that includes community-based organisations as part of the entrepreneurship landscape in urban and rural high-density Latino communities. (6) The Impact of Unemployment on New Firm Formation in Finland, Hannu Tervo and Hannu Niittykangas, International Small Business Journal, Oct 1994; vol. 13: pp. 38–53. There is an a priori case that unemployment can either increase or decrease new firm formation. This paper analyses how unemployment has affected entrepreneurship in Finland where, after a sustained period of increase, new firm formation began to fall during the recession. The empirical analysis is based on the application of various statistical methods on regional data on unemployment, new firm formation and other factors. Two hypotheses based on the ‘push-pull’ model are derived. The decision to
start a new firm is treated as a form of human capital investment problem. At regional level, high unemployment is shown to promote firm formation. These relationships are strengthened if the effect of other factors is eliminated. Especially in the case of those regions where both the opportunities for entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial qualifications of the population are good, a rise in unemployment will promote new firm formation. ENTREPRENEURS (7) Towards a Taxonomy of Entrepreneurial Theories, Joaquzn Guzman Cuevas, International Small Business Journal, Jul 1994; vol. 12: pp. 77–88. The main objective of this paper is to explore the concept of ‘entrepreneur’, focusing on his or her functions and identifying characteristics rather than on other aspects such as the role of entrepreneurial profit or the relationship between the role of entrepreneur and macro-economic balance, or growth processes. This analysis is focused to achieve an ordination and systematisation of the contributions of the main economic and noneconomic doctrines in order to form a whole or set which embraces the fundamental parts of entrepreneurship. On this basis, three fundamental approaches are found which imply three essential functions within entrepreneurship. The thought streams, with their most representative authors, are interconnected methodically and integrated in a diagram according to criteria on which those entrepreneurial functions are outstanding on each one. (8) Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Wealth Distribution: The Essence of Creative Destruction, Aron S. Spencer, Bruce A. Kirchhoff, and Craig White, International Small Business Journal, Feb 2008; vol. 26: pp. 9–26. The purpose of this article is to investigate theories that have produced differences in entrepreneurship definitions. The issue is raised because equitable wealth distribution is a fundamental focus of economics. Yet, recent attempts to guide research on entrepreneurship embrace innovation while ignoring the wealth redistribution aspect of entrepreneurship. Schumpeter argues that entrepreneurship means innovation by independently owned start-up firms that cause creative destruction that yields equitable wealth redistribution. Currently, most entrepreneurship scholars focus on innovation, by any firm, as a source of wealth creation without recognising that redistribution only occurs when innovation originates in new, independently owned firms. In this article, we describe how new micro- and nano-technologies championed by high-tech start-ups redefined the electronics industry, deconstructed the mainframe computer industry and are redefining the pharmaceutical industry today. It is suggested the entrepreneurship research should focus more on entrepreneurs that form and operate independent new firms. (9) Resourcefulness: A Proximal Conceptualisation of Entrepreneurial Behaviour, Sasi Misra and E. Sendil Kumar, Journal of Entrepreneurship, Sep 2000; vol. 9: pp. 135–154. The conceptualisation of the ‘entrepreneurial resourcefulness’ model helps one to understand various aspects prompting an entrepreneur to identify opportunities and thereby regulate and direct her/his behaviour to make the best use of these 3
Sep 2003. A study to validate this interpretation was carried out with entrepreneurs from two countries – Tanzania and Indonesia. The model treats the behaviour of an entrepreneur as an outcome variable and acknowledges that there are significant variations in the behaviour of one entrepreneur from the other. The model elaborates three entrepreneurial competencies – cognitive. some basic differences were also noted. However. and the type of business strategies formulated and implemented by. 12: pp. Journal of Entrepreneurship. while analysing the ‘historical records’ on how these entrepreneurs established their enterprises it was seen that entrepreneurs in both countries did exploit their personal relations with friends. Enquiries inspired by an urge to know and comprehend more about the entrepreneurial qualities and manifestations of different types of individuals form the bulk of research in the area of entrepreneurship. 155–181. It goes a step further by comparing these with their first generation counterparts to draw more generalised conclusions. The resourcefulness model clarifies these confusions and contributes towards both theory advancement and generating new research hypotheses. but also actually seen among entrepreneurs. colleagues and family members and to a substantial degree. the young second-generation entrepreneurs in India. vol. (11) What Young Entrepreneurs Think and Do: A Study of Second-Generation Business Entrepreneurs. vol. that the network perspective which emphasises the role of individual relations as social capital presents a more accurate image of entrepreneurs and their enterprises. A long-standing dilemma in theories of management surrounds the question of whether effective managerial action is better served by ‘rational analysis’ or ‘creative intuition’. entrepreneurs are portrayed as extremely individualistic actors. the author argues. affective and action oriented. Various details of these competencies are elaborated to explain the behaviour pattern of an entrepreneur. In most of the mainstream literature. analysis and intuition are conceived within a framework of 4 . 8: pp. Mar 1999. Although many similarities were found between Tanzanian and Indonesian entrepreneurs regarding their utilisation of these networks. This paper is based on a qualitative case study approach. 201–223. This paper too falls in this tradition of research as it presents a demographic and psychographic profile of.opportunities. 67–77. 25: pp. (10) The Entrepreneurial Self-Image: Lonely Rider or Social Team Player? Comparing Entrepreneurs in Tanzania and Indonesia. Journal of Entrepreneurship. It is in this context. The author in this paper draws out the conclusion that the ‘lonely rider’ image is not only found in the literature. The findings reinforce the point that entrepreneurs in general possess certain special characteristics that sustain their need for high achievement. It seems to be a common feature that entrepreneurs attach very little importance to relationships with other actors in their social environment. Azhar Kazmi. vol. This article helps in resolving the doubts and confusions surrounding the conceptualisation of the terms ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘entrepreneurship’. Eugene Sadler-Smith. Arne Olav Øyhus. Feb 2004. In the present article. (12) Cognitive Style and the Management of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Organisation Studies.
cognitive style in which a distinction is drawn between the processing of information (rational and intuitive) and the organising of information in memory (local and global). Much of the research conducted in India in the area of entrepreneurship considers personality characteristics and motivation interchangeably. International Small Business Journal. June M. David Pistrui. Harold P. it influenced firm performance positively through its effect on entrepreneurial orientation. 251–263. Sep 2000. Five core motivations – the entrepreneurial core motivation. The sample for the study was drawn from 195 potential women entrepreneurs. In contrast. (15) Entrepreneurial Orientation and Family Forces in the New Germany: Similarities and Differences Between East and West German Entrepreneurs. the management of small and medium-sized enterprises. and H. The study was based upon data obtained from owner-managers and managing directors of small and medium-sized firms in two contrasting sectors. the work core motivation. the social core motivation. There was a positive relationship between intuitive decision style and contemporaneous financial and non-financial performance that did not appear to be moderated by environmental instability. 5 . and Sa’Odah Haji Junit. Sep 1998. however. (13) Effects of Self-concept Traits and Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Performance. Vijaya and T. This article argues that there is a need to treat entrepreneurial motivation as a separate entity and objectively measure and classify different types of motivation to draw meaningful inferences. vol.J. The results indicated that internal locus of control was positively related to firm performance. L. Finally. Welsch. The relationship between managers’ cognitive styles and firm performance was examined from a contingency perspective in which environmental instability was hypothesised as moderating the relationship between style and performance. (14) A Scale to Assess Entrepreneurial Motivation. Feb 2006. Furthermore. V. the individual core motivation and the economic core motivation – are identified with the help of factor analysis by the principal components method. Such styles are thought to affect a range of management behaviours (including decisionmaking). Kamalanabhan. Raja Azimah Ainuddin. 24: pp. Entrepreneurial orientation – operationalised to reflect the dimensions of innovativeness. and firm performance using survey data from 96 entrepreneurs. proactiveness. Oliver Wintermantel. 13: pp. 183–198. a statistically significant relationship between intuitive decision style and subsequent financial performance was observed. 7: pp. vol. and entrepreneurial orientation did not play a mediating role in this relationship. Poon. self-attributed achievement motive was not significantly related to entrepreneurial orientation or firm performance. and propensity to take risks – was used as the mediating variable for explaining the relationship between self-concept traits and firm performance. The implications of these findings for theories of cognitive style. generalised self-efficacy had no direct effect on firm performance. Pohl. 61–82. and for the practice of management development in such firms are discussed. Jianwen Liao. This study examined relationships among three self-concept traits.J. The study used path analysis to test the direct and indirect effects of the trait variables on perceptual measures of firm performance. The authors attempt here to develop a scale relevant to the Indian context to measure entrepreneurial motivation. entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Entrepreneurship. vol. Family Business Review.
sacrifice. Thus. Kevin F. Results indicated that individuals with a high risk preference had higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity-identification efficacy. On one hand. as well as provide valuable insights into the family forces shaping SMEs in the new Germany. 41: pp. Individuals with an intuitive cognitive style were also found to have lower perceived self-efficacy concerning the establishment of relationship with investors. 1207–1228. It suggests – and finds – that businesses in the 1980s were more numerous but of 6 . and Jill Richard Kickul. The data isolate the differences and identify similarities between East and West German entrepreneurs. On the other hand. More specifically. Francis J. the economic management of the new venture. Megan W. and tolerance efficacy. vol. established West German familyled firms are responding to generational change and the need for new entrepreneurial leadership. This paper argues that there have been three distinct phases of enterprise policy in the UK in the past 30 years: the 1970s saw no effective enterprise policy (‘policy off’). Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. and (c) environmental perceptions related to infrastructure obstacles confronting entrepreneurial-led family enterprises. capturing characteristics associated with demographics. the East must rely on entrepreneurship and new venture creation to rebuild this region of Germany. Mole. This study investigated these relationships using an international sample of 528 entrepreneurial students across three universities. (16) The Role of Cognitive Style and Risk Preference on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Intentions. Storey. Gerhardt. which shape entrepreneurial orientation. This paper looks at how enterprise has evolved in Cleveland/Tees Valley over the past three decades. Urban Studies. we examine how both cognitive style and risk preference separately and interactively contribute to an individual’s assessment of his/her own skills and abilities as well as to his/her own entrepreneurial intentions. The purpose of the current study is to address the distinctive roles of cognitive style and risk preference on four types of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. The study draws from a sample of 160 East and West German entrepreneurs. SMALL BUSINESS POLICY (17) Does More Mean Worse? Three Decades of Enterprise Policy in the Tees Valley. and their capacity to tolerate ambiguity. vol. whereas individuals with a low risk preference had higher levels of relationship efficacy. May 2007. intuitive individuals who had a high preference for risk exhibited higher levels of opportunity identification efficacy. Saulo Dubard Barbosa. family involvement. Jun 2004. 86–104. However.The new Germany provides a once-in-a-lifetime living laboratory in which to explore entrepreneurship and family business. the 1980s witnessed an attempt to increase the number of start-ups. this study poses the following general research question: ‘How similar or different are the entrepreneurial orientations and family forces of East German and West German entrepreneurs’? The study explores three dimensions shaping entrepreneurial characteristics and orientations: (a) sociocultural forces (principally the family and personal alliance networks. 13: pp. (b) personality characteristics associated with entrepreneurial intensity. and David J. and the 1990s saw a concentration on ‘business quality’. Greene. and achievement motives. and enterprise profiles).
culture. Because Life Sciences and healthcare are strongly intertwined. (21) Federal Credit Programs and Local Economic Performance. regions that have missed out on this future ‘knowledge economy’ bonanza are desperately seeking to remedy things. This conclusion is drawn from the analysis of survey data collected from a stratified sample of loan beneficiaries of the Smallscale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme in Nigeria. and huge increases in healthcare R&D and general expenditure mean that some 20 per cent of GDP is accounted for by the broad sector. 28–43. Urban Studies. and the interest in it shown by researchers and politicians over the past decade has not made it less so. This programme is one of four programmes of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) set up in Nigeria in 1987 to encourage and assist unemployed youths to establish and operate their own small-scale firms. This article surveys the topic of entrepreneurship within the processes of regional and local development. Economic Development Quarterly. research infrastructure and innovative businesses in a few clusters where even large pharmaceuticals firms are nowadays often learners (from academia) rather than research leaders. vol. (20) Entrepreneurship in Regional and Local Development. vol. 41: pp. Collender. The issue of entrepreneurship is complex. 23: pp. It further reveals that the firms achieved an appreciable growth in their assets. 16: pp. 1113–1131. Sherrill Shaffer and Robert N. This paper presents evidence that promoting entrepreneurship consciously among youths can be an effective way of tackling unemployment within this group. 49–59. vol. The analysis shows that an average of four new jobs were created by each of the respondent firms in the first four years of the programme. Feb 2009. Sunday L Owualah. Apr 1999. Examples are provided of new regional science policy instruments for redistribution of such knowledge economy advantages that moves beyond mere innovation support. International Regional Science Review. and local environments. Policies which attempt to alter regional or local conditions and to promote entrepreneurship and continuing innovation are given attention in the second half of the paper. Life Sciences Clusters and Regional Science Policy. experience and personal inclinations of their owners largely influenced the choice of types of small-scale firms that were established. This implies that we should be cautious about the value of policy attempts to increase business formation rates in areas such as Cleveland/Tees Valley. May 2004. This paper focuses upon Life Sciences and the manner in which R&D-led clustering concentrates key resources such as basic research funding. while previous training. Apr 1993. vol. 17: pp. International Small Business Journal. Definitional issues which often mark discussions of entrepreneurship are discussed. (19) Tackling Youth Unemployment through Entrepreneurship. 119–153. as are networks of interaction. 7 . as in the past. (18) Philip Cooke. Malecki. Edward J.lower ‘quality’ (even if the influence of unemployment is accounted for) than those from the 1970s and 1990s.
Often lacking demonstrable and accredited human capital and work experience. measured six ways. vol. Not surprisingly. Observed trade-offs suggest a need to compare policy objectives with acceptable costs in many cases. This article explores the ways in which the characteristics of the owner-managers of small firms influence whether or not those firms have a business plan. planning behaviour in large versus small firms. vol. possession of a business plan showed a positive association with those 8 . Urban Studies. Feb 2005. but central government appears reluctant to face the full direct costs of implementation. Around half the sample of owner-managers possess a business plan. previous work experience in a large firm immediately before setting up their firm and running firms in sectors outside their previous experience. Doug Watts. There is an increasing dependence on school and higher education qualifications and associated transferable skills and competencies. the role of intuition in business decision making and the planning process in start up versus existing small firms. Mike Danson. (22) Old Industrial Regions and Employability. 42: pp. Overall.Several theories of externalities and asymmetric information suggest a positive role for government programmes to assist credit markets. Data are drawn from a survey of the owner-managers of small metalworking firms in Sheffield. 496–514. owner/manager adopting a formalised planning orientation. Antecedent influences on owner-managers showing a significant association with the possession of a business plan include an above average level of education. polarising society. Oct 2006. BUSINESS PLANNING (1) Owner-managers and Business Planning in the Small Firm. 24: pp. Suzanne M. International Small Business Journal. A general move towards more flexible labour markets and the restructuring in these regions over the past quarter of a century have led to a change in the supply and demand conditions for employment. CHAPTER 2 The topics for which specific articles are identified include the small business support services within a country. metropolitan areas during the 1990s. UK. Policy interventions are required to address these obstacles and social exclusion. 285–300. Richbell. and Perry Wardle. Inactivity has been growing across the developed world and is especially high in old industrial areas. the results are consistent with theoretical predictions and with some standard policy objectives. The focus is primarily on antecedent influences on owner-managers such as education and prior experience. H. while the decline of traditional occupations has left many without jobs and facing multiple barriers to regaining employment. The authors examine the empirical association between funding by several federal government programmes and subsequent economic performance. Significant differences are found across programmes and performance measures.S. individuals with such employability problems have been concentrated in particular households and communities. More radical innovative solutions are now being proposed at the metropolitan level. though potential distortions by special interests carry attendant dangers. for U.
Using a detailed mail survey (N = 407. 1–19. However. Journal of Management. needs to develop with studies from different regions and histories to test the value of specific findings. International Small Business Journal. there is an emerging view that the value of planning is context-dependent. Hamilton. it was argued. vol. Attractions with greater levels of planning were shown to have higher levels of perceived performance and faced the future with better growth prospects and business confidence. when they plan. R. help them enhance their performance. 6: pp. Using data from a sample of small firms in New Zealand. 24–35. short-term planners. vol. Dec 1996. ways in which pre-startup planning can facilitate survival are delineated. response rate = 26. 22: pp. 42: pp. vol. and long-term planners. The results of the enquiry suggest that small firms do not respond to uncertainty with increased planning.and long-term planners. Consistent with this advice. T. 9 .7%). Although evidence is equivocal and often contradictory. Nyomori. hence. Castrogiovanni. Finally. Gary J. their performance does record some improvement. (2) Uncertainty. First. Journal of Entrepreneurship. This view is elaborated here as it applies to new small businesses. this study tries to examine the relationship between environmental uncertainty. 801–822. planning and performance. (4) Australian Tourist Attractions: The Links between Organisational Characteristics and Planning. Aug 2003. Pierre J. contextual conditions that can limit these impacts are described. 70–78. Nov 1987. (3) Pre-Startup Planning and the Survival of New Small Businesses: Theoretical Linkages. Environmental uncertainty is unavoidable. 11: pp. Benckendorff and Philip L. Then. Business organisations. It is concluded that owner-manager characteristics can be important in explaining the presence/absence of a business plan within the small firm. vol. some scholars have suggested that the high mortality of new small businesses could be reduced through greater pre-startup planning. Mar 2002. in turn. An exploration of the links between the characteristics of Australian tourist attractions and the amount of planning undertaken by attraction managers was conducted.owner-managers with a growth orientation. prospective business founders are generally advised to develop formal plans of their proposed ventures. Journal of Travel Research. suggestions are offered which show how this view can be used to guide future research and extend the body of knowledge. Attahir Yusuf and Robert O. It has been argued that firms can address both the opportunity and menace questions of uncertainty through systematic planning which. Planning Sophistication and Performance in Small New Zealand Firms. In addition. (5) Motivations and Aspirations of Business Founders. short. However. Attraction research. a categorisation indicating four planning levels was devised: nonplanners. multimethod approaches are needed to disentangle causality issues linking planning and attraction characteristics. They also reported higher management turnover. have to develop ways and means to cultivate the opportunities and contain the menace that result from uncertainty. Pearce.
235–262. Rueter. 7: pp. control. The group employing written plans was found to have significantly higher need for achievement. The groups were compared on their need for achievement. Journal of Management. It finds that there is an apparent stability over time but the evidence does show that with unemployment rising over time this is becoming a push factor in an increasing proportion of new business formations. It examines alternative approaches in order to assess the consequences of using inappropriate measures. Danes. This study provides a critical review of the literature to identify issues regarding the measurement of growth. Mar 2002. Family Business Review. sales. unwritten plans. three concepts are considered as well as three different measurement formulas. management structure. James W. vol. Carland. written plans. Hee-Kyung Kwon. and Carroll D. and number of employees. International Small Business Journal. and integration. 31–43. They may be explained. Paul C. A sample of 368 small business owners/managers was divided into three groups: those who use formal. Finally. innovative preference and risk-taking propensity than the group employing unwritten plans and non-planners. Sharon M. Consequences and Guidelines. to family businesses (specifically. Nystrom. Martha A. It empirically tests the developmental sequence of three dimensions of the model: inclusion. Jr. 10 . effective control may not be diminished without adequate levels of inclusion. 23–34. vol. (7) Measuring Organisational Growth: Issues. researchers have recently noted important inconsistencies in findings. Although the literature contains an impressive volume of studies attempting to identify determinants of organisational growth. (6) Family FIRO Model: An Application to Family Business. innovative preferences and risk-taking propensity as well as education level. 15: pp. and William Doherty. one of interpersonal dynamics and change. Freeman. we provide some guidelines to help researchers select appropriate techniques for measuring organisational growth. in part. vol. Findings indicate that both a sense of inclusion in a family business and the manner in which control issues are managed have important influences on family business integration. Jul 1989. Because inclusion predicts control dynamics. (8) An Assessment of the Psychological Determinants of Planning in Small Businesses. Weinzimmer. to family farming couples). Consequently. depend on the specific approaches used to measure growth. results from comparative regression analyses reveal that the significance of relationships between determinants and organisational growth. and nonplanners. Laurence G. and Sarah J. This study applies the Family FIRO model. by the variety of approaches used to measure growth. Jo Ann C.The main purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis which assesses the extent to which the characteristics of business founders are stable over time. Abhy. The study offers practitioners a theory-based approach to working with the complex dynamics within family businesses.. 24: pp. On firm size the evidence is that businesses which have been pushed into existence and survived are not significantly different from those which are not subject to this particular pressure. as well as amount of explained variance. Carland. those who employ informal. Apr 1998. Based on comprehensive data from 193 firms in 48 industries for 20 periods.
Three aspects are elaborated on: the actors involved. Findings show that institutional variables. as well as for the literature on business planning CHAPTER 3 The topics for which specific articles are identified include small firms’ use of market research. It is concluded that professional consumer services represent a unique setting for purchase decision-making and cannot be considered equivalent to the organisational or consumer setting. in terms of profitability. Practical and research implications are also presented. This article analyses purchase decision-making for products and services that are acquired and used by consumers. Paul Teague. The article proposes a theoretical framework incorporating the typical characteristics of professional services as a decision-making context. for those nascent organisations that produced business plans during a two-year initial period. The results are contrary to rationalist predictions of planningperformance. Marketing Theory. 93–108. 7: pp. 29–48. Benson Honig and Tomas Karlsson. such as coercion and mimetic forces. Interestingly there was no evidence to support positive outcomes. In this study. factors were examined that led nascent organisations to write business plans. primary research. Organisation. Journal of Management. utilising quantitative data and the problems associated with assessing the scale of opportunity. how market segmentation can be exploited. This paper develops analytical arguments to highlight three distinctive attributes of enterprise partnership. The study examined both the production and the outcomes of written business plans produced in nascent organisations. This is done by comparing the distinct characteristics of purchase decision-making in the contexts of professional consumer services and organisational and consumer buying. Mar 2007. Second. the purchase-decision task. 30: pp. following 396 nascent entrepreneurs during a two-year period. Elina Jaakkola. and are more in line with institutional predictions. vol. 12: pp. it highlights the organisational features of enterprise partnerships that transcend particular national or economic settings and suggests that these allow partnerships to be interpreted as a procedural consensus between management and employees to develop pathways to advance fairness and 11 . 567–589. and the nature of the decision-making process. Feb 2004. DECISION MAKING (1) Purchase Decision-making within Professional Consumer Services: Organisational or Consumer Buying Behaviour?. First of all. are important predictors influencing the propensity of new organisations to write business plans. The study discusses the implications for institutional theory and studies of nascent businesses. vol. the literature on the theory of the firm is used to suggest that enterprise partnership represents a credible alternative to the dominant ‘leadership model’ of organisational change. Jul 2005. but chosen by professional service providers. specified in a set of propositions regarding the relative influence of the parties on the purchase decision.(9) Institutional Forces and the Written Business Plan. vol. (2) What is Enterprise Partnership?.
vol. J. The focus was upon the better quality restaurants. Journal of Macromarketing. (5) Discovering the Consumer: Market Research. information on patterns in restaurant dining. The paper is both a literature review and theory-building exercise. The case discusses details of demand forecasting and marketing strategy during the initial product launch along with an analysis of the failure. The survey’s general objective was to obtain. Mar 2009. Harry Gildea and David E. and directed at dinner meals in a non-business setting. by means of telephone and personal interview. and the Creation of Brand Loyalty in Britain and the United States in the Interwar Years. The picture projected by the market research is very positive. Stefan Schwarzkopf. Walter Thompson (JWT). (4) Relaunching Adult Diapers in India – Has the Time Come?. 29: pp. in the interwar period. it suggests that the diffusion of enterprise partnership requires the support of extra-firm institutional frameworks. The questions selected for the interview covered aspects of restaurant selection and use. MARKET RESEARCH (3) A Community Survey of Restaurant Dining Habits. as well as opinions about restaurants. The same product was introduced into the market in the late 1990s but was later revoked because of poor performance. The retailers feel that the market for adult diapers had begun to evolve in 2004. 85–100. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly.performance at work. Third. Due to the positive changes in the environment. vol. 4: pp. Research surveys conducted by JWT in the 1920s and 1930s helped Lever reposition its international soap brand Lux. Labson. Asian Journal of Management Cases. Ajit Patil and Rahul Srinivasan. 3: pp. Mar 2006. vol. the product manager at Kimberly Clark Lever Private Ltd. The question that needs to be answered is how to make ‘Depend’ commercially viable. This case is about the dilemma faced by Supriya. A recent market research survey was performed for the Hotel Corporation of America which has many hotel and motor hotel restaurant facilities. Qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods allowed marketers at Lever and JWT to take account of autonomous consumer practices that limited the scope of management. KCLL conducts a market research survey with an aim to estimate demand and gather competitive intelligence. particularly those located in hotels. India (KCLL). 8–20. Novelty in the marketing strategy is necessary because in India personal hygiene is not discussed openly either within the family or publicly. She has to prepare a business plan for the relaunch of adult diapers called ‘Depend’. It was further sought to learn the motivation for such dining patterns and also to obtain information useful in evaluating the market potential for a given community. Product Innovation. This article discusses the use of market and consumer research at Lever/Unilever and its advertising agency in Britain and the United States. The case demonstrates that Lever deployed qualitative market research techniques much earlier than usually acknowledged. This is also indicated by an increase in the number of new brands introduced in 2004–05. 15–16. 12 . Aug 1963.
Finally. have lobbied for the introduction of deregulation in Europe. David Tucker. vol. Scandinavia) which. 2: pp. multiple correspondence analysis was used to spatially map each 13 . 391–397. Among these are those countries of Europe (UK. generally speaking. this paper indicates customer satisfaction as a fundamental factor in building customer loyalty.(6) Identifying. 315–325. Through market segmentation it is possible to identify various categories of consumers and to offer them the service they require. The price varies not only because of the different distances travelled. First. for this reason. the effects of deregulation have been decisive. use of accommodation while travelling and origin/destination data. The additional flight services (which represent the so-called ‘extended product’) are many today and they satisfy the consumer’s every possible need. the prices vary. One challenge in tourism market segmentation research is finding a statistical clustering method that can use data from the commonly used qualitative (categorical scale) survey instrument. Arianna di Vittorio. a two-stage analysis method was employed. Jan 1996. Moreover. Nowadays price determination is quite complex: in fact two passengers on the same flight may have paid different prices and this discrepancy is due to the fact that users are different and. At this time deregulation is not present everywhere and this creates considerable difficulties in negotiating tariffs. 39: pp. Using data from a bed-and-breakfast survey (229 guests). the markets to which the service is applied are different. which varies depending on numerous factors. in the last decade. a service or even a whole organisational structure. following the American example. Business Information Review. (7) Travel and Tourism Data in the UK. Measuring and Responding to Different Market Segments: Price Determination in Air Transport. 11: pp. Describes and evaluates the most commonly used sources of statistics and other market information on the travel and tourism industries in the UK. Apr 1995. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Topics include forms of transport. May 2001. vol. vol. quantitative survey instruments are seldom used. Journal of Travel Research. 2–18. Current proven methods require the use of quantitative (ratio or interval scale) data. Obviously. but also according to the different services which the passenger wishes to receive on board and on the ground. George Arimond and Abdulaziz Elfessi. purpose of travel. as removing controls from flights and air fares has also gained ground in those countries which were once against liberalisation. both social and economic. This study demonstrated that multistate categorical survey data could be successfully used. Many quantitative clustering methods severely restrict the number of attributes measured despite the fact that segmentation analysis works best when it measures all the multistate attributes that visitors identify as influencing their tourist experience. Differentiates sources for inbound and outbound tourism and internal (domestic) travel. Also covers main international sources. However. since customers really determine the success or the failure of an initiative. MARKET SEGMENTATION (8) A Clustering Method for Categorical Data in Tourism Market Segmentation Research.
Based on the evaluation criteria. Segment 14 . Howard. but also revealed nuances resulting from the ITR scale’s multidimensional interpretation of novelty in international tourism. The purposes of this study were to extend the scope of family vacation decision-making research by profiling various family vacation segments based on decision-making patterns. function versus fashion. standardised instrumentation. expenditure per travel party and per person). Horridge.C. This study illustrates how the International Tourism Role (ITR) scale by Mo..of the attributes. participated in the study. vol. Shelley S. colour versus style. Havitz. Results of the study generated three market segments. quantity versus price. the extent to which a segment can be attracted by products/services offered). Jinhwa Lee. 27: pp. 448–469. country of origin. Hsu.e. 31: pp. (11) Targeting Multicultural Purchase and Consumption Segments in the Leather Handbag Market: Product Development and Merchandising Implications. The purpose of this study was to segment a nationwide sample of the Korean American (n = 115) and White American (n = 139) leather handbag market for business wear. Kang. and to provide a systematic evaluation of the segments based on their profitability (i. and Dennis R. vol. and then cluster analysis was used to identify market segments. business-mixed-with-pleasure (BMP) travellers. (9) Family Traveler Segmentation by Vacation Decision-Making Patterns. and Kara Wolfe. and visiting friends and relatives (VFR) travellers. Although results cannot be generalised beyond the study population.. It is believed this method can be more practical in the field of applied tourism research. Mar 2003. and Havitz (1994). Nov 2003. handbags in wardrobe. this study shows the potential for segmenting international travel markets with the ITR scale. accessibility (i. and organisational features) and six consumption patterns (quantity versus usage. few studies have used conceptually based. Cathy H. Cluster analysis of ITR factor scores indicated the 461 respondents could be classified into four distinct clusters.e. Harp. developed using the conceptual framework of Cohen’s tourist role typology. A total of 297 travellers. Russ. Results indicated four purchase criteria (brand. vol. 33: pp. Journal of Travel Research. Mark E. 297–330. the VFR segment was identified as the most viable market for Kansas to pursue. The composition of the clusters partially supported Cohen’s classification scheme. and Randall R. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal. Although many attempts have been made to segment travel markets. 24–31.e. The clusters were confirmed by selected sociodemographic and behavioural trip characteristic variables. Soo K. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. the degree to which a segment can be effectively contacted and served). and reachability (i. and durable versus versatile) segmented the two consumer groups. including intergenerational (ITG) travellers. Jul 1994. Howard. quantity versus quality. who visited one of the three Travel Information Centres (TIC) on the borders of Kansas and who considered themselves travelling as a family unit. Chul-Min Mo. can be used to segment international tourist markets. Data were collected using survey methods and analysed using classification decision trees. (10) Segmenting Travel Markets with the International Tourism Role (ITR) Scale. Patricia E..
The following evaluation criteria were used in target market selection: profitability. vol. vol. quality. The authors argue that activities are the critical link between tourist motivation and destination choice and develop a model in which travel motivations are related through activity preferences to vacation destination choice. thus. Mar 2007. Vesa Puhakka. quality. OPPORTUNITY DISCOVERY (14) Effects of Opportunity Discovery Strategies of Entrepreneurs on Performance of New Ventures. and post-trip evaluation. 30–35. Benefit-based market segmentation studies were found to be a viable means of determining vacation market segments. vol. Journa of Entrepreneurship. Josef A. trip planning and trip characteristics. Journal of Travel Research. For White Americans. These proposed relationships were tested through a secondary analysis of survey data collected from 1503 Australian outbound travellers. and consumption patterns included usage. These analyses did reveal consistent relationships between travel motivation and activities and between activities and features of preferred destinations. 80–95. and reachability. colour and style. Dec 1995. Perdue. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. The importance of the development of objective and quantifiable means of evaluating market Effects of Opportunity Discovery Strategies of Entrepreneurs on Performance of New Ventures. This study examined the feasibility of segmenting a nonresident tourist market on the basis of vacation benefits sought. travel party composition.characteristics indicated handbag purchase criteria of Korean Americans included brand and country of origin. marketing strategy implications were addressed. (13) A Benefit-based Segmentation of a Nonresident Summer Travel Market. the handbag purchase criterion was organisational features. 31: pp. This is not an established consideration as it inherently holds 15 . accessibility. Implications suggest opportunities for product development and merchandise assortment planning. and durability and versatility. However. (12) Positioning Analysis with Self-Organizing Maps: An Exploratory Study on Luxury Hotels. Jan 1992. 16: pp. The reason for this appears to be the claim that opportunity discovery as behaviour of entrepreneurs takes place before the venture is established and. Six distinct benefit-based market segments were found using factor and cluster analysis procedures. 19– 51. should not be connected to the later phases of the entrepreneurial process. The resulting segments were compared on the basis of specific dependent variables organised under the following framework: travel party leader characteristics. the effects of opportunity discovery strategies of entrepreneurs on performance of new ventures have been neglected. price. whereas their handbag consumption patterns included quantity. Opportunity discovery process is one of the main topics of interest in entrepreneurship research. 36: pp. Laurie E. Loker and Richard R. Finally. Mazanec. The central proposal of the paper is that activities are important items in these motive boxes. and a combination of durability and versatility.
growth of new ventures showed significant increase by proactive opportunity discovery strategy. Individual judgment is highlighted as a particularly important future direction for research on the role of enterprising individuals in venture creation. (17) Virtual Teams and the Rise of e-Entrepreneurship in Europe. vol. In recent years new forms of entrepreneurship have begun to emerge from the synergies between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developments and changing paradigms of economic transactions. Organisational entrepreneurship is understood as constituting a silent history of organisation and management theory. ‘Virtual Teams’ consist of groups of geographically distributed individuals (entrepreneurs) who interact through 16 . 279–302. Brian S. (15) The ‘Problem’ of Creating and Capturing Value. 5: pp. (16) Organisational Entrepreneurship: With de Certeau on Creating Heterotopias (or Spaces for Play). Techniques for accessing entrepreneurs and for evaluating entrepreneurial judgments are also discussed. the role of individuals must be understood if venture creation is to be understood. competitive scanning and collective action increased the newness value of the ventures. Zenger. 211–225. In addition. Enterprising individuals or groups start new ventures and. Nickerson. Jun 2005. Silverman. The results illustrate that the performance of new ventures is strongly influenced by opportunity discovery strategies used by entrepreneurs. with an eye toward identifying under-researched topics and improving research designs. 14: pp. 23: pp. Focusing on the relation between work as a managerially ordered place and conditions for creativity within such an order.the idea that research should study how entrepreneurs create value which should not be connected to the value they have created. the opportunity discovery strategies of proactive searching. Michel de Certeau’s concepts of space and place and of strategy and tactics together with Michel Foucault’s concept of heterotopia allow the author to describe and analyse a case where an artist-company collaboration resulted in an entrepreneurial event. transforming work and surprising management. thus. The present study examined how opportunity discovery strategies of entrepreneurs affect performance of the ventures established. the author distances it from how it has become represented in management (enterprise) discourse. Aug 2007. and Todd R. Harry Matlay and Paul Westhead. International Small Business Journal. The resulting ‘turbulence’ within the international small business community has facilitated the evolution of innovative organisational forms that are structured dynamically to ensure sustainable competitive advantage in local. These results suggest that the strategies entrepreneurs use to discover opportunities have much impact on creating high performance levels of new ventures. Venture creation is at the heart of entrepreneurship. Daniel Hjorth. Dec 2005. Journal of Management Inquiry. vol. More specifically. vol. In crafting a history of the present of entrepreneurship. This article reviews and critiques the venture creation literature that has examined the role of the individual. 386–398. Jackson A. Strategic Organisation. national or global markets. this article uses a number of spatial concepts to elaborate on organisational entrepreneurship as creation of space for play/invention.
Some evidence was found of an upward trend in the number of published entrepreneurship articles. and greater stakeholder support. The analysis of a sample of entrepreneurs whose businesses are located in incubators suggests that entrepreneurs are more likely to exploit opportunities when they perceive more knowledge of customer demand for the new product. Jun 2003. Teresa Nelson. Journal of Management. and temporal dynamics are put forward for entrepreneurship scholars to explore important research questions in these intersections. and Andrew Zacharakis. CHAPTER 4 The topics for which specific articles are identified include managing business growth. 30: pp. Opportunity exploitation is a necessary step in creating a successful business in the entrepreneurial process. Boundary and exchange concepts were applied to examine 97 entrepreneurship articles published in leading management journals from 1985 to 1999. 285–308. Implications for future research on opportunity exploitation are discussed. more fully developed necessary technologies. 377–395. from formation to the fulfilment or adjournment of specific tasks and projects. The advantages and disadvantages of virtual teams of e-entrepreneurs are additionally documented and discussed. This article focuses upon the emergence of virtual teams that increasingly form the competitive core of successful e-Entrepreneurship in Europe. III. Chandler. Lowell W. cash flow management. (18) Entrepreneurs’ Decisions to Exploit Opportunities. vol. Decision theory. Journal of Management. Busenitz. (19) Entrepreneurship Research in Emergence: Past Trends and Future Directions. Page West. greater managerial capability. Shepherd. modes of organising. This article evaluates the emergent academic field of entrepreneurship to better understand its progress and potential.interdependent tasks and are led by common (entrepreneurial) interests and/or goals. It is argued that focusing entrepreneurship research at the intersection of the constructs of individuals. vol. 29: pp. managing high-tech firms and raising external funds from different lending sources. Gaylen N. the findings of this study shed a light on a less emphasised aspect of the resource-based view: the new product’s anticipated lead time acts as an enhancing moderator in entrepreneurs’ exploitation decision policies. opportunities. Dean Shepherd. G. although the percentage of entrepreneurship articles remains low. it identifies and considers the stages and processes specific to virtual teams. The highly permeable boundaries of entrepreneurship facilitate intellectual exchange with other management areas but sometimes discourage the development of entrepreneurship theory and hinder legitimacy. start-up factors of production. yet there has been little conceptual and empirical development of this issue in the literature. and the environment will define the field and enhance legitimacy. small business support services. Moreover. This study examines the decisions of entrepreneurs to begin exploiting business opportunities from a resource-based view. Jun 2004. Based upon the results of 15 longitudinal case studies from the European tourism and hospitality industry. information processing and network theory. 17 . Young Rok Choi and Dean A.
vol. Prahalad’s core-competency-agenda matrix. The concept of the information sub-cycle is introduced. 38: pp. and internal-resources and -competencies analysis. industry membership and level of ownermanager education. Jun 1997. Gary Kelly. To accomplish this. The pattern which emerges from these results supports the revision of traditional life cycle concepts. Jeffrey P. the presentation of an overall life cycle provides an over-simplified view of the firm. Business-Life-Cycle Approach. Prior research has identified various stages in the life of a small enterprise.K. size. the model developed in this article integrates four widely used strategic models. vol. 20: pp. Applied to the case of Outback Steakhouse. Kenichi Ohmae’s four-basic-strategies matrix. These states are commonly combined to produce a business life cycle. used. Economic Development Quarterly. 377–386. vol. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. In particular. Gregg A. Boston Consulting Group’s growth-share matrix. Strategic models designed to help managers understand and effectively compete in their industries have been developed. Most models have employed one of three approaches: portfolio analysis. Scott Holmes. The new integrated model introduces the time element. Richard D’Aveni’s hypercompetition model. Nov 2006. which in itself can take many forms. Seeking to remedy that oversight. Lichtenstein and Thomas S. and Ross Cunningham. The result obtained indicates that the acquisition and/or preparation of a relatively detailed level of accounting information is dependent on firm age. Although each approach offers valuable insights into the competitive environment. an Italian-style restaurant. 9: pp. which was missing from prior models. Logistics regression modelling techniques incorporating those variables which appear to be significant in influencing the level of accounting information prepared or acquired are applied to the development of an information cycle. (2) The Small Firm Information Cycle: A Reappraisal. and how to invest in entrepreneurship as a crosscutting economic development strategy.BUSINESS LIFE CYCLES (1) Food-Service Strategy: An Integrated. Jan 1991. the hybrid model shows how Outback’s management took early advantage of its strengths but may have squandered its lead in the casual theme segment by taking a strategic wrong turn when it made an alliance with Carrabba’s. 41–53. by connecting them with a modified life-cycle curve. Shay. each new model seems to disregard the conceptual contributions made by its predecessors. 36–49. and superseded for more than 30 years. (3) Managing the Community’s Pipeline of Entrepreneurs and Enterprises: A New Way of Thinking About Business Assets. International Small Business Journal. This paper proposed that small enterprise consists of a series of interrelated cycles and as such. the authors present and operationalise the concept of a pipeline of entrepreneurs and enterprises in order to effectively segment the marketplace of businesses and differentiate among potential economic development clients within the 18 . where. Lyons. and Gary Hamel and C. The purpose of this article is to offer a methodical approach to deciding when. the need to segment the firm into several sub-cycles is recommended. competitive advantage and competitor analysis.
and management challenges. Practices. labour market. and Success.community. entrepreneurship. The businesswomen integrated a broad range of motivational stimuli for business start-up. incubation strategies. Sep 2007. 155–184 This article analyses the demand and supply of business development services (BDS) in the twin cities of Calcutta and Howrah in India. and defined success using extrinsic criteria. BUSINESS SUPPORT SERVICES (6) Market for Business Development Services in India: A Study of Calcutta.S. The purpose of this research was to develop a profile of micro apparel enterprises in Botswana and to examine the profile for cross-cultural applicability in relation to small business scholarship. Littrell. often through personal networks. small entrepreneurs will need timely and relevant counselling and 19 . 21: pp. Jun 2003. Research findings contributed to a first stage for development of technical assistance that can guide Botswana entrepreneurs in business start-up and growth. The profile identified motivations for initiating a business. Field interviews with 24 businesswomen revealed that the women employed an average of three workers and had operated their firms for three to five years. faced marketing. and selective attraction strategies – and discuss how the pipeline can help policy makers and practitioners make informed decisions about where to invest (in what segment) and which strategies to use. (4) Latino Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship in the United States: An Overview of the Literature and Data Sources. Journal of Entrepreneurship. less scholarly and popular media attention has focused on Latino self-employment. While significant attention has been paid to the growth of the Latino population and its contribution to the U. vol. Dinesh N. Bárbara J. and marketing. It argues that with the advent of liberalisation. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. finance. (5) Profiling Micro Apparel Enterprises in Botswana: Motivations. engaged in rigorous marketing. 613: pp. challenges faced as the business was initiated and expanded. Marina R. Sep 2000. The authors provide an overview of the current state of research on Latino entrepreneurial activities and recommend a broader research agenda that includes community-based organisations as part of the entrepreneurship landscape in urban and rural high-density Latino communities. Gobagoba and Mary A. They then describe three options for managing and intervening in a community’s pipeline of entrepreneurs and enterprises – performance-enhancement strategies. and factors used in defining success. 18–31. vol. Robles and Héctor CorderoGuzmán. Awasthi and Sanjay Pal. A review of interdisciplinary research literature on Latino entrepreneurship over the past 25 years indicates a gap in our knowledge about the accelerated growth in Latino small business ownership across the United States. product development. vol. 9: pp. including improving lives for the people of Botswana. Challenges. 130–141. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. and business growth. business practices related to employees.
In addition. The practical problem to date is that of our inability to identify successfully those firms. it is important that small meaningful changes in large firm performance should not as a result be overlooked. Government funding for small firms should be directed in that manner by which the nation will gain the most. Once this mismatch is removed. the study observes that there is a glaring mismatch between demand for and supply of BDS due to market imperfections and price distortions. even in the face of increased competition. 20 . both sexes face the same kind of problems. Women incur a few gender specific problems during the launch of their firms but thereafter gender ceases to be a specific issue. BUSINESS FAILURE (8) The Problems Experienced by Young Firms. both due to the nature of small firms themselves and to the nature of the interaction which takes place between small and large firms. may well improve the chances of survival of young organisations. The paper concludes by noting that while training interventions. marketing and the management of human resources. Based on a field survey. Results indicate that problems occur principally in the areas of finance. 23–37. 12: pp. Although small firms in job generation terms are inherently advantaged and their performance numerically dominant. entrepreneurs experience some difficult personal problems. The effect of the interaction between small and large firms on the creation of jobs in the United Kingdom over the period 1971 to 1989 is examined in detail. However there is a danger that by viewing the small firm sector in isolation from large firms. sub-optimal economic and political decision may be reached. which have either grown independently of large firms or whose growth would not adversely affect large firm growth. Small firms have a greater ability and potential to create jobs than do large firms. marketing and the management of people. Stanley Cromie. attention must focus on organisational diagnosis to determine where interventions are likely to succeed and on the process by which trainers assist entrepreneurs. To add to knowledge of this topic he interviewed 34 male and 34 female proprietors of four year old firms and questioned them on the problems they encountered in their early years. those small firms in which new innovations and technologies are likely to be developed should have priority for aid. are identified and evaluated. 9: pp. In this paper Cromie surveys the literature on the failure of small firms and argues that there is a need to focus attention on those factors which contribute to the demise of male and female owned firms in the ‘demarrage’ phase of the development. Results of four recent studies are used to assess the contribution of different size of firms to aggregate employment change. Oct 1993. which focus on finance. Geoff Robson and Colin Gallagher. vol. (7) The Job Creation Effects of Small and Large Firm Interaction. 43–61. the small enterprises will be in a better position to derive the benefit of professional advice to improve their performance. In particular. Apr 1991.consultancy support. as most of them lack adequate managerial and technical competencies to face the emerging competition. International Small Business Journal. The advantages which account for this extra ability. vol. International Small Business Journal. It would therefore be wise to target those firms which are based in the wealth creating parts of both manufacturing and service sectors.
The results of this study suggest that reported failure rates may depend heavily on the definition of failure adopted. John Watson and Jim Everett. 1: pp. Aug 1983. The failure of small businesses has serious implications for employment in many countries and much is said and written about small business failure and bankruptcy. vol. Apr 1998. Joyce Berryman. vol. 47–59. vol. Apr 1993. The significant variations in reported failure rates and the apparent conflict between the findings of some studies must surely be a source of some confusion for policy makers and others with an interest in the small business sector. Indeed. (11) Defining Small Business Failure. Stuart Price. 16: pp. David Purdy. 21 . The results show that the reported average annual failure rate ranged from less than 1 per cent through to 14 per cent. John Watson and Jim Everett. (12) Franchise Versus Conventional Small Business Failure Rates in the US and UK: More Similarities than Differences. 35–48 In examining small business mortality researchers have used. A better understanding of the effect that choice of failure definitions may have on reported failure rates should lead to improved policy decisions. a variety of definitions (or proxies) for failure. depending on which definition of failure is adopted. and Nicos Zafiris. 17: pp. The objective of this study is to examine various definitions (or proxies) for failure identified in the literature and to assess these definitions against a set of criteria that have been developed for this purpose. the results from some studies are in direct conflict. International Small Business Journal.(9) Small Business Failure Rates: Choice of Definition and Industry Effects. Jan 1999. 11: pp. for the small businessman they may be degrading and disappointing in addition to the personal hardship involved. It has been argued that a lack of a reliable measure of failure is a major obstacle to understanding and alleviating the causes of small business mortality. The results also indicate the possibility for using modelling to estimate potentially more relevant failure rates using readily available data such as bankruptcy statistics. Results from previous studies examining the incidence of small business failure have reported significant variations in failure rates between industry sectors. 56–69. (10) Small Business Failure and Survey of the Literature. International Small Business Journal. Authors and speakers are usually interested therefore in suggesting means of avoiding such disasters. vol. International Small Business Journal. or suggested. International Small Business Journal. They are bad for the economy because they mean lost jobs and a drop in the gross national product as well as promoting a lack of confidence in the small business sector. This survey of the literature on bankruptcy and failure has been undertaken to bring together what has been said so far. 31–47. John Stanworth. The history of 333 small businesses that began in the period 1973–1988 in six managed shopping centres in Western Australia are analysed to illustrate the variation in reported failure rates that result from using the various definitions.
such as overconfidence and emotional unfitness. in exchange for payment of a once-off frontend fee followed by an on-going royalty. There are many small hospitality firms which do successfully compete in their local market. Jan 1998. located close to its market and in personal contact with its customers. Graham Beaver and Conrad Lashley. (14) Competitive Advantage and Management Development in Small Hospitality Firms: The need for an Imaginative Approach. that led to failure. franchising offers a route to growth for the would-be franchisor and small businesses opportunities with limited risk for would-be franchisees. Camillo. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. This study examines the success factors for independent restaurant operators in the San Francisco Bay Area. owned and managed by individuals intimately involved in creating the hospitality experience with customers. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Augmenting an earlier model. 145–160. the small hospitality enterprise. small businesses themselves and most of their royalty-paying franchisees are also small businesses. (13) Success and Failure in Northern California: Critical Success Factors for Independent Restaurants. 364–380. vol. have more remote and less personal relationships with customers. recent developments have improved the situation here and what emerges is a striking similarity of failure. Debates on franchise failure rates. vol. Daniel J. Nov 2008. In theory. should enjoy considerable competitive advantage over larger organisations. However. These firms. 4: pp. or recently have been. Thus. Some commentators go so far as dismiss the future existence of the small firm in hospitality provision! While the economic might of large firms to establish brands and operate at lower costs because of scale advantages goes some way to explain the loss of market share to small firms. since most franchisors still are. have historically been dogged by problems of definition and measurement. in principle. 49: pp. that perhaps as a consequence of their organisational formality. yet small firms in general are losing market share to the bigger operators. franchising is an avenue into self-employment offered by franchisors (owners of a ‘tried and tested’ business format) to franchisees (typically aspiring small businessmen and women). a principal tenet of the franchise fraternity is that franchise failure rates are low. the cases of nine successful restaurants and nine failed restaurants were studied from 2003 to 2007. the level of skills and talents together with the limited aims and objectives of those who own and manage small hospitality firms are also significant factors. franchising has been argued to be of particular importance. Connolly. Angelo A. The findings reinforce past studies by emphasising the internal factors. From the viewpoint of small business researchers. 22 . and Woo Gon Kim. Based on the principle of ‘cloning’ success. Through interviews and questionnaires.At its best. this study seeks to help future entrepreneurs and those who invest in restaurants. compared with conventional business failure rates. has considerable advantage in being able to respond quickly to customer needs and demands.
First. it is argued that the outcome of the entrepreneurial process is emergent from a complex interaction between the entrepreneur. 22: pp. Organisational research has historically been dominated by a focus on those factors associated with organisational growth and survival. chance events and prior performance. 17–37. particularly as they apply to strategic studies. This view is elaborated here as it applies to new small businesses. The challenge currently facing organisational researchers is the integration of these diverse perspectives. 14: pp. taken alone. a bankruptcy filing is a discrete event. International Small Business Journal. Catherine M. environmental. Rather. contextual conditions that can limit these impacts are described. Jan 1993. necessity was driving action). Michael J. some scholars have suggested that the high mortality of new small businesses could be reduced through greater pre-start up planning. Then. Although evidence is equivocal and often contradictory. Consistent with this advice. Yet. bankruptcy offers what may be the definitive organisational performance indicator. Journal of Management. Peel. in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of organisations. (16) Bankruptcy in Strategic Studies: Past and Promise. Castrogiovanni. 18: pp. (17) A Constructivist Framework for Understanding Entrepreneurship Performance. The amount of working capital management undertaken was found to be related to the severity of the problem for individual firms (i. This paper explores the contributions of the behavioural. 801–822. However. Gary J. Unlike alternative performance measures which are more readily manipulated by management. 549–570. and Carole Howorth. vol. Daily. The core thesis of the paper is that. ways in which pre-startup planning can facilitate survival are delineated. Organisation Studies. Dec 1996. consequently. 23 . BUSINESS FINANCE (18) Late Payment and Credit Management in the Small Firm Sector: Some Empirical Evidence. Filing for bankruptcy protection provides an explicit case of formal organisational failure. the environment. The framework is illustrated with evidence from biographies of six entrepreneurs involved in successful processes. Nicholas Wilson. Hamid Bouchikhi. vol.(15) Pre-Startup Planning and the Survival of New Small Businesses: Theoretical Linkages. vol. Jan 2000. Journal of Management. financial/accounting. 20: pp.e. This paper outlines a constructivist framework for understanding the outcomes of the entrepreneurial process. researchers must also examine an alternative outcome – organisational failure. 263–295. vol. neither the personality of the entrepreneur nor the structural characteristics of the environment determine the outcome. prospective business founders are generally advised to develop formal plans of their proposed ventures. Apr 1994. there is an emerging view that the value of planning is context-dependent. and legal approaches to bankruptcy.
the firms which claimed to use the more sophisticated discounted cash flow capital budgeting techniques. 9: pp. Stanley Cromie. the results of the survey indicated that a relatively high proportion of small firms in the sample claimed to use quantitative capital budgeting and working capital techniques and to review various aspects of their companies’ working capital. In general. It was posited that the problems faced by small firms are at least partly associated with business size and with the life cycle of the firm.e. there was barely any support for credit management training among this sub-group. However. vol. larger small firms had a worse late payment problem and consequently had to do more in the way of ‘back-end’ credit management (i. This methodology is similar to that used to identify financial patterns but it is applied here to financial variables from several years simultaneously. The results may. (19) Working Capital and Financial Management Practices in the Small Firm Sector. Laitinen. The purpose of the study is to identify financial processes followed by Finnish newly founded firms in their first years of life. analysis of late payment and debtor days). It is hoped that the issues raised will stimulate further theoretical and empirical contributions on this neglected and important area of small business research. In this paper Cromie surveys the literature on the failure of small firms and argues that there is a need to focus attention on those factors which contribute to the demise of male and female owned firms in the ‘demarrage’ phase of the development. venture capitalists and financiers to identify and avoid risky financial processes in the early years. Peel and Nicholas Wilson. vol. Michael J. Apr 1991. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary study on the working capital and financial management practices of a sample of small firms located in the north of England. Jan 1996. Erkki K. The identification of the processes is made by factor analysis applied to selected financial variables in the first four years after foundation. 47–54. The smaller (micro) firms had a lesser late payment problem and subsequently did less ‘back-end’ credit management but were more concerned with various aspects of institutional finance. In addition. or which had been active in terms of reducing stock levels or the debtors’ credit period. (20) Financial Processes in Newly-Founded Firms. help new entrepreneurs. vol. 10: pp. however. To add to knowledge of this topic he interviewed 34 male and 34 female proprietors of four year old firms and questioned them on the problems they encountered in their early years. International Small Business Journal. International Small Business Journal. 43–61. International Small Business Journal. 14: pp. 52–68.Responses from the sample firms were found to differ significantly with respect to firm size. collection. Special attention is paid to analysing the relationship between the type of process and the status of the firm (failing/nonfailing). Jul 1992. Very little research has been conducted on the capital budgeting and working capital practices of small firms. 24 . (21) The Problems Experienced by Young Firms. The results of the study are tentative because of the small sample size. on average tended to be more active in respect of working capital management practices.
International Small Business Journal. Appalachia is considered one of the nation’s poorest areas. Attention is given to the degree of congruence between people.Results indicate that problems occur principally in the areas of finance. The paper concludes by noting that while training interventions. and providing a greater contribution to the economy. vol. eliminate such potential? (23) Integration of Micro/Small Business Support Agencies and Clients to Strengthen the Private Sector in the Dominican Republic. residents have only limited access to these resources. James Curran. This paper deals with the design and organisation of micro and small business support agencies in the Dominican Republic. vol. which focus on finance. and the Culture of Despair: Can Sustainable Development Strategies Support Poverty Alleviation in America’s Most Environmentally Challenged Communities?. 590: pp. Amy K. equating personal and organisational success. or does the peculiar fate of a region. Farrigan. marketing and the management of human resources. 25 . Alan Miller and John Masten. Information for the paper was obtained in 13 indepth interviews. Many communities live in isolation. providing more effective service. and process of the assistance agency and the client enterprise. a series of new policy initiatives are focusing on building sustainable community capacity from the ground up. marketing and the management of people. 11: pp. Nov 2003. entrepreneurs experience some difficult personal problems. Women incur a few gender specific problems during the launch of their firms but thereafter gender ceases to be a specific issue. 26–36. International Small Business Journal. structure. The authors then demonstrate that some of the agency activities reflect attempts by agencies to compensate for these divergences. SUPPORT SERVICES (22) Poverty. (24) What is Small Business Policy in the UK for? Evaluation and Assessing Small Business Policies. may well improve the chances of survival of young organisations. In addition. Recognising the inability of conventional practice to resolve many of the development problems confronting communities in distress. Jan 1993. Despite living and working in areas with enormous natural resource wealth. 131–149. land is externally owned and controlled. tied to massive natural resource extraction. 18: pp. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. both sexes face the same kind of problems. The material use of the natural landscape has affected citizens’ views of the viability of and potential for sustainable resource practices. attention must focus on organisational diagnosis to determine where interventions are likely to succeed and on the process by which trainers assist entrepreneurs. These adjustments integrate client and agency performance in order that they better meet organisational objectives by expanding resources. Apr 2000. vol. Can notions of sustainability be used as a means of redistributing power and access to natural resources. Glasmeier and Tracey L. In many resource dependent communities. Sustainability. 36–50. Special attention is given to examining divergences between client and agency characteristics.
It concludes that even allowing for the problems of evaluation. it is unlikely that this has been due to state intervention. Robert J. little attention has been given to whether the support represents good value for public money. although small businesses have become much more important in the UK economy. one of the best and clearest supported findings is of poor take-up of the support offered. (26) Advising the Small Business Client. is offered as an illustration of the prospects and issues related to the use of BIDs as a small business enhancement strategy.Since 1980 the United Kingdom small business population has increased greatly. 130–151. Dyer and Christopher A. the question can be asked whether such policies are needed at all any more. Stokes. In other words. 21: pp. with specific focus on the culture. The advisor’s rational and analytic world-view is contrasted with the informal and idiosyncratic world of the typical small business owner. 278–291. International Small Business Journal. Economic Development Quarterly. Small businesses have also acquired a key role in UK economic policies paralleled by a huge development in support structures to promote them. communication preferences and learning styles they prefer. vol. Despite broad rhetorical claims that policies and support help develop a strong enterprise culture and promote UK economic prosperity. Because of the well-entrenched unanimity on the value of small business support in the UK. Even advisors who are motivated to improve the advice relationship by immersing themselves in the world of the small business owner can expect to face challenges because of the dynamic nature of the advisory relationship and of the firm’s development. As policies developed over the 20 years. Ross. The case of one citywide BID programme in San Diego. vol. Urban analysts have pointed to the importance of neighbourhood commercial districts in enhancing amenities and providing low. California. but recognition of the problem is only the first step. Advisors do recognise this disparity. Business improvement districts (BIDs) offer an innovation to the problem of urban commercial decline. Interviews with ten professional advisors suggest that there is some truth to the assumption that advisors and owners have disparate world-views. 26 . Apr 2007. Aug 2007. This paper examines the problems of evaluating small business policies and support and draws out some key implications for their future in the UK. The context of the professional business advisor is explored. 25: pp. the precise outcomes of these policies have been difficult to pin down. not collective assessments of larger BIDs nationally or theoretical issues of accountability or governance of BIDs. Not only can there be doubts about whether the policies and support are cost effective but more importantly. Small and medium-sized businesses now account for well over half of business turnover and jobs in the UK. This work addresses one key policy question: How can cities use BIDs to assist their small business base? This work differs from previous examinations of BIDs in that it addresses localised policy and administration of a citywide BID programme. (25) Business Improvement Districts and Small Business Advocacy: The Case of San Diego’s Citywide BID Program.to mid-skill-level employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for local residents. Linda M. the evaluation of their achievements has also proved difficult because of methodological problems.
(29) Business Advisers’ Impact on SMEs: An Agency Theory Approach. represents an attempt to overcome such methodological deficiencies. 20: pp. vol. Kevin Mole. and Claire M. Despite this growth there is still a relative paucity of rigorous empirical research that attempts to assess the impact of initiatives. Dec 2005. In the last couple of decades there has been a growing interest in the role that small and new businesses can play in economic development. Jun 2004. which was conducted in Ireland. May 2002. The research reported in this article. Lorraine Watkins-Mathys and Sid Lowe. 22: pp. Frances M. encouraged Business Link to provide advice to firms with the potential to grow. International Small Business Journal. recommendations for further research are made and implications for policy makers and training providers are highlighted. Overall. vol. Hill. The authors illustrate how a framework based on wisdom rather than knowledge alone provides strategic options for paradigm development in the field. There have been a number of debates recently around the development of paradigms and research methodologies in the field of small business and entrepreneurship research. vol. Leitch. which are worthy of further investigation. the lack of longitudinal studies and studies employing control groups. including those education and training programmes designed to support new business creation. The article draws on a qualitative-quantitative study of business advice conducted by the author. This article focuses on paradigm commensurability by demonstrating how an interpretive framework can be used that eliminates walls between paradigms and enables paradigms to interpret other paradigms. The article suggests that Business Link PBAs’ advice is likely to impact less on SMEs than that of accountants and solicitors simply because of the basis of their relationship. The limitations of the study are acknowledged. 27 . The study presents some evidence that a range of qualitative and quantitative outcomes may emanate from training programmes directed at aspiring new business owners. 249–271. The article acknowledges the systematic analysis of paradigms and indeed uses a thorough review of the literature as a basis to illustrate how the interpretive framework can be applied. The article considers the targeted policy from the perspective of the Business Link personal business adviser (PBA).(27) Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research: The Way Through Paradigm Incommensurability. International Small Business Journal. 139–162. (28) The Effectiveness of Training for New Business Creation: A Longitudinal Study. International Small Business Journal. This policy. The broad focus of this article concerns the UK Business Link policy to target business advice to small and medium-sized firms. A survey of 175 Business Link personal business advisers (PBAs) provided the quantitative element to the research. which operated between 1993–9. the article examines the incentives and relationships between various business advisers and their SME (small to medium-sized enterprise) clients to explain the impact of business advice. In particular. has been noted in the literature. 657–677. Twenty-nine business advisers participated in individual semistructured interviews and a focus group of ten public sector business advisers provided the qualitative element of the research. Colette Henry. 23: pp. from a principal-agent perspective.
vol. Other areas of the social sciences have benefited from the consideration of the meta-theoretical foundations of their research and as a consequence they have been able to extend their research into new agendas. 23: pp. International Small Business Journal. it is clear that the health and future development of research in this area requires a broadening of perspectives to enable debate. Paul Grant and Lew Perren. In other words. It notes that many of the issues raised in this respect are over 20 years old. Much of this development has been achieved by drawing on and adapting the theoretical frameworks of disciplines from outside. International Small Business Journal.(30) Specificity and Denaturing of Small Business. etc. However. namely by considering the learning needs that will reduce the transaction costs of the small firm operating its stakeholder environment. There has been some meta-theoretic discussion of small business and entrepreneurial research. Gibb. This paper begins with a review of the present concerns to link training with competitiveness in the United Kingdom and Europe. Olivier Torrès and Pierre-André Julien. and objective and abstract 28 . Paradigms and Prejudices. Allan A. International Small Business Journal. It suggests therefore a new way to approach the problems. 15: pp. vol. 20: pp. Building Upon the Small Business as a Learning Organisation. friction. If we allow that small business management can be specific. the somewhat excessive assertion of this idea may suggest that all small firms adopt a specific management method. a small-sized firm does not necessarily have to adhere to the classical management method. May 2002. researchers in small business have accepted the idea that small business is specific (the preponderant role of the owner/manager. Small business and entrepreneurship has emerged as an important area of research over the past 40 years. low level of functional breakdown. if not all. vol. The analysis shows a dominance of the functionalist paradigm that pervades the elite discourse of research in leading journals and acts as a potential barrier to other perspectives. (32) Small Firms’ Training and Competitiveness. After defining the concept of learning it makes the distinction between contextual learning (via experience) and the associated tacit (subjective) knowledge that is gained by this. The authors of this article advocate a contingency approach to small business managerial specificity that would allow for the definition of a validity framework for the thesis of small business managerial specificity. 355–377. such diversity of disciplinary foundation does not necessarily result in a diversity of underlying meta-theoretical assumptions within an area.). Whether a Hegelian or Kuhnian perspective on knowledge production is taken. 13–29. This article is based on a long consideration of the concept of small business after 30 years of conceptual development. 185–211. This article will address this gap by employing a paradigmatic taxonomy to conduct a systematic metatheoretical analysis of articles published in the year 2000 by leading authors in key small business and entrepreneurial journals. Aug 2005. we must also allow the corollary of this statement. (31) Small Business and Entrepreneurial Research: Meta-theories. Most. with the result that management specificity becomes a universal principle. creativity and ultimately new theories and understandings. Apr 1997. yet the review conducted for this project found no recent articles that provided a systematic analysis of contemporary research. However. namely the possibility of denaturing (loss of specificity). intuitive strategy.
and working in partnership with the private sector to establish an effective support infrastructure. In such a context. BUSINESS FUNDING (34) Working Capital and Financial Management Practices in the Small Firm Sector. in countries where market reforms are at a more advanced stage (such as Poland). the firms which 29 . Jul 2001. 63–77. At the same time. 19: pp. direct support measures are not the main role for government in either case. encouraging the banking system to adapt and recognise the SME sector as a potential market for a range of financial products. the state is a major factor influencing the nature and pace of SME development. The concept of learning circles and learning partnerships is introduced as a basis for exploring in some detail the issue of ‘who’ needs to learn. government still has to create the framework conditions for private sector development to become embedded and sustaining. survive and sometimes even grow despite government. International Small Business Journal. vol. 14: pp.knowledge frequently purveyed by teachers. It is argued that the learning needs of those who effectively dictate the level of the playing field for achieving small business success are very high. 52–68. The nature and importance of this learning need is then explored for key groups. Very little research has been conducted on the capital budgeting and working capital practices of small firms. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary study on the working capital and financial management practices of a sample of small firms located in the north of England. as in mature market economies. (33) The Role of Government in SME Development in Transition Economies. It then explores the issue of the SME as a ‘learning company’ and argues that the key to its learning is via the transactional and other relationship that it has with its immediate network environment. David Smallbone and Friederike Welter. Survey evidence from the Ukraine. Peel and Nicholas Wilson. Although there may be a case for selective interventions in both types of circumstances. although more through its influence on the external environment in which business activity can develop than through direct support measures or interventions. In general. vol. Jan 1996. The paper is concerned with the role of government in relation to SME development in economies at different stages of market reform. Michael J. It is argued that the benefits to society of this holistic approach to learning is a reduction in the ‘discontinuities’ between the SME and its environment and therefore a lowering of transaction costs. International Small Business Journal. In addition. current priorities for government with respect to the environment for SME development include bringing legislation and regulations in line with EU standards in preparation for EU accession. Belarus and Moldova suggests that many enterprises are set up. It demonstrates that. facilitating the development of venture capital funds for that minority of SMEs that seek external equity. the results of the survey indicated that a relatively high proportion of small firms in the sample claimed to use quantitative capital budgeting and working capital techniques and to review various aspects of their companies’ working capital. The problem is that in these situations the number of firms remains small and their contribution to economic development rather limited. because of the creativity of individuals in mobilising resources and their flexibility in adapting to hostile external environments.
(36) Small Business Loan Decisions: A Survey of Criteria in Japan and Nigeria. Jan 1994. (37) Is there Any Specific Equity Route for Small and Medium-Sized Family Businesses? The French Experience. Sep 2004. Loïc Mahérault. on average tended to be more active in respect of working capital management practices. The article concludes that the banking sectors of both Western and Eastern Europe have much left to do if they are to assist the development of franchising to its full potential. The sample is composed of 131 IPOs. The paper examines issues such as the early origins of franchising and different manifestations of the concept. 12: pp. This period was probably the most active period for the French sections of the stock exchange dedicated to small and medium-sized companies. S. 29–42. The analysis breaks free from the traditional ‘family versus nonfamily business methodology’ and is based first on a global cluster analysis. I. vol. 17: pp. What inspired this study was the feeling that there was a new competition between venture capitalist companies and the stock exchange: recent experience on the financial markets clearly highlights the fact that many companies 30 . International Small Business Journal. Empirical results make it possible to consider that there is a specific attitude among family businesses aiming at quotation. (35) Improving Small Business Survival Rates via Franchising The Role of the Banks in Europe. 15–25. vol.claimed to use the more sophisticated discounted cash flow capital budgeting techniques. Some international statistics are presented and certain problems of measurement illustrated. Owualah. A major finding of this study is that although there is some degree of congruence on what banking institutions in both countries consider to be critical in their small business loan decisions. a survey of specialist bank provision for franchising in Europe shows only British and Dutch banks as giving full support with French banks also displaying a good level of franchise knowledge. Peter Stern and John Stanworth. On both counts Japan towers over Nigeria. Hence the perceptions of the banking institutions to small business lending in the former can be used to assess the perceptions of those in the latter. Oct 1988. the observed divergences in their perceptions may be the consequence of institutional or promotional support inequalities between them. Family Business Review. 221–235. Finally. Japan and Nigeria present striking contrasts. not only in terms of their levels of economic development but also in terms of socio-economic infrastructures enjoyed by their small businesses. 7: pp. This paper reports the results of a survey of small business loan decision criteria in two countries at very different stages of development. This article presents a precise typology of French initial public offerings (IPOs) with the underlying aim of suggesting that small and medium-sized family businesses could have a specific approach to capital dilution. It aimed to prove that family businesses were not only different but also specific. International Small Business Journal. It is hoped that the issues raised will stimulate further theoretical and empirical contributions on this neglected and important area of small business research. or which had been active in terms of reducing stock levels or the debtors’ credit period. The study covers the period from January 1997 to May 1999 and includes all the IPOs that occurred during these two-and-a-half years. vol.
(38) The Influence of Going Public on Investment Policy: An Empirical Study of French Family-Owned Businesses. especially those family businesses that have an important market-share position in their industry. The family businesses that have leading market-share positions have lesser financial performance than the family businesses who are followers in market share. (39) Finance in Family Business. entrepreneur or other issues. Loïc Mahérault. Mar 2000. Most potential funders wish to see a business plan as a first step in deciding whether or not to invest. The relation between these dimensions and performance is also analysed. venture capital fund managers and business angels have a very different approach. vol. The description of listed family firms is more classical: investment and financing policies seem to be independent. whereas fast-growing and young companies prefer to go public. 13: pp. much of the literature on how to write a business plan fails to emphasise that different types of funder look at business plans from different perspectives. The implication for entrepreneurs is that 31 . behaviour towards investments and risk. 1993). This article is an exploratory investigation of the financial issues of family business. venture capital fund managers and business angels. Bankers stress the financial aspects of the proposal and give little emphasis to market. the first aim of this research was to prove that the equity route of some small and medium enterprises (SMEs) no longer follows the linear process of dilution as supposed by the classical financial theory. vol. Linear regressions between investment and financial constraints are presented for the two samples separately. Business angels give more emphasis than venture capital fund managers to the entrepreneur and ‘investor fit’ considerations. Results are very different. The description of private firms’ investment is consistent with the pecking order theory and financial constraints clearly appear. 71–79. As equity investors. quoted family-owned businesses do not seem to suffer from lack of capital. 22: pp. vol. Finally. The most important findings of this research are that family businesses have low debt equity levels. International Small Business Journal. However. The study is carried out on two samples of small French family firms. and dividend policy.preferred to go public rather than to significantly open their equity structure to private investors. depending on whether the firm is listed. Dec 1996. Colin Mason and Matthew Stark. 227–248. Jun 2004. The first is composed of 46 private companies. Consequently. 9: pp. All companies are SMEs (small and medium-size enterprises) and are nearly the same size. the second of 49 listed companies. Using a real time methodology this article highlights the different investment criteria of bankers. Empirical results are based on two cross-sectional analyses (1992. Gallo and Alvaro Vilaseca. Venture Capitalists and Business Angels. Family Business Review. Miguel A. (40) What do Investors Look for in a Business Plan?: A Comparison of the Investment Criteria of Bankers. The second aim was to demonstrate that the approach of small and medium-sized family businesses is closer to the classical equity route (regular process of dilution). Family Business Review. such as capital structure. emphasising both market and finance issues. 387–401.
McConaughy. Following a review of the literature. Christine T. This study reports on the California State Loan Guarantee Program. Astrachan and Daniel L. Apr 1998. International Small Business Journal. The programme also increased state tax revenues by $25. and Lauren H. (41) The Contribution of Small Business Loan Guarantees to Economic Development. Ted K. Analysis of the outcome of economic development programmes is essential for improved public policy. 13–31. Dec 2001. makes them highly dependent on short-term bank financing. The study tracked the actual change in employment at 1166 firms that received 1515 loan guarantees from 1990 to 1996 during the depths of the California recession. 14: pp. by exploring the nature of the banking relationship from the perspective of two groups of owner-managers differentiated only by gender. The purpose of this paper is to shed new light on the issue of whether banks treat female and male small business owners differently. 32 . Nov 2002. vol. which is predominantly North American-based. 39–55. 16: pp. 295–311. (43) The Nature of the Banking Relationship: A Comparison of the Experiences of Male and Female Small Business Owners. 360–369. McKechnie. Read. vol. David Camino and Clara Cardone. Bradshaw. (42) The Valuation and Cost of Credit Insurance Schemes for SMEs: The Role of the Loan Guarantee Associations.they must customise their business plan according to whether they are seeking funding from a bank. well in excess of the $13 million the state spent on the programme. Family Business Review. The findings suggest that gender based differences in both the provision of finance and the nature of the banking relationship are less substantial than might have been expected. this paper goes on to report the findings of two empirical studies conducted in the UK. vol. Joseph H. vol. which guaranteed small business bank loans to carefully selected firms that could not otherwise obtain credit. Sally A. Among the different mechanisms used to solve these financial problems are credit guarantee schemes such as Loan Guarantee Association (LGA). 17: pp. Jul 1999. The study found that employment increased in firms receiving loan guarantees by 40% among all firms and 27% among non-agricultural firms. Ennew. Their reduced capability to generate resources (self financing) and their high financial cost as compared with the profitability of investment. which focus on financing conditions and aspects of the overall relationship between the small business and the bank manager. Economic Development Quarterly. Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs) have important limitations from the financial viewpoint. International Small Business Journal. venture capital fund or business angel. (44) Venture Capitalists and Closely Held IPOs: Lessons for Family-Controlled Firms. These (mutual or government granted) credit insurance systems were set up to ease the access of SMEs to the credit market by covering part of the loss incurred when borrowers defaulted on loans.5 million. 16: pp. Firms receiving loan guarantees had a default rate of only 2%.
Demand for informal venture capital is increasing in Britain as a result of the tightening in lending to small businesses by banks and the shift of institutional venture capital funds even further away from start-up and early stage investments. they have substantial uncommitted sums available for informal investments. In general. Concrete suggestions are offered that may circumvent building structural deficiencies into the emerging generation of community development financial institutions. vol. It also identifies other factors that are related to the performance of closely held IPOs.S. business introduction services are still at the experimental stage and have had only a limited impact on the flow of informal venture capital. vol. active investors represent only a fraction of self-made. firms contemplating IPOs must plan well in advance to maximise firm value. high net worth individuals. these community development financial institutions need to avoid the debt financing that government is offering as an incentive to promote venture-capital financing in small businesses. 23–38. Research in a number of countries has established that informal venture capital is a major source of risk capital for entrepreneurial companies. VCs. First. International Small Business Journal. The establishment of business introduction services can play a key role in enabling active investors to identify appropriate investment opportunities and also provide ‘virgin angels’ with a source of investment opportunities. As a result. substantially exceeding the size of the formal venture capital market. (46) Strategies for Expanding the Informal Venture Capital Market. Family-controlled firms contemplating growth or liquidity options through the IPO. 33 . 49– 59. This study identifies failed concepts being built into present and proposed venturecapital community development financial institutions. we find that closely held IPOs benefit from associations with VCs. Jul 1993. thereby removing a major constraint to their participation in the informal venture capital market. In particular. or other outside capital should consider the findings of this study because it identifies factors that are associated with more successful IPO outcomes. Because it takes time for VCs to effect changes and because beneficial changes generally occur gradually.This study examines how the presence of venture capitalists (VCs) in closely held IPOs relates to their performance. The informal venture capital market comprises individuals – commonly termed ‘business angels’ – who provide risk capital directly to entrepreneurial businesses. Economic Development Quarterly. Feb 2002. Former President Bill Clinton’s New Markets Initiative includes a proposal to create companies that will invest venture capital into small firms that operate in low-income areas. 16: pp. Important elements of this proposal are essentially recycled ideas that worked badly when implemented back in the 1970s by the U. most active informal investors are unable to find sufficient investment opportunities. However. This finding suggests that VCs’ outside expertise and connections are valuable assets. This paper argues that there is considerable scope to expand the supply of informal venture capital. Colin Mason and Richard Harrison. Small Business Administration. (45) Government as Venture Capital Catalyst: Pitfalls and Promising Approaches. Closely held firms in this study had an average of 88% insider ownership before the IPO. Second. Timothy Bates. 11: pp. Key determinants in the success of business introduction services appear to be marketing effort to build a critical mass.
vol. private companies. greater financial flexibility. 579–602. (49) The Views of Family Companies on Venture Capital: Empirical Evidence from the UK Small to Medium-Size Enterprising Economy.533 small and medium-sized Spanish manufacturing firms over the period from 1997 to 2001. and when the interest cost differential between short. vol. Panikkos Zata Poutziouris. including family-controlled ventures. García-Teruel and Pedro MartínezSolano. This article analyses the debt maturity structure of small and medium-sized firms in terms of the risk and return trade-off associated with the use of short-term loans. Additionally. The paper then concludes with a discussion of the policy implications from the perspective of the owner-manager. International Small Business Journal. the main research inquiries are outlined and a set of generic hypotheses is elicited based on the pecking order theory – that is. short-term borrowing levels are higher in the smaller firms. 11–28. 14: pp. 18: pp. external equity. and enterprise policy maker. To encourage equity development of smaller privately held companies. The need to increase the availability of small-scale early stage venture capital has been recognised as a key factor in the development of an entrepreneurial economy. The paper explores factors governing the rationale of owner-managing directors of private and family companies for considering venture capital dealings as well as main areas of concern about the deal structures. Informal venture capital plays a key role in financing the earliest stages of entrepreneurial growth ventures. financier. (48) Short-term Debt in Spanish SMEs. the size of the firm seems to have an influence on the level of short-term loans. 25: pp. 34 . and major growth options. Mason and Richard T. International Small Business Journal. particularly family firms. Univariate statistical analyses confirm that family companies adhere strongly to the pecking order principles of financial development. vol. followed by debt and. This explorative research paper draws evidence from a database of small to mediumsize unquoted private companies (n = 240) in the UK and reports on the family business and venture capital relationship from the demand side.(47) Influences on the Supply of Informal Venture Capital in the UK: An Exploratory Study of Investor Attitudes. Dec 2007. Sep 2001. Family Business Review. Pedro J. have a propensity to finance their operations in a hierarchical fashion. The sample covers 11. finally. This paper is an exploratory attempt to identify the factors that influence the supply of informal venture capital. A questionnaire survey of business angels sought to examine the macro-economic factors that influence the proportion of their personal investment portfolio allocated to investments in unquoted small businesses. first using internally available funds. Following the review of literature relating to financial affairs of private companies. Harrison.and long-term loans is more pronounced. Colin M. The findings indicate that tax is the most significant influence on the willingness of business angels to make such investments whereas the economic environment – the rate of economic growth. 277–291. interest rates and the rate of inflation – exerts a much more modest influence.The results show that short-term loans are more common in firms with greater financial strength. there is room for policy initiatives that respect the financial philosophy of private companies. Jul 2000.
Business Information Review. On what basis do U. MARKET SIZE (1) Compiling Market Reports: The Value of Online Databases. Grahame Boocock and Margaret Woods. Internet Firms: An Empirical Analysis of Country Risk. and H. The analysis confirms that relatively consistent evaluation criteria are applied across the industry and corroborates previous models which suggest that the venture capitalist’s decisionmaking consists of several stages. Oct 1994. Feb 2006. In addition. CHAPTER 5 The topics for which specific articles are identified include market analysis. In the vast majority of cases. David Tucker. Rothaermel. 16: pp. 56–82. cultural distance. whereas individualism and masculinity increase it. however. (2) International Market Entry by U. applications are rejected by the fund managers. Gives specific examples of market reports being prepared for publication. vol. International market size. With the benefit of access to the Fund’s internal records. 35 . Proposals have to satisfy different criteria at each stage of the decisionmaking process before they receive funding. competitive mapping to determine an appropriate positioning and macroenvironmental factors of influence. by exploring the evaluation criteria and the decision-making process adopted at one United Kingdom regional venture fund (henceforth referred to as the Fund).S.S. Kevin Steensma. Oct 1997. Frank T. 36–57. Internet firms. Journal of Management. this paper adds to the current literature by differentiating the evaluation criteria used at each successive stage of the decision-making process. 32: pp. however. National Culture. the length of time taken by the fund managers in appraising propositions can lead to withdrawal of applications at an advanced stage. 2–16. vol. The paper examines how venture fund managers select their investee companies. they find that country risk. Suresh Kotha. business strategy. vol. Internet firms face somewhat unique challenges when expanding abroad.(50) The Evaluation Criteria used by Venture Capitalists: Evidence from a UK Venture Fund. Analyses the types of information source needed for market reports and their availability online.S. Compares information search and retrieval costs of online and conventional methods. and uncertainty avoidance reduce the likelihood of international market entry. International Small Business Journal. Evaluates the importance of online business databases to the compiler and writer of market reports. Drawing on a sample of almost 7000 country entry decisions by 179 U. and Market Size. The paper presents a model of the Fund’s activities which demonstrates that the relative importance attached to the evaluation criteria changes as applications are systematically processed. 11: pp. Internet firms choose the international markets they enter? The authors posit that international market entry decisions are based on balancing perceived risks and returns inherent in a foreign target market.
market size. Market share plays a central role in a number of portfolio planning models. Over the past few decades. and emergence of the global consumer. cross-border business has experienced unparalleled growth. (3) Product Portfolio Analysis and Market Share Objectives: An Exposition of Certain Underlying Relationships. country characteristics. As the era of globalisation continues to manifest through the emergence of global companies. and consumer characteristics to CRM strategies to maximise customer value across the global customer portfolio of the firm. the authors present an overview of the GCRM environment and the challenges in formulation and implementation of CRM across national boundaries as a source of sustained advantage. product sales volume and product sales growth rate. 18: pp. market growth rate. 36 . Findings from one group of studies suggest that factors determining entry mode choice by manufacturing firms are generalisable to service firms. the importance of customer relationship management (CRM) in these companies has become increasingly significant. competition. vol. Journal of Service Research. and the nominal and real dollar sales growth rate are discussed. Ikechi Ekeledo and K. research propositions are developed. and Joseph Pancras. The authors also provide a conceptual framework for GCRM and recommendations for future research. Three constructs – the market share multiplier.moderates these relationships by weakening the negative effects. vol. and the dollar volume multiplier – which aid in the strategic analysis of the product portfolio are proposed. the physical volume multiplier. Jan 1990. (5) Issues and Perspectives in Global Customer Relationship Management. Certain generalisations regarding market share and its sensitivity to various environmental conditions are highlighted. Sivakumar. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Nov 2006. vol. P. privatisation and deregulation in emerging economies. 26: pp. In this article. 195–207. while strengthening the positive effects. which incorporates relevant differences in business practices. David Bejou. regulatory characteristics. Charlotte Mason. Subhash C. Rajan Varadarajan. This growth is due to advances in communication and information technologies. Findings from another group of studies contradict that view. and managerial implications and future research directions are discussed. The authors reconcile the two views by means of a classification scheme that allows some services to be grouped with manufactured goods in terms of entry mode choice. 274–292. Research on how service firms choose their initial mode of operation in foreign markets appears to have led to two contradictory conclusions. 17–29. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. The linkages between inter-related growth constructs such as the volumetric and dollar sales growth rate. This article presents an exposition of the underlying relationship between market share. 9: pp. Ramaseshan. Global CRM (GCRM) is the strategic application of the processes and practices of CRM by firms operating in multiple countries or by firms serving customers who span multiple countries. A conceptual model of factors affecting the entry mode choice of service firms is proposed. Oct 1998. (4) Foreign Market Entry Mode Choice of Service Firms: A Contingency Perspective. Jain. B.
its general coverage and the problems posed by its rapidly changing nature. Propositions are proposed to guide future research. vol. and Learned Information Europe Ltd. Market Growth. 37 . Smith. Barbara A. selected surveys. and Endogenous Growth Theory: An Inquiry Into the Causes of Market Growth. (8) UK Business Information Market: Sources of Statistics and Market Data. 333–347. 10: pp. Oct 2004. periodicals and legal documents. Although marketing scholars seem implicitly to assume that marketing efforts contribute in some way to market growth. Indications are given of the current availability of key sources of statistical data and other information on the UK business information market. directories. newspapers. mainly books. Dec 1999. 347–359. Therefore. including those from the DTI. 33: pp. Jul 2005. Carmichael and Wayne W. matching. Frost & Sullivan Ltd. Terry Clark. in either hard copy format or via electronic formats such as the Web. Sources of price data (Library and Information Statistics Unit (LISU)). Secondary data analysis of the domestic Canadian Travel Survey (1998–2001) reveals that there are many rural visitors who also participate in shopping. reports. In particular. 203–209. Information Market Observatory (IMO).(6) Marketing. 16: pp. the authors develop a conceptual model arguing that the effect of endogenous actions on market growth is mediated by knowledge creation. Publishers Association. The authors discuss the implications for marketing strategy at both business discipline and public policy levels. and that rural shoppers display different characteristics from average Canadian domestic travellers. Fred Hitchins and David Mort. and diffusion. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. the largest market in Europe. Using new developments in endogenous growth theory. Market segmentation using cluster analysis identifies five activity-based groups that differ on the basis of demographics and trip characteristics. Sundar Bharadwaj. Headland Business Information. Key Note Ltd. Periodical Publishers Association. Business Information Review. and Songpol Kulviwat. this article explores the link between marketing actions and market growth. Lists and briefly describes. EPS Ltd. Rural shopping is emerging as a tourism market that is under-researched and offers potential for the economic development of rural regions. market growth per se remains a conceptual black box in marketing. Market growth plays a central role in virtually all strategic marketing models developed in the past 30 years. the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and importance of the domestic rural shopping market in Canada as a ‘niche’ market in rural tourism. other online sources and CD-ROMs. vol. Web sites. vol. Journal of Vacation Marketing. and to provide a description of the characteristics of rural shoppers. (7) Canadian Domestic Travel Behaviour: A Market Segmentation Study of Rural Shoppers. Marketing Strategies for Industry (MSI). Lists and describes some of the sources of regular surveys of specific publishing and information sectors: Directory and Database Publishers Association. and market research publishers. and market research (British Market Research Association (BMRA)) are included. Focuses on the market for published information.
14: pp. Jun 2005. This study provides empirical data that examines how managers of internationalising UK firms perceive the usefulness of overseas market information sources.K. Business Information Review. their level of utilisation. This study investigates the performance of combination forecasts in comparison to individual forecasts. the variance–covariance combination method. Results establish that a high percentage of firms actively utilise internal staff. Little work has been done to experimentally measure the impact of information on new product decisions. Carmen Tideswell. and the discounted mean square forecast error method. vol. Journal of Travel Research. Nov 2008. Sep 1986. 40: pp. Gang Li. vol. Findings are primarily based on a postal survey of 446 firms. and Bill Faulkner. the interviews found that firms’ own websites provide reference points for other businesses and this has resulted in many enquiries and orders for a relatively large percentage of firms. vol. vol. Dave Crick. The empirical results suggest that combination forecasts overall play an important role in the improvement of forecasting accuracy in that they are superior to the best of the individual forecasts over different forecasting horizons. The variance– covariance combination method turns out to be the best among the three combination methods. 47: pp. 38 . The three combination methods examined in this study are the simple average combination method. Studies have shown that lack of information can provide an obstacle in firms’ endeavour to be competitive in overseas markets. 22: pp. The author reports on both manager and researcher use of information in assessing sales estimates. This study provides robust evidence for the efficiency of combination forecasts. agents. Journal of Travel Research. outbound leisure tourism demand for the United States. 197–207. Furthermore. The combination forecasts are based on the competing forecasts generated from seven individual forecasting techniques. Also reported are selected findings from 20 in-depth interviews. Shujie Shen.(9) International Marketing Information: UK Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ Perceptions of Different Sources and Types. (12) An Integrative Approach to Tourism Forecasting: A Glance in the Rearview Mirror. The empirical study focuses on the U. Michael Y Hu. and Haiyan Song. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 44–51. 114–122. (10) An Experimental Study of Managers’ and Researchers’ Use of Consumer Market Research. Trevor Mules. Another finding is that the encompassing test does not significantly contribute to the improved accuracy of combination forecasts. Findings indicate that the two groups differ widely in their decision-making style and research use. social contacts and the Internet in comparison with other data sources in finding various types of information. Nov 2001. FORECAST ERROR (11) An Assessment of Combining Tourism Demand Forecasts over Different Time Horizons. 162–171. plus perceptions of the types of data required.
and Frederick W. marketing activity. The article provides a retrospective assessment of the forecast accuracy for South Australia’s domestic and international tourism markets. vol.In 1996. 3–21. and Jeff Allen. this apparent accuracy disguises some significant inaccuracies for particular segments. Results of a survey involving personal interviews with managers in 93 firms representing six industries are reported. flexibility. C. and risktaking. Turbulence is found to have a significant causal impact on both the levels of entrepreneurship and the marketing orientation of the firm. Both represent organisational orientations built around creativity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Rachel J. Holt’s and TSCSREG models produce the next most accurate forecasting. However. Brown’s. Michael Morris. Entrepreneurship and marketing are approached as pro-active corporate responses to an increasingly dynamic. is also made. vol. This study uses three major U. based on the South Australian experience. and Naïve 1 models. 43–51. Naïve 2. followed closely by ARIMA.S. A conceptual model is proposed relating the levels of entrepreneurship. The findings suggest that the forecast accuracy for both international and domestic visitors was quite high overall. but not on structural variables. Feb 2008. Marketing. NEW PRODUCT FAILURES (14) Perceived Environmental Turbulence and Its Effect on Selected Entrepreneurship. Cubbage. followed by SES. and time series analysis with explanatory variable models. derived time series cross-section regression (TSCSREG). Jan 1991. and complex external environment. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is used to measure the accuracy of forecasting methods. and marketing-related structure of a firm to the degree of perceived environmental turbulence confronting the firm. Merits and limits of the proposed forecasting methods are discussed. 19: pp. autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). Consideration of the most appropriate methods for updating existing state tourism forecasts. innovativeness. (13) Comparing Forecasting Models in Tourism. such as New Zealand and Other Asia. Holt’s. threatening. the South Australian Tourism Commission initiated a tourism forecasting and economic impact study to assess their future tourism industry potential. SMA produces the most accurate forecasting. national parks as applications of statistically selecting appropriate methods to forecast attendance. Based on the MAPE values. and Organisational Characteristics in Industrial Firms. Methods used in this article are readily transferable to other hospitality and tourism data sets with annual visitation figures. time series analysis with explanatory variable model. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. Brown’s. 39 . along with a qualitative delphi survey to gather key industry input to the forecasting process. Peter Bloomfield. Forecasting methods assessed include Naïve 1. Duane Davis. single moving average (SMA). illustrating the difficulty of using time-series-type approaches to tourism forecasting in situations where the numbers are quite small and subject to significant volatility. 32: pp. and Naïve 2. single exponential smoothing (SES). The integrative forecasting approach adopted advocates a combination of quantitative top-down and bottom-up approaches. Chen.
Mar 2003. 26: pp. The relationship between entrepreneurial proactiveness and business performance has often been implicitly assumed to be positive.(15) The Role of Market Orientation in the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Proactiveness and Performance. Oct 2005. The generalisability of research value-added process to both disruptive and sustaining technologies is key to the success of the model and process. a tight labour market and low interest rates. 370–381. The present study makes an attempt to examine this relationship. Colin Munro and Ian Yeoman.4bn in 2008 in terms of real expenditure (excluding inflation). (16) Acceleration and Extension of Opportunity Recognition for Nanotechnologies and Other Emerging Technologies. Jonathan D. it is of value in considering alternative uses for existing products. This paper sets out to explain this forecast. 83–99. 12: pp. 1–19. Therefore Scottish tourism domestic revenues should rise from £4. Here we provide a plausible normative model that is used for idea generation and opportunity recognition developed for and used at Sandia National Laboratories. 11: pp. The study makes an attempt to identify the role of market orientation as a moderating factor between entrepreneurial proactiveness and business performance. Journal of Vacation Marketing. but in order to see into the future it is important to understand the correlation between economic performance and tourism revenues. VisitScotland. Andreu Blesa and Maria Ripollés. which again in turn has a positive effect on business profitability and sales growth. VisitScotland is projecting a robust performance for UK tourism in Scotland up to 2008. Linton and Steven T. The research concluded that entrepreneurial proactiveness has a positive effect on market orientation. government. International Small Business Journal. based upon a stable housing market. Consequently. very little research has been done to examine this relationship. and industry has only met a fraction of its potential. MACRO-ENVIRONMENT (17) Impact of the Macro Environment: An Examination of the Economic Propensity of UK Regional Markets for Tourism to Scotland. Forecasting UK domestic tourists to Scotland is never an exact science. the national tourism agency for Scotland. vol. Commercialisation and transfer of technology from laboratories in academe. In order to do this. The statistical technique used is path analysis. The forecasts are based upon economic conditions and represent the opportunity for 40 . such as nanotechnologies. The model and process are presented as is the application of the model to technology developments from a research laboratory that are either potentially disruptive or sustaining. the dual process model of innovation and a product introduction model. such as simulation software. Journal of Entrepreneurship. Walsh. The thrust in this argument is the firm’s ability to anticipate needs in the marketplace and also to anticipate the action of its competitors. The resultant ‘research value-added’ process integrates technology description. vol. However. Feb 2008.1bn in 2005 to £4. uses econometrics (the Moffat model). The paper presents the results of the study carried out in the Spanish ceramic tile sector. or applications or research findings that are disruptive and/or emerging technologies. Many suggest that the processes used are currently more of an art than a science. The study used validated scales to measure the entrepreneurial proactiveness and market orientation. vol.
Three market segments were found: adventure. (18) Marketing Strategy and the Internet: An Organizing Framework. the authors offer a theoretical schema that considers market-focused strategic flexibility as conceptually rooted in capabilities theory. Yadav. and Cláudia Moço. 74–89. 30: pp. It begins with a review of the historical perspectives of strategic flexibility.tourism. and buying environment characteristics. vol. (20) Portuguese Charter Tourists to Long-Haul Destinations: A Travel Motive Segmentation. exploratory by nature. May 2008. In addition. 31: pp. and social tourism. 296–312. and Bianca Grohmann. Jean L. (19) Market-Focused Strategic Flexibility: Conceptual Advances and an Integrative Model. 32: pp. specific industry. Propositions are developed relating market-driven and driving orientations to market-focused strategic flexibility with consideration for how turbulent macro environments modify the relationship. in terms of sociodemographic 41 . The research was conducted with 1097 tourists travelling on Air Luxor to long-haul destinations. Jan 2003. The proposed framework provides insights into changes in the nature and scope of marketing strategy. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. product. Antónia Correia. by means of factor-cluster analysis. the authors offer propositions regarding outcomes of market-focused strategic flexibility under conditions of macro-environmental turbulence. Amit Saini. 169–186. they do not account for shocks such as 9/11 or extreme weather conditions. To support the conceptualisation. Rajan Varadarajan and Manjit S. vol. and the unique skills and resources of the firm that assume added relevance in the context of competing in the evolving marketplace. Ruby Pui-Wan Lee. evolving marketplace. Such projections are used as a guide to the future. This article presents an empirical study of tourist segmentation based on motivations. resource-based views of the firm. This article presents a conceptual framework delineating the drivers and outcomes of marketing strategy in the context of competing in this broader. Competitive strategy is primarily concerned with how a business should deploy resources at its disposal to achieve and maintain defensible competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. The present study. the competitive landscape has evolved from a predominantly physical marketplace to one encompassing both the physical and the electronic marketplace. the authors propose an integrative model that explicates the mediating role of market-focused strategic flexibility in marketing strategy frameworks. With the conceptualisation in place. Oct 2002. aims to provide a deeper insight into profiles of Portuguese tourists travelling to Latin American and African destinations. This article develops the concept of market-focused strategic flexibility. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. followed by a discriminate analysis. rather than the exact future. João Albino Silva. Johnson. and options. The research reveals that each of these segments presents a different profile in terms of motivations and in terms of vacation patterns. leisure. vol. buyer. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. In a growing number of product-markets. P. Competitive marketing strategy focuses on how a business should deploy marketing resources at its disposal to facilitate the achievement and maintenance of competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. However.
within and between four determinant groupings underpinning the conceptualisation. In this article important existing knowledge about Information Technology’s (IT) impact on the management and other functional aspects of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are reviewed. with a concentration on international strategic alliances structuring and building. Therefore the key contribution of this article to current knowledge is the development of a conceptualisation. Using this differentiation. The article develops nine hypotheses. the differences are not so evident. there are three types of Firm Impact Spheres: Localised. (22) A Conceptualization of the Determinants of Small Business Website Adoption: Setting the Research Agenda. Jun 2008. International Small Business Journal. the extant literature relating to small business website adoption is fragmented and fails to provide an understanding of what determines adoption. that will provide an interpretation of what determines small business website adoption. The concept of the ‘Firm Impact Sphere’ is re-introduced and related to the structure of strategic alliances. this is the first article to incorporate the important role that the small business marketing context plays within Internet technology adoption. as an example of an effective bridging tactic used by firms to expand into global markets. Geoff Simmons. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS 42 . supported by the literature. Studying the way firms are using bridging tactics. However. 7: pp. to increase their chance of survival and growth is an important issue. which relate to the critical interactions and integration. 351– 389.characteristics. Critically. the article analyses the way the concept of ‘Firm Impact Sphere’ would be used in understanding bridging tactics between functionality. (21) Information Technology (IT) and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) Management: The Concept of ‘Firm Impact Sphere’. Firm performance has different distinct characteristics in each of these types. Durkin. One of the new approaches to understand the interaction between the firm’s activity and its environment is the concept of the ‘Firm Impact Sphere’. 26: pp. According to this concept. There are different tools in literature that are used to analyse the strategic partnership within the international context. it becomes important to understand the key issues that determine website adoption. Armstrong. Aug 2006. Globalisation and e-globalisation are terminologies of high significance when focusing on smaller firm mechanisms of survival and growth. vol. 243–257. and Mark G. This is certainly true for the smaller enterprises. Global Business Review. Adli Abouzeedan and Michael Busler. including strategic alliances. vol. Gillian A. Semi-globalised and Globalised. The nine hypotheses will guide and direct future research towards generating an empirically based understanding of what determines small business website adoption. As evidence mounts on the importance of small businesses and the opportunities presented by website adoption globally. The managerial implications of these findings are highlighted.
43 . In the field of travel and tourism. Karen H. Gaps between people’s proenvironmental behaviour at home and at the destination systematically differ across segments. (24) The Influence of Consumer Identity on Perceptions of Store Atmospherics and Store Patronage at a Spectacular and Sustainable Retail Site. The research was guided by an integrative conceptual framework proposing that consumer identity may shape responses to a spectacular consumption site. programmes. vol. (25) Catering to the Healthy-living Vacationer. and Brian H. Hyllegard. A store intercept survey approach was used to collect data from 186 consumers. Journal of Travel Research. The healthy-living lifestyle has been gaining momentum in the USA and in various parts of the world. 381–391. Journal of Vacation Marketing.(23) An Investigation of Tourists’ Patterns of Obligation to Protect the Environment. 71–91. and regulations are being developed and implemented to cater to members of the mentioned lifestyle and to support the overall wellbeing of societies. Oct 2006. including perceptions about store atmospherics and intent to patronise that site. The Recreational Equipment Incorporated (REI) Denver flagship store represents a spectacular consumption site that builds REI’s brand identity and corporate image as an environmentally responsible business while contributing a unique combination of lifestyle retailing and sustainable development to the community. Jan 2006. leading to the conclusion that different combinations of demand and supplyside measures may be suitable to reduce the environmental footprint of different segments. 316–334. Jennifer Paff Ogle. Dunbar. This study explored the relationship between consumers’ identities and their responses to spectacular and sustainable retail design at REI Denver. Sara Dolnicar and Friedrich Leisch. little empirical evidence supports the feasibility of such a demand-driven approach. Results indicate that distinctly different moral obligation segments exist that differ in pro-environmental behaviour and attitudes. vol. health has been approached from the angle of tourism experiences’ effects on an individual’s wellbeing. May 2008. Zaher Hallab. 46: pp. 12: pp. The environmental sustainability of the local tourism industry is increasingly a concern. This study contributes to this gap by investigating whether individuals who feel morally obliged to behave in an environmentally friendly manner represent useful target segments for destination management aiming to improve the ecological sustainability of the local tourism industry. However. 24: pp. more than ever. Authors have proposed a demand-driven approach to sustainable destination management as complementary to traditional supply-side interventions. These segments are associated with distinctly different vacation preferences and can consequently be used by destination management for target marketing. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. Findings indicated that consumer identity as an outdoor enthusiast and/or an environmentally responsible citizen had little impact on consumers’ perceptions about the importance of selected store atmospherics in the decision to shop at REI Denver but did influence some of their intended REI patronage behaviours. vol. An essential function that is recommended for destinations and tourism and hospitality organisations to undertake is to learn about developments in the external environment that may have a substantial impact on the competitiveness of their business. products.
personality. Significant differences were found in eight out of nine hypothesised paths. and further technological diffusion should widen this accessibility. Mar 2006. preferences for activities and lifestyle are examined. 28: pp. A self-administered personally handed questionnaire received responses from 528 U. age. Yvette Reisinger and Felix Mavondo. The article concludes with a discussion of the research and marketing implications of the study. despite the model being conceptually equivalent for the two student groups. 44–65. Using the findings as guidelines. 42: pp. Suzanne Willis and Bruce Tranter. CHAPTER 6 44 . household income. vol. recommendations are presented on possible public and private sectors’ roles in supporting the development and marketing of hospitality and tourism products and services positioned to cater to vacationers who have a healthy-living oriented lifestyle. Thus. The increasing potential of the Internet to widen access to information and enhance communication capacity has brought opposing arguments about the social consequences of Internet use. Critics of the thesis see the expansion of the Internet as enabling and egalitarian.S. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. The notion of a ‘digital divide’ is too simplistic to capture the complexity of social barriers to Internet use. In order to assess which view is more plausible.There has been no attempt to explore the characteristics of a healthy-living market segment and its travel motivational characteristics. The relationships between major psychographic factors such as cultural values. Advocates of the ‘digital divide’ thesis argue that the Internet advantages privileged groups while further marginalising disadvantaged social categories. 43–59. Path modelling is used to achieve this objective. promoting social inclusion and facilitating democratic participation. using multivariate analyses of national survey data. (27) Modeling Psychographic Profiles: A Study of the U. vol. Journal of Sociology. education and occupational class location remain as key dimensions of differential Internet use. and Australian Student Travel Market. Destinations as well as tourism/hospitality organisations cannot afford to waste their resources on decisions taken based on personal opinions and not hard intelligence on specific markets of interest.S. (26) Beyond the ‘Digital Divide’: Internet Diffusion and Inequality in Australia. In today’s competitive environment. and 424 Australian undergraduate students. This article presents the findings of a research project that aimed at unveiling the travel motivational characteristics of the healthy-living market segment along with its socio-demographic characteristics. we examine the social barriers to Internet use in Australia over a five-year period. it has become a must to learn about a specific segment’s characteristics. Several models are investigated to compare the regression coefficients across the two student groups to test the significance of differences. travel motivation. the strengths of relationships among the variables are different.S. Feb 2004. The primary purpose of this article is to use a multiple group comparison in covariance structure to test the equivalence of a psychographic model of the student travel market across the two markets: the Australian and U. Although the Internet has become more accessible to all social categories.
the authors develop a set of researchable propositions to guide future research. 12: pp. Apr 2005. Some have viewed it as a process and others as a set of activities. vol. Corporate entrepreneurship is an evolving area of research. The entrepreneurial work structure of small enterprises is exemplary for large enterprises where cognitive and goal dissonance amongst members act as impediments to technology absorption. The paper proposes an empirical research for ascertaining this hypothesis. This work draws on consumer and psychology research to explain sociocognitive aspects of product-market dynamics at a higher level of specificity than prior research. and therefore are expected to learn quicker than small enterprises. vol. Journal of Entrepreneurship. Sep 1997. the role of HRM. vol. Different scholars have approached the concept differently. As the characteristics of shared knowledge are explained and linked to stages of productmarket development. is being widely recognised by firms irrespective of their scale of operation. making it possible for them to understand one another. Anjan Roy and Arijit Sikdar. no attempt has so far been made to derive any coherent framework of analysis. 6: pp. The authors also discuss ways to track shared knowledge content that is expressed in market narratives. The importance of assuming an entrepreneurial stance. Journal of Entrepreneurship. Several other factors point to superior absorption performance of the small enterprises. owing to their higher R&D spending have higher absorptive capacity. This position contrasts the view that large enterprises. 233–244. (3) Corporate Entrepreneurship: Changing Perspectives. 33: pp. It is hypothesised that small enterprises have certain learning characteristics which enable them to adopt new technologies faster than large enterprises. The theoretical arguments and propositions in this article complement extant marketing strategy research by integrating individual-level consumer theory with market evolution models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. MARKET LEADERSHIP (1) Micro-Level Product-Market Dynamics: Shared Knowledge and Its Relationship to Market Development. The authors attempt in this paper to bring together the varying perceptions about corporate entrepreneurship and critically analyse each of them. The authors extend the field’s understanding of market-shaping shared knowledge through a theory-informed discussion of how shared product knowledge comes to exist and how it changes as product markets develop. Sep 2003. 183–199. productivity. nevertheless.The topics for which specific articles are identified include niche-based business strategy. they propose a conceptual model of 45 . quality management and exploiting IT. José Antonio Rosa and Jelena Spanjol. They define shared knowledge as the aspects of product representations that are common across the minds of market actors. Using the insights from an exhaustive review of writings. financial resources. They argue that despite the realisation that entrepreneurship occurs at various levels within an organisation. 197–216. (2) Technology Absorption in Large and Small Enterprises: A Proposal for Comparative Research 1. Vinayshil Gautam and Vinnie Verma.
Jan 1993. Duhan. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. either through the reproduction or transformation of those structures. firm competencies. (5) Strategy Clusters in Japanese Markets: Firm Performance Implications. 25: pp. and growth strategies. This article describes a seven year attempt to systematically improve a company using such modern leadership tools as employee involvement. Oct 1996. two types of institutional strategy are described: (1) membership strategies that involve the definition of rules of membership and their meaning for an institutional community. when moderated by such contingency factors as strategic orientation and product life cycle stage. Sep 1995. 3: pp. and Stewart L. It is based on Japanese executives’ perceptions of the veracity of various PIMS strategy principles in Japan. Journal of Management. The methods used to gauge the performance of large companies may not be relevant to assess the success strategies of small enterprises. 215–236. Kelmar and Dianne L. the concept of ‘institutional strategy’ is developed to describe patterns of organisational action that are directed toward managing the institutional structures within which firms compete for resources.W. (6) Institutional Strategy. These Japanese strategy clusters. vol. vol. The ability of organisations to strategically influence their environments has become a central concern in organisational research. Darrell Cooper. Tubbs. vol. 4: pp.corporate entrepreneurship that integrates the influences of individual. This study identifies generic Japanese strategy clusters and explores their performance implications. Thomas B. 161–187. Masaaki Kotabe and Dale F. 21–31. and total quality management. Lawrence. vol. 46 . Collating a number of research studies cutting across several countries. Apr 1999. centred around three classifications of strategies: firm characteristics. the authors of this paper have attempted to develop a framework. teamwork. Drawing on a study of the Canadian forensic accounting industry. 23–36. organisational and environmental factors. Researchers differ a great deal in this respect. Three distinct strategy clusters are identified around market position and product strategy dimensions. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. empowerment. The methodology is explained along with the results. offer unique performance implications for the Japanese market. Joseph Kryska. 21: pp. In this article. It also includes generalisations that can be used in other organisations. LEADERSHIP (7) Leadership Over the Long Run. Journal of Entrepreneurship. (4) Determining the Relevant Factors in the Success Strategies of Small Enterprises. Wingham. and (2) standardisation strategies that are concerned with the establishment of technical legal or market standards that define the ‘normal’ processes involved in the production of some good or service. John H.
47 . Van Muijen. Cox. the organisational theorist. Koopman. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. Central to the New Leadership is the notion that leaders need vision. social activism and religion will necessitate new leadership approaches in Millennium 2000. 4: pp. and proposes alternative administrative. business. Kenneth Culp. Paul L. and participate in creating new leadership paradigms for the future. David H. 137–141. knowledge/technology. Many questions are encountered when discussing charisma. 2: pp. in other words merely an idea in the heads of followers? How does the process of motivating followers work? What is the role of the leader’s vision? Can charisma be learned? Are there situations that help or hinder the occurrence of charisma? What about the dark side of charisma. charismatic leaders. inspirational or visionary leaders. Deanne N. 3–17. and lastly. Den Hartog. health-care. catalytic. collegial. Leadership is explained by five ‘lenses’ which top management teams may adopt for use in viewing leadership in their particular organisation. (10) Leadership Styles for the New Millennium: Creating New Paradigms. are also referred to as transformational. (9) Charismatic Leadership. and Jaap J. vol. A State of the Art. who sees leadership as a pair of binoculars. Oct 1995. who sees leadership as contact lenses. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. This trend is often called ‘the New Leadership’. projects changes which may occur during the next century.(8) The Five Lenses of Leadership. the organisational behaviourist. Charismatic leadership is a controversial topic. 2: pp. leadership educators should examine what can be learned from the evolution of leadership as modern societies have developed. Changes in government. III and Kathryn J. To begin discussion among leadership educators in preparing for these new paradigms. so they see leadership as having perfect vision. are people who see organisations as not needing leadership at all. families. In this paper several views of charismatic leadership in business organisations rather than charismatic leadership in political arenas or religious movements are the focus. this article reviews the evolution of leadership. is charisma always beneficial? The various theories give different answers to these questions. Arnott. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. who sees leadership as a pair of glasses which are designed in the correct shape. 35–49. vol. The New leaders. they are: the strategist. From macro to micro in dimension. In this paper similarities and differences in the numerous available views of charismatic leadership in business organisations will be explored and several controversial issues and measurement problems will be addressed. In the last decade there has been a substantial increase in the attention given to charismatic leadership both in science and practice. vol. Aside from these questions there are also some research problems relating to the measurement of charismatic leadership and its effects – it is not inconceivable that other types of leadership or other circumstances could have the same effects. Jan 1995. As the second millennium draws to a close. the human resource person who sees leadership as a microscope. Examples are: Is charisma an exceptional phenomenon or is there such a thing as ‘everyday charisma’? Is charisma only to be found in the eye of the beholder. Jan 1997.
innovative. The nature of myth is such that it may be involved in any personally significant or group-significant attempt to change behaviour or attitudes. The new post-bureaucratic organisation is analysed in terms of the four ‘I’s of transformational leadership: individualised consideration. co-authorising constructs. 46–59. The development of leadership theory has paralleled the development of organisational theory.humanitarian/activist. Inferences are drawn for the required roles and behaviour of future leaders. Niall Levine. four different phenotypes are then defined: the hero (‘heroic charisma’). The following contribution attempts to develop a charisma model in the context of business organisations. 55–69. Second. Followers. and the Visioning Process. vol. (12) Myth and Leadership Vision: Rhetorical Manifestations of Cultural Force. Jan 1999. 19: pp. The main idea of this model is the correlation that is brought out clearly between charisma and stigma. vol. Organisation Studies. (11) Charisma and the Archetypes of Leadership. 5: pp. and L. Based on the concept of ‘archetypes’ of leadership. (13) Leadership and Organisations for the New Millennium. 48 . vision has a force to it that requires further exploration. one explanation for such force is that myth may be involved as a rhetorical resource or as a cultural imperative in effective vision. and visionary leadership paradigms which may evolve. 32–42. Pitt. in one sense at least. the saviour (‘missionary charisma’) and the king (‘majestic charisma’). and thus also the idea that both ‘hyper-representativity’ and ‘antirepresentativity’ as well as ‘social dramatisation’ and ‘social reversion’ can occasion the allocation of charisma. John O. and Douglas C. 4: pp. Sep 1998. vol. departing from prototypical attributes that are inherent in the cognitive category of leadership. transactional and transformational leadership both explain the old paradigm of the bureaucratic organisation and reinforce the new organisational paradigm for the twenty-first century. Jan 1998. It tries to operationalise charisma. Johannes Steyrer. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. (14) Leaders. The bureaucratic organisation is analysed in terms of laissez-faire leadership and the transactional leadership elements of management-by-exception and contingent reward. In short. intellectual stimulation. In contrast to the ‘New Leadership Approach’. the father (‘paternalistic charisma’). vol. Kristine Pond-Burtis. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. religiosity. and idealised influence. the article departs from a ‘polymorphous phenotype’ of charisma. 807–828. Burtis. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. Laurence R. the article argues that considering myth and vision as an amalgam enhances our understanding. inspirational motivation. Smith. The models of laissez-faire. Marcus and Richard R. co-activated. myth and vision are described as symbiotic. based on a social-cognitive information processing approach in the perception of leadership. Jan 2001. Roger Gill. Andrew Douglas. 7: pp. Third. This position is derived from the concept of charisma as Max Weber understands it.
Froehle. Procedures. vol. 49 . Journal of Management. 3: pp. NSD process design. and Christopher A. student assessments are provided regarding their perspectives of leadership education that actively engages leaders and collaborators in sharing and receiving feedback. We argue that newly chosen leaders of organisations must make choices regarding the best leadership strategy for their organisations. We then propose a number of leadership strategies associated with various types of organisational effectiveness. Ray Maghroori and Erik Rolland. Contrary to expectations. the concept of leadership as a relationship between leaders and collaborators is being accepted and understood as a significant framework for leadership education. This paper addresses the problem of how transformational leadership is best developed in the collegiate population for both leaders and collaborators. Chase. corporate mission and its corresponding system of implementation. Aleda V. 62–81. and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based Model.Transformational leadership is emerging as the operational leadership paradigm for twenty-first century leaders. leadership education. and information technology (IT) choices on the speed and effectiveness of NSD efforts. Aug 1998. (b) more formalised NSD processes indirectly influence the firm’s ability to develop new services by increasing the speed of NSD. Additionally.S. Journal of Service Research. Richard B. Several literature-based relationships are tested with a recursive path model using a multi-industry sample of U. 3–17. we suggest. service organisations. and External Environment. This observation/reflection dynamic adds a strategic component to experiential. no direct relationship between the use of cross-functional team structures and the speed of NSD was found. (15) Strategic Leadership: The Art of Balancing Organisational Mission with Policy. This article examines the strategic process of new service development (NSD). Apr 1997. should be based on the leader’s evaluation of the organisation’s total conditions. RESOURCE BASED VIEW (16) Antecedents of New Service Development Effectiveness: An Exploratory Examination of Strategic Operations Choices. Augustine A. (17) Expert Systems. Craig M. A description is provided of an educational methodology that utilises collaborator feedback to assist both leaders and collaborators in the development of transformational leadership in a relational context. Lado and Michael J. The authors empirically explore the strategic influence of team-based organisational structure. Roth. Aug 2000. Zhang. We provide a methodology for assessing organisational conditions based upon the concept of effectiveness. Voss. 489–509. and (c) IT choices directly affect both the speed of the NSD process and the general effectiveness of the firm’s NSD activities. Additionally. 24: pp. We define strategic leadership as the art of creating a balance between external environment. This choice. vol. Knowledge Development and Utilization. In this paper we present a general framework for strategic leadership. vol. 4: pp. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. Most results for the service sector are similar to those found in manufacturing: (a) NSD crossfunctional team structures directly influence the effectiveness of the firm’s NSD efforts.
Srivastava. Then. 777–802. and David J. the resource-based view of the firm is perhaps the most influential framework for understanding strategic management. Pilkingtons. The article also illustrates how resource-based view (RBV) and marketing considerations in the context 50 . imperfect imitability. (19) The Resource-Based View of the Firm: Ten Years after 1991. dynamics and impact of pervasive change processes in three contrasting organisations. some additional areas of research wherein the resource-based view can be gainfully deployed are outlined. From these case studies we conclude that significant business turnarounds were achieved by these companies because strategic choice.This paper proposes a resource-based model to explain how expert systems generate sustained competitive advantage for a firm. the article discusses how expert systems yield sustainable competitive advantage through fostering organisational knowledge development and utilisation. Dec 2001. the latter two companies were distinctive in that they drew vital conceptual elements of their change agendas from their organisational links with. (20) The Resource-based view and Marketing: The Role of Market-based Assets in Gaining Competitive Advantage. At present. In addition. rareness. respectively. 555–571. The article briefly describes the contributions to knowledge provided by the commentaries and articles contained in the whole issue. Ketchen. These value elements and competitive advantages can be leveraged to result in superior corporate performance and shareholder value and reinvested to nurture market-based assets and capabilities in the future. This article posits a framework that shows how market-based assets and capabilities are leveraged via market-facing or core business processes to deliver superior customer value and competitive advantages. Specifically. (18) Competitive Strategies and Organisational Change. mutually enhancing relationship with organisational competencies is examined. Alan McKinlay and Ken Starkey. work organisation. Work organisation is rarely considered as an integral element of competitive strategy. 27: pp. The debates about organisational responses to economic crisis have focussed on the need for strategic and structural realignment. vol. 27: pp. Journal of Management. leading to sustained competitive advantage. Rank Xerox and Ford U. In this context maintaining or regaining competitive advantage is critically dependent upon striking an optimal balance between maximising the productivity and versatility of work organisation. the role of ESs in engendering a reciprocal. a Japanese and American company. 625–641. Rajendra K. the extent to which expert systems (ESs) exhibit the attributes of value. Propositions are offered to facilitate future research. Liam Fahey. While Pilkingtons relied entirely upon existing managerial expertise. Journal of Management. 9: pp. Finally. Current shifts in the contours of previously stable mass markets and product and process innovation demand equally profound organisational change to maintain competitiveness.K. Jan 1988. Organisation Studies. Dec 2001. Mike Wright. Kurt Christensen.. company culture and organisational realignment were conceived of and operationalised as complementary elements of their competitive strategy. vol. Jay Barney. vol. We examine the impetus. and nonsubstitutability associated with a rent-generating resource are analysed. Jr. and H.
(21) Franchising as a Small Business Growth Strategy: A Resource-Based View of Organisational Development. Anna Watson. We draw a number of implications for strategic Franchising as a Small Business Growth Strategy: A Resource-Based View of Organisational Development management from this synthesis. particularly in the formative years of their franchise businesses. there has been no theoretical discussion as to whether and why customers – as well as relationships with customers – are really important resources of 51 . vol.of generating and sustaining customer value can refine and extend each other’s traditional frames of analysis. It links the RBV and Austrian ideas in the context of the theory of complex systems pioneered by Herbert Simon. processes of building competitive advantages by means of combining existing complementary resources in novel ways are not inquired into. However. This article argues that the RBV may profitably draw on insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory. John Stanworth. since a basic characteristic of services is the participation of the customer in the production process. For example. while not totally independent in the sense of the conventional small business person. drawn from Austrian economists as well as Frank Knight. The question arises: how do successful franchise organisations plan their human capital development in order to accomplish successful growth? An adjunct to this question is the role of franchisees who. innovation and intangible asset growth. the customer is said to be an important resource of the service firm. It has often been observed that the RBV is lacking in the dynamic dimension. vol. up to now. and have certain expectations of participation in the process of which they are an integral part. around half of all franchise systems are less than five years old with less than 10 outlets. Matthias Gouthier and Stefan Schmid. Finally. Dec 2004. 22: pp. International Small Business Journal. David Purdy. notably into resource value and sustainability of competitive advantage. not only for academics interested in franchising. 539–559 Over the last two decades. but also for those examining fields such as small business strategic management. at any one time. (22) Customers and Customer Relationships in Service Firms: The Perspective of the Resource-based View. certainly do not see themselves as conventional employees either. High turbulence and attrition rates in the formative years of franchise businesses result in an industry profile whereby. Not only are most franchisees themselves small businesses. the resource-based view (RBV) has become dominant in the strategic management field. Mar 2003. This is not surprising. 3: pp. but so are many franchisors. in order to strengthen its dynamic dimension. This exploratory article uses case study material from a number of ‘exemplar’ franchise companies in the development of a resource-based view of organisational development. Marketing Theory. the article posits a set of research directions designed to enable scholars to further advance the integration of RBV and marketing from both theory-driven practice management as well as a problem-driven theory development perspective. Celia Stanworth. 119–143. In many publications on service management and marketing. and Simon Healeas. The article should hold considerable interest.
and evolutionary economics. This article briefly discusses some of the implications of positioning the resource-based view relative to these other two literatures. The analysis revealed that adverse selection. such as innovativeness.K. Dec 2001. Bulent Menguc and Seigyoung Auh. Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm. and it discusses managerial implications for customer relationship management. opportunism. which suggests that weaknesses in human and financial capital choice are offset by strengths in the social capital of family firms. Journal of Management. (26) Entrepreneurs’ Decisions to Exploit Opportunities. 27: pp.the service firm. vol. 30: pp. This study draws on agency theory and the resource-based view to hypothesise that family and nonfamily businesses differ in the capital that they deploy and the way that they deploy it. 25–38. 34: pp. Journal of Management. The authors discuss the findings in the context of varying stages of the product life cycle and at different levels of market development. It explores the potential of the resource-based view for analysing customer roles and customer relationships within service firms. Barney. this study takes an internal approach by focusing on existing stocks of resources within the firm while controlling for environmental conditions. Family Business Review.-based sample of 319 family business and 258 nonfamily business owner/managers. 643–650. (25) Resource Mobilization and Performance in Family and Nonfamily Businesses in the United Kingdom. vol. Mar 2009. Jay B. 52 . it also discusses some of the empirical implications of each of these different resource-based theories. (23) Resource-based Theories of Competitive Advantage: A Ten-year Retrospective on the Resource-based View. The resource-based view can be positioned relative to at least three theoretical traditions: SCP-based theories of industry determinants of firm performance. 22: pp. neoclassical microeconomics. and niche marginalisation are more prevalent among family business owner/managers. their businesses are similar to those of their nonfamily business peers in performance outcomes such as size and growth. Yet. vol. 377–395. It tests this hypothesis in a large U. The empirical results support the authors’ theory that the effect of market orientation on firm performance is strengthened when market orientation is bundled together with internal complementary resources. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Shepherd. Whereas prior literature has examined environmental turbulence as a contextual condition shaping the market orientation–firm performance relationship. such as innovativeness. A conceptual model is developed that explains how market orientation can be transformed into dynamic capability when complemented by transformational (reconfigurational) constructs. vol. (24) Creating a Firm-Level Dynamic Capability through Capitalizing on Market Orientation and Innovativeness. Jun 2004. 63–73. this study addresses the dynamic capability–generating capacity of market orientation on firm performance. Jan 2006. Young Rok Choi and Dean A. Jonathan Levie and Miri Lerner. The present paper draws on the resource-based view within strategic management.
Jun 1999. with substantial empirical research. Mark W. Early developments include Chandler’s (1962) Strategy and Structure and Ansoff’s (1965) Corporate Strategy. vol. Perhaps one of the more significant contributions to the development of strategic management came from industrial organisation (IO) economics. as the study of strategic management evolves. as well as providing a foundation for research on competitive dynamics. the findings of this study shed a light on a less emphasised aspect of the resource-based view: the new product’s anticipated lead time acts as an enhancing moderator in entrepreneurs’ exploitation decision policies. vol. This review of the development of the field and its current position examines the field’s early development and the primary theoretical and methodological bases through its history. the resource-based view was largely introduced to the field of strategic management in the 1980s and became a dominant framework in the 1990s. developing concurrently were research on strategic leadership. are flourishing currently. 531–558. These early works took on a contingency perspective (fit between strategy and structure) and a resource-based framework emphasising internal strengths and weaknesses. Michael A. International Small Business Journal. and greater stakeholder support. Implications for future research on opportunity exploitation are discussed. specifically the work of Michael Porter. 417–456. yet there has been little conceptual and empirical development of this issue in the literature. 25: pp. The research methodologies are becoming increasingly sophisticated and now frequently combine both quantitative and qualitative approaches and unique and new statistical tools. the current field of strategic management is strongly theory based. This study examines the decisions of entrepreneurs to begin exploiting business opportunities from a resource-based view. and Daphne Yiu. More recent theoretical contributions focus on the resource-based view of the firm. Hitt. Journal of Management. Robert E. A recent 53 . strategic decision theory (process research) and knowledge-based view of the firm. High-tech SMEs. Building on the IO economics framework. and is eclectic in nature. The structure-conduct-performance framework and the notion of strategic groups. Studies of small firms tend to assume either that models derived from large firms can be applied directly or that small firms are uniformly distinct from large ones. this review examines the future directions. greater managerial capability. Gilman and Paul K. While its roots have been in a more applied area. Wan. Oct 2008. The IO paradigm also brought econometric tools to the research on strategic management. 26: pp. The development of the field of strategic management within the last two decades has been dramatic.Opportunity exploitation is a necessary step in creating a successful business in the entrepreneurial process. the organisational economics perspective contributed transaction costs economics and agency theory to strategic management. (28) Testing a Framework of the Organisation of Small Firms: Fast-growth. Based on the resource-based view. William P. Moreover. both in terms of theory and methodologies. While it has its roots in Edith Penrose’s work in the late 1950s. Our analysis of a sample of entrepreneurs whose businesses are located in incubators suggests that entrepreneurs are more likely to exploit opportunities when they perceive more knowledge of customer demand for the new product. Edwards. often referred to as business policy. Hoskisson. (27) Theory and Research in Strategic Management: Swings of a Pendulum. more fully developed necessary technologies. Finally.
vol. (30) A Resource-Based Perspective on the Dynamic Strategy-Performance Relationship: An Empirical Examination of the Focus and Differentiation Strategies in Entrepreneurial Firms. 819–839. Denise Jarratt. Elaine Mosakowski. Dec 2004. to the question of how the focus and differentiation strategies affect the economic performance of entrepreneurial firms. vol. 27: pp. based mainly on low-wage family-owned firms. The framework identified market conditions and strategic choice as key measures. a model of a relationship management capability is conceptualised. This research applies a resource-based perspective. which emphasises a firm’s specialised or unique resources. resource advantage. and was useful in capturing practice. when the focus and differentiation strategies are established. Alvarez and Lowell W. tensions that the framework helps to capture. 287–309. Aug 1993.framework. Dec 2001. we examine the dynamic effects of multiple forms of these strategies on a firm’s performance. though it also needed further refinement. 19: pp. The results generally support the hypotheses that. (31) The Entrepreneurship of Resource-based Theory. 4: pp. Busenitz. Marketing Theory. for reasons to do with their market situations and the choices they made. Sharon A. We extend the boundaries of resource-based theory to include the cognitive ability of individual entrepreneurs. relationship learning capability and relationship behavioural capability. Drawing on theories of evolutionary economics. organisational learning. organisations will need to build their capability to leverage not only their customer assets but also the valuecreating knowledge and innovation assets spanning multiple relationships within their business network form. vol. As network forms of organising work expand. and organisational capabilities. has identified an analytical space to identify different types of small firm. Journal of Management. 755–775. Key substantive implications were: apparently similar firms in fact behaved differently. This paper examines the relationship between resource-based theory and entrepreneurship and develops insights that advance the boundaries of resource-based theory and begin to address important questions in entrepreneurship. The call for marketing practitioners and academics alike to move relationship marketing’s dyadic perspective into a multi-firm network context is building momentum. is represented through second order constructs of relationship infrastructure capability. combining both functional and integrative capabilities. Entrepreneurs have individual-specific resources that facilitate the recognition of new opportunities and the assembling of resources for the venture. By 54 . We develop dynamic models that separate the period of creating or acquiring these resources from subsequent periods. (29) Conceptualizing a Relationship Management Capability. and the firms displayed tensions between ‘modern’ business strategies and ‘traditional’ and informal employment practices. With longitudinal data on entrepreneurial software firms. The relationship management capability. Journal of Management. This article tests out that framework in a different context: four high-tech and non-family-owned firms. The results fail to support the hypothesis that firm performance will decrease when these strategies are adopted. performance is higher than for other firms.
S. industries late in the nineteenth century. imply that the sustained performance goal advocated by strategy theorists is anticompetitive and its achievement presumptively detrimental to social welfare. Hunt. technologically complex craft into a very simple process. 55–66. 28: pp. this article initiates a discussion of the public policy implications of resourceadvantage theory. vol. the marketing function seeks to fulfil the needs and wants of each individual customer. The antecedents of 55 . 27: pp. issues can be identified that begin to address the distinctive domain of entrepreneurship. MASS MARKETING (1) The Beginning of Mass Marketing in America: George Eastman and Photography as a Case Study. superior financial performance and (2) the belief that this goal can be achieved through a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. 67–81. In the practice of customer-centric marketing. Jagdish N. from opportunity recognition to the ability to organise these resources into a firm and then to the creation of heterogeneous outputs through the firm that are superior to the market. and Arun Sharma. (32) The Strategic Imperative and Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Public Policy Implications of Resource-Advantage Theory. CHAPTER 7 The topics for which specific articles are identified include alternative business strategies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. mass versus a niche-based marketing strategy. however. Eastman transformed picture-taking from an expensive. This article addresses the strategy-is-anticompetitive thesis with the goal of grounding strategy in a theory of competition – resource-advantage theory – that does not imply that the strategic imperative and its achievement are presumptively anticompetitive and antisocial. it will increasingly move toward customer-centric marketing in the next century. 17: pp. Jan 2000. market positioning. Journal of Macromarketing. 144–159. organisational culture and the effective operation of a team. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Richard S. Rajendra S. (2) The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer-Centric Marketing. Sisodia. As we enter the twenty-first century. Apr 1999. the marketing function remains concerned with serving customers and consumers effectively.focusing on resources. Strategy theorists share (1) the view that the strategic imperative of a firm should be sustained. vol. The authors propose that just as the marketing function gradually shifted from mass marketing to segmented marketing in the twentieth century. Shelby D. Sheth. Dec 1997. vol. Neoclassical perfect competition and traditional industrial organisation economics. This article offers an interpretation of the birth of mass marketing through an intensive study of one case: George Eastman and the photographic industry. Tedlow. As such. He was both a leader in his field and an example of what was happening as mass marketing swept through numerous U. making it accessible to a mass market.
increasing market diversity in household and business markets.K. Jr. Current shifts in the contours of previously stable mass markets and product and process innovation demand equally profound organisational change to maintain competitiveness. This article highlights the implications of customercentric marketing as well as the boundary conditions that will affect its adoption. Webster. Arguments about the decline of brands are often confused with arguments about changes in the brand management function. and customer-centric organisations. fixed-cost marketing. Consumers. customer outsourcing. On the basis of the shift toward customer-centric marketing. the authors expect increased importance of marketing as a ‘supply management’ function. In this context maintaining or regaining competitive advantage is critically dependent upon striking an optimal balance between maximising the productivity and versatility of work organisation. not resellers. there are substantial implications for brand management and the role of the brand manager. respectively. the latter two companies were distinctive in that they drew vital conceptual elements of their change agendas from their organisational links with. 9: pp. company culture and organisational realignment were conceived of and operationalised as complementary elements of their competitive strategy. work organisation. NICHE MARKETING (4) Competitive Strategies and Organisational Change. 555–571. This article examines the historical evolution of the relationships among brands. 56 . 17–23. vol.customer-centric marketing are the increasing pressure on firms to improve marketing productivity. cocreation marketing. Jan 2000. Work organisation is rarely considered as an integral element of competitive strategy. This view is based on the mistaken assumption that brands are relationships with consumers. vol. Rank Xerox and Ford U. Frederick E. Pilkingtons. (3) Understanding the Relationships among Brands. 28: pp. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. a Japanese and American company. and technology applicability. consumers. and resellers in a world increasingly dominated by very large retail organisations with substantial power within the marketing channel. It is widely believed that manufacturers’ brands are becoming less important as major retailers are becoming more powerful. As major firms redefine their customer as the reseller.. not the consumer. and Resellers. From these case studies we conclude that significant business turnarounds were achieved by these companies because strategic choice. Organisation Studies. Jan 1988. We examine the impetus.and consumer-targeted communications to maximise the value of the brand to both the retailer and the end user. Marketing strategy implementation will require increasingly careful coordination of marketing programmes with sales strategy to achieve the necessary coordination of reseller. dynamics and impact of pervasive change processes in three contrasting organisations. The debates about organisational responses to economic crisis have focussed on the need for strategic and structural realignment. Alan McKinlay and Ken Starkey. While Pilkingtons relied entirely upon existing managerial expertise.
The authors argue that perceptions of service quality vary across cultural groups. why they go to spas and how they feel after their spa experience. vol. Andrew Gray. Patricia A. 15: pp. better described as ‘tourism in rural areas’. Journal of Service Research. (8) Niche Publishing on the Web: Using Online Communities to Change the Economics of Niche Publishing. ‘nature’. They also used the correlation coefficients to compute a Cultural Service Quality Index that could be used to segment international service markets and allocate resources across segments. It profiles spa-goers in the USA and examines who they are. They also test the hypotheses constituting their theoretical analysis. 2: pp. and characterised by large numbers of visitors and contemporary consumption patterns that render the rural location far less important than the activity and sometimes almost irrelevant to it. Ben Shaw-Ching Liu. what spa services they use. Mar 1998. The paper concludes that both the rural environment and the small tourism businesses that depend on it will benefit from a better understanding of contemporary rural tourism consumption and marketing. Jul 2004. They explicitly map the relationship between service quality perceptions and cultural dimension positions and draw the implications for international service market segmentation. This paper explores the nature of niche markets and argues that the application of niche marketing may have a place for some traditional activities that are ‘pure’ forms of rural tourism but not for the greater part of rural visiting. Options for this type of Internet publishing are seen to be: migration strategies. 50–57. as defined by each culture’s position on Hofstede’s dimensions. new product 57 . This is more than a question of semantics because the labels used influence perceptions that shape the nature of policy issues and management practices. and D. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for owners and operators of resortbased spas who want to increase and expand their market share of people who use spas. Monteson and Judith Singer. It also examines how to connect with guests who use spas and how to increase market share of this group. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 282–287. ‘eco-’) that position them as small-scale. tightly focused on the needs of particular professional communities. vol.(5) The Relationships between Culture and Service Quality Perceptions: Basis for Cross-Cultural Market Segmentation and Resource Allocation. Discusses the characteristics of community-oriented Web sites. 355–371. as a way of overcoming these problems and considers how they can impact the Internet strategies of niche publishers. Jul 2004. Lesley Roberts and Derek Hall. vol. 253–263. vol. They show that the importance of SERVQUAL dimensions is correlated with Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. May 2000. Olivier Furrer. Business Information Review. (7) Consuming the Countryside: Marketing for ‘Rural Tourism’. 10: pp. Their perception as ‘niche’ markets further reinforces such views. 10: pp. Sudharshan. low-impact activities offering an alternative to mass tourism. (6) Marketing a Resort-based Spa. Common perceptions of ‘rural tourism’ industries are influenced by a range of terms (such as ‘green’. Journal of Vacation Marketing.
and sector-specific malls. 101–116. Most studies on venture capital have focused on the strategies and criteria followed by venture capitalists (VCs). marketing. their strategies are naturally driven by technology. Groen. Sirmon. K. Emerging technologies and emerging markets present both unique challenges and tremendous opportunities for those firms and individuals who focus their search for competitive advantage on them. and Khairul Akmaliah Adham. Inderpreet S. Feb 2008. large. 29: pp. (10) Management Strategies of Venture Capital Funded Firms. It is concluded that in the case of technology intensive firms. alerts. and community strategies. discussion boards (forums). The result is the creation of a unique supply of complex resources within each organisation. established firms often are relatively more effective in establishing competitive advantages but are less able to identify new opportunities. finance and organisational growth. 963–989. We argue that SE is a unique. STRATEGY (9) A Model of Strategic Entrepreneurship: The Construct and its Dimensions. of both emerging markets and emerging technologies. Herein we develop a model of SE that explains how these dimensions are integrated to create wealth. Outlines briefly the common issues associated with the first three options then details the attractive features of the community-oriented approach in terms of: real-time news. Duane Ireland. Journal of Entrepreneurship. Hitt. we provide examples of 58 . directories. Thukral. On a relative basis. Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits. information wizards. James Von Ehr. distinctive construct through which firms are able to create wealth. Journal of Management. Web sites.strategies. but along with this. the strategic management of resources and applying creativity to develop innovations are important dimensions of SE. International Small Business Journal. Strategic entrepreneurship (SE) involves simultaneous opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking behaviours and results in superior firm performance. Dec 2003. R. small. Sep 2001. Michael A. Here. local area search engines. an entrepreneurial culture and entrepreneurial leadership. 129–141. it is their appreciation for and application of the other functional strategies that makes them winners. Many of the entrepreneurs have been able to create and sustain market pull for their products because of the synergistic effect of their resources and strategies. Ramachandran. new market strategies. Internet links. 10: pp. vol. people. Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. (11) Entrepreneurship. and there have been only a few efforts made to study hightechnology firms funded by VCs. database content. 26: pp. vol. This article reports the findings from a study of the strategies of venture capital-supported firms particularly in areas such as technology. Aard J. Emerging Markets. Steven Walsh. entrepreneurial ventures are effective in identifying opportunities but are less successful in developing competitive advantages needed to appropriate value from those opportunities. vol. Emerging Technologies. In contrast. if not the risks. Peter Van Der Sijde. and David G. An entrepreneurial mindset.
17–29.g. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. albeit a first attempt. it does not have an impact on EM. Oct 2005. It begins with a review of the historical perspectives of strategic flexibility. vol. vol. Baker and James M. With the conceptualisation in place. To support the conceptualisation. Rajan Varadarajan. First. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. (14) Product Portfolio Analysis and Market Share Objectives: An Exposition of Certain Underlying Relationships. that of nanotechnology. 33: pp. by a small entrepreneurial firm utilising emerging market skill sets to define and enable worldwide business solutions. we discuss the ability of large and small firm competency-based strategies to wrest value from the opportunities inherent in emerging markets and technologies. Recent studies on marketing and the natural environment have called for research that links environmental marketing strategies to the performance of the firm. vol. new product development success) but not competitive advantage (e. change in market share). A nationwide study of top-level marketing managers supports this perspective. 18: pp. the authors offer a theoretical schema that considers market-focused strategic flexibility as conceptually rooted in capabilities theory. William E. (13) Market-Focused Strategic Flexibility: Conceptual Advances and an Integrative Model. the authors offer propositions regarding outcomes of market-focused strategic flexibility under conditions of macro environmental turbulence. This suggests that EM formation is driven by internal rather than external forces. This article develops the concept of market-focused strategic flexibility. the authors propose an integrative model that explicates the mediating role of market-focused strategic flexibility in marketing strategy frameworks. although market turbulence also affects new product development success. Ruby Pui-Wan Lee. In addition.and entrepreneurial ventures embracing these phenomena. a resource such as EM should directly influence firms’ capabilities (e.effective commercial pathways for both intra. It is the first empirical research to operationalise the EM construct. 59 . This research operationalises the enviropreneurial marketing (EM) construct and examines its relationship with firm performance. and Bianca Grohmann. Propositions are developed relating market-driven and driving orientations to market-focused strategic flexibility with consideration for how turbulent macro environments modify the relationship.g. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. we describe how one intrapreneurial large firm is investigating emerging markets such as India and China (emerging economies) with emerging technologies to create a worldwide business solution power. 74–89. Johnson. 31: pp. 461–475. Then the investigation of an emerging technology is provided. In addition.. Jan 2003. Amit Saini. Jan 1990. Jean L. both of the respective commercialisation strategies are based on competency theory. (12) Environmental Marketing Strategy and Firm Performance: Effects on New Product Performance and Market Share. The new scale. Sinkula. According to the resource-based view of the firm. demonstrates encouraging psychometric properties. resource-based views of the firm. Finally. P. Interestingly. albeit used differently..
and Organisational Resilience: Airline Industry Responses to September 11. Certain airlines emerged successful and demonstrated remarkable resilience while others languished. Layoffs. industry. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. 300–329. although intended to foster recovery. Innovation commercialisation tends to be highly concentrated geographically. Sandy Lim. Feb 2007. Three constructs – the market share multiplier. Kim Cameron. vol. Certain generalisations regarding market share and its sensitivity to various environmental conditions are highlighted. vol. Beyond these scale effects. and the nominal and real dollar sales growth rate are discussed. (17) New Sources of Radical Innovation: Research Technologies. This investigation identifies reasons why some airline companies recovered successfully after the attacks while others struggled. Jody Hoffer Gittell. the author finds that university science and engineering capacity and local patenting activity both help to account for intercity differences in the level of innovation commercialisation activity. Dec 2005. affected the U. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 3–16. market growth rate. instead inhibited recovery throughout the 4 years after the crisis. Sep 2006.S. This article analyses the geographic distribution and interrelationship of three measures of innovation commercialisation across the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the United States and estimates a model of the factors explaining variations in the location of innovation commercialisation. airline industry more than almost any other industry. contributing to organisational resilience in times of crisis. Economic Development Quarterly. (16) The Geography of Innovation Commercialization in the United States During the 1990s. 731–764. the authors find that having a viable business model itself depended on the development and preservation of relational reserves over time.Market share plays a central role in a number of portfolio planning models. 42: pp. Our model shows that the maintenance of adequate financial reserves enables the preservation of relational reserves and vice versa. Rosenbloom. This article presents an exposition of the underlying relationship between market share. 21: pp. and Victor Rivas. state technical and metrological 60 . layoffs after the crisis were strongly correlated with lack of financial reserves and lack of a viable business model prior to the crisis. Social Science Information. however. vol. Evidence is provided that layoffs after the crisis. But. 44: pp. product sales volume and product sales growth rate. the physical volume multiplier. Terry Shinn. SUSTAINED INNOVATION (15) Relationships. suggesting the presence of substantial external economies in these functions. It is shown that throughout the twentieth century many radical technological innovations originated with and developed around generic instrumentation. and the dollar volume multiplier – which aid in the strategic analysis of the product portfolio are proposed. Transversality and Distributed Learning in a Post-industrial Order. market size. Joshua L. the practitioners and artefacts of which are characterised by selective and intermittent boundary crossing between academia. The linkages between inter-related growth constructs such as the volumetric and dollar sales growth rate. Digging deeper.
112 – 124. 10. (18) Marketing Strategy and the Internet: An Organizing Framework. Ahn. while simultaneously promoting transverse communication and interaction between actors located in multiple and heterogeneous environments and linked to diverse interests. and managers’ perceptions of freedom. Adamson. P. the competitive landscape has evolved from a predominantly physical marketplace to one encompassing both the physical and the electronic marketplace. 2004. no. one being particularly optimistic and adaptive. (20) From Leaders to Leadership: Managing Change. and Daniel Dornbusch. Mark J. Oct 2002. Following a cross-company research study of managers’ perceptions of potential freedom in their jobs and subsequent behaviour. Competitive marketing strategy focuses on how a business should deploy marketing resources at its disposal to facilitate the achievement and maintenance of competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. In this article. The companies are markedly different in their attitudes toward change. The proposed framework provides insights into changes in the nature and scope of marketing strategy. In a growing number of product-markets. and the unique skills and resources of the firm that assume added relevance in the context of competing in the evolving marketplace. Yadav. significant influences on job performance. 61 . Judi Marshall. this mobility is not to be confused with mode 2-like anti-differentiation between science and engineering and between academia and enterprise. 30: pp. product. the military. specific industry. The innovative feats of what are here labelled ‘research-technologies’ derive from the capacity to reconcile differentiation and integration. vol. This article presents a conceptual framework delineating the drivers and outcomes of marketing strategy in the context of competing in this broader. COMPANY CULTURE (19) Organisational Culture: Elements in its Portraiture and Some Implications for Organisation Functioning. 4: pp. Group & Organisation Management. the other typified by feelings of constraint and relative powerlessness.A. vol. the conceptual job model managers used. and buying environment characteristics. 296–312. Rajan Varadarajan and Manjit S. and to secure the division of labour embedded in speciality domains. 367–384. 7: pp. John S. The implications for each organisation’s ability to cope with change are considered.services. Competitive strategy is primarily concerned with how a business should deploy resources at its disposal to achieve and maintain defensible competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. two of the organisations studied are portrayed in these terms. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. exploring factors that appear to have influenced their cultures’ development. buyer. vol. Research technologies breed a new constellation of intellectual and institutional transverse dynamics which selectively accommodate both stability and change. This centred on four ‘dimensions of difference’: a company’s stock of managers. Journal of Leadership & Organisational Studies. Sep 1982. the author arrived at a framework for charting significant elements of organisational culture. evolving marketplace. However. etc.
High-tech SMEs. vol. 26: pp. capital flows and alliances have created fundamental shifts in business operations. (24) Culture in Family-Owned Enterprises: Recognizing and Leveraging Unique Strengths. Roland Calori and Philippe Sarnin. Jan 1991. This paper is based on an exploratory field study of the relations between corporate culture and economic performance. 12: pp. Daniel Denison. 2: pp. tensions that the framework helps to capture. Oct 2008. The framework identified market conditions and strategic choice as key measures. 17: pp. while the relative value of the once-celebrated individual leader as superman or woman is being questioned. Mar 2004. 221–235. great leadership has never been more urgent or more difficult. Mark W. Organisation Studies. (23) Testing a Framework of the Organisation of Small Firms: Fast-growth. Sep 1989. Where many popular leadership models may provide formulae to help solve some business problems. (21) Corporate Culture and Economic Performance: A French Study. Through years of consulting experience and culture research. Colleen Lief. Family Business Review. and the firms displayed tensions between ‘modern’ business strategies and ‘traditional’ and informal employment practices. disruptive technologies. they are insufficient to deal with the pace and polyvalent character of constant. W. for reasons to do with their market situations and the choices they made. The method of assessing a company’s culture is presented. Studies of small firms tend to assume either that models derived from large firms can be applied directly or that small firms are uniformly distinct from large ones. based mainly on low-wage family-owned firms. has identified an analytical space to identify different types of small firm. (22) Integrating Professional Management into a Family Owned Business. This article investigates under which conditions can professional knowledge and values be integrated successfully into the organisation and management of a family firm. A recent framework. something beyond superficial explanation. and John L. International Small Business Journal. 49–74. and was useful in capturing practice. Managing change – its impact on organisational structure. Paradoxically. vol. The goal was to critically examine family business culture 62 . Gilman and Paul K. vol. Edwards. 531–558. Ward. though it also needed further refinement. It became increasingly clear that family business sustainability and accomplishment were rooted in something deeper. Key substantive implications were: apparently similar firms in fact behaved differently. vol. group culture. a fuller picture of family firms began to emerge. rapid change. and then hypotheses on relations between values. communications. 61–70. Family Business Review.The accelerating pace of change in globalisation. This article tests out that framework in a different context: four high-tech and non-family-owned firms. management practices and economic performance are proposed and discussed. Belief in the innate value and uniqueness of family business culture drove collaboration on this project between the disciplines of family business and organisational behaviour. Gibb Dyer. and personal management styles – is one of the most fundamental and enduring aspects of leadership.
TEAMS (25) Follower Behavior and Organisational Performance: The Impact of Transformational Leaders. a cultural assessment tool that has linked corporate culture to financial performance. we do not expect these mediating effects to hold for the relationship between transactional leadership and follower performance and innovation. 15–26. several of these differences were statistically significant. Despite the small sample. respectively. allowing us to compare their cultures. Anit Somech. (27) The Effects of Leadership Style and Team Process on Performance and Innovation in Functionally Heterogeneous Teams. vol. Diana E. In this study. respectively. organisational citizenship behaviour. respectively. The results showed that the corporate cultures of family enterprises were more positive than the culture of firms without a family affiliation. 32: pp. The sample consisted of managers from different organisations. 13: pp. the significant interaction between these two leadership styles has a different direction than the authors hypothesised. Journal of Management. 63 . Key words: debate. transactional leadership. Previous research leaves open which facets of leadership foster the implementation of process innovations. and Daniel Griesser. Sabine Boerner. Our hypotheses were confirmed in an empirical study of N = 91 leaders from 91 German companies. transformational leadership. Conclusions for leadership research are drawn. In addition. 16–25. This study sheds light on the mediating processes by which transformational leadership influences follower performance and innovation. Feb 2007. Family enterprises scored higher on all 12 dimensions of the assessment tool. 14: pp. the authors analyse the effects of delegativeparticipative and consultative-advisory leadership. Feb 2006. Although the posited main effects of both delegative-participative and consultative-advisory leadership are confirmed. They argue that each of these leadership behaviours entails specific advantages and risks and that therefore the two patterns complement each other. (26) Implementing Process Innovations: The Benefits of Combining DelegativeParticipative With Consultative-Advisory Leadership. and Eric Kearney. recent research shows that they also perform better because of what they do strategically. 132–157. On the contrary. Diether Gebert. The Denison Organisational Culture Survey. Aug 2007. This suggests that family firms perform better because of who they are. vol. vol. whereas they enhance follower innovation by triggering controversial discussion of task related issues (debate). innovation. We hypothesise that transformational leaders boost follower performance by stimulating organisational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. Silke Astrid Eisenbeiss. was administered to a sample of 20 family businesses and 389 non-family businesses.and performance relative to non-family firms. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. Krause. on the implementation success of process innovations.
A mixture of organisation-wide and local learning networks in organisations successfully implemented change. 39: pp. this leadership style decreased team in-role performance. CHAPTER 8 64 . a series of assumptions underlying the strategy. and interaction patterns – required to adopt and appropriate planned organisation-wide change. Jr. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. and the roles played by the team-building consultant are reviewed. Mohrman. this study examines whether networks enable the learning required for local units to develop the new schemata – understandings. S.. 1–18. In accelerated change units compared to those that are lagging. and Allan M. 35: pp. Jay Liebowitz and Kenneth P. Jan 1982. (29) The Application of Team Building. participative leadership style was positively associated with team reflection. In addition. Susan Albers Mohrman. and across system levels were found. Sep 2003. a comparison of team building with laboratory training. the steps in the team building process are outlined. de Meuse. the process of team building is presented. Ramkrishnan V. 301–323. Tenkasi. whereas no such impact was found under the condition of high functional heterogeneity. Specifically. Human Relations. the author found that in high functionally heterogeneous teams. a greater abundance and diversity of networks. This paper reviews the literature on the organisation development strategy known as team building. In a study of 136 primary care teams. These network connections facilitate change implementation not only by sharing information but also by providing the capabilities to exchange and combine knowledge and by enabling local self-design. and a description of several models of team building. several important prerequisites to enhance the probability of success of team building interventions are considered. the utility of team building is discussed. which has an intervening impact on a functionally heterogeneous team’s process and outcomes. The impact of directive leadership was in promoting team reflection under the condition of low functional heterogeneity. Utilising a grounded-theory approach. vol. Finally. (28) The Role of Networks in Fundamental Organisational Change: A Grounded Analysis. Further. strong and weak. a variety of techniques for problem diagnosis and solution generation are listed. Included are a definition and conceptualisation of team building.This study focused on leadership style (participative leadership/directive leadership) as a key factor. behaviours. which in turn fostered team innovation. internal and external. this study examines eight organisations and finds that social networks make a difference in the capability of organisations to implement fundamental organisational change. the major purposes of team building. however. vol. whereas the unsuccessful organisations relied primarily on hierarchical change implementation networks.
strategic groups. which can be configured to generate electricity and heat for an individual house or a group of buildings. vol. 30: pp. 34: pp. A key technology in this context is the fuel cell. PROCESS INNOVATION 65 . vol. Ketchen. Jr. Snow. As a first step toward filling gaps in knowledge identified in our review. We highlight the potential for small firms to play a significant role as creators of ‘technology specific advocacy coalitions’ and promoters of a new technology in multiple experimental situations. In this article. and outcomes of organisational ambidexterity.. has gained increasing interest in recent years. We review recent developments in six research streams relevant to competitive dynamics: competitive action and response. (3) Research on Competitive Dynamics: Recent Accomplishments and Future Challenges.The topics for which specific articles are identified include entrepreneurial leadership. defined as an organisation’s ability to be aligned and efficient in its management of today’s business demands while simultaneously being adaptive to changes in the environment. Dec 2004. implementing innovation project and assessing the Stage Gate model for the management of innovation. Outcomes. Sebastian Raisch and Julian Birkinshaw. 603–629. and Paul Harborne. and regional clusters. innovation to generate new revenue. and Moderators. Organisational ambidexterity. Journal of Management. Dec 2007. there is now an opportunity for small high technology firms to introduce products that generate electricity from renewable sources. (2) Organisational Ambidexterity: Antecedents. We also describe opportunities for conceptual integration across the streams that could significantly advance the understanding of competitive dynamics. Journal of Management. first-mover advantage. moderators. multipoint competition. Understanding the nature and consequences of the competitive dynamics among firms is a key objective of the strategic management field. They indicate gaps within and across different research domains and point to important avenues for future research. vol. David J. However. This article looks at the development of fuel cells in this market space and compares the experience of two leading fuel cell companies. Electricity supply is a mature industry that is characterised by centralised generation from fossil fuels and the dominant presence of large companies. International Small Business Journal. business networks. we provide suggestions for future inquiry within each research stream. Jun 2008. Charles C. and Vera L. James Brown. 779–804. Hoover. 375–409. the authors review various literature streams to develop a comprehensive model that covers research into the antecedents. 25: pp. DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION (1) Developing Radical Technology for Sustainable Energy Markets: The Role of New Small Firms. Chris Hendry. with the advent of liberalised energy markets and global concerns about greenhouse gas emissions.
101–121. Robson. for manufacturing firms. the significant interaction between these two leadership styles has a different direction than the authors hypothesised. 14: pp. M. The survey. Frans A. (7) Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective. Mark S. Diana E. Christine Räisänen and Anneli Linde. 11: pp. is the largest and most definitive assessment of enterprise in Scotland and Northern England. Although the posited main effects of both delegative-participative and consultative-advisory leadership are confirmed.(4) Implementing Process Innovations: The Benefits of Combining DelegativeParticipative With Consultative-Advisory Leadership. Growth and Performance: Evidence from Scotland and Northern England. The most emphatic findings highlight a positive relationship between novel product innovation and employment growth and. 22: pp. 16–25. growth in turnover. 66 . (5) Small Firm Innovation. This article employs four measures of growth: growth in employment. discursive tool in the ‘new’ bureaucratisation process of multi-project organisations. Diether Gebert. Jan 2004. vol. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. respectively. International Small Business Journal. covering 1347 respondents. turning them into representations of consensual praxis. J. Previous research leaves open which facets of leadership foster the implementation of process innovations. change in the profit margin. Van Den Bosch. growing sales and productivity appear positively associated with incremental process introductions in service firms. This article uses Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation techniques of a large-scale survey to examine the effect of firms’ innovation activities on their growth performance. growth in productivity. Freel and Paul J. Aug 2007. In this study. They argue that each of these leadership behaviours entails specific advantages and risks and that therefore the two patterns complement each other. Through this process. the authors analyse the effects of delegativeparticipative and consultative-advisory leadership. Patrick A. vol. 561–575. at least in the short term. The sample consisted of managers from different organisations. STAGE GATE MODEL (6) Technologizing Discourse to Standardize Projects in Multi-Project Organisations: Hegemony by Consensus?. A project-management model is a powerful. The models are re-estimated with the current sales and profit levels adjusted for the number of employees. discourse technologists redesign organisational discourses and work processes. A. a negative relationship between product innovation (both incremental and novel) and growth in sales or productivity. and Eric Kearney. Vermeulen. It is a means of creating hegemony by consensus and can be seen as an example of the process of technologisation of discourse. vol. Organisation. on the implementation success of process innovations. These measures of growth are analysed separately for manufacturing and service firms. but little researched. This article traces this redesign process in a major telecom organisation and shows how the ‘new’ practices are disseminated within the organisation. By contrast. Krause. Dec 2004.
Eventually. to promote innovation. R & D evolved over two decades at Corning. Arthur and Alanson Houghton relied on different kinds of knowledge — direct experience. ChiuChi Wei. vol. Jun 2008. the front end of the new product development project is composed of uncertainties. This paper uses an institutional perspective to investigate why established firms in the financial services industry struggle with their complex incremental product innovation efforts. employing experts. but the authors argue that this tradition of using different forms of knowledge and experimenting with organisational arrangements preceded the Chemical Department and continues to inform how R & D is practised today at Corning. 121– 128. (8) Revolution or Evolution?: The Role of Knowledge and Organisation in the Establishment and Growth of R & D at Corning.and Henk W. as well as science — to create new products and processes. (9) A Model for Selecting Product Ideas in Fuzzy Front End. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken. Feb 2009. and the extraction of the most potential product ideas in the fuzzy front end that can generate significant profits has become the vital concerns of research and development managers. 16: pp. Many product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. the study draws on Six Sigma methodology to create a SIPOC (Supplier-Input-Process-Output-Customer) diagram of the innovation process. Houn-Wen Chang. and Ru-Jen Lin. the paper illustrates how micro institutional forces at the business unit level affect complex incremental product innovation and how the interaction of these forces delivers their impact. Oct 2007. 4: pp. craft skills. is a story of revolution: that the coming of science to industry wiped away the irrational patterns of invention and ruthless competition and ushered in a new rational scientific order. 37– 65. Bernard Carlson and Stuart K. It argues that although the impact of micro institutional forces is often overlooked in innovation studies. The most decisive determinant that can create an enterprise’s competitive advantage and core strength is the development of new products. many firms still struggle with this type of innovation. Sammis. During this evolution. the Houghtons also employed different organisational arrangements including using consultants. Rather than being a revolution. The study complements the existing innovation literature and provides an additional explanation why incremental product innovation is highly complex and suffers from several liabilities in established firms. the history of Corning Incorporated suggests a different view. these forces matter for innovation success. Volberda. Organisation Studies. which greatly hinder the success of product development and 67 . vol. Moreover. To provide an overview of how different kinds of knowledge can be leveraged for innovation. Concurrent Engineering. 28: pp. W. However. and complexities. the company did hire scientists and establish a Chemical Department in 1908. 1523– 1546. and establishing departments inside the company. fuzziness. The rise of R & D. However. vol. Using qualitative data from the Dutch financial services sector collected over the period 1997–2002. as it is usually told. Management & Organisational History. creating separate companies.
International Small Business Journal. (12) Stakeholder Perceptions of Age and Other Dimensions of Newness. 31: pp. 25: pp. This paper presents the view that if a company is to be more entrepreneurial. Jeffrey S. Hornsby. May 2007. James Brown. 573–596. and Michael G. and Entrepreneurial Intensity to Corporate Entrepreneurship. organisational posture. Corporate entrepreneurs are depicted as those managers or employees who do not follow the status quo and increase the entrepreneurial intensity of a firm. it must first consider its stakeholders as a source of opportunity and acceptance of new ideas. (11) The Relationship of Stakeholder Salience.commercialisation. The authors find that stakeholders’ support depends on their perceptions of an organisation’s age and other dimensions of newness related to addressing management challenges of adaptation – the entrepreneurial problem. Journal of Management. and entrepreneurial intensity. Aug 2005. the engineering problem. vol. and the administrative problem. vol. affectively congruent. Using verbal protocol and conjoint analyses. they must then be balanced in such a way that the exploration – exploitation tension can be dealt with adequately. Donald F. Building sustainable firms requires the development of all four functions and the related types of capital (strategic. vol. cultural. 56–72. accountable. Dec 2007. with the need to exploit existing capabilities to generate sufficient value in the short term. we suggest that entrepreneurs use four types of functions to develop their business: goal attainment. Answering the question of how enabling technology-based firms manage tensions in their development process. social networking and economic optimisation. we focus on tensions related to balancing the need to explore new developments for future performance. especially. Through a case study of the development of a sound measuring sensor. There is a dearth of literature on stakeholder relationships and organisational posture as they affect entrepreneurial intensity inside established organisations. economic and social) up to a certain minimum. Chris Hendry. and aims to increase the possibility of successful product launch within limited resources and time pressure. PROCESS MANAGEMENT (10) Developing Radical Technology for Sustainable Energy Markets: The Role of New Small Firms. Young Rok Choi and Dean A. Organisational Posture. A stakeholder theory framework is presented as a guideline for exploring the relationship between stakeholder salience. Shepherd. Stakeholder support is more likely for those organisations that are old. and Paul Harborne. This study proposes a rational and effective fuzzy multiple attribute group decision-making approach called product idea screening model for selecting new product ideas in the fuzzy front end. the authors illustrate the four types of functions and the accumulation of capitals by exploring a set of three propositions. 603–629. and 68 . Goldsby. in this dramatic global changing environment. 13: pp. Kuratko. reliable. this study examines how stakeholders assess an organisation in deciding whether to provide their support to it. Based on social system theory. cognitively legitimate. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. pattern maintenance.
there is a dearth of research. 373–384. and are more likely to continue funding it than managers who assume leadership after a project is started. Work. both conceptual and empirical. The results show that managers who initiate a project are less likely to perceive it is failing. 103–118. The results suggest that simply giving managers better information will not necessarily lead to better decisions. Jun 2001. are more committed to it. Finally. (14) Escalation of Commitment during New Product Development. Wilkinson. A set of strategies for managing the workforce has emerged in response to perceived changes in the structure of industry and the organisation of production including ‘reengineering’ and ‘de-layering’. The authors test whether factors unrelated to a new product’s forecasted performance cause managers to continue NPD projects into subsequent stages of development at rapidly accelerating costs. Jeffrey B. There has been an associated increase in the role of knowledge and the importance of product and process innovation. Despite this realisation. There is also the tendency toward increased commitment for more innovative products compared with less innovative ones. construction and mining and a growth in social. the results show that escalation of commitment is a more serious problem during NPD than after the product is commercialised. Over the last three decades. the nature of production and the organisation of work. focusing on innovation generation in buyer–seller relationships in supply chains. important questions about how managers make critical continuation/termination decisions in risky NPD projects remain unanswered. Jan 2004. The authors conclude with theoretical implications for scholars and practical implications for resource acquisition in various contexts of entrepreneurship. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. financial and commercial services. Apr 2002. The authors propose that innovation generation 69 . Subroto Roy. Employment & Society. K. 15: pp. (15) Innovation Generation in Supply Chain Relationships: A Conceptual Model and Research Propositions. vol. this article develops a conceptual model of innovation generation in buyer–seller relationships in upstream supply chains. Calantone. Although periodic review is a prominent feature of new product development (NPD) processes. Schmidt and Roger J. 32: pp.strategically flexible. Technological changes have transformed production in modern economies by expanding the possibilities for flexible and decentralised production techniques. personal. vol. According to this view. Sivakumar. (13) The Myth of the Entrepreneurial Economy: Employment and Innovation in Small Firms. Innovation generation has increasingly been recognised as an outcome of interaction between a firm and various outside entities. modern capitalist economies have experienced significant changes in the structure of industry. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. as well as a stabilisation or decline in public employment. and Ian F. vol. 61–79. In an attempt to fill this void. supplier involvement and alliances are routes to innovation generation. which are thought to reflect the increased need for worker participation and autonomy in the new production regime. 30: pp. Rachel Parker. There has been a decline in traditional industries such as manufacturing.
and their likely effects on the new products process as a whole. 89–101. Past development projects (both successful and unsuccessful) provide the basis for analysis. Specifically. vol. and (3) interfunctional coordination increases the launching of line extensions and reduces the introduction of me-too products. a risk assessment frame work is developed that can be used to alert managers to the dangers of overlooking key activities and processes. Jun 2000. the authors discuss managerial implications of their research and offer guidelines for future empirical research.M. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 8: pp. Rajan Varadarajan. (16) The New Products Process: Effective Knowledge Capture and Utilisation. Apr 2000. From this data.S. To supplement internally generated expertise. C. manufacturing companies. 133–143. Ferrell. On the basis of a sample of U. (1) customer orientation increases the introduction of new-tothe-world products and reduces the launching of me-too products. both incremental and radical. Jan 2001. the literature still contains certain gaps that limit our understanding of successful product innovation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. David M. Troy. These gaps include a lack of research employing a decompositional approach (i. (17) The Effect of Market Orientation on Product Innovation. Numerous scholars have debated whether marketing fosters or stifles innovation. is a consequence of interactions between buyers and sellers.. and S. They also delineate factors internal and external to the relationship that moderate the link between interaction and innovation generation. Bryan A. vol. the authors’ analysis shows that product innovation varies with market orientation. (2) competitor orientation increases the introduction of me-too products and reduces the launching of line extensions and new-to-the-world products. and the incorporation of best practice knowledge in the field. This paper describes a method of knowledge capture and utilisation in new product development that can be used to improve firms’ existing performance. (18) Generating New Product Ideas: An Initial Investigation of the Role of Market Information and Organisational Characteristics. and P. The method is intended to provide an effective bridge between expert knowledge generated internally.e. Finally. Szymanski. The authors attempt to close these gaps by developing and testing a model examining the moderating effects of organisational characteristics on the relationship between the 70 .M. Shahidipour. Ismail. allowing key ‘success’ factors to be teased-out from the data. Concurrent Engineering.in supply chain relationships. The discussions. 29: pp. 28: pp. 239–247. Jenny Poolton. a large database of new product’s knowledge from the past literature is used to complement the analysis. Lisa C. vol. have been inconclusive due to limited empirical evidence. however. Although product innovation is widely recognised as crucial to the success of organisations. analysis of the drivers at each stage of the process) to studying product innovation and a related lack of research investigating the effect of organisational characteristics on specific stages of the product innovation process. Hossam S. The authors investigate the relationship between two focal constructs in the debate: market orientation and product innovation. Lukas and O.
The study investigates the relationships among five behavioural conflict-handling strategies. Empirical results both support and question some of the previous findings in conflict research. (21) Conflict Management and Innovation Performance: An Integrated Contingency Perspective. samples of senior executives identified organisational patterns and norms associated with successful innovation. destructive and constructive conflict. Small Group Research. Barbara Dyer. this research takes a fresh look at key conflict antecedents. compromising. Michael Song. training. Based on the results. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. and consequences in the context of the innovation process. Caldwell and Charles A. III. Wotruba. Although the role of the sales force and sales management mix can be significant in influencing successful new product launch. The study’s findings provide insights into the types of organisational structure and climate characteristics that can have an impact on the relationship between amount of market information and new product idea generation. Operating from the perspective that conflict is complex. teamwork. mediators. David F.amount of market information gathered and the number of new product ideas generated by work groups in organisations. multidimensional. However. Results show four norms associated with increased group innovation: support for risk taking. The results indicate that integrating. This study investigates the role of work group norms in promoting innovation in hightechnology organisations. drawing into question the validity of some previous research findings. no significant differences in the number of changes in sales force structure. forcing. 71 . many of the basic assumptions underlying organisational conflict research have changed. and speed of action. 34: pp. a survey was developed and administered to a set of managers. the impact of specific sales management programmes and tactics has not been examined in detail. 497–517. and innovation performance as perceived by 290 R&D and marketing department managers. TEAM-BASED INNOVATION (20) The Determinants of Team-Based Innovation in Organisations: The Role of Social Influence. Linda Rochford and Thomas R. and R. tolerance of mistakes. vol. Through structured discussions. vol. This study explores whether firms that introduce new products were more successful in achieving their objectives when the new product introduction was accompanied by associated changes in sales management mix variables. O’Reilly. Jun 1996. Firms that were more successful in achieving their new product objectives accompanied their new product launches with significantly more changes in sales force quotas than did firms whose achievement of new product objectives was less successful. (19) The Impact of Sales Management Changes on New Product Success. vol. and context specific. In recent years. Aug 2003. Jeffrey Thieme. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. An instrument to assess these norms is developed. accommodating. and avoiding conflict-handling strategies can have different impacts on constructive and destructive conflict in an innovation context. 24: pp. 263–270. Jul 2006. 341–356. or sales support were found between firms with more successful versus less successful new products. 34: pp.
This article reviews the literature for factors related to organisational culture and climate that act as supports and impediments to organisational creativity and innovation. Implications for human resource development research and practice are discussed. 226–246. Martin Hoegl and K. 7: pp. Results indicate that goal setting is directly related to both effectiveness and efficiency. budget). Kanter. Jun 1993. Feb 2003. 549–574. Journal of Management. Van de Ven. The majority of the literature on creativity has focused on the individual. The work of Amabile. vol. May 2005. Laird D. leaders. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Praveen Parboteeah. vol. Angle. 19: pp. vol. Previous research has identified goal setting as an important determinant of the performance of teams with innovative tasks. This study aims to further the understanding of how teams successfully perform goal setting given the collaborative nature of innovative projects. they test direct and moderated relationships between goal setting and effectiveness (quality) and efficiency (schedule. and managers of 145 software development teams. 3–19. Small Group Research.(22) Organisational Culture’s Influence on Creativity and Innovation: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development. hierarchical regression analyses show that teamwork quality moderates these relationships. The results support the proposition that different executive characteristics explain influence on each type of innovation. Richard C. (24) Top Management Influence on Innovations: Effects of Executive Characteristics and Social Culture. yet the social environment can influence both the level and frequency of creative behaviour. Using data from 575 members. and others is reviewed and synthesised to provide an integrative understanding of the existing literature. Top managers often seek to influence or champion strategic innovations. Hoffman and W. This study examined the extent to which executive characteristics explains top management influence on product/market (PM) and administrative (ADM) innovations in four Western cultures. McLean. 34: pp. The implications of this study for practice and research are discussed. Advances in Developing Human Resources. (23) Goal Setting And Team Performance In Innovative Projects: On the Moderating Role of Teamwork Quality. Furthermore. Innovation is a growing source of strategic advantage across a variety of industrialised cultures. INNOVATION NETWORKS 72 . Harvey Hegarty. The influence process differed across cultures for ADM but not for PM innovations. The authors argue that the quality of teamwork serves as an important facilitator to the successful enactment of goal setting in team projects.
Science. 1–23. This paper identifies emerging knowledge networks in African clusters. have managed the absorption of ICT (information and communication technologies). Jul 2005. On the other hand. re-establishing a re-centralisation pattern in both functional (size) and geographical (space) dimensions. (26) Knowledge Networks and Technological Capabilities in the African Manufacturing Cluster. Technology & Human Values. It is widely acknowledged that there has been a technological revolution in information and communication technologies (ICT). so-called innovative milieus. clusters and large economic regions. 22: pp. 207–234. This article analyses the relevance of a specific form of social network. Two Swiss initiatives 73 . and the nature and intensity of networking. Apr 1997. 247–268. which may be considered special forms of clusters. there is still a great controversy about the extent to which ICT are transforming the competitiveness of individual firms. 8: pp. the ‘virtualisation’ of the spatial economic relations could offer economic agents located in peripheral areas a better access to the development of distance relationships. but as a sign that they rely on flexible and trustful informal communication that cannot easily and efficiently be virtualised in electronic form. Clusters are characterised by two dynamic elements: the rates and types of technological learning. illustrating with new empirical data front clusters in Nigeria. Their behaviours in terms of ICT technology adoption were found to be quite similar in the three IDs studied. the assumptions of the ‘vanishing’ of physical distance could represent a fascinating ‘utopia’. Banji Oyelaran-Oyeyinka. European Urban and Regional Studies. On the one hand. They chose three cases which are representative of the empirical variation. centred on Internet applications. Mar 2003. Firms in early industrialisation are largely imitative innovators drawing on a variety of formal and informal sources such as licensing and reverse engineering. vol. This paper analyses how industrial districts (IDs). in recent years. vol. 12: pp. The results seem to demonstrate that firms adopted ICT technologies with respect to end customers while they were reluctant to use B2B linkages with subcontractors and suppliers (EDI and ERP technologies). In this perspective. There is. The investigation presented here is based on a selected sample of 42 firms interviewed (all SMEs). Fiorenza Belussi. Bernhard Truffer and Gregor Dürrenberger. the use of ICT could undermine those economic systems that are very distant from the strategic motors where these developments are taking place. However. therefore. The authors define a knowledge network as a structure of interlinked actors that facilitate the process of learning in firms and institutions in the process of innovation.(25) Are Industrial Districts Formed by Networks Without Technologies?: The Diffusion of Internet Applications in Three Italian Clusters. for the development of radical innovations. However. a significant correlation between firm-level technological capabilities and external knowledge networks. Science Technology & Society. The article reached the conclusion that neither size nor the entrepreneurial cognitive frame matters in hindering diffusion. vol. Are they formed by networks without technologies? In order to answer this question the authors organised an empirical research in three selected Italian clusters. (27) Outsider Initiatives in the Reconstruction of the Car: The Case of Lightweight Vehicle Milieus in Switzerland. this should not be interpreted as a lock-in phenomenon.
and Gert Villumsen. 229–246. vol. It shows that policies. strategies and structures of science and technology evolved under a planned development approach in both Korea and India. Urban Studies. and (d) access to foreign technologies. (28) Technology Policies and Acquisition of Technological Capabilities in the Industrial Sector: A Comparative Analysis of the Indian and Korean Experiences. European Urban and Regional Studies. (c) welldeveloped industry–institutes–academia links. However.which developed highly energy-efficient means of individual transport in the past ten years are analysed in terms of the resources they could mobilise and the risks they run. 12: pp. During the 1980s and 1990s new mobile communications technologies have emerged as a series of distinct life-cycles. New disruptive technological life-cycles may initiate the emergence of new regional industrial clusters or create opportunities for further development of existing ones. vol. 6: pp. For clusters in many of the fast developing technologies. however. Bent Dalum. (b) the presence of high-quality human capital. The analysis is focused on the strategy and policy issues involved in the specific phase where one technological life-cycle may (or may not?) be succeeded by the next. India had vital links missing that weakened the performance of this system and resulted in a poor R&D performance of firms in the industrial sector. Franz Todtling and Michaela Trippl. the authors examine the construction of a lightweight safety system. while Korea created a strong national innovation system and acquired phenomenal technological capabilities. India failed to evolve an appropriate mix of these critical ingredients. 74 . Science Technology & Society. the social construction of the product category ‘lightweight vehicle’. (29) Technological Life-Cycles: Lessons from a Cluster Facing Disruption. The paper proposes to adopt a more focused but a multidimensional integrated approach to create technological dynamism within the country. Four conditions need to be satisfied for building an effective national innovation system: (a) strong competitive pressures on domestic firms. and the (mis)management of the interface between prototype development and large-scale manufacturing. Jul 2005. also result in stagnation and decline. The article finds that there is room and need for policy and collective action in periods of uncertainty created by new disruptive technological life-cycles. Pedersen.R. the evolution is closely related to shifts in technological lifecycles. When facing disruption the actors in the cluster have discussed various strategies for how to cope with shifts in the technological life-cycles. This paper reviews the science and technology policy of India and Korea in a comparative perspective to draw relevant lessons for India. Christian Ø. vol. To assess the milieu’s potential for radical innovation. 41: pp. 1175–1195. Sep 2001. Aradhna Aggarwal. 255–304. While Korea tailored its policies to accommodate these conditions in each stage of its development. (30) Like Phoenix from the Ashes? The Renewal of Clusters in Old Industrial Areas. They may. where the economic evolution has been quite closely related to the emergence of new key technologies. May 2004. which have caused major disruptions in the industry. The paper examines the key features of a cluster in wireless communications technologies.
Many cluster studies have focused on growth regions and industries covering only the early phases of cluster development. Clusters represent a new way of thinking about national. After identifying relevant factors from the literature. the Internet as a promotional channel. Even as old reasons for clustering have diminished in importance with globalisation. Economic geography during an era of global competition involves a paradox. Yet clusters. CHAPTER 9 The topics for which specific articles are identified include promotional strategy. and other institutions in enhancing competitiveness. especially in more advanced nations. Porter. this article presents a set of stylised facts and policy recommendations. and local economies. government. has been paid to the renewal of clusters in old industrial regions. are a striking feature of virtually every national. state. and even metropolitan economy. and they necessitate new roles for companies. the establishment of new innovation networks and new and more indirect forms of policy approach. PROMOTIONAL BUDGETING 75 . May 2004. new influences of clusters on competition have taken on growing importance in an increasingly complex. and dynamic economy. vol. (32) Location. This article considers the perspective of the small innovative firm and the question of what small technology-intensive firms want from state economic development programmes. Start-up companies built around commercialising new technologies developed in public or private labs were seen as a means to reinvigorate economies and renew industrial competitiveness in hightechnology fields. 18: pp. knowledge-based. state. The paper investigates and analyses the different development paths. Francis. The prevalence of clusters reveals important insights about the microeconomics of competition and the role of location in competitive advantage. Maryann P. promotional effectiveness. 127–137. promotional message variation by sector and online promotional communication variation. It is widely recognised that changes in technology and competition have diminished many of the traditional roles of location. Critical factors of cluster renewal turn out to be a well developed regional innovation system. The aim of the paper is to address the question of how clusters renew themselves in such regions and how they adjust to changes in their environment. terrestrial channels. or geographic concentrations of interconnected companies. Little attention. 14: pp. Michael E. Economic Development Quarterly. Feb 2000. a comparison is made of the renewal of the automotive and the metal clusters in the old industrial region of Styria. and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy. 15–34. vol. however. Drawing on a review of the literature and a series of case studies of cluster development. Feldman and Johanna L. The 1980s ushered in a new era in technology and economic development policy as a result of increasing competitive pressure. regional. Competition. Economic Development Quarterly. (31) Homegrown Solutions: Fostering Cluster Formation.
e. publicity then advertising. 371–385. publicity only. Mar 2003. Since both of these can also increase performance. a strong marketing planning capability may not only reduce the incidence of postplan improvisation but also contain inherent process rigidity. Rebecca J. or advertising then publicity). Strategy scholars have long debated the value of formal planning. Journal of Consumer Culture. Four dependent variables are organised in two categories: message acceptance (i. is related to a heightened emphasis on branding. Results of the study show that publicity. vol. vol. attitude toward the destination.(1) Advertising and Publicity: Suggested New Applications for Tourism Marketers. Backman. publicity or advertising) and message sequencing (i. with reference to empirical material from a case study of the promotion of a series of live music events..e. the case study shows how these spatial practices may be connected to electronic marketing technologies. such as databases. Loda. it highlights a key theme in contemporary marketing: the attempt to approach consumers in an expanded range of everyday spaces. This research explores two of the basic tools used by tourism marketers: advertising and publicity.. Slotegraaf and Peter R. 32: pp. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY 76 . purchase intent). Message stimulus is the independent variable and consists of two parts: message presentation (i. In particular. consumer websites and ‘viral marketing’ campaigns. This study reaffirms that publicity is an important element in the tourism marketing mix. message strength. Elizabeth Moor.. Dickson. message strength) and message response (i. (3) The Paradox of a Marketing Planning Capability. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. the case study is presented as an example of ‘experiential marketing’: one of a range of possible strategic choices in the attempt to insinuate marketing practices more deeply into the lives of consumers. The article concludes by arguing that whilst such strategies may not always succeed in their stated aims. This. In particular. and Kenneth F.e. in either presentation or sequencing. vol. Within this scenario. Oct 2004. This article comprises a series of critical reflections on some current directions in marketing. (2) Branded Spaces: The scope of ‘New Marketing’. results illustrate a performance paradox in marketing planning. In addition. it suggests that a publicity-then-advertising strategy is most effective at persuading potential tourists to visit a specific destination. perceived credibility. 259–265. their emergence should nonetheless be taken seriously as an important development in the mediation of production and consumption. Journal of Travel Research. Feb 2007. 3: pp. created significantly higher mean scores than advertising for credibility. Given these mixed empirical effects.. William Norman. Furthermore. and purchase intent. advertising only. the authors draw from the resource-based view of the firm to illustrate a paradox firms may face. 45: pp. in an attempt to extend the scope of emotional or affective bonds forged between consumers and brands. in turn. which derives from a complex of factors including a perceived fragmentation and diversification of media audiences and new ideas about the best ways of structuring and stabilising markets. Marsha D. 39–60.e. and research has offered inconsistent support for planning to enhance firm performance.
against the rising tide of 1960s identity politics. In the long run. The normative analysis shows that a firm’s optimal targeting strategies. This research analyses the strategic use of targeted promotions for customer retention and acquisition in a dynamic and competitive environment. and the effectiveness of its targeted promotions. vol. (6) Dynamic Targeted Promotions: A Customer Retention and Acquisition Perspective. This article examines IMC. vol. 210–218. 7: pp. Journal of Consumer Culture. A firm can operationalise these strategies by adjusting its planned promotional incentives on the basis of the observed differences between actual and planned market shares and between actual and planned redemption rates. both offensive and defensive. suggests that the underlying values of freedom. 105–125. ADVERTISING 77 . Aug 2004. Contemporary jeans advertisers rewrite the quest for authenticity within contemporary promotional culture. Fruchter and Z. yet an interpretive study of two totemic youth commodities. deferral of gratification. Advertising’s contribution to the deterioration of meaning in consumer culture has been well established. discipline and teamwork. Outlaws and Artists: The Rhetoric of Authenticity and Contemporary Jeans and Sneaker Advertisements. 3–19. This article provides a starting point. The research suggests autonomy and self-authentication are taken most seriously by those most immersed in the quest for anti-modern identity. (5) Cowboys. to the degree it quells anxieties that the quest for freedom is disappearing in a hyper-commercialised market culture. 20: pp. designers made increasing appeals to authenticity. Although IMC has the potential to contribute to the development of theory as it relates to promotion and marketing communication. 7: pp. Integrated marketing communications (IMC) misrepresents the nature of marketing and systematically ignores at least 60 years of marketing literature. the modern heroes of authentic individuality – the cowboy.(4) Marketing Dèjá Vu: The Discovery of Integrated Marketing Communications. hearth and village. it may prove therapeutic. its history. Harlan E. Spotts. a focus on customer retention is not an optimal strategy for all firms. the outlaw – had been fully parodied and debunked. These strategies have the attractive feature of being an adaptive control rule. Journal of Marketing Education. the genius artist. Joyce. yet. vol. David R. Mar 2007. Early advertisers humanised the modern marketplace with nostalgic appeals to home. John Zhang. Lambert. yet advertising also offers a therapeutic resource to audiences. and its relationship to the marketing literature. Journal of Service Research. jeans and sneakers. Gila E. Dec 1998. academicians need to debate its substantive contributions to the marketing and communication literature. Even if the marketplace is not a site of absolute personal freedom. the relevant redemption rate of its targeted promotions. customer profitability. Jacqueline Botterill. yet this appeal is not universal. By the twenty-first century. IMC reinvents marketing theory using different terminology for extant concepts. depend on its actual market share. autonomy and individuality are not. Athletic shoe brands achieved popularity by reflecting the ideology of athleticism rooted in the modernist ethos celebrating achievement. and Mary L.
Xiaoli Nan and Ronald J. Marketing Theory. Aug 1999. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Jul 2005. Jun 2004. 33: pp. The author argues that in services. Empirical results. Ingrid M. Journal of Service Research. goal-derived categories associated with a parent brand establishes an organising framework for consumers’ assessments of similarity that facilitates the transfer of consumer knowledge and attitude from the parent brand to a brand extension in another product category. (10) A Content Analysis of the Content Analysis Literature in Organisation Studies: Research Themes. and Methodological Refinements. and derives propositions to handle that task. In this conceptual article. Service advertisers often are confronted with the problem of how best to communicate the intangible qualities of a service to their target audiences. The article (a) identifies five conceptual properties of intangibility. discusses how it influences the service advertising task. and (d) elucidates the power of transformational advertising in embedding intangible service performance into a consumer’s life experiences. and Shashi Matta. 7–30. 4: pp. message coordination and clutter. The author advances propositions to guide copy and creative strategy for service advertising managers. A large amount of research in advertising utilises theories from other disciplines and simply uses an advertising message as a stimulus or focal content topic. vol. (b) describes the advertising challenge of each. and Perceived Brand Meaning: The Transfer of Purposive. 2: pp. 98–116. Banwari Mittal. Goal-Oriented Brand Meaning to Brand Extensions.(7) Advertising Theory: Reconceptualizing the Building Blocks. vol. Data Sources. based on two well-known brands and two hypothetical product extensions for each brand. (9) The Advertising of Services: Meeting the Challenge of Intangibility. Marketing Communication. intangibility can contribute to value rather than detract from it and that it is well within the advertising’s special talent to communicate intangibility. the author describes what intangibility means. Implications are discussed for the organisation of consumer knowledge and affect across product categories and for understanding prior research findings on brand extension. The actual elements that make advertising unique are often ignored in this work. It is proposed here that advertising theory and research needs to become more focused on what makes advertising a distinct phenomenon and these elements need to be incorporated in our thoughts and research. Martin. Vincent J. This facilitating effect of similarity does not occur in the absence of goal-derived categories. The results also reveal how marketing communication can be used to facilitate the transfer process by framing similarity in terms of common goals. repetition. Stewart. 275–294. This article develops and tests a conceptual model of the transfer process whereby perceived similarity organised around shared goals facilitates the transfer of knowledge and affect from a parent brand to an extension of that brand. Faber. Research in each of these areas is reviewed and illustrations of how they may impact theory development and theory testing in advertising are presented. (c) suggests approaches to meet each challenge. demonstrate that the availability of well-formed. Four examples of possible elements are suggested here. vol. 78 . (8) Branding Strategies. These are scepticism. David W.
Organisational Research Methods. Given the benefits of content analysis. Next. We conclude with suggestions for enhancing the utility of content analytic methods in organisation studies. vol. Finally. we review the principles and the advantages associated with the method. 4: pp. Johnson and Sundar Bharadwaj.e. novel or unusual) and relevant. 3–18. Reger. Rhonda K. Marketing Theory. marketing and advertising. 10: pp. The present research attempts to fill this gap by reviewing past literature in psychology. sales force control systems. and methodological refinements. no systematic research has been conducted to define ad creativity or examine how it relates to ad effectiveness. replacing many routine sales force activities. From this base. it is no surprise that its use in organisation studies has been growing in the course of the past 25 years. 33: pp. a general theory of creativity in advertising is developed that calls for research in five primary areas: advertising as a communication process. Robert E. they assess the moderating effects of environmentallevel motivational factors and firm-level ability factors on the impact of digitisation of selling activity on salesperson effectiveness and job insecurity. and communication of the digitisation strategy. management process.Duriau. Devon S. 31–58. contributions to advertising theory and implications for future research are discussed. Then. 79 . research in strategy and managerial cognition have yielded particularly interesting results. The effects of divergence and (to a lesser extent) relevance on consumer processing and response are examined and a series of theoretical propositions are developed. We use content analysis to examine the content analysis literature in organisation studies. and also that managers can improve the technology-enabled multichannel capabilities of the firm by giving priority attention to human capital improvement. The authors use the motivation ability framework to shape a conceptual model that examines the effects of the digitisation of selling activity on two salesperson outcomes: salesperson effectiveness and salesperson job insecurity. a model is developed which defines a creative ad as both divergent (i. group process. Despite the widespread recognition of the importance of creativity in advertising by practitioners and scholars. Smith and Xiaojing Yang. and personal process. SALES MANAGEMENT (12) Digitization of Selling Activity and Sales Force Performance: An Empirical Investigation. (11) Toward a General Theory of Creativity in Advertising: Examining the Role of Divergence. vol. 5–34. Pfarrer. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Although content analysis has been applied to research topics across the subdomains of management research. we assess how the methodology has been applied in the literature in terms of research themes. Jan 2005. vol. The results reveal that digitisation has the paradoxical effect of improving salesperson effectiveness and heightening job insecurity concerns. societal process. and Michael D. Jun 2004. data sources. Jan 2007. Using data from salespeople in 168 firms. First. Firms are creating a digitised selling capability by developing Web sites designed to provide information and conduct transactions with customers. along with commentary from a prominent advertising executive.
Peter A. Self-Efficacy. Ford. two task-related factors (perceived job autonomy and customer demandingness) and one individual difference variable (trait competitiveness) are proposed to affect salesperson learning effort and self-efficacy. supervisory.(13) Personal Selling and Sales Management: A Relationship Marketing Perspective. and Neil M. 32: pp. 80 . 30: pp. the authors have suggested some issues concerning the emerging partnering role for salespeople that deserve the attention of scholars interested in personal selling and sales management research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 127–143. a knowledge gap exists in understanding design preferences. In this article. (15) Sales Contest Effectiveness: An Examination of Sales Contest Design Preferences of Field Sales Forces. evaluate. and Performance. few studies have looked at its possible antecedents in the context of personal selling. buyer–seller relationships and identify some implications of these changes. Jul 2002. Customer Demandingness. vol. 27: pp. Furthermore. a widely used form of sales force special incentives. Netemeyer. the salesperson’s learning effort directly affects self-efficacy. exploratory analyses of how individual. Applying social cognitive theory. and compensate salespeople and members of sales teams. this study posits that while self-efficacy positively affects performance. Sales contests. The emphasis on building relationships rather than making short-term sales and the use of sales teams dictates changes in the way firms select. train. Dacin. Murphy. Weitz and Kevin D. Apr 2004. Following tests of hypotheses using survey and conjoint data provided by field sales forces from three companies. 241–254. William H. vol. vol. Although self-efficacy has been demonstrated to be positively associated with performance-related variables. 217–228. Changes in the traditional personal selling and sales management activities are needed to support the emergence of the partnering role for salespeople. (14) The Effects of Job Autonomy. For salespeople in the partnering role. Bradford. Apr 1999. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. receive considerable attention in the trade and academic press. and sales setting characteristics may affect preferences suggest potential boundary conditions for initial findings. The results lead to an improved awareness of the determinants of contest design preferences as well as insights and implications for sales managers seeking to design effective contests. and Trait Competitiveness on Salesperson Learning. Barton A. While understanding salespersons’ preferences for various contest designs is a critical first step for understanding how sales contests motivate sales people to pursue contest goals. Two empirical studies show consistent results regarding the positive effects of learning on efficacy and efficacy on performance as well as the influences of three exogenous constructs on learning and efficacy. The authors examine how the practice of personal selling and sales management is changing as a result of the increased attention on long-term. the authors develop hypotheses about preferences for sales contest components. With expectancy theory serving as a theoretical basis. Guangping Wang and Richard G. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. the personal selling shifts from a focus on influencing buyer behaviour to managing the conflict inherent in buyer–seller relationships. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
In this study. Linda Rochford and Thomas R. (17) The Impact of Sales Management Changes on New Product Success. the impact of specific sales management programmes and tactics has not been examined in detail. 94–115. 81 . Jun 1996. Journal of Service Research. Gremler and Kevin P. The authors delineate some factors that affect the tendency of executives to adopt a ‘crisis as opportunity’ mindset as well as the behavioural concomitants of their having done so. and few businesses can survive without establishing solid relationships with their customers. Mar 2008. and word-of-mouth communication. In two different service contexts. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. vol. the authors examine one specific aspect of customer–employee relationships. 44: pp. Joel Brockner and Erika Hayes James. However. the authors find support for two empirically distinct dimensions of rapport. a consideration of some of the challenges in enacting that agenda. loyalty intent. or sales support were found between firms with more successful versus less successful new products. that they believe may be particularly salient in service businesses characterised by a high amount of interpersonal interactions. Gwinner. Relationships are an important aspect of doing business. no significant differences in the number of changes in sales force structure. relatively little is known about the conditions under which executives come to perceive crises as opportunity. They conclude by suggesting future research directions for further academic inquiry of rapport in service contexts. Whereas it has long been noted that crises may be sources of opportunity for organisations and their constituents. Aug 2000. little specificity has been provided as to which relational aspects should receive attention. training. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 3: pp. vol. Dwayne D. 24: pp. rapport. They also find a positive relationship between these dimensions and satisfaction. Firms that were more successful in achieving their new product objectives accompanied their new product launches with significantly more changes in sales force quotas than did firms whose achievement of new product objectives was less successful. vol. Although the marketing literature suggests that personal relationships can be important to service firms. This study explores whether firms that introduce new products were more successful in achieving their objectives when the new product introduction was accompanied by associated changes in sales management mix variables. The analysis also includes a future research agenda. Although the role of the sales force and sales management mix can be significant in influencing successful new product launch. and a few suggested ways to overcome those challenges.(16) Customer-Employee Rapport in Service Relationships. 263–270. Wotruba. Rapport has received relatively little attention in the marketing literature. 82–104. OTHER PROMOTIONAL PRACTICES (18) Toward an Understanding of When Executives See Crisis as Opportunity. the goal of this study is to fill this gap in the literature.
and James M. Different trade promotions can produce dissimilar types of channel cooperation. Fred W. Mar 2000. 1979-98. Brand awareness and brand image influence strategies of distribution channel management. resulting in differences in distribution-programming preferences between suppliers and retailers. They conclude with a brief analysis of the public relations efforts of Johnson and Johnson during the Tylenol crisis and illustrate how organisational theory and research can inform our analyses of public relations research and practice. European Journal of Communication. Morgan. 320–332. David E. David Miller and William Dinan. the role of the PR industry in deregulation and privatisation and the progressive abolition of controls on international movement of capital as exemplified in Britain by the ‘Big Bang’. Journal of Vacation Marketing. vol. They discuss the implications of these various perspectives for research in public relations and illustrate these implications with examples of research from public relations literature. vol. The authors argue that the adjudication of these different preference structures is addressed through the market power of the channel participants. Jack J. Thus. (20) The Rise of the PR Industry in Britain. 6: pp. and critical – and some of the representative theoretical approaches within each of these paradigms. particularly push and pull strategies within the channel. Tracy Woodward. the authors review three broad paradigms from organisational research – functionalist. This article charts the growth of the PR industry in Britain since 1979. Jul 1999. Griffith. 15: pp. The use of trade promotions as a channel-programming tool has increased substantially in the past decade. Based on an assessment of these channel relationships. vol.(19) Organisational Perspectives for Public Relations Research and Practice. Nov 1987. Kasulis. this research investigates brand awareness and brand image issues within tourism 82 . 119– 130. Apr 2000. (22) Using Brand Awareness and Brand Image in Tourism Channels of Distribution. some firms appear to have underestimated the tendency of poorly planned trade promotions to interfere with the implementation of a marketing strategy. an approach for suggested courses of action is forwarded. Public relations is politically and economically more important than ever. In addition the article discusses the consequences of these developments in opening up new and expanded markets for PR consultancies. 199–231. Kenderdine. 5–35. In focusing on the tactical implications of trade promotions. 1: pp. interpretive. vol. In this article. 27: pp. consumer responses. (21) Managing Trade Promotions in the Context of Market Power. In this article. It sets out the major reasons for its growth and outlines some of the political and economic impacts of the expansion on the PR consultancy sector in Britain. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. the authors examine the complex issue of trade promotion use from both long-term and short-term perspectives. In particular it focuses on the ‘tilt to the market’ under Thatcher. Nick Trujillo and Elizabeth Lance Toth. and postpromotion channel member behaviour. Management Communication Quarterly.
Specific implications for responsible restaurateurs are outlined. (2) food-wine pairing recommendations increased sales by 7. This means that 13 to 31 per cent of the increase comes from diners who would have otherwise ordered liquor. 83 . 69 to 87 per cent of the increase in sales of promoted wines comes from diners who would likely have ordered a nonpromoted wine. vol. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Collin Payne. and non-alcoholic drinks. and Stephanie Geiger. vol. The campaign involved direct mail. The eight major Australian domestic tour wholesaler brands were measured for the brand awareness of end consumers and travel agents. The centrepiece of the campaign was a magazine-style 148-page direct mail piece known as ‘The Book of Best Kept Secrets’ that was distributed to 1. Glenn Cordua. and (3) wine tastings increased sales by 48 per cent. 327–336. Jan 1999. (23) Wine Promotions in Restaurants: Do Beverage Sales Contribute or Cannibalize?. Nov 2006. 6: pp. A controlled field study of wine promotions in a mid-priced chain restaurant generated three key findings: (1) selected wine recommendations increased sales by 12 per cent. This combination may be more effective than either strategy on its own because intangibility. 6: pp. Jo HowardBrown. Also. Ed Blair. stimulating interest in visiting and delivering a motivational and travel planning document that was valued and retained by a substantial proportion of recipients. perishability and ownership issues affect the supply and demand of tourism services. This research demonstrates that a combination of push and pull strategies could be used by domestic tour wholesalers to send appropriate messages to both travel agents and end consumers. This paper examines usage and consumer perceptions of direct mail in the travel sector and certain sections of the leisure industry. It builds on ten years of on-going research conducted by the Direct Mail Information Service which latterly has expanded to become sector specific. brand image held in the minds of travel agents was researched. 47: pp. and was supported with cinema and print advertising. (24) Best Kept Secrets: An Evaluation of South Australia’s Direct Marketing Campaign. In general.6 per cent. Jan 1999. heterogeneity. Brian Wansink. 76–85.4 million households in targeted geographic areas. Evaluation of the campaign indicates that it had a substantial impact in raising awareness of the state. 55–61. vol. beer. lower-profit wine.distribution channels. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. including the caveat to not cannibalise sales by promoting a lower-margin. In 1998 the South Australian Tourism Commission launched an innovative marketing campaign known as ‘Best Kept Secrets’ to attract visitors to the state from external domestic markets. (25) Consumer Evaluation of Direct Mail in the Travel and Leisure Sectors. examining both sectors which are long term users of direct mail and those which are relatively new to the medium. Richard Trembath. By tracking consumer views the paper clearly highlights areas of opportunity for marketeers in both sectors.
219–231. This article develops a conceptual basis for ‘regain management’ aimed at winning back customers who either give notice to terminate the business relationship or whose relationship has already ended. considerable opportunities exist to maximise the returns and effectiveness of the existing databases. this article provides guidelines to charitable marketing managers regarding the effect of charitable direct marketing appeals on donor decision judgments. Journal of Travel Research. 3: pp. and regain controlling. R. May 1999. 347–361. Journal of Service Research. Several charitable direct mail appeals (factors) were empirically tested simultaneously in a factorial experimental design involving 18. Martin Oppermann. estimating a customer’s hazard function and remaining tenure with the company can lead to important insights into marketing tactics and constitute fundamental building blocks for methods of targeting important customers. vol. 231–237. Databased marketing. vol. James H. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Journal of Service Research. To this end. Smith and Paul D. Gerald E. Service markets are increasingly competitive while at the same time customer loyalty decreases.(26) Regaining Service Customers: Costs and Benefits of Regain Management. Regain management offers service providers profitable acquisition by adopting a specific management process consisting of regain analysis. Jun 1996. (29) The Impact of Direct Marketing Appeals on Charitable Marketing Effectiveness. Mani. while being financially sound for the provider. vol. 24: pp. understood as a comprehensive marketing strategy based on a memory of business transactions with customers. (27) Targeting Customers with Statistical and Data-Mining Techniques. service providers have to address not only prospects and existing customers but also lost customers as a distinct target group for their customer management. 37: pp. Andrew L. Especially in the areas of product promotion and customer creation. To succeed in these markets.144 potential 84 . D. Operationalising a relationship management programme requires a retention strategy that is sensitive to an individual customer’s position in the service life cycle. Betz. Building on behavioural decision research. product promotion. The authors describe a way of estimating these quantities using a combination of statistical and data-mining techniques. The resulting customer hazard information leads to a generalisation of lifetime value (GLTV) that explicitly accounts for company actions and their success in relationship management. and customer creation. (28) Databased Marketing by Travel Agencies. It shows that the travel agencies are involved only to a limited extent in the three identified areas of databased marketing: customer retention. This article discusses the concept of databased marketing and presents the results of a survey of travel agencies in New Zealand. 1: pp. Feb 1999. 205–219. Feb 2001. and Piew Datta. is a crucial step toward gaining competitive advantage in this rapidly changing world and industry. Essential for this process is a customer database that allows segmentation of lost customers and a segment-specific variation of regain dialogues and regain offers. Bernd Stauss and Christian Friege. regain actions. vol. Berger. Drew.
000 participants downloaded and played in the three-month tournament with the winners.donors to determine how donor decision strategies influenced choice judgments about whether to give and estimation judgments about how much to give. 338–343. Web 2. 25: pp. selection of appropriate applications.0. The second generation of Internet-based applications (i. 133–145. 9: pp. Hanson. and syndication. Apr 1999. Jun 2007. sports-loving and computer literate 12–20-year-olds. ON-LINE PROMOTION (30) Globalization. Rosemary Thackeray. This study examines the cultural production of a free. McKenzie. 85 . vol. in which users control communication. Jay Scherer.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. (32) The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Publishing Industry: Towards a Business Value Complementarity Framework of Electronic Publishing. Web 2. as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences. (31) Enhancing Promotional Strategies Within Social Marketing Programs: Use of Web 2.e. Produced by Saatchi & Saatchi Wellington to articulate the Adidas brand as globally cool. Web 2. Carl L. Implications for charitable marketing managers are discussed. Neiger. and related costs are carefully considered. Health Promotion Practice.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels. New Media & Society. More than 43.0 Social Media. flown to New Zealand to meet their ‘real’ counterparts. Ada Scupola. Issues pertaining to the production and consumption of corporate websites and online games remain relatively unexplored. content sharing. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2. social bookmarking. The results indicate that suggested anchors and framing influence response rate (choice) but not size of gift. holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns. vol. and James F. However. vol. Reference information (factual/statistical and narrative/experiential) influences size of gift (estimation) but not response rate. Oct 2008. tracking and evaluation. Brad L. downloadable rugby game and parallel website for Adidas’s sponsorship of the New Zealand All Blacks entitled ‘Beat Rugby’. the promotional apparatus targeted a specific niche of Adidas’s company-wide target market known as the ‘jeeks’: male.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing. Journal of Information Science.. 475–496. 9: pp. social networking. Web 2. Promotional Culture and the Production/consumption of Online Games: Engaging Adidas’s ‘Beat Rugby’ Campaign. social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. the virtual 15 All Blacks.0). The game and electronic community facilitated a range of consumption and communication experiences for a transnational audience of post-fans in a branded environment which was monitored by the cultural intermediaries at Saatchi & Saatchi on behalf of their client.
The publishing industry, like many other industries, is exploring new markets, new services and new products in response to forces such as advances in information and communication technologies, business strategies such as mass customisation, globalisation and shorter production cycles. This paper focuses on the way in which electronic commerce (e-commerce) technologies are changing and could change the publishing processes, and develops a business value complementarity model of electronic publishing. This model gives a theoretical rationale for, and can be used as a methodology to explore, complementarities between different primary activities and supporting technologies when entering the e-commerce arena in order to maximise profitability and improve the competitive position. (33) Digitization of Selling Activity and Sales Force Performance: An Empirical Investigation, Devon S. Johnson and Sundar Bharadwaj, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Jan 2005; vol. 33: pp. 3–18. Firms are creating a digitised selling capability by developing Web sites designed to provide information and conduct transactions with customers, replacing many routine sales force activities. The authors use the motivation ability framework to shape a conceptual model that examines the effects of the digitisation of selling activity on two salesperson outcomes: salesperson effectiveness and salesperson job insecurity. Using data from salespeople in 168 firms, they assess the moderating effects of environmentallevel motivational factors and firm-level ability factors on the impact of digitisation of selling activity on salesperson effectiveness and job insecurity. The results reveal that digitisation has the paradoxical effect of improving salesperson effectiveness and heightening job insecurity concerns, and also that managers can improve the technology-enabled multichannel capabilities of the firm by giving priority attention to human capital improvement, sales force control systems, and communication of the digitisation strategy. (34) Are we Measuring the Same Attitude? Understanding Media Effects on Attitude towards Advertising, Soo Jiuan Tan and Lily Chia, Marketing Theory, Dec 2007; vol. 7: pp. 353–377. This article empirically explores the relationship between the general attitude towards advertising and the attitude towards advertising in specific media: television and print. Results support the proposition that attitude towards advertising in general (AG) is an abstract level construct while attitude towards television advertising (ATV) and attitude towards print advertising (APRINT) are experience-based constructs in the consumer’s structure of attitudes towards advertising. The authors found a significantly negative reciprocal relationship between ATV and APRINT, a significantly positive reciprocal relationship between ATV and AG, and a non-significant relationship between APRINT and AG. Macro level belief factors like ‘good for the economy’ and ‘materialism’ are related positively and negatively to AG, respectively. The personal experience belief factor of ‘product information’ is positively related to APRINT while personal experience belief factors like ‘hedonic’ and ‘falsity/no sense’ are related positively, and ‘social image’ is related negatively, to ATV. Implications for future research and advertising practices are discussed. (35) Audience Manufacture in Historical Perspective: From Broadcasting to Google, Fernando Bermejo, New Media & Society, Feb 2009; vol. 11: pp. 133–154.
The question of what is new about new media has become a central topic of discussion in new media studies. This article frames within that question a historical and comparative analysis of the process of audience manufacture, and attempts to overcome the limitations of previous literature on the internet by situating the discussion within the political economy of communication. The main topics addressed in the ‘blindspot debate’ – the debate regarding the audience as the commodity produced by advertisingsupported media – are used to guide an examination of audience manufacture in broadcasting media, and to contrast it with the manufacture of the online audience. The evolution of online advertising, in particular its relationship with search engines, serves as an entry point for questioning some well-established assumptions about the role of audiences in commercial media systems. (36) From Consumer Response to Active Consumer: Measuring the Effectiveness of Interactive Media, David W. Stewart and Paul A. Pavlou, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Oct 2002; vol. 30: pp. 376–396. Traditional measures of the effectiveness of marketing communications suggest a specific process by which marketing actions influence consumers. This article offers a broader philosophical perspective on measuring the effectiveness of marketing communications that focuses on interaction as the unit of analysis, rather than the behaviour of either the marketer or the consumer. Structuration theory is discussed and offered as a viable foundation for the identification, selection, and evaluation of new measures of effectiveness in an interactive context among active, goal-driven consumers and marketers. Structuration theory focuses on the emergence and evolution of the structure of interaction, which is posited as a critical factor in devising, selecting, and evaluating new measures of the effectiveness of marketing communications. This view broadens the potential set of measures of effectiveness of interactive marketing communications, implying alternative meanings for measures under different interaction structures and combinations of goal states. (37) Preparing for the New Economy: Advertising Strategies and Change in Destination Marketing Organisations, Ulrike Gretzel, Yu-Lan Yuan, and Daniel R. Fesenmaier, Journal of Travel Research, Nov 2000; vol. 39: pp. 146–156. Information technology, especially the World Wide Web, has had a tremendous impact on the tourism industry over the past years. It is difficult for most destination marketing organisations, however, to keep pace with the evolution of new technologies, the emergence of innovative advertising strategies, the changes in the consumer market, and the growing competition due to increasing globalisation. The National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce organised a workshop in an effort to identify effective strategies for tourism advertising on the Internet. The results indicated that information technology has led to a number of profound changes in the assumptions underlying communication strategies. It was concluded that the change occurring in the new economy involves a rethinking of who partners and competitors are and how networks with other organisations can increase organisational capacity to learn. Thus, it is argued that success of destination marketing organisations in the new economy is more about change in approach than technology itself.
(38) E-business Development: An Exploratory Investigation of the Small Firm, Ian Fillis and Beverly Wagner, International Small Business Journal, Dec 2005; vol. 23: pp. 604–634. Drawing on existing research on e-business and the small firm, this article presents a review of the literature and the formulation of a conceptual framework of e-business development. Macro-level, industry sector, firm and managerial factors are examined, together with attitudes towards e-business and the benefits of and the barriers to its development. The research is positioned within a framework that adopts the Marketing/Entrepreneurship interface paradigm as an aid to understanding how combinations of formal and informal competencies contribute to competitive advantage. A series of in-depth interviews with company managers was carried out in Central Scotland. Results indicate that industry factors, customer influences, the degree of entrepreneurial orientation of the key decision maker and the level of competency development within the organisation play important roles in the level of e-business development achieved. Also, some small firms only embrace e-business to a certain level and even revert to more conventional business practices. (39) The E-Marketing Mix: A Contribution of the E-Tailing Wars, Kirthi Kalyanam and Shelby McIntyre, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Oct 2002; vol. 30: pp. 487–499. In the context of the wars between the upstart Internet retailers and the existing bricksand-mortar retailers, many e-marketing techniques were invented. This article develops a single unifying and theoretically based taxonomy for e-marketing techniques: the emarketing mix. Drawing on the paradigms of exchange, relationships, and digital interactions in networks, 11 e-marketing functions are identified that form the elements of the e-marketing mix. Nine of the 11 e-marketing functions are considered basic, while seven functions moderate the effects of others and are termed overlapping. The 11 e-marketing functions provide a categorisation of the e-marketing techniques. Compared to the conventional marketing mix, the e-marketing mix has more overlapping elements and directly represents personalisation, an aspect of segmentation, as a basic function. The existence of multiple elements that are basic and overlapping in the e-marketing mix indicates that integration across elements should be more commonplace compared to the traditional marketing mix. (40) Niche Publishing on the Web: Using Online Communities to Change the Economics of Niche Publishing, Andrew Gray, Business Information Review, Mar 1998; vol. 15: pp. 50–57. Comments on the explosive growth of both the demand and the supply side of the Internet and the increasing problems caused by users, who are fuelling the growth in demand, being significantly less experienced than those who connected to the Internet earlier in its growth cycle. Notes that the explosion of products and services on the supply side is leading to an increasingly complicated and confusing array of products. Discusses the characteristics of community-oriented Web sites, tightly focused on the needs of particular professional communities, as a way of overcoming these problems and considers how they can impact the Internet strategies of niche publishers. Options for this type of Internet publishing are seen to be: migration strategies; new product strategies; new market strategies; and community strategies. Outlines briefly the
common issues associated with the first three options then details the attractive features of the community-oriented approach in terms of: real-time news; database content; information wizards; local area search engines; Internet links; directories; discussion boards (forums); Web sites; alerts; sector-specific malls. CHAPTER 10 The topics for which specific articles are identified include pricing, consumer purchasing behaviour, the Internet as a new distribution channel, retailer pricing, sales promotion and of social networks. PRICING STRATEGY (1) Remembering versus Knowing: Issues in Buyers’ Processing of Price Information, Kent B. Monroe and Angela Y. Lee, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Apr 1999; vol. 27: pp. 207–225. A traditional assumption concerning how prices influence buyers’ purchasing behaviours has been that buyers know the prices of the products and services that they consider for purchase. However, empirical research during the past four decades repeatedly has discovered that buyers often are not able to remember the prices of items they had recently purchased. One conclusion that has been drawn is that buyers often do not attend to price information in purchase decisions. The authors argue that this conclusion may be incorrect in that what consumers can explicitly remember is not always a good indicator of what they implicitly know. Price information not consciously remembered can still influence internal reference prices and product evaluations. In this article, the authors discuss the conceptual and methodological ramifications of the distinction between remembering and knowing to reassess and refine our understanding of how buyers process and use price information. (2) Pricing Consistency Across Direct and Indirect Distribution Channels in South West UK Hotels, Wai Mun Lim and Matthew J. Hall, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Oct 2008; vol. 14: pp. 331–344. This study seeks to ascertain if hotels across the South West of the UK price their room nights consistently across each of the distribution channels utilised, such as the hotel’s website, ‘bricks and mortar’ travel agents, third party online booking systems, telephone, and emails. While studies examining pricing consistency have been done among larger hotel chains or groups, there had been no studies looking at smaller independent hotels, particularly hotels in the UK. The results will suggest that hotel pricing across channels show no comparable difference but indicates that the star rating of a hotel plays a vital role in pricing decisions and in the methods of distribution utilised. (3) Advance Pricing of Services and Other Implications of Separating Purchase and Consumption, Steven M. Shugan and Jinhong Xie, Journal of Service Research, Feb 2000; vol. 2: pp. 227–239. It is important to differentiate between the act of purchasing and the act of consuming. Understanding this separation provides many implications and areas for future research. 89
e. expected conflicts. Herbert Woratschek. In the authors’ model. and Sven Pastowski. May 2006. 530–545. Stefan Roth. information high in sufficiency and diagnosticity). Consumers’ willingness to pay is typically higher for customised services. health. Li Miao and Anna S. the service provider either applies a posted-price or a bargaining strategy. This article researches factors that influence price fairness judgments. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. Dutilh. we find that the perceived fairness of prices is also influenced by other distributional concerns that are independent of the transaction. and the perceived motive of sellers. In particular.. Chris E. buyers may be uncertain about their future state (e. This study investigated the effects of price transparency on consumers’ price perceptions. The authors show that service providers can improve profits by advance ticketing. Robert Gielissen. 31: pp. Using a Dutch sample. the separation creates buyer uncertainty about the utility from consumption. and Johan J. The empirical literature suggests several factors: reference prices. previous work does not address the relevance of customisation and has not yet focused on its impact on the pricing mechanism. vol. In 90 . we find empirical evidence that these factors significantly affect perceptions of fair prices.. Real-life online hotel booking sites were used for hypothesis testing. The authors’ two-dimensional information transparency framework (sufficiency and diagnosticity of pricing information) is grounded in the HeuristicSystematic Model of Persuasion. vol. Heightened judgmental confidence in consumers’ price perceptions was also observed in the high information transparency condition. Mattila. perhaps. Graafland. The model shows that the decision in favour of the bargaining strategy depends on several factors. 47: pp. In addition. a self-interest bias. the costs of the seller. Managerial implications of these findings are briefly discussed. Consider buying a ticket for a concert in advance. (4) Perceptions of Price Fairness: An Empirical Research. Although the posted-price versus bargaining problem has been extensively discussed in the literature. price increases are judged to be fairer if they benefit poor people or small organisations rather than rich people or big organisations. Business & Society. Results show that consumers’ price fairness perceptions and willingness-to-pay are more susceptible to the influence of externally supplied pricing information when such information is presented in a high transparency context (i. This article explores the desirability and implications of this separation and the creation of it (which is often a consequence of the service provider’s selling strategy).For example. Here. to the level of first-degree price discrimination (although usually there is no loss in aggregate consumer surplus). 316–329. (5) How and How Much To Reveal? The Effects of Price Transparency On Consumers’ Price Perceptions. Sep 2008. These profits are possible despite a service provider’s inability to price discriminate. which favours the bargaining strategy. mood) at the time of the concert. Nov 2007. This research analyses the circumstances under which service providers can benefit from negotiating prices for customised services. (6) Negotiating Prices for Customized Services. a service provider offers a service in different degrees of customisation. 370– 389. As a pricing mechanism. vol.g. 8: pp. Journal of Service Research.
Christian Homburg. the authors examine the role of customer satisfaction in influencing the impact of these two variables on repurchase intentions after a price increase. Their findings reveal that as satisfaction increases. (9) Tracking Strategy in an Entrepreneurial Firm. vol. Based on Baron and Kenny’s guideline for mediation analysis. Henry Mintzberg and James A. Brand Awareness. brand awareness and price fairness concepts were found to play significant roles in the customer value process. (7) Customers’ Reactions to Price Increases: Do Customer Satisfaction and Perceived Motive Fairness Matter?. Jan 2005. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science. This study tracks the strategies of a retail chain over 60 years of its history to show how that vague concept called strategy can be operationalised and to draw conclusions about strategy formation in the entrepreneurial firm that grows large and formalises its structure. In addition. 3: pp. the results suggest that satisfaction moderates the impact of perceived motive fairness. 136–162. ON-LINE PRICING (10) Price and the Marketing Environment for Electronic Information. vol. The authors argue that customers’ reactions to price increases (i.. 91 . Family Business Review. as compared to brand or product class. re-purchase intentions) are strongly driven by two factors: the magnitude of the price increase and the perceived fairness of the motive for the price increase. The article includes discussions on both managerial and research implications. vol. Waters. Jennifer Rowley. 285–315. This article investigates the effects of price increases at an individual level. vol. According to these results. Hoyer. Furthermore. Haemoon Oh. this study found the traditional customer value process to be useful for lodging research and marketing. The extended value model in this study newly incorporates the concepts of brand awareness. The author introduces a comprehensive customer value framework and tests an extended value model with lodging products. 33: pp. Jun 1997. 24: pp. Most of the previous research on price changes has focused on price decreases. May 2000. and Nicole Koschate. 29: pp. low bargaining costs and low consumer bargaining power make the bargaining strategy even more attractive. In this context. Sep 1990. and Price on Customer Value and Behavioral Intentions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. service providers can benefit from negotiating prices for customised services and posting prices for standardised services.e. (8) The Effect of Brand Class. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. The authors also find that the level of satisfaction can influence the valence of the perceived motives in response to a price increase. the negative impact of the magnitude of a price increase is weakened. and price fairness. The conclusions focus on patterns of strategic change and on contrasting characteristics of entrepreneurship and planning. 95– 101. Wayne D. 36–49.addition.
and charges for special services such as SDI. Stimpert. clicks-and. Eonsoo Kim. and Suggestions. pricing according to value. 39–46. The marketplace for business information on CD-ROM is characterised by a range of products that embraces a number of different kinds of databases. regardless of business strategy type. Purchasers of business information on CD-ROM are often concerned to assess its costeffectiveness. A number of different types of discounts and options are available. L. Focuses on three of the four variables in the marketing of electronic databases: product. (11) The Applicability of Porter’s Generic Strategies in the Digital Age: Assumptions. consumption. and facsimile transmission. Because current management theories evolved in the context of brick-and-mortar firms. as compared with print and online access. Discusses the price variable by considering five key approaches to pricing and charging: optimal pricing. Dae-Il Nam. telecommunications charges. with differing added-value features and potential applications. promotion. distribution and price. (12) Pricing Strategies for Business Information on CD-ROM. display and print charges.bricks firms that closely integrate their on. statistical reports and end-user services). Journal of Information Science. life cycle and individuality. volume purchase plans. Considers the distribution variable in terms of three potential distribution channels: CD-ROMs. noting that many producers are still involved in printed products. Presents a similar analysis for CD-ROM databases. The key players in the business information marketplace will continue to maintain their presence. vol. is omitted. CD-ROM pricing strategies have two distinct components: prices charged for single-user use and prices charged for network use. Discusses the product variable in terms of the nature of information as a product and its value. Concludes that the complex and chaotic information marketplace may be alleviated by standardisation in pricing structures for products such as CD-ROMs and research which seeks to link the factors that influence pricing structures to a more closely defined model. Oct 2004. marginal cost pricing. and free distribution of services.and offline operations will enjoy performance advantages over their pure play counterparts. this paper examines three key questions raised by the advent of e-business: (1) Will the strategy types found among e-business firms resemble terrestrial company generic strategies? (2) Will we find performance differences among e-business firms pursuing different types of strategies? (3) Will we find differences in the strategy-performance relationships of pure online firms (pure plays) and firms with both online and offline operations (clicks-and-bricks)? We conclude that integrated strategies that combine elements of cost leadership and differentiation will outperform cost leadership or differentiation strategies. The fourth variable. CD-ROM may offer a number of advantages. pricing for full cost recovery. dynamics. charges for special commands. The article concludes with some case studies which assess the pricing strategies for specific CD-ROM products. vol. Journal of Management. We also argue that. Jan 1996. 569–589. session rates.Argues the central role of pricing strategy in determining the future characteristics of the information marketplace. Conjectures. and J. discount plans. Jennifer Rowley and David Butcher. Analyses the pricing structures for online searching of external databases (subscription charges. data networks. connect time charges. Pricing strategies for electronic information are complex. 30: pp. but this may be at a price. 22: pp. but there is likely to be some realignment of 92 .
based on an analysis of 13. Neslin. (b) understanding consumer behaviour. vol. and product bundling or packaging. Journal of Vacation Marketing. (15) Distribution Channels for Events: Supply and Demand-side Perspectives. and bricks-andclicks (multichannel) retailers and test them through an empirical analysis of data on the book and compact disc categories in Italy during 2002. when shipping costs are included. With regard to price dispersion. However. the authors develop hypotheses on how prices and price dispersion compare among pure-play Internet. The authors discuss what has been learned to date and identify emerging generalisations as appropriate. and evaluation of channels through which firms and customers interact. special events. Distribution involves the dissemination of information. The authors identify five major challenges practitioners must address to manage the multichannel environment more effectively: (a) data integration. (c) channel evaluation. Venkatesh Shankar. in that order. followed by multichannel retailers. 32: pp. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. DISTRIBUTION (14) Challenges and Opportunities in Multichannel Customer Management. and Peter C. Jacquelyn S.product ranges. (13) Price Levels and Price Dispersion Within and Across Multiple Retailer Types: Further Evidence and Extension. pure-play e-tailers have the highest range of prices. This article systematically 93 . deployment. Marije L. These findings suggest that online markets offer opportunities for retailers to differentiate within and across the retailer types. in that order. Teerling. Dhruv Grewal. 9: pp. but the lowest standard deviation. and development. Smith. In this article. bricks-and-mortar (traditional). 95–112. 176–187. retention. Multichannel retailers have the highest standard deviation in prices with or without shipping costs. Their results. vol. show that when posted prices are considered. 13: pp. multichannel retailers have the highest prices. Karen A. coordination. followed by pure-play e-tailers and traditional retailers. vol. Thomas. but the growth has not been distributed evenly across the five major challenges. traditional retailers have the highest prices. They conclude with a summary of where the research-generated knowledge base stands on several issues pertaining to the five challenges. Robert Leghorn. enhanced products and adjustments to pricing strategies before the market reaches greater stability. Apr 2004. Oct 2007. Nov 2006. Scott A. and pure-play etailers. Verhoef. and (e) coordination of channel strategies.720 price quotes. The authors also propose a framework that shows the linkages among these challenges and provides a means to conceptualise the field of multichannel customer management. Multichannel customer management is the design. (d) allocation of resources across channels. Fabio Ancarani and Venkatesh Shankar. Journal of Service Research. like other tourism products. In an increasingly competitive market place. with the goal of enhancing customer value through effective customer acquisition. the means of booking and purchase. require an effective distribution strategy to reach their target tourist and local markets. A review of academic research reveals that this field has experienced significant research growth. 321–338.
and models. practical. and size of export orders. globalisation. (17) Developing New Rules for New Markets. (18) Segmenting Corporate Exporting Activities: Sporadic versus Regular Exporters. 94 . vol. capacity. The complexity of event distribution channels is influenced by the event’s target market. partnership relationships. age. (16) The Response Strategies of Dominant US Firms to Japanese Challengers. 93–104. which has not previously been studied in a rigorous fashion is shown to be valid and has important policy implications. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Six case studies are used to examine the response strategies of dominant US firms to the entry of Japanese challengers into their domestic industries. and maximising their installed customer base.P. Free events have simple distribution channels focused on disseminating information.integrates data from interviews with events organisers and a survey of attendees at four events in Wellington. H. there are distinct differences with regard to such factors as initial market entry influences. reviewing ideas about how new rules might be developed for successful participation in them. This classification is robust. and other factors. Feb 2003. Journal of Management. vol. New rules to succeed in these markets depend on (1) an understanding of the market and (2) an ability to take that understanding and exploit it into profitable. Donald Hopkins. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. This study examines the question of whether it is better to respond quickly with individual competitive responses or wait until a broad strategic reorientation is possible. Conceptual. The results suggest that the US firms that had a slower but more concentrated and aggressive response lost less market share than firms that responded quickly. This mode of classifying exporting firms. The need to examine new markets is being driven by the convergence of information technology and telecommunications. There is limited bundling of event tourism packages and a number of barriers exist to their further development in this destination. one of New Zealand’s main event tourism destinations. and the increasing concentration and interdependence of industries. the embodiment of information technology in new products. Saeed Samiee and Peter G. measures. 31–44. customer-focused action. It then takes the results of that calibration to show how firms in the new millennium can focus marketing action not only on a well-targeted marketing mix that has historically been the focus of marketing in the 1900s but by developing. and information use. John H. and policy implications are discussed. export profit margins. Jan 2000. Mar 1991. Walters. export distribution channels. The primary focus of this study is an examination of differences between characteristics and activities of sporadic and regular exporters. The two groups are shown to be similar along several key dimensions of exporting behaviour such as size. 5–25. 28: pp. increased channel turbulence caused by the Internet. Roberts. 29: pp. with a high degree of convergent and internal validity. This article examines emerging technologies and the markets that they create. vol. This article looks at market calibration including the development of new stimuli. These critical differences relate to dynamism and level of export marketing activities undertaken. 19: pp. However. maintaining. channels for ticketed events are more complex.
31: pp. However. It hypothesises that goal priorities emerge in relation to the environmental imperatives faced by the firm. A series of hypotheses are developed and tested in a large manufacturing and distribution network engaged in the marketing of fluid power products. many issues of managerial importance relating to the organisation and management of channels of distribution have received no attention in empirical research. ON-LINE MARKETING 95 . The results support all the hypotheses about the effects of primary goals on performance. Joseph Cronin. Discrepancy theory is used to assess the (dis)confirmation of expectations process. Etzel. marketing functions. 146–163. Still. This article studies how reseller firms establish their goal hierarchies and how these goals are related to performance. Apr 2003. (20) The Structure of Reseller Goals and Performance in Marketing Channels.(19) Satisfying Customer Expectations: The Effect on Conflict and Repurchase Intentions in Industrial Marketing Channels. 27: pp. 226–240. Gary L. vol. During the past three decades. (21) Organizing and Managing Channels of Distribution. it is important to understand the business circumstances and priorities confronting channel members. The typical view of a marketing channel is that of a manufacturer-designed and -controlled distribution system. are more evenly distributed in the channel. Morris. The article investigates how the marketer’s fulfilment of middleman expectations impacts upon conflict and repurchase intentions in industrial channels. J. using structural equation models. Apr 1999. and that the effect of expectations on repurchase intentions is not modified by the creation of conflict. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Overall. vol. 17: pp. the study points to interesting theoretical and managerial conclusions. The effects of secondary goals are not unequivocal but informative nevertheless. as well as market power. Results suggest a direct causal effect of (dis)confirmed expectations on repurchase intentions and on conflict. Furthermore. It is hoped that the article will help to shape the future direction of marketing thought with regard to channels of distribution and its fundamental domain. In organising and managing the modern channel. The article develops hypotheses that are tested on survey data collected from a sample of franchisee firms. Achrol and Michael J. A variety of research needs still exist regarding constructs and issues examined in prior channels research. tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of how firms should organise and manage their channels of distribution. Jan 1989. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Frazier. today. The nature and key determinants of expectations in industrial buyer behaviour are examined. JR and Michael H. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on how channels research should proceed in the future to promote the most progress. vol. Ravi S. we have barely touched the surface of all the managerial issues that need to be addressed. 41–49.
25: pp. and market pressure. and Roger Wallis. George Michael Klimis. New Media & Society. Competitive strategy is primarily concerned with how a business should deploy resources at its disposal to achieve and maintain defensible competitive positional advantages in the marketplace.(22) Marketing Strategy and the Internet: An Organizing Framework. 3: pp. the authors draw on the literature on innovation to investigate what differentiates adopters of advanced Internet-based marketing operations from non-adopters in firms of different sizes. Feb 2007. Drawing on more than 100 interviews conducted between 1996 and 2000 with multinational and independent music companies in 10 markets. International Small Business Journal. Yadav. Adopting the Internet for advanced marketing operations opens up challenging opportunities for firms of all sizes. Oct 2002. The proposed framework provides insights into changes in the nature and scope of marketing strategy. evolving marketplace. the competitive landscape has evolved from a predominantly physical marketplace to one encompassing both the physical and the electronic marketplace. Rajan Varadarajan and Manjit S. current business models. In this article. (24) Music in Electronic Markets: An Empirical Study. management support. This article presents one of the first detailed empirical studies on the impact of internet technologies on a specific industry. and Vladimir Vanyushyn. 296–312. 30: pp. music is not only one of the primary entertainment goods in its own right. The data suggest 96 . anticipating social and economic trends. Håkan Boter. it also permeates many other services across cultural borders. In a growing number of product-markets. 27–48. specific industry. This article presents a conceptual framework delineating the drivers and outcomes of marketing strategy in the context of competing in this broader. A number of implications for further research as well as for managers and educators are discussed. such adoption might destroy investments in present market channels and thus has the characteristics of radical innovation. Martin Kretschmer. Analysis is built on survey data from 379 Swedish manufacturing firms. and the unique skills and resources of the firm that assume added relevance in the context of competing in the evolving marketplace. Music plays an important. (23) Integrating the Internet and Marketing Operations: A Study of Antecedents in Firms of Different Size. Maria Bengtsson. Competitive marketing strategy focuses on how a business should deploy marketing resources at its disposal to facilitate the achievement and maintenance of competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. entrepreneurial drivers. buyer. willingness to cannibalise. and sometimes overlooked part in the transformation of communication and distribution channels. With a global market volume exceeding US$40 billion. vol. Since music is easily personalised and transmitted. future scenarios and regulatory responses to the online distribution of music files are identified and evaluated. The results of analysis show that composition of factors on which firms base their decision to adopt advanced Internet-based marketing operations varies significantly with firm size. 417–441. and buying environment characteristics. vol. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. strategies of the major players. vol. product. Dec 2001. The conceptual model for this study is centred on the set of internal and external factors size. However. P.
without the consideration of simultaneous entry into multiple foreign markets. 5: pp. older people. v. May 2003. the authors propose that in a multichannel environment. The Internet is often depicted as the ultimate arena for unfettered capitalism. Data were collected from 639 customers currently using offline investment banking. Munib Karavdic and Gary Gregory. 75–104. erasing geographic boundaries and barriers to entry while providing a plethora of goods and services to consumers. These inhibiting effects represent a status quo bias. Maik Hammerschmidt. and less experienced Internet users. Marketing Theory. and Hans H. Corporations and Consumers Collide: Napster and the Development of On-line Music Distribution. through format changes and setting standards for other technologies. We use a political economic approach to examine the case of A&M Records et al. Napster.that changes in the music industry will indeed be far-reaching. This article traces how public and private reactions by the five major record companies to new Internet distribution technologies have undermined this popular myth. (25) When Creators. recent technological advances force us to rethink whether existing theoretical frameworks are sufficient in explaining today’s export marketing strategies. Expressed concerns about piracy mask the actual intentions of the ‘Big Five’ – control of all modes of distribution. vol. and through lobbying and legal activities. 333–350. whereby a set of factors are considered for single market entry only. In this article. (26) Identifying Cross-Channel Dissynergies for Multichannel Service Providers. Tom McCourt and Patrick Burkart. Culture & Society. 10: pp. Finally. vol. A review of the recent export literature suggests that a new paradigm may be needed to take into consideration the electronic marketplace. both in the process of entering 97 . This study has both theoretical and managerial relevance as it helps to understand consumer behaviour in multichannel environments and provides implications for the design of multichannel service strategies. (27) Integrating E-commerce into Existing Export Marketing Theories: A Contingency Model. but disintermediation is not the likely outcome. The strength of the Big Five’s cartel has a momentum of its own based in its market oligopoly. Current theory on export marketing is based on the assumption that each exporting decision is made in isolation. which has been secured through its ownership and management of intellectual property. they develop a model that relates offline channel satisfaction to perceptions about a new self-service channel. and discuss how this case underscores the importance of controlling the Internet as an entertainment distribution pipeline. Bauer. vol. Results show that offline channel satisfaction reduces the perceived usefulness and enhances the perceived risk of the online channel. Trust in the bank shows both adoptionenhancing effects and an adoption-inhibiting effect. the negative relationship between offline channel satisfaction and perceived usefulness is significantly stronger for men. 143–160. Tomas Falk. Building on status quo bias theory. 25: pp. Mar 2005. Media. Journal of Service Research. Nov 2007. Because e-commerce is able to provide instantaneous access to numerous global markets. Jeroen Schepers. evaluative conflicts (dissynergies) between service channels exist.
Taking the situation in Australia as an example. and in the management of operations within those markets. International Small Business Journal. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Specifically. export market strategy and export performance. Having once been sidelined by the major portals in favour of other ‘sticky’ features such as news. Geoff Simmons. 7: pp. David C. 351– 389. 195–202.markets. the aim is to develop a theoretical framework that: (a) extends existing export marketing theories by incorporating e-commerce strategy. within and between four determinant groupings underpinning the conceptualisation. However. this is the first article to incorporate the important role that the small business marketing context plays within Internet technology adoption. Rick Christian. Therefore the key contribution of this article to current knowledge is the development of a conceptualisation. vol. Apr 2001. (28) A Conceptualization of the Determinants of Small Business Website Adoption: Setting the Research Agenda. Yahoo has 98 . (30) Search Engine Marketing: Why it Benefits Us All. and. The nine hypotheses will guide and direct future research towards generating an empirically based understanding of what determines small business website adoption. Armstrong. The purpose of this article is to present a model that integrates e-commerce into existing theories on export marketing. Gillian A. This paper examines the use of the Internet as a marketing and promotional tool within the tourism and hospitality industries. (b) proposes a contingency approach to compare and contrast the relationship among environmental variables. Finally. the extant literature relating to small business website adoption is fragmented and fails to provide an understanding of what determines adoption. vol. Critically. that will provide an interpretation of what determines small business website adoption. Jun 2008. (29) Developing an Online Access Strategy: Issues Facing Small to Medium-sized Tourism and Hospitality Enterprises. Business Information Review. supported by the literature. the use of the Internet as a promotional tool has not taken hold among small to medium tourism enterprises. (c) provides a clear direction for future research through the development of research propositions investigating the role of e-commerce strategy in the exporting process. Durkin. This paper also outlines some of the main considerations in developing a site and/or choosing a specialinterest site or portal to join. search is once again central to portal strategies. 20: pp. This paper suggests that a poor understanding of the technology combined with the plethora of jargon and confusing information concerning Internet marketing and promotion is more likely to be the main cause of the slow uptake. Green. which relate to the critical interactions and integration. 26: pp. it becomes important to understand the key issues that determine website adoption. As evidence mounts on the importance of small businesses and the opportunities presented by website adoption globally. 170–178. The article develops nine hypotheses. Search engines are playing an increasingly important role in Internet marketing and commerce. It has been suggested that this reluctance to embrace the Internet is due to a range of impediments such as high costs and issues related to adopting new technologies. Dec 2003. and Mark G. the case of a special-interest site that serves small to medium businesses is looked at. vol.
1 billion in 2003 to US $7 billion by 2007. vol. commitment to the community. we examine the moderating influence of three individual attributes that are particularly relevant to the firm-hosted community context: perceived informational value. We empirically test our framework using self-reported and objective data from 203 members of a firm-hosted technical support community. as well as reciprocity. leading destination marketers from the midwestern United States were invited to participate in a large focus group to discuss the specific challenges encountered by their organisations. on quality and quantity of knowledge contribution. and the informational value s/he perceives in the community are the strongest drivers of knowledge contribution. International Small Business Journal. In addition. Apr 2006. we find that a customer’s online interaction propensity. Organisation Studies. In addition to several interesting moderating effects. Franz T. 116– 126. Fesenmaier. 159–178. Firm-hosted commercial online communities. (31) Beyond the Call of Duty: Why Customers Contribute to Firm-hosted Commercial Online Communities. 347–376.recently spent almost US $2 billion acquiring other search technology providers to compete with Google more directly. Caroline Wiertz and Ko de Ruyter. represent a fascinating context to study the motivations of collective action in the form of knowledge contribution to the community. Threats in the external environment and changes in the industry’s markets and structures have challenged destination marketing organisations to change in fundamental ways. The strategic responses to these developments are essentially decisions to proactively shape. in which customers interact to solve each other’s service problems. and Cynthia Frownfelter-Lohrke. This article summarises the issues raised and their implications for destination marketing organisations as well as tourism research. or passively struggle through a crisis. (33) The Internet as an Information Conduit: A Transaction Cost Analysis Model of US SME Internet Use. Small. Mar 2007. 28: pp. Lohrke. there are increasingly sophisticated technology tools and approaches to utilising search engines to achieve marketing goals. Geralyn McClure Franklin. thereby reducing reliance on channel intermediaries for customer 99 . vol. Sandro Formica. Ulrike Gretzel. The world-wide search market is forecast to grow from US $2. However. sportsmanship. Journal of Travel Research. and online interaction propensity. Envisioning the future of tourism and examining possible ways of reaching various future scenarios are essential exercises in this process of deciding which strategic approach to adopt. vol. In response to the increasing need for new visions of the future of tourism and particularly destination marketing. We extend a model of social capital to incorporate and contrast the direct impact of commitment to both the online community and the host firm. 24: pp. O’Leary. Nov 2006. and Joseph T. Daniel R. against the background of a rapidly consolidating search market. (32) Searching for the Future: Challenges Faced by Destination Marketing Organisations.and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can use the internet to establish direct customer contact. 45: pp. adapt to.
Aug 2003. Aug 2004. Evidence presented indicates that the Internet has the capability to be both a constructive and destructive influence on channel relationships. which could explain the low adoption rate amongst exporting SMEs. Furthermore. Whilst website adoption within UK SMEs is widespread. price per transaction. the article proposes a conceptualisation of the potential effects of website and/or e-commerce adoption on conflict and the mediating effect of trust and commitment. with increase in consumer usage frequency. This result is surprising given indications that the medium may be valuable to SMEs and to exporters in particular. trust and commitment) is useful in understanding channel relationship scenarios. these findings highlight the important benefit that internet use can provide in reducing an SME’s transaction costs. Houghton and Heidi Winklhofer. The results demonstrate that overall. Similarities also exist in consumer preferences between various usage-frequency-based consumer segments. Rohit Verma. and Roger Baran. vol. (34) The Effect of Website and E-Commerce Adoption on the Relationship between SMEs and Their Export Intermediaries. the number offering ecommerce activities is declining or static. the link between export channel relationships and website/e-commerce adoption has mainly been the focus of normative writings or anecdotal evidence. consumer preferences for features of transaction-based e-services differ between offline and online consumers. as well as in-depth interviews with exporters. Overall. this study examined whether SMEs facing high asset specificity in product information transmitted to and received from customers employed the internet to a greater degree than those facing lower information specificity. The findings presented here both support and challenge normative and anecdotal literature. 369– 388. Among the multitude of factors suggested to affect adoption. 100 . Moreover. interesting trends regarding the relative importance for features are observed. International Small Business Journal. The study employs a Web-based discrete choice experiment. (35) Understanding Consumer Choices and Preferences in Transaction-Based eServices. Journal of Service Research. differing from each other in terms of non-web-based and online-only features. and marketing promotions. Zafar Iqbal. Furthermore. vol. Based on transaction cost analysis. By building on the rich literature on authoritative control (manifest conflict) and relationship marketing paradigm (trust and commitment). 51–65. 6: pp.support. in which 1430 consumers are offered e-service options. The authors believe that these results have both managerial and research implications for design and operations strategy formulation for transaction-based e-services. Results based on a survey of 42 US SMEs generally supported this relationship. our conceptualisation demonstrates that a combination of authoritative control and relational paradigm constructs (manifest conflict.than industry-level factors impacting information specificity. results were generally stronger for firm. 22: pp. Kathryn A. The rapid increase in transaction-based e-services creates a challenge for firms: What combination of features should they offer to satisfy consumers while realistically considering operational and financial constraints? This article explores the above question by highlighting similarities and differences in consumer preferences between different segments for a transaction-based e-service.
vol. Journal of Service Research. In addition to the direct effects of attitudes toward specific SSTs and individual employees. They also present illustrative applications of the matrix to examine the B2C operations of two electronic food retailers. Curran. In this research. Traditionally. 286–299. Martin Barnett and Craig Standing. Heim and Kingshuk K. and the emergence of new virtual intermediaries. vol. Surprenant. the findings indicate that heavy SST users rely more on attitudes toward specific SSTs than do light SST users.(36) Intentions to Use Self-Service Technologies: A Confluence of Multiple Attitudes. Internet-related technologies dramatically change transaction costs in communication-based activities and raise both challenges and opportunities for this business sector relating to issues of the nature and value of intermediation. the findings confirm that higher order global attitudes toward service technologies influence intentions to use SSTs. Electronic business-to-customer (B2C) operations are making it possible for companies to deliver service products – conceptualised as bundles of physical goods. Interestingly. the authors develop a product-process matrix for electronic B2C operations. The building blocks of the matrix are an electronic service product structure and an electronic service process structure. (38) Repositioning travel agencies on the Internet. and Carol F. and digital content – to customers almost anywhere and at any time. retail travel agencies have acted as intermediaries between primary creators/suppliers of travel products and the consumer. characterised by the digital content of service products and the target market segment. defines four service process stages. 209–224. The findings indicate that intentions to use SST options are driven by multiple. characterised by the flexibility of process technologies. 7: pp. James M. 5: pp. Journal of Service Research. hierarchical attitudes. (37) A Product-Process Matrix for Electronic B2C Operations: Implications for the Delivery of Customer Value. Matthew L. The electronic service product structure. 101 . and their intentions to use technology-based service delivery systems. 143–152. Two major threats currently perceived are the disintermediation of retail agencies by primary producers. The authors present propositions relating customer value to positions on the product and process structures and on the matrix. 3: pp. offline services. defines four service product categories. Positions on the matrix capture the product-process interrelationships in electronic B2C operations. In this article. vol. Meuter. Apr 2001. May 2001. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Gregory R. the authors develop and empirically test three nested structural models that include a hierarchy of consumer attitudes toward both the interpersonal and the technological aspects of the encounter to better understand their intentions to use SSTs. The electronic service process structure. who rely more heavily on global attitudes toward SSTs when determining intention to use an SST. Sinha. Feb 2003. The introduction of self-service technologies (SSTs) into the service encounter necessitates research to better understand customers’ attitudes toward service providers and technologies. largely as a function of taking upon themselves the transaction costs for the consumer to find and select appropriate travel facilitators.
Based on this foundation. Jim Lee. Sep 2008. have access to new products and be creative in their marketing. we extend the common one-dimensional and cause-effect understanding of performance in family firms and move toward a comprehensive stakeholder 102 . and substitutional. are able to increase stakeholder satisfaction. CHAPTER 11 The topics for which specific articles are identified include family business. 21: pp. Nason. Through this analysis. The value of each of these forms lies in there being an appropriate response to the communication and transaction needs within a given nexus of market forces and opportunities. largely brought about by the Internet. social entrepreneurs. This article empirically investigates the competitiveness and stability of family-owned firms relative to firms owned by diverse shareholders. this article deepens our understanding of financial and non-financial performance outcomes in family firms across multiple stakeholder categories. we develop a typology of performance relationships between performance outcomes: overlapping. the authors use a series of seven models to describe the range of virtual organisational structures and apply these in the travel industry. which in turn increases organisational effectiveness. It is suggested that an awareness of the range of organisational forms. To aid in the creation of new forms. Zellweger and Robert S. data from the most recent recession support the role that founding families play in maintaining employment stability during temporary market downturns. vol. FAMILY FIRM PERFORMANCE (1) Family Firm Performance: Further Evidence. causal. Family Business Review. We argue that these relationships. including the family level of analysis. Jun 2006. Through the lens of stakeholder theory. vol. Thomas M. The lowering cost of information and communications technology calls into question the sustainability of many existing implicit online models. A rapidly changing business environment. 19: pp. (2) A Stakeholder Perspective on Family Firm Performance. Although evidence on the relative stability in employment among family firms over the long run is tenuous. will require companies to quickly develop new affiliations and alliances. when used between constructive (positive) performance outcomes. Family Business Review. Founding families are present in about one-third of the S&P 500 – the sample of this study. It is argued that the characteristics of traditional travel agencies are not yet aligned with the demands of the new travel economy. 103–114. will aid successful adaptation by travel companies within a changing business environment. social enterprise initiatives and social enterprise in developing economies.The potential for structural changes in the travel sector highlights the need for travel agencies to actively select between business models which can best support an effective online strategy. together with an appreciation of their potential for application. 203–216. synergistic. succession planning. Data gathered over the 1992– 2002 period confirm that family firms tend to experience higher employment and revenue growth over time and are more profitable. Regression analysis also supports that firm performance improves when founding family members are involved in management.
-based sample of 319 family business and 258 non-family business owner/managers. It also provides a unified systems perspective of family firm performance. 12: pp. opportunism. based on agency theory and the resource-based view of the firm. which provides insights for increasing organisational effectiveness of family firms. The analysis revealed that adverse selection. (5) Examining the ‘Family Effect’ on Firm Performance. and niche marginalisation are more prevalent among family business owner/managers. 253–273. Using a familiness model for assessing competitive advantage overcomes many of the problems associated with the generic claim that family companies have an advantage over non-family companies. (4) Resource Mobilization and Performance in Family and Nonfamily Businesses in the United Kingdom. Dec 2008. 1–25. and dynamic within a particular firm. Mar 1999. This study draws on agency theory and the resource-based view to hypothesise that family and non-family businesses differ in the capital that they deploy and the way that they deploy it. Family Business Review. Williams. 22: pp. 19: pp. Jonathan Levie and Miri Lerner. The ‘family effect’. vol. W. This approach provides a research and practice method for assessing the specific behavioural and social phenomena within a firm that provide an advantage. is described and propositions are generated that examine the relationship between families and organisational performance.K. Gibb Dyer.performance perspective. Dec 2006. The purpose of this article is to provide an explanation for the contradictory evidence in the literature regarding the performance of family-owned firms. The authors test this hypothesis in a large U. (6) The Impact of Family Control on the Performance and Financial Characteristics of Family Versus Nonfamily Businesses in Japan: A Matched-Pair Investigation. 103 . Family Business Review. Timothy G. The bundle of resources that are distinctive to a firm as a result of family involvement are identified as the ‘familiness’ of the firm. 21: pp. vol. Mar 2009. Jr. The RBV isolates idiosyncratic resources that are complex. Implications for theory and research are also discussed. Yet. Family Business Review. and Toshiki Kurashina. vol. Habbershon and Mary L. Bruno Amann. José Allouche. (3) A Resource-Based Framework for Assessing the Strategic Advantages of Family Firms. their businesses are similar to those of their non-family business peers in performance outcomes such as size and growth. Family Business Review. intangible. vol. The Resource-Based View (RBV) of competitive advantage provides a theoretical framework from the field of strategic management for assessing the competitive advantages of family firms. The article suggests that most of the research fails to clearly describe the ‘family effect’ on organisational performance. Jacques Jaussaud. which suggests that weaknesses in human and financial capital choice are offset by strengths in the social capital of family firms. 25–38. 315–330.
this research has applied to the Japanese context a research methodology that has proven its worth in Western cases. infusion of external management expertise. over time. Yet. Kellermanns. such companies perform better than non-family businesses. Tim Barnett. (9) Entrepreneurial Risk Taking in Family Firms. 31–50. These results urge managers to capitalise on the skills and talents of their family members in promoting entrepreneurship and selective venturing into new market arenas. 21: pp. including strong ties to the family firm. Franz W. The results show that family ownership and involvement promote entrepreneurship. This is a topic of substantial practitioner interest considering the high failure rates of family firms. 104 . Family firms are essential for economic growth and development through new business start-ups and growth of existing family firms. Mar 2005. Kimberly A. 1–14. vol. This study employs a case-study approach to identify unique characteristics of established small family firms that affect their ability to initiate turnaround strategies when encountering an organisational crisis. vol.S. Zahra. this study uses agency theory to highlight key correlates of risk taking among 209 U. Entrepreneurial behaviour by the CEO is essential for such growth to occur.Research on family businesses has undergone rapid development in the past two decades. we found better performance among family businesses in Japan. moderated by eight characteristics generally associated with family firms. Family Business Review. and Allison Pearson. and retrenchment that have been proposed in the general turnaround literature. We assess the empirical relationships of these variables to both entrepreneurial behaviour and subsequent firm growth. however. Mar 2008. Broadly speaking. The implementation of these strategies was. (7) An Exploratory Study of Family Member Characteristics and Involvement: Effects on Entrepreneurial Behavior in the Family Firm. manufacturing family firms. as recent investigations in Japan support. (8) Turnaround Strategies in Established Small Family Firms. as indicated by the number of generations involved in the business. In our case studies. some family firms become conservative and unwilling to take the risks associated with entrepreneurial activities. we found evidence for family firms employing the standard strategies of top-management changes. whereas the long tenures of CEO founders have the opposite effect. To obtain a more precise result. Shaker A. 21: pp. John Cater and Andreas Schwab. such as age and tenure. 23–40. internal orientation. Family firms are widely recognised as a major source of technological innovation and economic progress. The introduced framework contributes to a more fine-grained understanding of the turnaround challenges of established family firms and how they can be addressed. Family Business Review. as well as by the degree of family influence in the firm. altruistic motives. Family Business Review. vol. 18: pp. Adopting a broad definition of entrepreneurial risk taking. Mar 2008. Eddleston. and long-term goal orientation. On the basis of data covering the years 1998 and 2003. Entrepreneurial behaviour can be influenced by inherent characteristics of the CEO.
(10) Are Family Firms Born or Made? An Exploratory Investigation, Jess H. Chua, James J. Chrisman, and Erick P. C. Chang, Family Business Review, Mar 2004; vol. 17: pp. 37–54. Do businesses tend to be born as family firms or do they become family firms at a later stage in their development? The question has important implications for family business studies. In this article the authors examine this question using data extracted from survey responses of small business clients of the Small Business Development Center (SBDC) programme in the United States. The results suggest that most family firms are born that way but that a significant number of firms do arrive there through time. The relationship between age and family involvement appears to be concave – the rate of increase in family involvement slows as family firms become older and at some point family involvement may even decline. (11) Strategic Management of the Family Business: Past Research and Future Challenges, Pramodita Sharma, James J. Chrisman, and Jess H. Chua, Family Business Review, Mar 1997; vol. 10: pp. 1–35. This article reviews the literature on family business from a strategic management perspective. In general, this literature is dominated by descriptive articles that typically focus on family relationships. However, the literature does not usually address how these relationships affect the performance of a family business. Taking a strategic management perspective, we outline a new set of objectives for family-business research. We also identify some of the key issues and gaps that should be explored in future studies if research is to contribute to improving the management practices and performance of family firms. FAMILY BUSINESS SUCCESSION (12) Family Business Succession in Portugal: An Examination of Case Studies in the Furniture Industry, Carole Howorth and Zahra Assaraf Ali, Family Business Review, Sep 2001; vol. 14: pp. 231–244. This paper explores the transferability of theoretical constructs developed in an AngloAmerican culture to Portugal. Cultural effects on succession are examined within three Portuguese family firms, which were selected for their ability to generate theory. Much of the extant literature appears to be valid in this context. Notable exceptions include difficulties in applying stages models of the succession process with more than one predecessor and successors at varying stages. Harmonious rather than contentious relationships were commonplace. Daughters were more highly educated than sons and less likely to enter the family firm. Sons joined the family firm with little or no outside work experience and low levels of education. These facts are highlighted as concerns regarding the ability of Portuguese family firms to compete in the new economy. A conceptual framework is presented as a basis for further research. (13) Succession Planning in Family Business: The Impact of Owner Gender, Paula D. Harveston, Peter S. Davis, and Julie A. Lyden, Family Business Review, Dec 1997; vol. 10: pp. 373–396.
Research on succession planning in family businesses has largely neglected issues linked to owner gender. The present study examines the extent to which differences are evident between male- and female-led family businesses in succession planning processes. Using data from a national survey of family-business owners, the authors explore the predictors of the comprehensiveness of succession planning. The results confirm that there are similarities and differences between males and females in the determinants of succession planning. (14) Succession in Family Business: A Review of the Research, Wendy C. Handler, Family Business Review, Jun 1994; vol. 7: pp. 133–157. This paper reviews the research to date on succession in the field of family business management. Five streams of research are highlighted: (1) succession as a process, (2) the role of the founder, (3) the perspective of the next generation, (4) multiple levels of analysis, and (5) characteristics of effective successions. Gaps in the literature and future research directions are also presented. (15) Factors Preventing Intra-Family Succession, Alfredo De Massis, Jess H. Chua, and James J. Chrisman, Family Business Review, Jun 2008; vol. 21: pp. 183–199. Although research on management succession is a dominant topic in the family business literature, little systematic attention has been given to the factors that prevent intrafamily succession from occurring. Based on a review and analysis of the literature, this article presents a preliminary model of the factors that prevent intra-family succession. (16) Succession Planning as Planned Behavior: Some Empirical Results, Pramodita Sharma, James J. Chrisman, and Jess H. Chua, Family Business Review, Mar 2003; vol. 16: pp. 1–15. This paper uses the theory of planned behaviour to hypothesise the influence of the incumbent’s desire to keep the business in the family, the family’s commitment to the business, and the propensity of a trusted successor to take over on the extent to which family firms engage in succession planning activities. We test these hypotheses using data collected from presidents in 118 family firms. The results show that the propensity of a trusted successor to take over significantly affects the incidence of all successionplanning-related activities. Succession planning may, then, be the result of push by the successor more than of pull by the incumbent. Such a view has negative implications for the succession process that the family firms in our sample follow. (17) The Succession Transition Process: A Longitudinal Perspective, Barbara Murray, Family Business Review, Mar 2003; vol. 16: pp. 17–33. Based on longitudinal case study analysis, this paper provides a metaview of the succession process as it unfolds during the generational transition periods in family enterprise systems. The results indicate that the transition period contains a sequence of phases, here called the transition cycle, during which time the system has an opportunity to do the work or tasks required when changing from one archetypal form of ownership and leadership to another. Each phase in the transition period has a distinct task that the system needs to address, and the whole process requires between three to eight years to complete. Three distinct types of transition ‘journeys’ are identified, based on the extent 106
to which the system was able to make progress with and achieve the tasks required within the transition cycle. One of these journey types was most likely to lead to continuity of the family enterprise, whereas the other two journey types were more likely to lead to disintegration of the system. (18) A Study of Succession in a Family Firm, A.B. Ibrahim, K. Soufani, and J. Lam, Family Business Review, Sep 2001; vol. 14: pp. 245–258. For many founders of family firms, the decision to retire and relinquish control of the business to their offspring is difficult. Pierre Peladeau founded Quebecor Inc., a family business and a communications leader in the new economy. The present research describes the reluctance of the founder to let go of the business to his offspring and the succession process after the death of the founder. The methodology employed is a combination of case history and study of public documents. The study underscores the need to manage conflict between family members and to plan for succession for the next generation effectively. (19) The Succession Process from a Resource- and Knowledge-Based View of the Family Firm, Katiuska Cabrera-Suárez, Petra De Saá-Pérez, and Desiderio García-Almeida, Family Business Review, Mar 2001; vol. 14: pp. 37–46. A major challenge facing the family firm is the succession process. One reason for this challenge might involve the successor’s ability to acquire the predecessor’s key knowledge and skills adequately to maintain and improve the organisational performance of the firm. This paper uses two theoretical approaches from the strategic management field to explore this critical process and analyse how it can be managed effectively: the resource-based theory of the firm and the emergent knowledge-based view. This conceptual framework provides a powerful tool for understanding the nature and transfer of knowledge within the family business, which becomes the basis for developing competitive advantage over non-family businesses. (20) A Four Factor Model: A Guide to Planning Next Generation Involvement in the Family Firm, Eleni T. Stavrou, Family Business Review, Jun 1998; vol. 11: pp. 135–142. The involvement of and the reasons for the involvement of offspring in their parents’ firms can significantly affect the firm’s future. In this paper, a conceptual model is presented that explains the decision process through which the most suitable level of involvement for the next generation in the firm may be assessed. The decision process involves four factors: family, business, personal, and market. These factors set the context for managing intergenerational transitions in family firms. (21) A Comparison of Successor Development in Family and Nonfamily Businesses, Mark K. Fiegener, Bonnie M. Brown, Russ Alan Prince, and Karen Maru File, Family Business Review, Dec 1994; vol. 7: pp. 313–329. Although many streams of management research address leadership, succession, and executive development issues, significant gaps in the literature remain. In particular, few studies have systematically explored the systems by which the future leaders (successors) of family firms are developed. This research presents a descriptive study in 107
0899764008326198v1. This generates social capital to support an initiative-oriented collaboration framework among participants and across sectors. The findings are delineated in a framework that portrays these influences. Family Business Review. (23) Sibling Relationships and Intergenerational Succession in Family Firms. clinical and theoretical research on families. Competition for parental love and attention spurs sibling rivalry. they face unique challenges in overcoming sibling rivalry’s harmful effects. Handler. 4: pp. little is known about how the next generation actually experiences the process of succession. Mar 1991. 38: pp. In this article. The findings indicate that (1) family firms favour more personal. and environment in Silicon Valley. vol. 5: pp.which the successor development approaches of small to medium-sized family and nonfamily firms are compared. An in-depth biographical study of 32 next-generation family members indicates specific factors critical to succession. 2211–2224. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS (24) Social Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in Silicon Valley: A Case Study on the Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network. going beyond the limits of markets and government institutions. Whether siblings become rivalrous depends largely on parental responses to this contest. (22) The Succession Experience of the Next Generation. Because adult brothers and sisters in family firms remain organisationally subordinated to their parents. Such intersectoral initiatives are of paramount importance for the capacity of a region/community to set up innovative solutions to socioeconomic problems from the bottom-up. and the effect they have on the succession experience of next-generation family members. relationship-centred approaches to successor development. Nov 2001. Sibling relationships can turn into rivalries that destroy family firms. Friedman. Trust and Social Capital. Wendy C. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. 0: pp. such as Silicon Valley. This is increasingly happening not only in depressed but also in developed regions and communities. a nonprofit organisation launched in 1992 to promote a series of intersectoral initiatives at the edge of the economy. Nov 2008. Urban Studies. 108 . vol. Derrick Purdue. 283–307. vol. task-oriented development approaches. society. (2) non-family firms prefer formalised. Sep 1992. and (3) company size has no real effect on successor development. (25) Neighbourhood Governance: Leadership. 3–20. This article reports on the Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network. their relationships. Literature indicates that succession is critical to the future of a family firm. Stewart D. vol. Social entrepreneurs are playing a pivotal role in promoting intersector initiatives to address economic and social challenges in regions and local communities. Yet this is precisely the task confronting them if they are to sustain family management of their business through intergenerational succession. However. Flaminio Squazzoni. Family Business Review. organisations. and conflict resolution are drawn on to develop intervention strategies aimed at helping family firm members both increase awareness about forces that sustain destructive sibling conflicts and find ways of working through them.
This article examines what is arguably the most well-established example of local economic development in South Africa. 131–154. 478–493. Economic Development Quarterly. the findings of these case studies point to factors that until now have not gained sufficient attention. The study reveals that even though the project has had difficulties. In the authors’ view. American Journal of Evaluation. vol. Engagement with partnerships can also generate vital new resources of social capital for the community. Riki Savaya. In this article. In addition. McQuaid. namely a local government and community-led development initiative in the small rural town of Stutterheim. The degree of social capital accumulated in a neighbourhood affects the path leadership succession takes as partnerships develop. and Roni Elran-Barak. the host organisations. The findings reaffirm the importance of the human factor. Dec 2008. and the social and political environment. (27) Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis. Laquita Blockson. experience. As the project has evolved over a decade. Sep 2007. such as the type of host organisation or public attitudes toward different target populations. and Sammie Robinson. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. vol. as social entrepreneurs or community representatives. The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. Local economic development and promoting racial reconciliation have been key foci in addressing the legacy of apartheid in South Africa. institutions. (28) Exploring Stratification and Entrepreneurship: African American Women Entrepreneurs Redefine Success in Growth Ventures. Feb 2002. The study findings identify characteristics of the programmes. which differentiated programmes that are sustained from those that are not. 16: pp. This depends on community leaders. and outcomes of entrepreneurship. the authors discuss these relationships in the context of African American women engaged in high- 109 . social stratification (social structure. More general lessons include the significance of key social entrepreneurs and the development of social and human capital in concert with physical and business infrastructure. 29: pp. process. vol. 60–74. Nel and Ronald W. Ambivalence over trust between individuals and organisations in both partnerships and community reveals difficulties in accumulating social capital. (26) The Evolution of Local Economic Development in South Africa: The Case of Stutterheim and Social Capital. and culture) influences the context. the commitment of the leadership of the host organisation.Social capital consisting of trust relationships between a community and its leaders can contribute to the effectiveness of neighbourhood regeneration partnerships. The relationship between social stratification and entrepreneurship is one that is underexplored in the literature of management and organisations. 613: pp. its sheer survival and ability to adapt in a rapidly changing society have been important. Community representatives resemble ‘transactional leaders’ who interact with their followers. it has changed its development focus to reflect the changing context and various internal constraints. Etienne L. combining entrepreneurial skills with a vision for the neighbourhood. Shimon Spiro. Social entrepreneurs resemble ‘transformational leaders’. Jeffrey Robinson. namely.
The findings suggest gaps between what people have. (30) De-linking Enterprise Culture from Capitalism and its Public Policy Implications. vol. transport.growth entrepreneurship. The authors support their premise by presenting the limitations of prevailing approaches that exist within the current minority and women entrepreneurship literatures. raising questions not only about whether the promotion of profit-driven entrepreneurship in marginalised populations is akin to parachuting in an alien enterprise culture but also whether a focus upon social entrepreneurship might promote greater inclusiveness in the enterprise culture agenda than is currently the case. Sep 2004. 461–474. Research on the implications of restructuring retailing and health inequality has failed to involve low-income consumers in this debate. To do this. Colin C. Martin Caraher. Health Education Journal. what they want and what the planning process does and does not offer them. Oct 2007. Alvord. Public Policy and Administration. with rural and marginalised populations displaying a greater propensity to engage in social rather than profit-driven entrepreneurship. Although a small literature has recently emerged that highlights the existence of social entrepreneurship. (31) Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study. (29) Access to Shops: The Views of Low-income Shoppers. The aim of this article is to evaluate critically this dominant narrative. and that cultures of entrepreneurship markedly vary across population groups and areas. The survey provides a useful baseline of the views of low-income groups in England. 260–282. Concern is mounting as the retail stranglehold upon access to food grows. Jan 2000. Instead. Using the concept of entrepreneurial success as an example. the authors demonstrate how a social stratification and entrepreneurship framework may be useful for scholars who seek to understand the process of entrepreneurship. and Christine W. enterprise culture is widely viewed as a by-word for contemporary capitalist culture. vol. vol. This paper reports on an exercise conducted for the UK Government’s Social Exclusion Unit’s Policy Action Team on Access to Shops. L. GEM’s UK Social Entrepreneurship Monitor is used to compare the levels and ratios of commercial-tosocial entrepreneurship across various population groups and areas in the UK. 110 . Sarah H. David Brown. Better policy and processes are needed to include and represent the interests of low-income groups. Letts. The choices that people on low income can make were found to be dominated by certain factors such as income and. 40: pp. 59: pp. and Tim Lang. Nicola Robinson. Consumers reported varying levels of satisfaction with retail provision. the idea that entrepreneurship and enterprise culture might be other than profit-driven capitalist endeavour is seldom entertained. most importantly. Williams. 121– 136. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 22: pp. The article concludes by discussing the public policy implications of this finding that enterprise cultures are not everywhere and always profit-driven. The finding is that one-third of all entrepreneurs are driven primarily by social goals rather than profit.
It generates propositions about core innovations. and as organisational rhetoric. promoted as a way to revolutionise grantmaking. Findings suggest that although the dot-com boom was an important prompt. as organisation of either programme service delivery or organisational management. and on other new fields and hybrid professional cultures. this integration allows both organisations and their members to align their commercial identities with their moral and social identities. policy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Implementation difficulties and the business–nonprofit culture clash are among factors forcing evolution of the field. and economic contexts for poor and marginalised groups. this article proposes that being business-like in a nonprofit setting can be understood in at least four distinct categories: as goals of programmes. the construction and diffusion of the field depended on opinion leaders who strategically defined. Furthermore. Their research finds that social alliances are an important means whereby employees identify more closely with their organisations while gaining a greater sense of being whole. Peggy H. 37: pp. ‘Venture philanthropy’ burst loudly onto the scene in the mid. and continued development. they were aided by social alliances. 33: pp. Today the field has been refined. 34: pp. nonprofit human services organisation. Raymond Dart.to late 1990s. Jun 2004. Berger. (34) Identity. Several avenues for further research on this understudied field. The article suggests factors associated with successful social entrepreneurship. 324–352. (33) Being ‘Business-Like’ in a Nonprofit Organisation: A Grounded and Inductive Typology. The authors studied social alliances. (32) ‘Building a Culture’: The Construction and Evolution of Venture Philanthropy as a New Organisational Field. and its proponents are more modest. Ida E. Based on an in-depth qualitative case study of a single. legitimated. vol. 128–137. Qualitative research examining venture philanthropy organisations and their leaders is reported here. particularly with social entrepreneurship that leads to significant changes in the social. and scaling up in social entrepreneurship that produces societal transformation. and Relationship Through Social Alliances. are suggested by these findings. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. and practitioner communities. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for social entrepreneurship practice. 290–310. and Minette E. The fit with existing culture and institutionalisation via networks were also important. vol. Drumwright. leadership and organisation. Little research has systematically examined the concept of being business-like in a nonprofit organisation setting despite the increased importance of this concept in research. and advocated the new model. Canadian. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. political. topics that require further scholarly exploration.This study provides a comparative analysis of 7 cases of social entrepreneurship that have been widely recognised as successful. a type of corporate societal marketing initiative. As organisational members struggled to resolve conflicts within their own identities. Apr 2006. which in turn led them to identify more with their 111 . research. Cunningham. vol. Michael Moody. Identification. The case of venture philanthropy provides insights into the construction and evolution of a ‘new’ organisational field and ‘new’ professional culture. Jun 2008. integrated persons.
5–26. Ben Hecht. the findings suggest that the kind of connections referred to by the informants went well beyond the cold. and create mechanisms that will support acceleration of wholesale social change. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. In seeking to understand and promote long-term and inclusive models of local economic development the notion of social capital appears potentially important. (3) borderless service delivery. Throughout the twentieth century multiple discourses of the nature of enterprise and the entrepreneur have developed. the author traces these discourses and perspectives as a backdrop to understanding social and economic entrepreneurship. 55–74.and interorganisation identification. These ‘wholesaling’ organisations share many common characteristics such as: (1) intent to impact the masses. Philanthropy should define what ‘wholesaling activity’ is. and (8) use technology itself to provide innovative solutions. so it can change fundamentally the way that social change can happen. vol. rational associations described in previous research to emotional attachments that appear to be critical to organisational identification. indeed how. (36) Social Enterprise and Entrepreneurship: Towards a Convergent Theory of the Entrepreneurial Process. In this article. Just as the internet changed the face of commerce. 163–173. vol. International Small Business Journal. Mar 2008. European Urban and Regional Studies. the author argues. 37: pp. (37) Generating Social Capital?: The Social Economy and Local Economic Development. incremental cost to serve the next customer. In the longer term. Former Intel Chairman Andy Grove calls this a strategic inflection point. (5) redefining fundamental power relationships. an aspect of the local economy which has attracted 112 . In the development of the social economy. entrepreneurial ventures as well as social enterprises. recognise it. (35) Wholesaling Social Change: Philanthropy’s Strategic Inflection Point. it might be construed as a form of entrepreneurship. The article considers the nature of social enterprise and whether. Feb 2007. the article suggests that the definition of entrepreneurship might be modified to include the creation of ‘social and economic value’ and may thus be applied to both private. (7) redirect ongoing flows of public or private sector funds to institutionalise desired change. social enterprises should be self-sustaining and therefore entrepreneurial in their endeavours. Mel Evans and Stephen Syrett. 14: pp. (2) marginal. (4) grants plus business model. community-spirited motives. From these premises. Philanthropy is on the brink of its own strategic inflection point. Elizabeth Chell. and have engendered survival strategies premised on grant dependency. vol. There are times in almost every sector that forces of change come together to fundamentally disrupt the way that sector works. 25: pp. (6) engage markets and market-driven solutions. It is argued that in the past social enterprises have been modelled on tenets of ‘not-for-profit’ charitable organisations that have attracted human and social capital with pro-social.organisations. organisations can wholesale social change or develop programmes that almost overnight touch millions of people. Today. Unlike previous research. The results also suggest that participation in social alliances may result in multiple forms of identification: intra. Jan 2007.
an increased theoretical and policy focus in recent years. Ravichandran. An important feature during this period was that the state had provided financial support to NGOs. (38) Perspectives on Non-profit Mission and Financing in India. Findings are presented from a transnational European research project which examined the development of social enterprises and the social economy within different localities in order to seek to better understand their interrelationships with the local production and use of social capital. S. 8: pp. successful implementation of development programmes requires appropriate policy framework. In the era of globalisation. Rajashree. Gandhian philosophy and reformist approach. formulation of suitable plan schemes. This has to be based on appropriate research studies to validate presence. Y. Movements for liberalisation. Indian experiences have revealed that there is a need for the critique of their own work and contributions. In the 1980s NGOs occupied a prominent place in the development sector. but it also reflects a lack of empirical research. Nonetheless. Yet despite the apparent salience of notions of social capital. Morris. in recent years massive changes have been occurring. Oct 2006. SOCIAL ENTREPRENUERSHIP (39) Antecedents and Outcomes of Entrepreneurial and Market Orientations in a Nonprofit Context: Theoretical and Empirical Insights. The history of social organisation seems to have largely been influenced by a laissez-faire movement on the basis of the promulgation of the theory of minimisation of state intervention on the one hand. welfare and development. Sathyapriya. India has a long tradition of volunteerism and charity. In the 1960s and 1970s NGOs had grown manifold. a 113 . there remains a lack of understanding of the nature and extent of existing social capital resources and the precise manner in which these are drawn upon in the development of the social economy to generate further social capital within the local development process. and sustainability of non-profit enterprises. This article explores the notion of social capital and the manner in which it is produced. and conscientisation per se have taken place in this country and continue to do so. The early post-independence period was the era of religion-based and Gandhian voluntary organisations. growth. reproduced and used locally within the social economy as part of the local economic development process. N. vol. and dissemination of the concern of volunteerism on a more planned and organised way on the other. While heavily emphasised within for-profit organisations. 13: pp. and Ajit Jain. Journal of Health Management. The fundamental logic of entrepreneurship is less apparent in this context given the social mission and multiple stakeholders involved. position. During the colonial period the voluntary movement witnessed the era of the Christian church. Minet Schindehutte. vol. In part this is a result of the conceptual confusion surrounding the notion of social capital. 12–39. challenges and relevance. These findings emphasise the importance of contextualisation in the study of local social capital and the importance of interpretative approaches for area-based policy development. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. 207–227. little is understood regarding the role of entrepreneurial leadership in the development. May 2007. Michael H. and Jeffrey Allen. Susan Coombes. and effective delivery machinery. Building on findings regarding entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within for-profit organisations. the relationship with social capital appears particularly significant. social reforms.
Niehm. and the Third Sector. Sara B. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. challenge. vol. The authors conclude that the third sector articulates needs. in order to study the press’s potential impact on entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility beliefs. and the work climate can be designed to affect levels of entrepreneurship. Miruna Radu and Renaud Redien-Collot International Small Business Journal. when the time came. which transforms social objects (people. and outcomes of entrepreneurship in non-profit organisations is developed and tested. A central theme is identified in high school texts published in the twentieth century: that philanthropy and voluntary service in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries formed meaningful responses to the circumstances of their times. situations) into symbolic categories (values. the normativity discourse. Mar 2006. apostasy. from 2001 to 2005. the press can be emphasised as an entrepreneurial ‘Greek chorus’ playing a key role in the diffusion and transformation of entrepreneurial culture at the local and national levels. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between EO and the market orientation (MO) of the non-profit enterprise. 34: pp. The findings demonstrate that entrepreneurship has a legitimate role in non-profit organisations. (41) The Social Representation of Entrepreneurs in the French Press: Desirable and Feasible Models?. Jun 2008. the third sector proved inadequate to the challenges posed by the Great Depression. (42) An Exploratory Study of Lifestyle Entrepreneurship and Its Relationship to Life Quality. but not with financial performance. and the accessibility discourse. Linda S. and Ruchita Fuloria. beliefs. The authors conducted a discourse analysis of 962 articles. The researchers defined lifestyle entrepreneurs as individuals who owned and operated businesses closely aligned with their personal values. Further. alternative. Jon Van Til and Steven W. interests. vol. Researchers used a systems theory perspective to examine the role and impact 114 . which may impact readers’ desirability and feasibility beliefs. 112–129. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal. 259–298. Social representations are the result of a perceptive and cognitive construction of reality. Mar 2001. offers assurance and comfort. Marcketti. The authors identify seven themes in twentieth-century third sector study that elaborate this basic story: complement. Implications are drawn for theory and practice. and passions. We identified three main categories of discourses – the legitimacy discourse. 241–259. auxiliary. correlates. vol. permits individuals to join in creating the joys of shared community life. and provides opportunities for the greatest and the least in society to make common cause. Ross. This is the first attempt to assess the role of the public discourse in fuelling entrepreneurial intentions in the French context. This exploratory study examined the relationship between lifestyle entrepreneurship and life quality. Within the consensual reality through which the social world is created and experienced. 30: pp. and transformation. EO is associated with aspects of market orientation. (40) Looking Backward: Twentieth-Century Themes in Charity. Voluntarism. therefore providing a collective significant system for the regulation of cognitions and actions. contexts. impediment.model of antecedents. ideologies). A second part of the theme says that. The purpose of this article is to question the foundations and structure of entrepreneurs’ social representation in the French press. 26: pp.
interiors. 146–160. Microcredit has gained increasing attention over the past decade as a tool for spurring grassroots entrepreneurship in the United States. Through 12 descriptive case studies. alliance enablers that contribute to the effective management of the relationship are set forth. and the community. Nitin Bhatt and Shui-Yan Tang. vol. financial. creation. Fourth. This paper is concerned with the factors that influence and constrain NGO contributions to poverty reduction in a globalising world. Robert D. customers. and communities. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. and Administrative Dimensions. transactional. balance. Aug 2001. vol. 29: pp. The article discusses the dynamics of the alliance marketplace. and integrative. the collaboration value construct facilitates the analysis of the definition. 69–97. Mar 2000. Financial. Jun 2000. their families. a set of alliance drivers is identified that determines the nature and functioning of the partnerships. This is illustrated by reference to the common donor preference for working with groups and for ‘Asian’ development approaches. Two common themes emerged from the data: enhancement of business owners’ quality of life as a result of the entrepreneurial venture and a perception of the entrepreneurial venture providing enhanced quality of life to employees. Economic Development Quarterly. focusing on their role as transmitters of grounded knowledge about poverty in very poor countries. (43) Board Practices of Especially Effective and Less Effective Local Nonprofit Organisations. and administrative challenges. 229–241. Second. Herman and David O. vol. Many of the entrepreneurs owned and operated businesses related to family and consumer sciences. (44) Making Microcredit Work in the United States: Social. (45) Strategic Collaboration Between Nonprofits and Business. Collaboration between nonprofits and businesses is increasing and becoming more strategically important. The research builds on and extends 115 . Austin. The American Review of Public Administration. Interviews with staff in 33 NGOs in Ghana.of lifestyle entrepreneurship on life quality for individual business owners. The authors examine these challenges by drawing on existing studies and their own in-depth analysis of two of the oldest microcredit programmes in California. including apparel retail. Third. many others have suffered from various social. and renewal of the value generated in different types of alliances. The authors conclude by discussing possible strategies for addressing these problems. 30: pp. the collaboration continuum provides a conceptual framework for categorising different types of partnerships and studying their possible evolution through three principal stages: philanthropic. First. food service. their businesses. this article presents a cross-sector collaboration framework consisting of four components. a country where the NGO sector is heavily dependent on overseas funding. and their perceived life quality. researchers examined characteristics of lifestyle entrepreneurs. indicate that local understandings about poverty are being overridden by socalled programmes of partnership support that erode local confidence in home-grown ideas about poverty and how to combat it. Although some prominent microcredit programmes have reportedly demonstrated positive economic effects on microloan recipients. Based on 15 case studies. and hospitality firms. 15: pp. James E. Renz.
(2) The Mobile Phone as Media. The convergence and blurring of industry boundaries increasingly see entertainment. 195–211. European Journal of Social Theory. knowledge and cultural processes. It argues that while some of the contributions to reconfiguring. and also some natural scientists. and thus in effect the superiority of social scientific over natural scientific conceptualisations of the world. Throughout the twentieth century. May 2006. The possibilities that digital economies (via products and services) provide in shaping our experiences – and how others experience us – lend support to Featherstone’s comment that the ‘aestheticisation of everyday life’ has arrived. social scientists have too often merely asserted the primacy of the sorts of subject matters and analytic techniques they feel comfortable with. expendable income and aesthetic ambitions. in Western thought generally and within particular disciplines. stimulated by developments both in biotechnology and in the ongoing controversies about environmental degradation. Instead of using these issues as means of challenging social scientific disciplinary dogmas and of engaging in constructive rapprochement with natural scientists. The resulting consumption is an experience economy. especially those that have the capacity or likelihood to transform and disturb 116 . rather than subjecting their practices to fully reflexive self-scrutiny. where a broad range of mobile phone users. International Journal of Cultural Studies. global warming. CHAPTER 12 The topics for which specific articles are identified include new technology. Far from overcoming the nature/culture boundary. 9: pp. information and communication technologies (ICTs) and lifestyle products and services combine. visions of utopia and dystopia have often run alongside such major developments in technology. David Inglis and John Bone. This article considers the history of this conceptual boundary and looks at new conceptualisations of nature/culture. to characterise ‘nature’ on the one side and ‘culture’ on the other. In recent times developments in the natural sciences and in the sphere of environmental politics have compelled social scientists. social scientists have in their analyses of such matters often merely asserted the hegemony of ‘culture’ over ‘nature’. Harvey May and Greg Hearn. healthcare innovation and genome/nanotechnology development trends. to rethink the relations that hitherto have been held. can harvest from the everincreasing palette of the digital domain. there has nonetheless been an unfortunate tendency for social scientists to bring to bear inherited analytic dispositions on biotechnological and environmental matters. the nature/culture division have been productive and stimulating of new ways of conceiving the world. 272–287. Border Crossing and the Nature/Culture Divide. vol. with or without technical savvy. or abolishing. 8: pp. TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY TECHNOLOGY (1) Boundary Maintenance. sustainable energy industry. This article focuses on the mobile phone’s permeation into ‘everyday life’ through products.existing interorganisational research theories by providing a distinctive conceptual framework and new empirical understanding of cross-sector alliances. vol. Jun 2005.
which simply seek to extrapolate social change from technological potential. targeting specifically biotechnology and the bio-business sector. This article frames within that question a historical and comparative analysis of the process of audience manufacture. (3) The Coevolution of Society and Multimedia Technology: Issues in Predicting the Future Innovation and Use of a Ubiquitous Technology. and lessons for understanding technology futures are illustrated by research in different industry and user sectors. serves as an entry point for questioning some well-established assumptions about the role of audiences in commercial media systems. Technological innovation has become the key imperative in Taiwan’s continued economic transformation. and it is having profound effects on institutions and expectations. The technology is very fluid. Fernando Bermejo.conceptions of the everyday. Three cases of technology-based predictions are examined from education. The evolution of online advertising. (5) Re-Making the Developmental State in Taiwan: The Challenges of Biotechnology. retailing. vol. New Media & Society. Outlining a number of current states of play and future scenarios for the mobile phone in the everyday. It shows how a three-layer model of component. This article criticises ‘technologically deterministic’ approaches. Multimedia technology is becoming ubiquitous in modem society. 133–154. vol. (4) Audience Manufacture in Historical Perspective: From Broadcasting to Google. Oct 1998. political. and economic influences on technology and technology use as well as on the emergence of stable uses. Feb 2009. and application technologies can be used to integrate findings from the use and development of technology in specific sectors. 16: pp. infrastructures. 169–191. psychological. system. International Political Science Review/Revue internationale de science politique. Social Science Computer Review. and development is shaped by a great many social factors. This transition invites a rethinking of the East Asian developmental state model and in particular the state’s role in leading knowledge- 117 . as well as in the social sciences and other disciplines. 11: pp. standards. vol. in particular its relationship with search engines. The main topics addressed in the ‘blindspot debate’ — the debate regarding the audience as the commodity produced by advertisingsupported media — are used to guide an examination of audience manufacture in broadcasting media. and work organisation. Joseph Wong. and development paths. James Stewart and Robin Williams. Apr 2005. and attempts to overcome the limitations of previous literature on the internet by situating the discussion within the political economy of communication. we suggest that mobile phone analytics will shift from the utopian and dystopian towards analyses by more conventional theoretical and methodological tools and approaches found in media. 268– 282. Taiwan has embarked on a new post-industrial or post-manufacturing industrial trajectory. and to contrast it with the manufacture of the online audience. Prediction of the coevolution of multimedia technology and society needs to be informed by a research framework that focuses attention on the key social. cultural and policy studies. The question of what is new about new media has become a central topic of discussion in new media studies. 26: pp.
26: pp. In this study. this mobility is not to be confused with mode 2-like anti-differentiation between science and engineering and between academia and enterprise. (7) An Analysis of E-Business Adoption and its Impact on Business Performance. the more high-profile activities related to online order taking and e-procurement do not. Across industries. and Sridhar Balasubramanian. 425–447. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. state technical and metrological services. Research-technologies breed a new constellation of intellectual and institutional transverse dynamics which selectively accommodate both stability and change. Bulletin of Science. followed by an overview of the emerging biotechnology sector in Taiwan. The article first offers a framework of analysis for the post-industrial developmental state. The authors’ findings provide the foundation for a more rigorous study of e-business. vol. the military. etc. It is shown that throughout the twentieth century many radical technological innovations originated with and developed around generic instrumentation. Transversality and Distributed Learning in a Post-industrial Order. Technology & Society. firms have adopted e-business initiatives to better manage their internal business processes as well as their interfaces with the environment. (6) New Sources of Radical Innovation: Research-technologies. and to secure the division of labour embedded in speciality domains. for example. vol. 44: pp. The innovative feats of what are here labelled ‘research-technologies’ derive from the capacity to reconcile differentiation and integration. (8) The Role of Innovation Regimes and Policy for Creating Radical Innovations: Comparing Some Aspects of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Technology Development With the Development of Internet and GSM. 31: pp. Oct 2003. industry. The concluding section discusses how the interventionist state has begun to adapt in postindustrial and democratic Taiwan. Vijay Mahajan. The bulk of the article examines different political. However. vol. Social Science Information. and performance outcomes is proposed and empirically tested using data collected from senior managers in four technology-intensive industries.intensive industrial development. 731–764. that while the communication and internal administration aspects of e-business positively affect performance outcomes. They find. Aug 2006. Fang Wu. This study questions the erstwhile claim that the growth of scientific knowledge and successes of radical technological innovation are the consequence of cognitive and organisational differentiation. Dec 2005. while simultaneously promoting transverse communication and interaction between actors located in multiple and heterogeneous environments and linked to diverse interests. 118 . economic and social challenges faced by the developmentally oriented state. and that differentiation and integration are antithetic. Applying a framework that captures the intensity of e-business adoption across four business process domains. a unified framework that captures the antecedents of e-business adoption. 328–338. the practitioners and artefacts of which are characterised by selective and intermittent boundary crossing between academia. Helge Godoe. adoption intensity. the authors find that the antecedents and performance outcomes of ebusiness adoption are best studied in a process-specific context. Terry Shinn.
One year later. Zero-tailpipe emission vehicles are compared. Internet and GSM. and energy use in vehicles. Bangladesh is one of the most electricity deprived nations in the world. a simplified 119 . Some often missing comparisons between alternatives. 292–315. Although numerous highly successful innovations stemming from telegraphy may be observed. packaging. as renewables emit less greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuel energy systems. and Per Alvfors. Use of renewable energy is considered an indispensable component of sustainable energy systems. In this article.Telegraphy. Sk Noim Uddin and Ros Taplin. Cecilia Wallmark. with some aspects related to the evolution of two highly successful radical innovations. are identified and then performed for energy storage. By comparing the modern development of fuel cells and hydrogen technology. Maria Saxe. especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen. vol. Bulletin of Science. SUSTAINABLE ENERGY (9) Toward Sustainable Energy Development in Bangladesh. William Grove invented the fuel cell. from a sustainability perspective. It is shown that it is important to be aware of the losses implied by production. The Journal of Environment & Development. Technology & Society. Mårten Bryngelsson. vol. but other requirements imply that plug-in hybrids or fuel cell hybrids might be a better option in some types of vehicles. Lars Hedström. the development of fuel cells has been insignificant. the distant ancestor of Internet and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). To address this. that is. (10) Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Among other future strategies. currently their contribution to the electricity supply remains insignificant. energy transportation. to advance such sustainable energy systems. fuel cell electrolysers could be feasible. a number of future energy visions. 26: pp. was invented by Samuel Morse in 1838. Aug 2006. Finally. implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol could assist in facilitation of energy sustainability for Bangladesh. distribution. slow. 17: pp. However. In the slow pace in fuel cells and hydrogen technology development. are discussed. Despite large potential for renewable energy sources in Bangladesh. This article argues that further significant efforts could be made toward energy sustainability in Bangladesh and the development for a national sustainable energy strategy. Sep 2008. and end-use of hydrogen when suggesting a ‘hydrogen economy’. the author focuses on the role of innovation regimes and policy in a sectoral system of innovations perspective. Anders Folkesson. The battery electric vehicle has the highest electrical efficiency. a potential radical innovation in energy generation. and erratic and has not yet resulted in notable positive socioeconomic effects. storage. this article examines Bangladesh’s current energy strategies and institutional settings and investigates future strategies for the advancement of renewables. Kristina Haraldsson. appropriate strategies and institutional settings need to be put in place for all nations. two factors seem to interact negatively: weak and fragmented innovation regimes in the energy sector and the current hegemony of market-oriented R&D policies. 264–277. It is also shown that for stationary electric energy storage.
Important questions to ask in this regard are whether a hydrogen economy can fulfil key energy needs and whether there are appropriate roles for hydrogen to play in a sustainable energy future. 28: pp. Common reasons cited for investigating hydrogen energy options are improved energy security. 26: pp. Daniel Tobin. Willem H. and finally presents findings from a survey on the actual performance state of the renewable energy technology and degree of satisfaction with it. In anticipation of these benefits. Technology & Society. 28: pp. Bulletin of Science. Although there is substantial recognition of technological. Bulletin of Science. the household and other stake-holders have been left outside the scope of evaluation. vol. It takes into account supply-and demand-side options. social. analyses barriers that have often interfered with the promotion and delivery of expected outputs of installed modern energy technology in remote communities. vol. Vanderburg. (13) Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries. Socially Viable. The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic. Alternative energy must be considered within such a strategy. This article first discusses the usefulness of renewable energy for encouraging sustainability in rural. 105–114. Intellectual barriers are identified. Apr 2008. Technology & Society. national and local initiatives have been launched in the United States. Before policies to advance a hydrogen energy economy proceed. 98–104. which carefully examines its effects on society and the biosphere. and Bryan Haney. Although hydrogen can provide several positive improvements over a carbon. and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labour. creating pilot ‘roadmaps’ and technology partnerships to explore hydrogen economy platforms. reduced environmental impacts. several problems are also likely. 120 . economic. and ways of overcoming them are suggested. Apr 2008. poor areas.example is applied to the overall results and used to discuss the needs and nature of an energy system based on intermittent energy sources. institutional. vol. As well. and its contribution to a transition to sustainable energy sources. and net energy availability. The hydrogen economy has received increasing attention recently. Aug 2006. it is vital that all aspects of hydrogen be compared with other available alternatives. Bulletin of Science. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. (11) Hydrogen Highways: Lessons on the Energy Technology-Policy Interface. renewable and nonrenewable sources.. John Byrne. Technology & Society. Judith Alazraque-Cherni. hybrid vehicles) may offer comparatively greater economic and/or environmental advantages. This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyses the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short.g. competitive technologies (e.or uranium-based energy system. 288–298. (12) The Most Economic. and other supply-side barriers that have generally interfered with success. Alex Waegel. and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy.
Technology & Society. and industry momentum is yet to become self-sustaining. suggests a new understanding of ecology is emerging – what they term postmodern ecology – in which a global environmental crisis is risked to secure the future of the world energy regime. hydroelectric. (15) Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers. Under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This article reviews the existing lifecycle analyses of renewable energy systems to determine the current understanding of their full lifecycle impacts. Dec 2001. recognising that all stages have environmental and economic impacts. Bulletin of Science. Vernese Inniss. The authors’ analysis of the politics of climate change. Gerard Healey and Andrea Bunting. The renewable energy systems reviewed include wind. Climate change presents a fundamental challenge to the current global energy regime. wind farms still provide only 1% of Australia’s electricity. Apr 2008. It has been applied to an increasing number of conventional and renewable energy generation systems and in an increasing range of countries. vol. the authors argue. solid biomass. 115–127. which need to be overcome if wind power is to play a significant role in Australia’s electricity supply. 21: pp. biogas. Until recently. Technology & Society. Leigh Glover. Yu-Mi Mun. solar photovoltaic. vol. Bulletin of Science. Wind power. Gerard Alleng. and services. Chris Lund and Wahidul Biswas. 443 – 455. geothermal. The lifecycle concept is a ‘cradle to grave’ approach to thinking about products. although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. 200–209. Jun 2008. Bulletin of Science. based on these issues. and tidal. This situation changed in the late 1990s: installed wind capacity began growing rapidly following the introduction of supportive renewable energy policies and the restructuring of the electricity industry. Technology & Society. These are then compared with each other and those of conventional power generation systems. The current window of opportunity is providing – for the first time – a significant space in which these barriers can be better understood and addressed and the requirements for wind power institutionally embedded. However. John Byrne. the future of supportive policies is uncertain. The article also highlights the areas where more lifecycle analysis is needed. (16) The Postmodern Greenhouse: Creating Virtual Carbon Reductions From Businessas-Usual Energy Politics. Three serious flaws are examined: (a) the potential sacrifice of small island states. stateowned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. An 121 . faces significant technological and institutional barriers. solar thermal (for electricity). the international community is developing the architecture of a policy response. Australia had little installed wind capacity. processes. and Young-Doo Wang. There is now a good amount of research reporting the lifecycle environmental and economic aspects of power generation systems. Formerly. wave. Any rigorous and meaningful comparison of energy supply options must be done using a lifecycle analysis approach.(14) Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems. 28: pp. 28: pp. vol. and (c) the substitution of carbon sequestration for meaningful reductions in energy use. (b) the use of market-based policy measures to commodify the atmospheric commons.
is proposed that would require abandoning the global energy status quo. vol. as postulated by the theory of the Frankfurt School. William N. It served to obscure qualitative class differences underneath the illusion of mass individuality. and pushed the car forward to the next age. They conclude by considering the situation of their own country. and geographical factors. if surprisingly neglected. Oct 2004.alternative. In the age of class distinction. The automobile as an object of consumption. This notion is used to understand the origins of the twentieth-century car system and especially how its awesome pattern of path dependency was established and exerted a particularly powerful and self-expanding pattern of domination across the globe. based on principles of sustainability and equity. whether in other words some small changes now may produce the very large effect of a 122 . Technology & Society. to illustrate that the solutions to the challenges will likely depend not only on technology development but also on social. Australia. Culture & Society. 169–195. (19) The ‘System’ of Automobility. The article assesses whether such a new system could emerge well before the end of this century. Anthony Masters. vol. carrying meanings and identities. The article briefly considers whether these small changes may in their contingent ordering end this current car system. (18) Three Ages of the Automobile: The Cultural Logics of The Car. 28: pp. political. In the age of mass individuality. Oct 2004. In this article. Theory. Biomass provides the only sustainable source of organic carbon for the production of chemicals used in manufacturing and as liquid transportation fuels. It elaborates a number of small changes that are now occurring in various test sites. Theory. It marked out differences between classes. the car served as a status symbol of the sort theorised by Pierre Bourdieu. In the age of subcultural difference. The article deploys the notion of systems as self-reproducing or autopoietic. In so doing. 21: pp. cities and societies. ITC sites. element in ‘globalisation’. has evolved through three ages during the twentieth-century. the car was a reified consumer commodity. Culture & Society. the authors examine some of the challenges that society faces in the transition from a global economy in which transportation fuels are derived from fossil fuels to one in which they are derived from renewable biomass via a ‘biorefinery’. The extension of the cultural logic of each of these automotive ages ultimately contradicted its configuration. (17) The Biorefinery – Challenges. while simultaneously misrecognising and legitimating their origins. The article further considers whether and how the twentieth-century car system may be transcended. factories. vol. the authors present an overview of the technology currently available to society and highlight some of the key issues that must be resolved in order to grasp the opportunities that stem from the transition. in which consumers varied by the quantity of desired automotive traits they could afford. 21: pp. This article is concerned with how to conceptualise and theorise the nature of the ‘car system’ that is a particularly key. Apr 2008. each characterised by a peculiar cultural logic. the car expressed the different identities of lifestyle groups in a levelled and pluralised consumer culture. John Urry. Opportunities. 25–39. 149 – 158. David Gartman. Rowlands. as theorised by postmodernism. and an Australian Perspective. and Thomas Maschmeyer Bulletin of Science.
Nov 2007. N Lalitha and Samira Guennif. In order to compensate the firms for the loss of time in the patent application process. vol. Jan 1990. The authors have developed a new method to detect instruments in laparoscopic images which uses information on the 3D position of the insertion point of an instrument into the abdominal cavity. HEALTHCARE (20) Generic Drugs – A Look Back and a Look Ahead. Hence. Journal of Pharmacy Practice. for pharmaceutical companies it provides an extended period of power over the product. The balance of trade in pharmaceuticals has been positive. the government has introduced several regulatory measures. Strict regulatory measures govern the pharmaceutical industry in France. Nearly 10 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in France is spent on healthcare. 311–343. 123 . vol. the French government grants a five-year term of exclusivity for companies satisfying certain criteria. the instrument can be detected in near real-time using shape considerations. Salvatore Turco. UK and Canada. which even other OECD countries have not fully implemented yet. This review includes the viewpoints of three pharmaceutical scientists tracing the origins of the generic drug industry. Of the total turnover of the pharmaceutical industry. (21) A Status Report on the Health Care Sector in France. 192–202. The authors’ first experiment on a cadaver validates our approach and shows encouraging results. The tracking of surgical instruments offers interesting possibilities for the development of high-level commands for robotic camera holders in laparoscopic surgery. Dec 2008. Though this could delay the entry of generics. the government plays a significant role in providing healthcare and regulating the pharmaceutical industry. and Philippe Cinquin. 10: pp. This information strongly constrains the search for the instrument in each endoscopic image. The International Journal of Robotics Research. Sandrine Voros. second only to the US. The industry has also responded by investing in R&D to improve further. Leon Lachman. Twenty per cent of this budget is spent on medicines. (22) Automatic Detection of Instruments in Laparoscopic Images: A First Step Towards High-level Command of Robotic Endoscopic Holders. and James T. In conclusion. The pharmaceutical industry in France is the third largest in Europe and adopted product patents even before the TRIPS agreement. for mobility and for limiting projected climate change. 1173–1190. 26: pp. The French have also been filing a large number of patents. 3: pp. vol. Journal of Health Management. Early results on laparoscopic images show that the method is rapid and robust in the presence of partial occlusion and smoke. and offering suggestions to hospital practitioners for coping with the controversies. The branded drugs are costlier compared to the generics. In order to control costs and promote generic drugs in the prescription. O’Donnell.new post-car system that would have great implications for urban life. examining the recent generic drug controversies. JeanAlexandre Long. more than in many of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries including the US. turnover from the domestic sales has been declining while the exports turnover has been increasing. and they rank higher than the US in patents granted.
25: pp. Jun 2007. 277–282. vol. although pharmacogenomics is taking centre stage in other therapeutic areas as well. and HIV. Oct 2003. Ellingrod and Jessica Moline. vol. 3: pp. Ashish Chandra and Ronald G. We are currently in a critical period of time in which pharmacists need to become engaged in the decisionmaking process regarding how best to implement pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. We are now living in an era of economic globalisation and many industries are now becoming multinational just to survive. This paper discusses the objectives. They allow the possibilities of enhancing the surgeon’s abilities where current MIS techniques do not permit the full range of human dexterity and perception. Journal of Health Management.(23) Micromechatronics in Surgery. Lastly. cardiology. Pharmacists are experts in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Maria Chiara Carrozza. The goal for this issue of the Journal of Pharmacy Practice is to provide an overview of pharmacogenomics and highlight research done in select therapeutic areas such as oncology. This paper studies these aspects associated with the emerging international healthcare market and also some of the challenges these marketers may have to face in future. in which surgical procedures are performed with the least possible damage to healthy organs and tissues. and Louis Phee Soo Jay. psychiatry. postoperative pain. Healthcare companies are organisations that have recently started going international. foreign governments. Hence. 124 . the authors outline the role of the Human Genome Project and the Food and Drug Administration. (25) The Emerging International Health Care Market: The Impact of Technology and Innovation. vol. Vicki L. (24) Incorporating Pharmacogenomics into Practice. They have played and will play a very important role in the advancement of MIS. actuators and embedded electronics. This increases the level of complexity for marketers of all companies. The reduction of recovery time. At the root of all pharmacogenomic investigations is pharmacy. As part of this chapter. 309–327. 43–63. and they therefore represent ideal healthcare professionals for incorporating pharmacogenomics into therapeutic drug monitoring. Paolo Dario. including healthcare companies. both of which are instrumental to the advancement of pharmacogenomics. and some present and future applications of micromechatronics in surgery. Apr 2001. sensors. problems they could not have even imagined when they were a single-country company. and also the rapidly changing telecommunications and healthcare technology in domestic and international markets. Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control. infection risks and costs are some of the many advantages of MIS. roles. There is a fast growing acceptance of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Cheek. it is extremely essential for healthcare products and services marketers in the international arena to be aware of the international scenario including the international customer. which is why it is so important for pharmacists to gain an understanding of this field and clinical applications of this science. Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 20: pp. Micromechatronic technologies involve the miniaturisation of mechatronics devices like precision mechanisms. particularly as it relates to their practice and their patients. the authors summarise some of the barriers we still face regarding clinical applicability of this science and the potential role of genetic counsellors in the incorporation of this science into clinical practice.
and the delivery of therapeutic progress. Mika Kivimäki. This paper identifies the roles of government. The analysis shows that the relationships between innovation. Jan 2006. within the ICH. 7: pp. 337–369. The analysis seeks to determine the key principles that facilitate the mainstream development of telemedicine. and the critical success factors for the design and delivery of telemedicine and telecare services. military applications and perceived cost reduction. via toxicological testing. via innovation. Jun 2002. (b) a combination of quantitative and qualitative data.(26) Innovation in Healthcare: A Systematic Review of Recent Research. or multiple case studies applying qualitative methods. and Raija Ruoranen Nursing Science Quarterly. group. Only in the last five years or so have we seen an awareness of the strategic underpinning needed to produce this context. The modern development of telemedicine and telecare dates from the early 1990s when a combination of technological and service drivers created new opportunities. This paper examines international standard-setting in the toxicology of pharmaceuticals during the 1990s. By demonstrating that there is not a technoscientific validity for these claims. (d) application of experimental designs in interventions. John Abraham and Tim Reed. C. Innovation and Regulatory Science in Drug Development: The Politics of International Standard-setting. The majority of the 31 identified studies dealt with the adoption of innovations and new practices and were cross-sectional designs applying quantitative methods. (28) Progress. A. Jun 2001. 66–72. a discourse of technological innovation and scientific progress has been used by regulatory agencies and prominent parts of the transnational pharmaceutical industry to legitimise the lowering and loosening of toxicological standards for drug testing. the need to extend healthcare access to remote and disadvantaged communities. vol. is presented. and organisational levels. vol. Research on innovations in healthcare organisations published between 1994 and 2004 are here reviewed and summarised. healthcare professionals and equipment suppliers in policy development and strategy setting and reviews the experience of several countries. Norris. regulatory science and ‘progress’ may be more complex and controversial than is often assumed. Hannakaisa Länsisalmi. and (e) exploration of innovation generation and structural innovations. 32: pp. Health Informatics Journal. Governments and healthcare providers have shown considerable interest in the potential of telemedicine for reducing service costs but have been slow to provide the strategic context in which the approach can move into the mainstream. The 125 . it is argued that. 19: pp. Social Studies of Science. An assessment of the ICH’s claims about the implications of ‘technical’ harmonisation of drug-testing standards for the maintenance of drug safety. vol. Pirjo Aalto. (c) use of longitudinal designs (innovation both as the dependent and independent variable). (27) The Strategic Support of Telemedicine and Telecare. These drivers include advances in information and communications technologies. 81–89. which has involved both the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies in an organisation known as the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). Five pathways for future research are recommended: (a) Multilevel approaches studying innovation simultaneously on individual.
343–374. into supposed therapeutic benefits derived from promises of greater access to more innovative drug products. vol. The author’s micro-level studies of these opposing views do not find evidence for a strong. The purpose of this article is to investigate theories that have produced differences in entrepreneurship definitions. and Craig White. 6: pp. 9–26. Herrmann. It also examines postapproval drug assessments and the fuller evaluation of a drug that emerges with time. It shows how the industry’s control over this science. Feb 2008. 26: pp. claim contributors to the competitiveness literature. the question of how firms cope with increasing pressure for competitiveness gains momentum. International Small Business Journal. Italy and the UK. Innovation. Apr 2006. has helped to encourage extensive. in conjunction with a more explicit consideration of power. vol. Power. vol. the related loss of information on micro-level variety entails that convergence effects are more pronounced — possibly exaggerated. assessments that are the basis for securing approval for their release onto the market. Whenever macro-level indicators are used. ‘No’. While scholars agree that firms need a competitive advantage. power and impact of the pharmaceutical industry. it examines the scientific ‘fact making’ involved in the clinical trials of drugs designed to assess their safety and effectiveness. recent attempts to guide research on entrepreneurship embrace innovation while ignoring the wealth redistribution aspect of entrepreneurship. widespread convergence by the firms in one economy to the same institutionally supported strategy. 40: pp. 297–314. As economic internationalisation advances. Spencer. they debate whether firms exploit the comparative advantage of their economy and converge on that strategy facilitated by national institutions. This article examines how sociology can contribute to an understanding of the work. The evidence suggests that it is highly implausible that these reductions in the standards of regulatory toxicology are consistent with therapeutic progress for patients. We raise this issue because equitable wealth distribution is a fundamental focus of economics. which are apparently against the interests of patients and public health. Sociology. Drawing in particular on Latour’s theoretical and empirical analysis of science. Kirchhoff. and highlights a worrying aspect embedded in the ‘technical trajectories’ of regulatory science. ‘Yes’. Joan Busfield. Aron S. and often excessive. and Wealth Distribution: The Essence of Creative Destruction.mobilisation and acceptance of this discourse are shown to be pivotal to the ICH’s transformation of reductions in safety standards. Yet. use of pharmaceuticals. Nov 2008. Schumpeter argues that entrepreneurship means innovation by 126 . Bruce A. Andrea M. The discrepancies between these findings and the analyses of the competitiveness literature are attributed to differences in the indicators employed to measure corporate strategies. especially in the pre-approval stage. Strategic Organisation. NANOTECHOLOGY (31) Entrepreneurship. (29) Pills. People: Sociological Understandings of the Pharmaceutical Industry. (30) Contrasting the Resource-based View and Competitiveness Theories: How Pharmaceutical Firms Choose to Compete in Germany. argue strategic management proponents of the resource-based view.
Thus. In this article.independently owned start-up firms that cause creative destruction that yields equitable wealth redistribution. Jürgen Altmann. We suggest entrepreneurship research should focus more on entrepreneurs that form and operate independent new firms. 558–570. the proposed model offers details about how a nanorobot should help with the early detection of cerebral aneurysm. The International Journal of Robotics Research. 61–79. Security Dialogue. non-medical body implants – possibly made more acceptable via the military – raise a number of problems concerning human nature. Ebeling. 335–361. 29: pp. Bijan Shirinzadeh. 35: pp.and nano-technologies championed by high-tech start-ups redefined the electronics industry. by any firm. Adriano Cavalcanti. providing details on the teleoperated techniques and equipment design methodology necessary for the effective development of nanorobots. The platform architecture describes how to use a nanorobot for intracranial prognosis. using a three-dimensional task-based environment. An advanced nanomechatromics simulator. Further research is needed to find the best way to avoid possible dangers. and shows how it should be integrated for medical instrumentation. Science Communication. Special dangers to arms control and stability may arise from new biological weapons and microrobots. we describe how new micro. As the commercialisation of nanotechnologies intensifies. the current study establishes proteomics. and electromagnetics as the basis to advance medical nanorobotics. independently owned firms. E. containment of which will need special analysis and effort. Apr 2009. vol. this area will grow in significance. For the near and medium term. The commercialisation of nanotechnologies and the rapid development of hyperbole around their commercialisation can provide a fertile field for research into how the potentials and expectations of an emerging technology are communicated to investors. To illustrate the proposed approach. It is predicted that nanotechnology (NT) will bring revolutionary changes in many areas. This article explores how the financial potentials of nanotechnologies and 127 . Military research and development in NT is expanding rapidly. is implemented to provide an effective tool for device prototyping and medical instrumentation analysis. transparency and international cooperation should be improved. nanobioelectronics. deconstructed the mainframe computer industry and are redefining the pharmaceutical industry today. vol. Potential future applications span all areas of warfare. Furthermore. the nanorobots must search for protein overexpression signals in order to recognise initial stages of aneurysm. as a source of wealth creation without recognising that redistribution only occurs when innovation originates in new. and Seiichi Ikeda. Developments in the military could entail specific dangers. Mar 2008. Toshio Fukuda. (34) Mediating Uncertainty: Communicating the Financial Risks of Nanotechnologies. Mar 2004. with the potential for both great benefits and great risks. several guidelines for limits and restrictions are suggested. (33) Military Uses of Nanotechnology: Perspectives and Concerns. Currently. Mary F. 28: pp. most entrepreneurship scholars focus on innovation. vol. For humans and society. As a first step. In this paper the authors present how nanoelectronics should advance medicine. based on clinical data and nanobioelectronics. (32) Nanorobot for Brain Aneurysm.
This work examines how future claims work to define what counts as nanotechnology and reveals dilemmas that accompany temporal disjunctures. May 2008. Although nanotechnology is often defined as operations on the 10-9 metres. presenting their main ideas in chronological order. The different positions on the role that it can play in the process reflect particular interpretations of the relationship between science. nanotechnology has been more of a dream than reality. Science Technology & Society. technology and society. development and poverty. at meetings held by international bodies. Noela Invernizzi. Guillermo Foladori.the promise of high returns for investors are constructed by marketing professionals and mediated through financial media. In recent years. Technology & Human Values. Science. 196–220. and Donald Maclurcan. The other group of arguments can be identified as the contextual position by emphasising the social context wherein technology is produced. 32: pp. 13: pp. the main issues at stake in this controversy are highlighted and analysed. the lack of charisma in the scale-bound definitions has been fortified by remarkable dreams and alluring promises that spark excitement for nanotechnology. The authors summarise and analyse the main arguments in the debate on nanotechnologies. Afterwards. and journalists and on the communication strategies used to take advantage of the ambiguities of nanotech in order to translate the technologies into a profitable industry. public relations professionals. 128 . One can be identified as the instrumental position. 123–148. (35) Expectations and the Emergence of Nanotechnology. From its inception. which emphasises the technical capacity of nanotechnologies to solve poverty problems and spur development. vol. marketers. The outline covers the period from 1997 to late 2007. (36) Nanotechnology’s Controversial Role for the South. and reviews the documents that most directly address the issue. and in non-governmental organisations since 1997. vol. The possibility that nanotechnology will turn into an instrument to aid development or alleviate poverty has been discussed explicitly in academic circles. Mar 2007. The authors divide the arguments expressed in this discussion in two broad groups. however. more fiction than fact. the term nanotechnology has been actively drawn toward the present to begin to deliver on the fantastic expectations. The article considers the most influent opinions from organisations. institutions and meetings. This debate over time and timing is loaded with paradox. Science and politics converge in debates about the future of technology as expectations serve to create and enforce power and legitimacy in the emerging area. Attention is focused on how the immense uncertainties that surround nanotech as a commercialised field are managed by scientists. used and adapted. Cynthia Selin. The story of the rhetorical development of nanotechnology reveals how speculative claims are powerful constructions that create legitimacy in this emerging technological domain.
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