500 journals in Business, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Science, Technology and Medicine. Online access is available at which permits access to the full text of individual articles. To provide further assistance in undertaking assignments and topic discussion, specific articles are identified for each of the text’s 12 chapters. CHAPTER 1 The topics for which specific articles are identified include the size of the SME, the future performance trends of a sector of industry, defining entrepreneurship, the appeal of self employment and the factors influencing the growth of small firms. SMALL FIRMS AND EMPLOYMENT (1) The Determinants of Employment Creation in Small Regional Firms, Gregory T. Papanikos, International Regional Science Review, Apr 2004; vol. 27: pp. 187– 204. This article examines the determinants of employment creation in small regional firms. A number of factors are considered that account for the external and internal environment of the firm. A simple theoretical model of employment creation is developed where the determinants of a firm’s employment are the volume of production, the capital of the firm, and the uncertainty of the demand as evaluated by the individual entrepreneur. Employment is found to be positively related to sales, the amount of required paperwork, the application of new production processes, and the openness of the establishment to new ideas. (2) The UK Government Small Business Model-a Review, Alan Leyshon, International Small Business Journal, 1982; vol. 1: pp. 58–66. This article provides a useful analysis of the factors beginning to be perceived as influencing employment levels in the SME sector during the early years of the restructuring of the UK economy as large firms downsized or moved their operations offshore. (3) Business Ownership and Sectoral Growth: An Empirical Analysis of 21 OECD Countries, André Van Stel and Martin Carree, International Small Business Journal, Aug 2004; vol. 22: pp. 389–419. We investigate the development of business ownership (self-employment) rates over time at the sectoral level and the effect of these rates on sectoral output growth. In an earlier exercise, Carree et al. (2002) presented an analysis of the interrelationship between economy-wide business ownership rates and economic development. Their analysis raised an important research question: to what 1

extent do differences in business ownership rates at the economy-wide level reflect differences in the sectoral structures of economies or differences in business ownership rates at the sectoral level? The current article investigates this question making use of a sectoral data base of 21 OECD countries for the period 1970–98. Estimation results suggest that there is, on average, a too low business ownership rate in manufacturing and a too high business ownership rate in services. (4) Employment Growth in New Independent Owner-Managed Firms in Great Britain, Paul Westhead and Sue Birley, International Small Business Journal, Apr 1995; vol. 13: pp. 11–34. This study explores employment change in 408 independent, owner-managed new firms in Great Britain which had received their first order between 1986 and 1990. In order to unravel the factors associated with standardised employment change in new independent firms, exploratory bivariate correlation analysis was used. Eighty-eight variables were identified from the literature and they relate to the ‘internal’ characteristics of the principal owner-manager and the business as well as a range of variables which capture various aspects of the ‘external’ environment. Bivariate correlation analysis results are presented for separate sub-samples of ‘manufacturing’ and ‘service’ firms. Moreover, in order to identify the combination of factors associated with employment change in surveyed new firms the data were further subjected to multiple correlation and regression analysis. (5) Latino Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship in the United States: An Overview of the Literature and Data Sources, Bárbara J. Robles and Héctor CorderoGuzmán, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Sep 2007; vol. 613: pp. 18–31. While significant attention has been paid to the growth of the Latino population and its contribution to the U.S. labour market, less scholarly and popular media attention has focused on Latino self-employment, entrepreneurship, and business growth. A review of interdisciplinary research literature on Latino entrepreneurship over the past 25 years indicates a gap in our knowledge about the accelerated growth in Latino small business ownership across the United States. The authors provide an overview of the current state of research on Latino entrepreneurial activities and recommend a broader research agenda that includes community-based organisations as part of the entrepreneurship landscape in urban and rural high-density Latino communities. (6) The Impact of Unemployment on New Firm Formation in Finland, Hannu Tervo and Hannu Niittykangas, International Small Business Journal, Oct 1994; vol. 13: pp. 38–53. There is an a priori case that unemployment can either increase or decrease new firm formation. This paper analyses how unemployment has affected entrepreneurship in Finland where, after a sustained period of increase, new firm formation began to fall during the recession. The empirical analysis is based on the application of various statistical methods on regional data on unemployment, new firm formation and other factors. Two hypotheses based on the ‘push-pull’ model are derived. The decision to


start a new firm is treated as a form of human capital investment problem. At regional level, high unemployment is shown to promote firm formation. These relationships are strengthened if the effect of other factors is eliminated. Especially in the case of those regions where both the opportunities for entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial qualifications of the population are good, a rise in unemployment will promote new firm formation. ENTREPRENEURS (7) Towards a Taxonomy of Entrepreneurial Theories, Joaquzn Guzman Cuevas, International Small Business Journal, Jul 1994; vol. 12: pp. 77–88. The main objective of this paper is to explore the concept of ‘entrepreneur’, focusing on his or her functions and identifying characteristics rather than on other aspects such as the role of entrepreneurial profit or the relationship between the role of entrepreneur and macro-economic balance, or growth processes. This analysis is focused to achieve an ordination and systematisation of the contributions of the main economic and noneconomic doctrines in order to form a whole or set which embraces the fundamental parts of entrepreneurship. On this basis, three fundamental approaches are found which imply three essential functions within entrepreneurship. The thought streams, with their most representative authors, are interconnected methodically and integrated in a diagram according to criteria on which those entrepreneurial functions are outstanding on each one. (8) Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Wealth Distribution: The Essence of Creative Destruction, Aron S. Spencer, Bruce A. Kirchhoff, and Craig White, International Small Business Journal, Feb 2008; vol. 26: pp. 9–26. The purpose of this article is to investigate theories that have produced differences in entrepreneurship definitions. The issue is raised because equitable wealth distribution is a fundamental focus of economics. Yet, recent attempts to guide research on entrepreneurship embrace innovation while ignoring the wealth redistribution aspect of entrepreneurship. Schumpeter argues that entrepreneurship means innovation by independently owned start-up firms that cause creative destruction that yields equitable wealth redistribution. Currently, most entrepreneurship scholars focus on innovation, by any firm, as a source of wealth creation without recognising that redistribution only occurs when innovation originates in new, independently owned firms. In this article, we describe how new micro- and nano-technologies championed by high-tech start-ups redefined the electronics industry, deconstructed the mainframe computer industry and are redefining the pharmaceutical industry today. It is suggested the entrepreneurship research should focus more on entrepreneurs that form and operate independent new firms. (9) Resourcefulness: A Proximal Conceptualisation of Entrepreneurial Behaviour, Sasi Misra and E. Sendil Kumar, Journal of Entrepreneurship, Sep 2000; vol. 9: pp. 135–154. The conceptualisation of the ‘entrepreneurial resourcefulness’ model helps one to understand various aspects prompting an entrepreneur to identify opportunities and thereby regulate and direct her/his behaviour to make the best use of these 3

In most of the mainstream literature. vol. colleagues and family members and to a substantial degree. Organisation Studies. Journal of Entrepreneurship.opportunities. some basic differences were also noted. However. 201–223. It goes a step further by comparing these with their first generation counterparts to draw more generalised conclusions. 8: pp. Journal of Entrepreneurship. This article helps in resolving the doubts and confusions surrounding the conceptualisation of the terms ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘entrepreneurship’. Although many similarities were found between Tanzanian and Indonesian entrepreneurs regarding their utilisation of these networks. (12) Cognitive Style and the Management of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Azhar Kazmi. A long-standing dilemma in theories of management surrounds the question of whether effective managerial action is better served by ‘rational analysis’ or ‘creative intuition’. 67–77. Arne Olav Øyhus. Feb 2004. analysis and intuition are conceived within a framework of 4 . the young second-generation entrepreneurs in India. entrepreneurs are portrayed as extremely individualistic actors. (11) What Young Entrepreneurs Think and Do: A Study of Second-Generation Business Entrepreneurs. Sep 2003. The author in this paper draws out the conclusion that the ‘lonely rider’ image is not only found in the literature. 25: pp. vol. The resourcefulness model clarifies these confusions and contributes towards both theory advancement and generating new research hypotheses. The model elaborates three entrepreneurial competencies – cognitive. Eugene Sadler-Smith. affective and action oriented. A study to validate this interpretation was carried out with entrepreneurs from two countries – Tanzania and Indonesia. This paper too falls in this tradition of research as it presents a demographic and psychographic profile of. 155–181. The model treats the behaviour of an entrepreneur as an outcome variable and acknowledges that there are significant variations in the behaviour of one entrepreneur from the other. vol. It is in this context. Mar 1999. 12: pp. It seems to be a common feature that entrepreneurs attach very little importance to relationships with other actors in their social environment. and the type of business strategies formulated and implemented by. Enquiries inspired by an urge to know and comprehend more about the entrepreneurial qualities and manifestations of different types of individuals form the bulk of research in the area of entrepreneurship. but also actually seen among entrepreneurs. The findings reinforce the point that entrepreneurs in general possess certain special characteristics that sustain their need for high achievement. In the present article. This paper is based on a qualitative case study approach. the author argues. that the network perspective which emphasises the role of individual relations as social capital presents a more accurate image of entrepreneurs and their enterprises. while analysing the ‘historical records’ on how these entrepreneurs established their enterprises it was seen that entrepreneurs in both countries did exploit their personal relations with friends. (10) The Entrepreneurial Self-Image: Lonely Rider or Social Team Player? Comparing Entrepreneurs in Tanzania and Indonesia. Various details of these competencies are elaborated to explain the behaviour pattern of an entrepreneur.

Vijaya and T. and Sa’Odah Haji Junit. however. and propensity to take risks – was used as the mediating variable for explaining the relationship between self-concept traits and firm performance. it influenced firm performance positively through its effect on entrepreneurial orientation. Feb 2006. (14) A Scale to Assess Entrepreneurial Motivation. the work core motivation. The implications of these findings for theories of cognitive style. and H.J. The authors attempt here to develop a scale relevant to the Indian context to measure entrepreneurial motivation.cognitive style in which a distinction is drawn between the processing of information (rational and intuitive) and the organising of information in memory (local and global). There was a positive relationship between intuitive decision style and contemporaneous financial and non-financial performance that did not appear to be moderated by environmental instability. 183–198. the management of small and medium-sized enterprises. The relationship between managers’ cognitive styles and firm performance was examined from a contingency perspective in which environmental instability was hypothesised as moderating the relationship between style and performance. L. Journal of Entrepreneurship.J. Kamalanabhan. 13: pp. In contrast. (15) Entrepreneurial Orientation and Family Forces in the New Germany: Similarities and Differences Between East and West German Entrepreneurs. The sample for the study was drawn from 195 potential women entrepreneurs. a statistically significant relationship between intuitive decision style and subsequent financial performance was observed. vol. vol. and for the practice of management development in such firms are discussed. self-attributed achievement motive was not significantly related to entrepreneurial orientation or firm performance. The results indicated that internal locus of control was positively related to firm performance. Finally. Sep 2000. Oliver Wintermantel. Much of the research conducted in India in the area of entrepreneurship considers personality characteristics and motivation interchangeably. Jianwen Liao. generalised self-efficacy had no direct effect on firm performance. entrepreneurial orientation. June M. 61–82. the social core motivation. Five core motivations – the entrepreneurial core motivation. the individual core motivation and the economic core motivation – are identified with the help of factor analysis by the principal components method. Pohl. 5 . Sep 1998. 24: pp. 7: pp. This article argues that there is a need to treat entrepreneurial motivation as a separate entity and objectively measure and classify different types of motivation to draw meaningful inferences. International Small Business Journal. Entrepreneurial orientation – operationalised to reflect the dimensions of innovativeness. Furthermore. Poon. The study was based upon data obtained from owner-managers and managing directors of small and medium-sized firms in two contrasting sectors. David Pistrui. V. Welsch. Harold P. proactiveness. This study examined relationships among three self-concept traits. and firm performance using survey data from 96 entrepreneurs. Family Business Review. The study used path analysis to test the direct and indirect effects of the trait variables on perceptual measures of firm performance. (13) Effects of Self-concept Traits and Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Performance. 251–263. Such styles are thought to affect a range of management behaviours (including decisionmaking). Raja Azimah Ainuddin. and entrepreneurial orientation did not play a mediating role in this relationship. vol.

and Jill Richard Kickul. and the 1990s saw a concentration on ‘business quality’. May 2007. intuitive individuals who had a high preference for risk exhibited higher levels of opportunity identification efficacy. Gerhardt. which shape entrepreneurial orientation. the 1980s witnessed an attempt to increase the number of start-ups. sacrifice. Storey. and enterprise profiles). Individuals with an intuitive cognitive style were also found to have lower perceived self-efficacy concerning the establishment of relationship with investors. The data isolate the differences and identify similarities between East and West German entrepreneurs. Urban Studies. vol. SMALL BUSINESS POLICY (17) Does More Mean Worse? Three Decades of Enterprise Policy in the Tees Valley. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. It suggests – and finds – that businesses in the 1980s were more numerous but of 6 . and their capacity to tolerate ambiguity. This paper argues that there have been three distinct phases of enterprise policy in the UK in the past 30 years: the 1970s saw no effective enterprise policy (‘policy off’).The new Germany provides a once-in-a-lifetime living laboratory in which to explore entrepreneurship and family business. 1207–1228. capturing characteristics associated with demographics. This paper looks at how enterprise has evolved in Cleveland/Tees Valley over the past three decades. and tolerance efficacy. and achievement motives. established West German familyled firms are responding to generational change and the need for new entrepreneurial leadership. whereas individuals with a low risk preference had higher levels of relationship efficacy. vol. However. More specifically. this study poses the following general research question: ‘How similar or different are the entrepreneurial orientations and family forces of East German and West German entrepreneurs’? The study explores three dimensions shaping entrepreneurial characteristics and orientations: (a) sociocultural forces (principally the family and personal alliance networks. On the other hand. as well as provide valuable insights into the family forces shaping SMEs in the new Germany. family involvement. Saulo Dubard Barbosa. This study investigated these relationships using an international sample of 528 entrepreneurial students across three universities. The study draws from a sample of 160 East and West German entrepreneurs. and (c) environmental perceptions related to infrastructure obstacles confronting entrepreneurial-led family enterprises. we examine how both cognitive style and risk preference separately and interactively contribute to an individual’s assessment of his/her own skills and abilities as well as to his/her own entrepreneurial intentions. Mole. (16) The Role of Cognitive Style and Risk Preference on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Intentions. 13: pp. Francis J. On one hand. Thus. (b) personality characteristics associated with entrepreneurial intensity. Megan W. the economic management of the new venture. and David J. Kevin F. Jun 2004. Results indicated that individuals with a high risk preference had higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity-identification efficacy. the East must rely on entrepreneurship and new venture creation to rebuild this region of Germany. 41: pp. The purpose of the current study is to address the distinctive roles of cognitive style and risk preference on four types of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. Greene. 86–104.

Apr 1993. 28–43. 1113–1131. (20) Entrepreneurship in Regional and Local Development. International Small Business Journal. and local environments. Apr 1999. Malecki. Policies which attempt to alter regional or local conditions and to promote entrepreneurship and continuing innovation are given attention in the second half of the paper. Sherrill Shaffer and Robert N. The issue of entrepreneurship is complex. (18) Philip Cooke. (19) Tackling Youth Unemployment through Entrepreneurship. Feb 2009. May 2004. as in the past. Collender. vol. experience and personal inclinations of their owners largely influenced the choice of types of small-scale firms that were established. culture. Edward J. This conclusion is drawn from the analysis of survey data collected from a stratified sample of loan beneficiaries of the Smallscale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme in Nigeria. This paper focuses upon Life Sciences and the manner in which R&D-led clustering concentrates key resources such as basic research funding. while previous training. vol. Examples are provided of new regional science policy instruments for redistribution of such knowledge economy advantages that moves beyond mere innovation support. Sunday L Owualah. International Regional Science Review. research infrastructure and innovative businesses in a few clusters where even large pharmaceuticals firms are nowadays often learners (from academia) rather than research leaders. It further reveals that the firms achieved an appreciable growth in their assets. Definitional issues which often mark discussions of entrepreneurship are discussed. This implies that we should be cautious about the value of policy attempts to increase business formation rates in areas such as Cleveland/Tees Valley. and huge increases in healthcare R&D and general expenditure mean that some 20 per cent of GDP is accounted for by the broad sector. This programme is one of four programmes of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) set up in Nigeria in 1987 to encourage and assist unemployed youths to establish and operate their own small-scale firms. 41: pp. 17: pp. 119–153. 49–59. This paper presents evidence that promoting entrepreneurship consciously among youths can be an effective way of tackling unemployment within this group. and the interest in it shown by researchers and politicians over the past decade has not made it less so. (21) Federal Credit Programs and Local Economic Performance. as are networks of interaction. The analysis shows that an average of four new jobs were created by each of the respondent firms in the first four years of the programme. 23: pp. Economic Development Quarterly. vol. vol.lower ‘quality’ (even if the influence of unemployment is accounted for) than those from the 1970s and 1990s. regions that have missed out on this future ‘knowledge economy’ bonanza are desperately seeking to remedy things. This article surveys the topic of entrepreneurship within the processes of regional and local development. Life Sciences Clusters and Regional Science Policy. Because Life Sciences and healthcare are strongly intertwined. Urban Studies. 16: pp. 7 .

Observed trade-offs suggest a need to compare policy objectives with acceptable costs in many cases. the results are consistent with theoretical predictions and with some standard policy objectives. individuals with such employability problems have been concentrated in particular households and communities. Data are drawn from a survey of the owner-managers of small metalworking firms in Sheffield. though potential distortions by special interests carry attendant dangers. 285–300. Policy interventions are required to address these obstacles and social exclusion. owner/manager adopting a formalised planning orientation. polarising society. planning behaviour in large versus small firms. BUSINESS PLANNING (1) Owner-managers and Business Planning in the Small Firm. A general move towards more flexible labour markets and the restructuring in these regions over the past quarter of a century have led to a change in the supply and demand conditions for employment. Not surprisingly. measured six ways. Richbell. This article explores the ways in which the characteristics of the owner-managers of small firms influence whether or not those firms have a business plan. and Perry Wardle. but central government appears reluctant to face the full direct costs of implementation. Often lacking demonstrable and accredited human capital and work experience. 496–514. Antecedent influences on owner-managers showing a significant association with the possession of a business plan include an above average level of education. for U. The focus is primarily on antecedent influences on owner-managers such as education and prior experience. Doug Watts. 24: pp. vol. the role of intuition in business decision making and the planning process in start up versus existing small firms. Oct 2006. previous work experience in a large firm immediately before setting up their firm and running firms in sectors outside their previous experience.Several theories of externalities and asymmetric information suggest a positive role for government programmes to assist credit markets. Urban Studies. Feb 2005. Inactivity has been growing across the developed world and is especially high in old industrial areas. 42: pp. International Small Business Journal. Mike Danson. More radical innovative solutions are now being proposed at the metropolitan level. Suzanne M. H. Significant differences are found across programmes and performance measures. The authors examine the empirical association between funding by several federal government programmes and subsequent economic performance. UK. Around half the sample of owner-managers possess a business plan. CHAPTER 2 The topics for which specific articles are identified include the small business support services within a country. while the decline of traditional occupations has left many without jobs and facing multiple barriers to regaining employment.S. There is an increasing dependence on school and higher education qualifications and associated transferable skills and competencies. Overall. (22) Old Industrial Regions and Employability. metropolitan areas during the 1990s. possession of a business plan showed a positive association with those 8 . vol.

T.owner-managers with a growth orientation. contextual conditions that can limit these impacts are described.7%). Business organisations. vol. and long-term planners. response rate = 26. their performance does record some improvement. This view is elaborated here as it applies to new small businesses. it was argued. Although evidence is equivocal and often contradictory. help them enhance their performance. Journal of Travel Research. First. 6: pp.and long-term planners. Gary J. needs to develop with studies from different regions and histories to test the value of specific findings. Benckendorff and Philip L. Using a detailed mail survey (N = 407. However. International Small Business Journal. some scholars have suggested that the high mortality of new small businesses could be reduced through greater pre-startup planning. Attahir Yusuf and Robert O. It has been argued that firms can address both the opportunity and menace questions of uncertainty through systematic planning which. Journal of Entrepreneurship. Environmental uncertainty is unavoidable. this study tries to examine the relationship between environmental uncertainty. Using data from a sample of small firms in New Zealand. R. Nov 1987. Attraction research. In addition. (2) Uncertainty. vol. Dec 1996. in turn. 42: pp. They also reported higher management turnover. Consistent with this advice. (5) Motivations and Aspirations of Business Founders. Hamilton. Then. Aug 2003. The results of the enquiry suggest that small firms do not respond to uncertainty with increased planning. have to develop ways and means to cultivate the opportunities and contain the menace that result from uncertainty. short-term planners. Attractions with greater levels of planning were shown to have higher levels of perceived performance and faced the future with better growth prospects and business confidence. ways in which pre-startup planning can facilitate survival are delineated. 70–78. Mar 2002. short. planning and performance. vol. Planning Sophistication and Performance in Small New Zealand Firms. An exploration of the links between the characteristics of Australian tourist attractions and the amount of planning undertaken by attraction managers was conducted. Castrogiovanni. 11: pp. It is concluded that owner-manager characteristics can be important in explaining the presence/absence of a business plan within the small firm. (3) Pre-Startup Planning and the Survival of New Small Businesses: Theoretical Linkages. vol. 22: pp. 9 . Nyomori. However. when they plan. a categorisation indicating four planning levels was devised: nonplanners. hence. multimethod approaches are needed to disentangle causality issues linking planning and attraction characteristics. 24–35. there is an emerging view that the value of planning is context-dependent. Pierre J. (4) Australian Tourist Attractions: The Links between Organisational Characteristics and Planning. Journal of Management. prospective business founders are generally advised to develop formal plans of their proposed ventures. 1–19. Finally. suggestions are offered which show how this view can be used to guide future research and extend the body of knowledge. 801–822. Pearce.

and Carroll D. and William Doherty. in part. Abhy. control. we provide some guidelines to help researchers select appropriate techniques for measuring organisational growth. Based on comprehensive data from 193 firms in 48 industries for 20 periods. innovative preferences and risk-taking propensity as well as education level. 31–43. those who employ informal. It empirically tests the developmental sequence of three dimensions of the model: inclusion. to family farming couples). Carland. Family Business Review. Jo Ann C. Laurence G. Jul 1989. Although the literature contains an impressive volume of studies attempting to identify determinants of organisational growth. 10 . Sharon M. The group employing written plans was found to have significantly higher need for achievement. vol. vol. The study offers practitioners a theory-based approach to working with the complex dynamics within family businesses. 24: pp. This study provides a critical review of the literature to identify issues regarding the measurement of growth. Because inclusion predicts control dynamics. 15: pp. Findings indicate that both a sense of inclusion in a family business and the manner in which control issues are managed have important influences on family business integration.. Apr 1998. Jr. by the variety of approaches used to measure growth. Rueter.The main purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis which assesses the extent to which the characteristics of business founders are stable over time. one of interpersonal dynamics and change. management structure. 235–262. as well as amount of explained variance. On firm size the evidence is that businesses which have been pushed into existence and survived are not significantly different from those which are not subject to this particular pressure. A sample of 368 small business owners/managers was divided into three groups: those who use formal. Martha A. three concepts are considered as well as three different measurement formulas. International Small Business Journal. vol. innovative preference and risk-taking propensity than the group employing unwritten plans and non-planners. James W. and Sarah J. The groups were compared on their need for achievement. Consequences and Guidelines. and number of employees. written plans. Danes. Paul C. results from comparative regression analyses reveal that the significance of relationships between determinants and organisational growth. It examines alternative approaches in order to assess the consequences of using inappropriate measures. and nonplanners. Finally. Consequently. to family businesses (specifically. (6) Family FIRO Model: An Application to Family Business. effective control may not be diminished without adequate levels of inclusion. Journal of Management. 23–34. They may be explained. and integration. unwritten plans. Weinzimmer. sales. 7: pp. Freeman. It finds that there is an apparent stability over time but the evidence does show that with unemployment rising over time this is becoming a push factor in an increasing proportion of new business formations. Carland. This study applies the Family FIRO model. Nystrom. (7) Measuring Organisational Growth: Issues. (8) An Assessment of the Psychological Determinants of Planning in Small Businesses. Mar 2002. researchers have recently noted important inconsistencies in findings. Hee-Kyung Kwon. depend on the specific approaches used to measure growth.

First of all. This paper develops analytical arguments to highlight three distinctive attributes of enterprise partnership. 93–108. The study discusses the implications for institutional theory and studies of nascent businesses. Practical and research implications are also presented. Jul 2005. for those nascent organisations that produced business plans during a two-year initial period. the literature on the theory of the firm is used to suggest that enterprise partnership represents a credible alternative to the dominant ‘leadership model’ of organisational change. 7: pp. and are more in line with institutional predictions. primary research. the purchase-decision task. specified in a set of propositions regarding the relative influence of the parties on the purchase decision. as well as for the literature on business planning CHAPTER 3 The topics for which specific articles are identified include small firms’ use of market research. In this study. Benson Honig and Tomas Karlsson. Marketing Theory. 29–48. it highlights the organisational features of enterprise partnerships that transcend particular national or economic settings and suggests that these allow partnerships to be interpreted as a procedural consensus between management and employees to develop pathways to advance fairness and 11 .(9) Institutional Forces and the Written Business Plan. DECISION MAKING (1) Purchase Decision-making within Professional Consumer Services: Organisational or Consumer Buying Behaviour?. Paul Teague. vol. factors were examined that led nascent organisations to write business plans. Findings show that institutional variables. Organisation. and the nature of the decision-making process. Journal of Management. Interestingly there was no evidence to support positive outcomes. such as coercion and mimetic forces. It is concluded that professional consumer services represent a unique setting for purchase decision-making and cannot be considered equivalent to the organisational or consumer setting. (2) What is Enterprise Partnership?. vol. Feb 2004. vol. but chosen by professional service providers. Three aspects are elaborated on: the actors involved. The study examined both the production and the outcomes of written business plans produced in nascent organisations. Elina Jaakkola. This article analyses purchase decision-making for products and services that are acquired and used by consumers. utilising quantitative data and the problems associated with assessing the scale of opportunity. The article proposes a theoretical framework incorporating the typical characteristics of professional services as a decision-making context. how market segmentation can be exploited. The results are contrary to rationalist predictions of planningperformance. Second. 30: pp. in terms of profitability. following 396 nascent entrepreneurs during a two-year period. This is done by comparing the distinct characteristics of purchase decision-making in the contexts of professional consumer services and organisational and consumer buying. 567–589. Mar 2007. 12: pp. are important predictors influencing the propensity of new organisations to write business plans.

vol. Due to the positive changes in the environment. This case is about the dilemma faced by Supriya. It was further sought to learn the motivation for such dining patterns and also to obtain information useful in evaluating the market potential for a given community. India (KCLL). vol. as well as opinions about restaurants. 8–20. The case demonstrates that Lever deployed qualitative market research techniques much earlier than usually acknowledged. Labson. Third. and directed at dinner meals in a non-business setting. Product Innovation. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 4: pp. The same product was introduced into the market in the late 1990s but was later revoked because of poor performance. Mar 2006. The questions selected for the interview covered aspects of restaurant selection and use. Novelty in the marketing strategy is necessary because in India personal hygiene is not discussed openly either within the family or publicly. The case discusses details of demand forecasting and marketing strategy during the initial product launch along with an analysis of the failure. Asian Journal of Management Cases. 12 . Aug 1963. by means of telephone and personal interview. Qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods allowed marketers at Lever and JWT to take account of autonomous consumer practices that limited the scope of management. She has to prepare a business plan for the relaunch of adult diapers called ‘Depend’. in the interwar period. KCLL conducts a market research survey with an aim to estimate demand and gather competitive intelligence. MARKET RESEARCH (3) A Community Survey of Restaurant Dining Habits. The question that needs to be answered is how to make ‘Depend’ commercially viable. 85–100. The retailers feel that the market for adult diapers had begun to evolve in 2004. Mar 2009. The focus was upon the better quality restaurants. The picture projected by the market research is very positive. This article discusses the use of market and consumer research at Lever/Unilever and its advertising agency in Britain and the United States. particularly those located in hotels. (4) Relaunching Adult Diapers in India – Has the Time Come?. (5) Discovering the Consumer: Market Research. Stefan Schwarzkopf.performance at work. and the Creation of Brand Loyalty in Britain and the United States in the Interwar Years. 15–16. Ajit Patil and Rahul Srinivasan. Research surveys conducted by JWT in the 1920s and 1930s helped Lever reposition its international soap brand Lux. J. Journal of Macromarketing. Harry Gildea and David E. vol. 3: pp. This is also indicated by an increase in the number of new brands introduced in 2004–05. A recent market research survey was performed for the Hotel Corporation of America which has many hotel and motor hotel restaurant facilities. The survey’s general objective was to obtain. Walter Thompson (JWT). 29: pp. The paper is both a literature review and theory-building exercise. the product manager at Kimberly Clark Lever Private Ltd. it suggests that the diffusion of enterprise partnership requires the support of extra-firm institutional frameworks. information on patterns in restaurant dining.

2: pp. David Tucker. multiple correspondence analysis was used to spatially map each 13 . as removing controls from flights and air fares has also gained ground in those countries which were once against liberalisation. Scandinavia) which. which varies depending on numerous factors. Current proven methods require the use of quantitative (ratio or interval scale) data. but also according to the different services which the passenger wishes to receive on board and on the ground. Moreover. This study demonstrated that multistate categorical survey data could be successfully used. Journal of Travel Research. Among these are those countries of Europe (UK. Arianna di Vittorio. vol. MARKET SEGMENTATION (8) A Clustering Method for Categorical Data in Tourism Market Segmentation Research. Apr 1995. vol. Topics include forms of transport. 39: pp. Through market segmentation it is possible to identify various categories of consumers and to offer them the service they require. Journal of Vacation Marketing. this paper indicates customer satisfaction as a fundamental factor in building customer loyalty. (7) Travel and Tourism Data in the UK. Many quantitative clustering methods severely restrict the number of attributes measured despite the fact that segmentation analysis works best when it measures all the multistate attributes that visitors identify as influencing their tourist experience. Also covers main international sources. Business Information Review. since customers really determine the success or the failure of an initiative. Jan 1996. May 2001. Finally. both social and economic. for this reason. 11: pp. Differentiates sources for inbound and outbound tourism and internal (domestic) travel. the prices vary. have lobbied for the introduction of deregulation in Europe. Measuring and Responding to Different Market Segments: Price Determination in Air Transport. George Arimond and Abdulaziz Elfessi. in the last decade. Obviously. 2–18. a two-stage analysis method was employed. At this time deregulation is not present everywhere and this creates considerable difficulties in negotiating tariffs. However. following the American example. quantitative survey instruments are seldom used. the effects of deregulation have been decisive. generally speaking. 315–325. Using data from a bed-and-breakfast survey (229 guests). One challenge in tourism market segmentation research is finding a statistical clustering method that can use data from the commonly used qualitative (categorical scale) survey instrument. Nowadays price determination is quite complex: in fact two passengers on the same flight may have paid different prices and this discrepancy is due to the fact that users are different and. Describes and evaluates the most commonly used sources of statistics and other market information on the travel and tourism industries in the UK. purpose of travel. The additional flight services (which represent the so-called ‘extended product’) are many today and they satisfy the consumer’s every possible need. use of accommodation while travelling and origin/destination data. vol.(6) Identifying. The price varies not only because of the different distances travelled. First. a service or even a whole organisational structure. the markets to which the service is applied are different. 391–397.

Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.. 297–330. country of origin. Mar 2003. (10) Segmenting Travel Markets with the International Tourism Role (ITR) Scale. the extent to which a segment can be attracted by products/services offered). The composition of the clusters partially supported Cohen’s classification scheme. vol. standardised instrumentation. and Dennis R. and then cluster analysis was used to identify market segments. and Havitz (1994). Russ. quantity versus price. Data were collected using survey methods and analysed using classification decision trees. Soo K. Horridge. Segment 14 . (9) Family Traveler Segmentation by Vacation Decision-Making Patterns. expenditure per travel party and per person). Although many attempts have been made to segment travel markets. participated in the study. Nov 2003. the degree to which a segment can be effectively contacted and served). who visited one of the three Travel Information Centres (TIC) on the borders of Kansas and who considered themselves travelling as a family unit. Journal of Travel Research. Hsu. Kang. function versus fashion. and Randall R..C. this study shows the potential for segmenting international travel markets with the ITR scale. Patricia E. colour versus style. Mark E. business-mixed-with-pleasure (BMP) travellers. The clusters were confirmed by selected sociodemographic and behavioural trip characteristic variables. few studies have used conceptually based. 31: pp. Shelley S. vol. This study illustrates how the International Tourism Role (ITR) scale by Mo. Harp. and organisational features) and six consumption patterns (quantity versus usage.e. Cathy H. 448–469. Chul-Min Mo. Although results cannot be generalised beyond the study population. and Kara Wolfe. handbags in wardrobe. the VFR segment was identified as the most viable market for Kansas to pursue. but also revealed nuances resulting from the ITR scale’s multidimensional interpretation of novelty in international tourism. Howard. 27: pp. (11) Targeting Multicultural Purchase and Consumption Segments in the Leather Handbag Market: Product Development and Merchandising Implications. 24–31. The purpose of this study was to segment a nationwide sample of the Korean American (n = 115) and White American (n = 139) leather handbag market for business wear. Results indicated four purchase criteria (brand. can be used to segment international tourist markets.. and to provide a systematic evaluation of the segments based on their profitability (i. including intergenerational (ITG) travellers.e. developed using the conceptual framework of Cohen’s tourist role typology. vol. and visiting friends and relatives (VFR) travellers. and durable versus versatile) segmented the two consumer groups. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal. Cluster analysis of ITR factor scores indicated the 461 respondents could be classified into four distinct clusters. It is believed this method can be more practical in the field of applied tourism research. accessibility (i. and reachability (i. Jinhwa Lee. Based on the evaluation criteria. quantity versus quality. Howard. A total of 297 travellers.of the attributes. The purposes of this study were to extend the scope of family vacation decision-making research by profiling various family vacation segments based on decision-making patterns. Jul 1994.e. Results of the study generated three market segments. Havitz. 33: pp.

the effects of opportunity discovery strategies of entrepreneurs on performance of new ventures have been neglected. The authors argue that activities are the critical link between tourist motivation and destination choice and develop a model in which travel motivations are related through activity preferences to vacation destination choice. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. thus. and reachability. Mazanec. and consumption patterns included usage. (13) A Benefit-based Segmentation of a Nonresident Summer Travel Market. travel party composition. Finally. Journa of Entrepreneurship. 80–95. The following evaluation criteria were used in target market selection: profitability. vol. vol. Josef A. 30–35. accessibility. and durability and versatility. These proposed relationships were tested through a secondary analysis of survey data collected from 1503 Australian outbound travellers. (12) Positioning Analysis with Self-Organizing Maps: An Exploratory Study on Luxury Hotels. the handbag purchase criterion was organisational features. price. should not be connected to the later phases of the entrepreneurial process. marketing strategy implications were addressed. trip planning and trip characteristics. Opportunity discovery process is one of the main topics of interest in entrepreneurship research. Benefit-based market segmentation studies were found to be a viable means of determining vacation market segments. and post-trip evaluation. Mar 2007. colour and style. vol. quality. These analyses did reveal consistent relationships between travel motivation and activities and between activities and features of preferred destinations. This study examined the feasibility of segmenting a nonresident tourist market on the basis of vacation benefits sought. For White Americans. This is not an established consideration as it inherently holds 15 . The importance of the development of objective and quantifiable means of evaluating market Effects of Opportunity Discovery Strategies of Entrepreneurs on Performance of New Ventures. Perdue. Vesa Puhakka. quality. 16: pp. Dec 1995. However. Jan 1992. Laurie E. and a combination of durability and versatility. Journal of Travel Research. whereas their handbag consumption patterns included quantity. The reason for this appears to be the claim that opportunity discovery as behaviour of entrepreneurs takes place before the venture is established and. OPPORTUNITY DISCOVERY (14) Effects of Opportunity Discovery Strategies of Entrepreneurs on Performance of New Ventures. Six distinct benefit-based market segments were found using factor and cluster analysis procedures. Loker and Richard R. 19– 51.characteristics indicated handbag purchase criteria of Korean Americans included brand and country of origin. Implications suggest opportunities for product development and merchandise assortment planning. The central proposal of the paper is that activities are important items in these motive boxes. The resulting segments were compared on the basis of specific dependent variables organised under the following framework: travel party leader characteristics. 31: pp. 36: pp.

thus. Silverman. Brian S. In crafting a history of the present of entrepreneurship. Jackson A. Aug 2007. In recent years new forms of entrepreneurship have begun to emerge from the synergies between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developments and changing paradigms of economic transactions. vol. Dec 2005. The present study examined how opportunity discovery strategies of entrepreneurs affect performance of the ventures established. the opportunity discovery strategies of proactive searching. Techniques for accessing entrepreneurs and for evaluating entrepreneurial judgments are also discussed. and Todd R. (16) Organisational Entrepreneurship: With de Certeau on Creating Heterotopias (or Spaces for Play). this article uses a number of spatial concepts to elaborate on organisational entrepreneurship as creation of space for play/invention. The results illustrate that the performance of new ventures is strongly influenced by opportunity discovery strategies used by entrepreneurs. Jun 2005. 279–302. ‘Virtual Teams’ consist of groups of geographically distributed individuals (entrepreneurs) who interact through 16 . Zenger. More specifically. This article reviews and critiques the venture creation literature that has examined the role of the individual.the idea that research should study how entrepreneurs create value which should not be connected to the value they have created. Nickerson. Michel de Certeau’s concepts of space and place and of strategy and tactics together with Michel Foucault’s concept of heterotopia allow the author to describe and analyse a case where an artist-company collaboration resulted in an entrepreneurial event. Focusing on the relation between work as a managerially ordered place and conditions for creativity within such an order. 211–225. 23: pp. In addition. Individual judgment is highlighted as a particularly important future direction for research on the role of enterprising individuals in venture creation. the role of individuals must be understood if venture creation is to be understood. transforming work and surprising management. growth of new ventures showed significant increase by proactive opportunity discovery strategy. Strategic Organisation. 5: pp. International Small Business Journal. Organisational entrepreneurship is understood as constituting a silent history of organisation and management theory. 14: pp. (17) Virtual Teams and the Rise of e-Entrepreneurship in Europe. These results suggest that the strategies entrepreneurs use to discover opportunities have much impact on creating high performance levels of new ventures. Venture creation is at the heart of entrepreneurship. 386–398. Daniel Hjorth. with an eye toward identifying under-researched topics and improving research designs. The resulting ‘turbulence’ within the international small business community has facilitated the evolution of innovative organisational forms that are structured dynamically to ensure sustainable competitive advantage in local. Enterprising individuals or groups start new ventures and. national or global markets. the author distances it from how it has become represented in management (enterprise) discourse. Harry Matlay and Paul Westhead. competitive scanning and collective action increased the newness value of the ventures. vol. vol. Journal of Management Inquiry. (15) The ‘Problem’ of Creating and Capturing Value.

G. This study examines the decisions of entrepreneurs to begin exploiting business opportunities from a resource-based view. It is argued that focusing entrepreneurship research at the intersection of the constructs of individuals. CHAPTER 4 The topics for which specific articles are identified include managing business growth. Based upon the results of 15 longitudinal case studies from the European tourism and hospitality industry. vol. Gaylen N. yet there has been little conceptual and empirical development of this issue in the literature. Teresa Nelson. although the percentage of entrepreneurship articles remains low. Page West. Journal of Management. the findings of this study shed a light on a less emphasised aspect of the resource-based view: the new product’s anticipated lead time acts as an enhancing moderator in entrepreneurs’ exploitation decision policies. vol. Jun 2003. greater managerial capability. Decision theory. Young Rok Choi and Dean A. modes of organising. small business support services. it identifies and considers the stages and processes specific to virtual teams. Shepherd. (18) Entrepreneurs’ Decisions to Exploit Opportunities. Lowell W.interdependent tasks and are led by common (entrepreneurial) interests and/or goals. The advantages and disadvantages of virtual teams of e-entrepreneurs are additionally documented and discussed. and greater stakeholder support. Chandler. cash flow management. more fully developed necessary technologies. start-up factors of production. (19) Entrepreneurship Research in Emergence: Past Trends and Future Directions. managing high-tech firms and raising external funds from different lending sources. 17 . 30: pp. and Andrew Zacharakis. III. Journal of Management. Boundary and exchange concepts were applied to examine 97 entrepreneurship articles published in leading management journals from 1985 to 1999. Some evidence was found of an upward trend in the number of published entrepreneurship articles. Implications for future research on opportunity exploitation are discussed. Opportunity exploitation is a necessary step in creating a successful business in the entrepreneurial process. This article evaluates the emergent academic field of entrepreneurship to better understand its progress and potential. Moreover. 29: pp. The highly permeable boundaries of entrepreneurship facilitate intellectual exchange with other management areas but sometimes discourage the development of entrepreneurship theory and hinder legitimacy. This article focuses upon the emergence of virtual teams that increasingly form the competitive core of successful e-Entrepreneurship in Europe. opportunities. 285–308. and temporal dynamics are put forward for entrepreneurship scholars to explore important research questions in these intersections. from formation to the fulfilment or adjournment of specific tasks and projects. The analysis of a sample of entrepreneurs whose businesses are located in incubators suggests that entrepreneurs are more likely to exploit opportunities when they perceive more knowledge of customer demand for the new product. Jun 2004. 377–395. Dean Shepherd. Busenitz. information processing and network theory. and the environment will define the field and enhance legitimacy.

the hybrid model shows how Outback’s management took early advantage of its strengths but may have squandered its lead in the casual theme segment by taking a strategic wrong turn when it made an alliance with Carrabba’s. Scott Holmes. Jeffrey P.K. 9: pp. Lyons. the authors present and operationalise the concept of a pipeline of entrepreneurs and enterprises in order to effectively segment the marketplace of businesses and differentiate among potential economic development clients within the 18 . These states are commonly combined to produce a business life cycle. and superseded for more than 30 years. vol. Kenichi Ohmae’s four-basic-strategies matrix. and Gary Hamel and C.BUSINESS LIFE CYCLES (1) Food-Service Strategy: An Integrated. In particular. Business-Life-Cycle Approach. The pattern which emerges from these results supports the revision of traditional life cycle concepts. vol. Most models have employed one of three approaches: portfolio analysis. Applied to the case of Outback Steakhouse. size. each new model seems to disregard the conceptual contributions made by its predecessors. Seeking to remedy that oversight. 36–49. which in itself can take many forms. Economic Development Quarterly. Lichtenstein and Thomas S. Shay. competitive advantage and competitor analysis. The new integrated model introduces the time element. the presentation of an overall life cycle provides an over-simplified view of the firm. Strategic models designed to help managers understand and effectively compete in their industries have been developed. Richard D’Aveni’s hypercompetition model. Prahalad’s core-competency-agenda matrix. vol. The concept of the information sub-cycle is introduced. (3) Managing the Community’s Pipeline of Entrepreneurs and Enterprises: A New Way of Thinking About Business Assets. 20: pp. Prior research has identified various stages in the life of a small enterprise. 38: pp. used. Jan 1991. by connecting them with a modified life-cycle curve. The result obtained indicates that the acquisition and/or preparation of a relatively detailed level of accounting information is dependent on firm age. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. Gary Kelly. an Italian-style restaurant. International Small Business Journal. and how to invest in entrepreneurship as a crosscutting economic development strategy. To accomplish this. and internal-resources and -competencies analysis. 41–53. where. which was missing from prior models. the need to segment the firm into several sub-cycles is recommended. The purpose of this article is to offer a methodical approach to deciding when. 377–386. Nov 2006. the model developed in this article integrates four widely used strategic models. This paper proposed that small enterprise consists of a series of interrelated cycles and as such. Boston Consulting Group’s growth-share matrix. and Ross Cunningham. industry membership and level of ownermanager education. (2) The Small Firm Information Cycle: A Reappraisal. Gregg A. Logistics regression modelling techniques incorporating those variables which appear to be significant in influencing the level of accounting information prepared or acquired are applied to the development of an information cycle. Jun 1997. Although each approach offers valuable insights into the competitive environment.

community. and management challenges. The authors provide an overview of the current state of research on Latino entrepreneurial activities and recommend a broader research agenda that includes community-based organisations as part of the entrepreneurship landscape in urban and rural high-density Latino communities. Research findings contributed to a first stage for development of technical assistance that can guide Botswana entrepreneurs in business start-up and growth. and factors used in defining success. and marketing. Field interviews with 24 businesswomen revealed that the women employed an average of three workers and had operated their firms for three to five years. The purpose of this research was to develop a profile of micro apparel enterprises in Botswana and to examine the profile for cross-cultural applicability in relation to small business scholarship. 130–141. Awasthi and Sanjay Pal. 21: pp. Challenges. 9: pp. Dinesh N. engaged in rigorous marketing. often through personal networks. Jun 2003. Practices. Sep 2007. Robles and Héctor CorderoGuzmán. and selective attraction strategies – and discuss how the pipeline can help policy makers and practitioners make informed decisions about where to invest (in what segment) and which strategies to use.S. vol. 155–184 This article analyses the demand and supply of business development services (BDS) in the twin cities of Calcutta and Howrah in India. business practices related to employees. vol. Gobagoba and Mary A. Journal of Entrepreneurship. 613: pp. less scholarly and popular media attention has focused on Latino self-employment. 18–31. BUSINESS SUPPORT SERVICES (6) Market for Business Development Services in India: A Study of Calcutta. faced marketing. Littrell. labour market. including improving lives for the people of Botswana. It argues that with the advent of liberalisation. incubation strategies. vol. The businesswomen integrated a broad range of motivational stimuli for business start-up. product development. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. and Success. Marina R. challenges faced as the business was initiated and expanded. Bárbara J. (5) Profiling Micro Apparel Enterprises in Botswana: Motivations. While significant attention has been paid to the growth of the Latino population and its contribution to the U. finance. small entrepreneurs will need timely and relevant counselling and 19 . They then describe three options for managing and intervening in a community’s pipeline of entrepreneurs and enterprises – performance-enhancement strategies. Sep 2000. The profile identified motivations for initiating a business. entrepreneurship. A review of interdisciplinary research literature on Latino entrepreneurship over the past 25 years indicates a gap in our knowledge about the accelerated growth in Latino small business ownership across the United States. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. and business growth. and defined success using extrinsic criteria. (4) Latino Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship in the United States: An Overview of the Literature and Data Sources.

However there is a danger that by viewing the small firm sector in isolation from large firms. Although small firms in job generation terms are inherently advantaged and their performance numerically dominant. BUSINESS FAILURE (8) The Problems Experienced by Young Firms. vol.consultancy support. (7) The Job Creation Effects of Small and Large Firm Interaction. Stanley Cromie. In particular. To add to knowledge of this topic he interviewed 34 male and 34 female proprietors of four year old firms and questioned them on the problems they encountered in their early years. the small enterprises will be in a better position to derive the benefit of professional advice to improve their performance. 43–61. vol. the study observes that there is a glaring mismatch between demand for and supply of BDS due to market imperfections and price distortions. Oct 1993. even in the face of increased competition. Apr 1991. The advantages which account for this extra ability. It would therefore be wise to target those firms which are based in the wealth creating parts of both manufacturing and service sectors. Women incur a few gender specific problems during the launch of their firms but thereafter gender ceases to be a specific issue. as most of them lack adequate managerial and technical competencies to face the emerging competition. The paper concludes by noting that while training interventions. marketing and the management of people. Government funding for small firms should be directed in that manner by which the nation will gain the most. Small firms have a greater ability and potential to create jobs than do large firms. 9: pp. 20 . entrepreneurs experience some difficult personal problems. The effect of the interaction between small and large firms on the creation of jobs in the United Kingdom over the period 1971 to 1989 is examined in detail. may well improve the chances of survival of young organisations. Based on a field survey. In this paper Cromie surveys the literature on the failure of small firms and argues that there is a need to focus attention on those factors which contribute to the demise of male and female owned firms in the ‘demarrage’ phase of the development. those small firms in which new innovations and technologies are likely to be developed should have priority for aid. both sexes face the same kind of problems. International Small Business Journal. Results indicate that problems occur principally in the areas of finance. In addition. The practical problem to date is that of our inability to identify successfully those firms. Results of four recent studies are used to assess the contribution of different size of firms to aggregate employment change. both due to the nature of small firms themselves and to the nature of the interaction which takes place between small and large firms. Geoff Robson and Colin Gallagher. are identified and evaluated. marketing and the management of human resources. 12: pp. it is important that small meaningful changes in large firm performance should not as a result be overlooked. attention must focus on organisational diagnosis to determine where interventions are likely to succeed and on the process by which trainers assist entrepreneurs. Once this mismatch is removed. 23–37. International Small Business Journal. which have either grown independently of large firms or whose growth would not adversely affect large firm growth. which focus on finance. sub-optimal economic and political decision may be reached.

Jan 1999. 16: pp. vol. (12) Franchise Versus Conventional Small Business Failure Rates in the US and UK: More Similarities than Differences. vol. the results from some studies are in direct conflict. Indeed. They are bad for the economy because they mean lost jobs and a drop in the gross national product as well as promoting a lack of confidence in the small business sector. 17: pp. John Stanworth. Stuart Price. 21 . 56–69. International Small Business Journal. The significant variations in reported failure rates and the apparent conflict between the findings of some studies must surely be a source of some confusion for policy makers and others with an interest in the small business sector. The failure of small businesses has serious implications for employment in many countries and much is said and written about small business failure and bankruptcy. International Small Business Journal. or suggested. vol. vol. Aug 1983. A better understanding of the effect that choice of failure definitions may have on reported failure rates should lead to improved policy decisions.(9) Small Business Failure Rates: Choice of Definition and Industry Effects. Apr 1998. 11: pp. The results of this study suggest that reported failure rates may depend heavily on the definition of failure adopted. The results also indicate the possibility for using modelling to estimate potentially more relevant failure rates using readily available data such as bankruptcy statistics. This survey of the literature on bankruptcy and failure has been undertaken to bring together what has been said so far. (11) Defining Small Business Failure. The history of 333 small businesses that began in the period 1973–1988 in six managed shopping centres in Western Australia are analysed to illustrate the variation in reported failure rates that result from using the various definitions. Results from previous studies examining the incidence of small business failure have reported significant variations in failure rates between industry sectors. Joyce Berryman. (10) Small Business Failure and Survey of the Literature. for the small businessman they may be degrading and disappointing in addition to the personal hardship involved. International Small Business Journal. The results show that the reported average annual failure rate ranged from less than 1 per cent through to 14 per cent. Authors and speakers are usually interested therefore in suggesting means of avoiding such disasters. a variety of definitions (or proxies) for failure. The objective of this study is to examine various definitions (or proxies) for failure identified in the literature and to assess these definitions against a set of criteria that have been developed for this purpose. David Purdy. depending on which definition of failure is adopted. Apr 1993. It has been argued that a lack of a reliable measure of failure is a major obstacle to understanding and alleviating the causes of small business mortality. John Watson and Jim Everett. John Watson and Jim Everett. and Nicos Zafiris. 35–48 In examining small business mortality researchers have used. International Small Business Journal. 47–59. 1: pp. 31–47.

However. have more remote and less personal relationships with customers. owned and managed by individuals intimately involved in creating the hospitality experience with customers. Jan 1998. in exchange for payment of a once-off frontend fee followed by an on-going royalty. 364–380. this study seeks to help future entrepreneurs and those who invest in restaurants. This study examines the success factors for independent restaurant operators in the San Francisco Bay Area. Augmenting an earlier model. Debates on franchise failure rates. Some commentators go so far as dismiss the future existence of the small firm in hospitality provision! While the economic might of large firms to establish brands and operate at lower costs because of scale advantages goes some way to explain the loss of market share to small firms. the small hospitality enterprise. or recently have been. recent developments have improved the situation here and what emerges is a striking similarity of failure. small businesses themselves and most of their royalty-paying franchisees are also small businesses. 49: pp. should enjoy considerable competitive advantage over larger organisations. vol. 4: pp.At its best. since most franchisors still are. the level of skills and talents together with the limited aims and objectives of those who own and manage small hospitality firms are also significant factors. (14) Competitive Advantage and Management Development in Small Hospitality Firms: The need for an Imaginative Approach. have historically been dogged by problems of definition and measurement. Journal of Vacation Marketing. In theory. Angelo A. Camillo. such as overconfidence and emotional unfitness. From the viewpoint of small business researchers. in principle. franchising is an avenue into self-employment offered by franchisors (owners of a ‘tried and tested’ business format) to franchisees (typically aspiring small businessmen and women). yet small firms in general are losing market share to the bigger operators. located close to its market and in personal contact with its customers. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. The findings reinforce past studies by emphasising the internal factors. (13) Success and Failure in Northern California: Critical Success Factors for Independent Restaurants. Based on the principle of ‘cloning’ success. Nov 2008. Daniel J. a principal tenet of the franchise fraternity is that franchise failure rates are low. These firms. that led to failure. 145–160. vol. Thus. Connolly. There are many small hospitality firms which do successfully compete in their local market. that perhaps as a consequence of their organisational formality. the cases of nine successful restaurants and nine failed restaurants were studied from 2003 to 2007. franchising offers a route to growth for the would-be franchisor and small businesses opportunities with limited risk for would-be franchisees. Through interviews and questionnaires. has considerable advantage in being able to respond quickly to customer needs and demands. compared with conventional business failure rates. 22 . franchising has been argued to be of particular importance. and Woo Gon Kim. Graham Beaver and Conrad Lashley.

Journal of Management. 801–822. 22: pp. it is argued that the outcome of the entrepreneurial process is emergent from a complex interaction between the entrepreneur. there is an emerging view that the value of planning is context-dependent. the environment. Gary J. Filing for bankruptcy protection provides an explicit case of formal organisational failure. vol. 263–295. BUSINESS FINANCE (18) Late Payment and Credit Management in the Small Firm Sector: Some Empirical Evidence. vol. Although evidence is equivocal and often contradictory. researchers must also examine an alternative outcome – organisational failure. This paper explores the contributions of the behavioural. This view is elaborated here as it applies to new small businesses. Jan 2000. Organisational research has historically been dominated by a focus on those factors associated with organisational growth and survival. neither the personality of the entrepreneur nor the structural characteristics of the environment determine the outcome. Jan 1993. Dec 1996. The amount of working capital management undertaken was found to be related to the severity of the problem for individual firms (i. Daily. environmental. vol. Michael J. Peel. particularly as they apply to strategic studies. chance events and prior performance. 18: pp. (17) A Constructivist Framework for Understanding Entrepreneurship Performance. contextual conditions that can limit these impacts are described. Organisation Studies. 20: pp. ways in which pre-startup planning can facilitate survival are delineated. bankruptcy offers what may be the definitive organisational performance indicator. necessity was driving action). This paper outlines a constructivist framework for understanding the outcomes of the entrepreneurial process. The framework is illustrated with evidence from biographies of six entrepreneurs involved in successful processes. in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of organisations. First. Castrogiovanni. Consistent with this advice. taken alone. Unlike alternative performance measures which are more readily manipulated by management. Catherine M. some scholars have suggested that the high mortality of new small businesses could be reduced through greater pre-start up planning. vol. and Carole Howorth. Rather. Nicholas Wilson. consequently. Yet. 17–37.(15) Pre-Startup Planning and the Survival of New Small Businesses: Theoretical Linkages. International Small Business Journal. Apr 1994. Hamid Bouchikhi.e. a bankruptcy filing is a discrete event. 14: pp. The challenge currently facing organisational researchers is the integration of these diverse perspectives. 549–570. The core thesis of the paper is that. Journal of Management. financial/accounting. (16) Bankruptcy in Strategic Studies: Past and Promise. However. Then. prospective business founders are generally advised to develop formal plans of their proposed ventures. and legal approaches to bankruptcy. 23 .

Laitinen. The results may. vol. on average tended to be more active in respect of working capital management practices. 10: pp. International Small Business Journal. Michael J. Very little research has been conducted on the capital budgeting and working capital practices of small firms. Jan 1996. Apr 1991. vol. collection. Jul 1992.e. The purpose of the study is to identify financial processes followed by Finnish newly founded firms in their first years of life. It was posited that the problems faced by small firms are at least partly associated with business size and with the life cycle of the firm. To add to knowledge of this topic he interviewed 34 male and 34 female proprietors of four year old firms and questioned them on the problems they encountered in their early years. 52–68. 47–54. analysis of late payment and debtor days). the results of the survey indicated that a relatively high proportion of small firms in the sample claimed to use quantitative capital budgeting and working capital techniques and to review various aspects of their companies’ working capital. Stanley Cromie. (20) Financial Processes in Newly-Founded Firms. Erkki K. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary study on the working capital and financial management practices of a sample of small firms located in the north of England. Peel and Nicholas Wilson. help new entrepreneurs. or which had been active in terms of reducing stock levels or the debtors’ credit period. 14: pp. however. 24 . venture capitalists and financiers to identify and avoid risky financial processes in the early years. The results of the study are tentative because of the small sample size. there was barely any support for credit management training among this sub-group. International Small Business Journal. This methodology is similar to that used to identify financial patterns but it is applied here to financial variables from several years simultaneously. It is hoped that the issues raised will stimulate further theoretical and empirical contributions on this neglected and important area of small business research. 43–61. In this paper Cromie surveys the literature on the failure of small firms and argues that there is a need to focus attention on those factors which contribute to the demise of male and female owned firms in the ‘demarrage’ phase of the development. (21) The Problems Experienced by Young Firms. (19) Working Capital and Financial Management Practices in the Small Firm Sector.Responses from the sample firms were found to differ significantly with respect to firm size. The identification of the processes is made by factor analysis applied to selected financial variables in the first four years after foundation. 9: pp. Special attention is paid to analysing the relationship between the type of process and the status of the firm (failing/nonfailing). The smaller (micro) firms had a lesser late payment problem and subsequently did less ‘back-end’ credit management but were more concerned with various aspects of institutional finance. vol. However. larger small firms had a worse late payment problem and consequently had to do more in the way of ‘back-end’ credit management (i. the firms which claimed to use the more sophisticated discounted cash flow capital budgeting techniques. International Small Business Journal. In addition. In general.

Can notions of sustainability be used as a means of redistributing power and access to natural resources. vol. equating personal and organisational success. Apr 2000. may well improve the chances of survival of young organisations. (24) What is Small Business Policy in the UK for? Evaluation and Assessing Small Business Policies. The paper concludes by noting that while training interventions. 36–50. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. entrepreneurs experience some difficult personal problems. structure. a series of new policy initiatives are focusing on building sustainable community capacity from the ground up. The material use of the natural landscape has affected citizens’ views of the viability of and potential for sustainable resource practices. These adjustments integrate client and agency performance in order that they better meet organisational objectives by expanding resources. This paper deals with the design and organisation of micro and small business support agencies in the Dominican Republic. land is externally owned and controlled. Despite living and working in areas with enormous natural resource wealth. International Small Business Journal. Women incur a few gender specific problems during the launch of their firms but thereafter gender ceases to be a specific issue. vol. and the Culture of Despair: Can Sustainable Development Strategies Support Poverty Alleviation in America’s Most Environmentally Challenged Communities?. James Curran. Nov 2003. providing more effective service. In addition. Alan Miller and John Masten. marketing and the management of people. Attention is given to the degree of congruence between people. 131–149. 26–36. 11: pp. Many communities live in isolation. The authors then demonstrate that some of the agency activities reflect attempts by agencies to compensate for these divergences. both sexes face the same kind of problems. 25 . Sustainability. which focus on finance. vol. residents have only limited access to these resources. Jan 1993. marketing and the management of human resources. eliminate such potential? (23) Integration of Micro/Small Business Support Agencies and Clients to Strengthen the Private Sector in the Dominican Republic. Recognising the inability of conventional practice to resolve many of the development problems confronting communities in distress. Amy K. and process of the assistance agency and the client enterprise. SUPPORT SERVICES (22) Poverty. Appalachia is considered one of the nation’s poorest areas. tied to massive natural resource extraction. 590: pp. or does the peculiar fate of a region. International Small Business Journal. 18: pp. Information for the paper was obtained in 13 indepth interviews.Results indicate that problems occur principally in the areas of finance. and providing a greater contribution to the economy. attention must focus on organisational diagnosis to determine where interventions are likely to succeed and on the process by which trainers assist entrepreneurs. In many resource dependent communities. Farrigan. Special attention is given to examining divergences between client and agency characteristics. Glasmeier and Tracey L.

Stokes. The case of one citywide BID programme in San Diego. Apr 2007. vol. (25) Business Improvement Districts and Small Business Advocacy: The Case of San Diego’s Citywide BID Program. This work addresses one key policy question: How can cities use BIDs to assist their small business base? This work differs from previous examinations of BIDs in that it addresses localised policy and administration of a citywide BID programme. the precise outcomes of these policies have been difficult to pin down. Business improvement districts (BIDs) offer an innovation to the problem of urban commercial decline. Linda M. California. not collective assessments of larger BIDs nationally or theoretical issues of accountability or governance of mid-skill-level employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for local residents. Aug 2007. communication preferences and learning styles they prefer. the evaluation of their achievements has also proved difficult because of methodological problems. Because of the well-entrenched unanimity on the value of small business support in the UK. is offered as an illustration of the prospects and issues related to the use of BIDs as a small business enhancement strategy. Robert J. vol. Interviews with ten professional advisors suggest that there is some truth to the assumption that advisors and owners have disparate world-views. with specific focus on the culture. Small and medium-sized businesses now account for well over half of business turnover and jobs in the UK. it is unlikely that this has been due to state intervention. Dyer and Christopher A. (26) Advising the Small Business Client. Economic Development Quarterly. 278–291. Advisors do recognise this disparity. This paper examines the problems of evaluating small business policies and support and draws out some key implications for their future in the UK. although small businesses have become much more important in the UK economy. The advisor’s rational and analytic world-view is contrasted with the informal and idiosyncratic world of the typical small business owner. Urban analysts have pointed to the importance of neighbourhood commercial districts in enhancing amenities and providing low. Small businesses have also acquired a key role in UK economic policies paralleled by a huge development in support structures to promote them. Ross. little attention has been given to whether the support represents good value for public money. The context of the professional business advisor is explored. 26 . As policies developed over the 20 years. but recognition of the problem is only the first step. In other words. Even advisors who are motivated to improve the advice relationship by immersing themselves in the world of the small business owner can expect to face challenges because of the dynamic nature of the advisory relationship and of the firm’s development. Not only can there be doubts about whether the policies and support are cost effective but more importantly. It concludes that even allowing for the problems of evaluation. Despite broad rhetorical claims that policies and support help develop a strong enterprise culture and promote UK economic prosperity. 21: pp.Since 1980 the United Kingdom small business population has increased greatly. 25: pp. one of the best and clearest supported findings is of poor take-up of the support offered. International Small Business Journal. the question can be asked whether such policies are needed at all any more. 130–151.

which are worthy of further investigation. There have been a number of debates recently around the development of paradigms and research methodologies in the field of small business and entrepreneurship research. The authors illustrate how a framework based on wisdom rather than knowledge alone provides strategic options for paradigm development in the field. Frances M. the article examines the incentives and relationships between various business advisers and their SME (small to medium-sized enterprise) clients to explain the impact of business advice. The article acknowledges the systematic analysis of paradigms and indeed uses a thorough review of the literature as a basis to illustrate how the interpretive framework can be applied. from a principal-agent perspective. recommendations for further research are made and implications for policy makers and training providers are highlighted. 22: pp. Leitch. The article considers the targeted policy from the perspective of the Business Link personal business adviser (PBA). Colette Henry. 139–162. May 2002. The article draws on a qualitative-quantitative study of business advice conducted by the author. (28) The Effectiveness of Training for New Business Creation: A Longitudinal Study. In particular. (29) Business Advisers’ Impact on SMEs: An Agency Theory Approach. Kevin Mole. International Small Business Journal. The limitations of the study are acknowledged. Jun 2004. The study presents some evidence that a range of qualitative and quantitative outcomes may emanate from training programmes directed at aspiring new business owners. This policy. 657–677. A survey of 175 Business Link personal business advisers (PBAs) provided the quantitative element to the research. vol. vol. Dec 2005. Despite this growth there is still a relative paucity of rigorous empirical research that attempts to assess the impact of initiatives. vol. The article suggests that Business Link PBAs’ advice is likely to impact less on SMEs than that of accountants and solicitors simply because of the basis of their relationship. which operated between 1993–9. International Small Business Journal. which was conducted in Ireland. encouraged Business Link to provide advice to firms with the potential to grow. and Claire M. The broad focus of this article concerns the UK Business Link policy to target business advice to small and medium-sized firms. 27 . The research reported in this article. Lorraine Watkins-Mathys and Sid Lowe. 23: pp. This article focuses on paradigm commensurability by demonstrating how an interpretive framework can be used that eliminates walls between paradigms and enables paradigms to interpret other paradigms. has been noted in the literature. 249–271. including those education and training programmes designed to support new business creation. Twenty-nine business advisers participated in individual semistructured interviews and a focus group of ten public sector business advisers provided the qualitative element of the research. International Small Business Journal. the lack of longitudinal studies and studies employing control groups. In the last couple of decades there has been a growing interest in the role that small and new businesses can play in economic development. Hill.(27) Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research: The Way Through Paradigm Incommensurability. represents an attempt to overcome such methodological deficiencies. 20: pp. Overall.

This article will address this gap by employing a paradigmatic taxonomy to conduct a systematic metatheoretical analysis of articles published in the year 2000 by leading authors in key small business and entrepreneurial journals. if not all. namely the possibility of denaturing (loss of specificity). such diversity of disciplinary foundation does not necessarily result in a diversity of underlying meta-theoretical assumptions within an area. 20: pp. Paradigms and Prejudices. After defining the concept of learning it makes the distinction between contextual learning (via experience) and the associated tacit (subjective) knowledge that is gained by this. 13–29. vol. This paper begins with a review of the present concerns to link training with competitiveness in the United Kingdom and Europe.). it is clear that the health and future development of research in this area requires a broadening of perspectives to enable debate. However. Most. Allan A. and objective and abstract 28 . the somewhat excessive assertion of this idea may suggest that all small firms adopt a specific management method. If we allow that small business management can be specific. Apr 1997. 355–377. we must also allow the corollary of this statement. namely by considering the learning needs that will reduce the transaction costs of the small firm operating its stakeholder environment. International Small Business Journal. Paul Grant and Lew Perren. Small business and entrepreneurship has emerged as an important area of research over the past 40 years. This article is based on a long consideration of the concept of small business after 30 years of conceptual development. low level of functional breakdown. (31) Small Business and Entrepreneurial Research: Meta-theories. International Small Business Journal. 15: pp.(30) Specificity and Denaturing of Small Business. International Small Business Journal. creativity and ultimately new theories and understandings. There has been some meta-theoretic discussion of small business and entrepreneurial research. with the result that management specificity becomes a universal principle. Olivier Torrès and Pierre-André Julien. 23: pp. intuitive strategy. Gibb. Other areas of the social sciences have benefited from the consideration of the meta-theoretical foundations of their research and as a consequence they have been able to extend their research into new agendas. The analysis shows a dominance of the functionalist paradigm that pervades the elite discourse of research in leading journals and acts as a potential barrier to other perspectives. yet the review conducted for this project found no recent articles that provided a systematic analysis of contemporary research. Building Upon the Small Business as a Learning Organisation. etc. It notes that many of the issues raised in this respect are over 20 years old. May 2002. The authors of this article advocate a contingency approach to small business managerial specificity that would allow for the definition of a validity framework for the thesis of small business managerial specificity. Whether a Hegelian or Kuhnian perspective on knowledge production is taken. friction. It suggests therefore a new way to approach the problems. 185–211. vol. (32) Small Firms’ Training and Competitiveness. researchers in small business have accepted the idea that small business is specific (the preponderant role of the owner/manager. However. Much of this development has been achieved by drawing on and adapting the theoretical frameworks of disciplines from outside. vol. a small-sized firm does not necessarily have to adhere to the classical management method. In other words. Aug 2005.

knowledge frequently purveyed by teachers. vol. 19: pp. 14: pp. Jul 2001. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary study on the working capital and financial management practices of a sample of small firms located in the north of England. government still has to create the framework conditions for private sector development to become embedded and sustaining. In addition. survive and sometimes even grow despite government. In general. It is argued that the learning needs of those who effectively dictate the level of the playing field for achieving small business success are very high. (33) The Role of Government in SME Development in Transition Economies. encouraging the banking system to adapt and recognise the SME sector as a potential market for a range of financial products. The concept of learning circles and learning partnerships is introduced as a basis for exploring in some detail the issue of ‘who’ needs to learn. Although there may be a case for selective interventions in both types of circumstances. current priorities for government with respect to the environment for SME development include bringing legislation and regulations in line with EU standards in preparation for EU accession. BUSINESS FUNDING (34) Working Capital and Financial Management Practices in the Small Firm Sector. Jan 1996. The nature and importance of this learning need is then explored for key groups. International Small Business Journal. facilitating the development of venture capital funds for that minority of SMEs that seek external equity. It is argued that the benefits to society of this holistic approach to learning is a reduction in the ‘discontinuities’ between the SME and its environment and therefore a lowering of transaction costs. and working in partnership with the private sector to establish an effective support infrastructure. because of the creativity of individuals in mobilising resources and their flexibility in adapting to hostile external environments. 52–68. direct support measures are not the main role for government in either case. In such a context. It then explores the issue of the SME as a ‘learning company’ and argues that the key to its learning is via the transactional and other relationship that it has with its immediate network environment. vol. the firms which 29 . Survey evidence from the Ukraine. International Small Business Journal. Belarus and Moldova suggests that many enterprises are set up. in countries where market reforms are at a more advanced stage (such as Poland). It demonstrates that. The problem is that in these situations the number of firms remains small and their contribution to economic development rather limited. as in mature market economies. Very little research has been conducted on the capital budgeting and working capital practices of small firms. although more through its influence on the external environment in which business activity can develop than through direct support measures or interventions. At the same time. 63–77. Michael J. Peel and Nicholas Wilson. the results of the survey indicated that a relatively high proportion of small firms in the sample claimed to use quantitative capital budgeting and working capital techniques and to review various aspects of their companies’ working capital. the state is a major factor influencing the nature and pace of SME development. David Smallbone and Friederike Welter. The paper is concerned with the role of government in relation to SME development in economies at different stages of market reform.

(36) Small Business Loan Decisions: A Survey of Criteria in Japan and Nigeria. Hence the perceptions of the banking institutions to small business lending in the former can be used to assess the perceptions of those in the latter. A major finding of this study is that although there is some degree of congruence on what banking institutions in both countries consider to be critical in their small business loan decisions. It aimed to prove that family businesses were not only different but also specific. 15–25. Loïc Mahérault. the observed divergences in their perceptions may be the consequence of institutional or promotional support inequalities between them. This paper reports the results of a survey of small business loan decision criteria in two countries at very different stages of development. What inspired this study was the feeling that there was a new competition between venture capitalist companies and the stock exchange: recent experience on the financial markets clearly highlights the fact that many companies 30 . 29–42. 7: pp. vol. 17: pp. The paper examines issues such as the early origins of franchising and different manifestations of the concept. a survey of specialist bank provision for franchising in Europe shows only British and Dutch banks as giving full support with French banks also displaying a good level of franchise knowledge. The study covers the period from January 1997 to May 1999 and includes all the IPOs that occurred during these two-and-a-half years. The analysis breaks free from the traditional ‘family versus nonfamily business methodology’ and is based first on a global cluster analysis. Finally. Some international statistics are presented and certain problems of measurement illustrated. or which had been active in terms of reducing stock levels or the debtors’ credit period. vol. Empirical results make it possible to consider that there is a specific attitude among family businesses aiming at quotation. Japan and Nigeria present striking contrasts. On both counts Japan towers over Nigeria. on average tended to be more active in respect of working capital management practices. International Small Business Journal. vol. The sample is composed of 131 IPOs. This article presents a precise typology of French initial public offerings (IPOs) with the underlying aim of suggesting that small and medium-sized family businesses could have a specific approach to capital dilution. (35) Improving Small Business Survival Rates via Franchising The Role of the Banks in Europe.claimed to use the more sophisticated discounted cash flow capital budgeting techniques. Family Business Review. Peter Stern and John Stanworth. The article concludes that the banking sectors of both Western and Eastern Europe have much left to do if they are to assist the development of franchising to its full potential. International Small Business Journal. not only in terms of their levels of economic development but also in terms of socio-economic infrastructures enjoyed by their small businesses. 12: pp. Oct 1988. Sep 2004. Owualah. It is hoped that the issues raised will stimulate further theoretical and empirical contributions on this neglected and important area of small business research. S. Jan 1994. I. 221–235. This period was probably the most active period for the French sections of the stock exchange dedicated to small and medium-sized companies. (37) Is there Any Specific Equity Route for Small and Medium-Sized Family Businesses? The French Experience.

emphasising both market and finance issues. 227–248. Venture Capitalists and Business Angels. depending on whether the firm is listed. behaviour towards investments and risk. The second aim was to demonstrate that the approach of small and medium-sized family businesses is closer to the classical equity route (regular process of dilution). 387–401. the second of 49 listed companies. Finally. 71–79. Miguel A. vol. The family businesses that have leading market-share positions have lesser financial performance than the family businesses who are followers in market share. Dec 1996. Using a real time methodology this article highlights the different investment criteria of bankers. venture capital fund managers and business angels have a very different approach. 13: pp. Loïc Mahérault. such as capital structure. much of the literature on how to write a business plan fails to emphasise that different types of funder look at business plans from different perspectives. (40) What do Investors Look for in a Business Plan?: A Comparison of the Investment Criteria of Bankers. The description of listed family firms is more classical: investment and financing policies seem to be independent. However. especially those family businesses that have an important market-share position in their industry. 22: pp. The implication for entrepreneurs is that 31 . (39) Finance in Family Business. 1993). All companies are SMEs (small and medium-size enterprises) and are nearly the same size. Mar 2000. venture capital fund managers and business angels. Family Business Review. The description of private firms’ investment is consistent with the pecking order theory and financial constraints clearly appear.preferred to go public rather than to significantly open their equity structure to private investors. The relation between these dimensions and performance is also analysed. vol. The first is composed of 46 private companies. Bankers stress the financial aspects of the proposal and give little emphasis to market. Colin Mason and Matthew Stark. and dividend policy. Empirical results are based on two cross-sectional analyses (1992. The study is carried out on two samples of small French family firms. Linear regressions between investment and financial constraints are presented for the two samples separately. Jun 2004. Most potential funders wish to see a business plan as a first step in deciding whether or not to invest. Results are very different. Gallo and Alvaro Vilaseca. whereas fast-growing and young companies prefer to go public. entrepreneur or other issues. This article is an exploratory investigation of the financial issues of family business. (38) The Influence of Going Public on Investment Policy: An Empirical Study of French Family-Owned Businesses. vol. Family Business Review. quoted family-owned businesses do not seem to suffer from lack of capital. 9: pp. Consequently. The most important findings of this research are that family businesses have low debt equity levels. the first aim of this research was to prove that the equity route of some small and medium enterprises (SMEs) no longer follows the linear process of dilution as supposed by the classical financial theory. As equity investors. Business angels give more emphasis than venture capital fund managers to the entrepreneur and ‘investor fit’ considerations. International Small Business Journal.

Nov 2002. Astrachan and Daniel L. well in excess of the $13 million the state spent on the programme. International Small Business Journal. Economic Development Quarterly. The programme also increased state tax revenues by $25. The purpose of this paper is to shed new light on the issue of whether banks treat female and male small business owners differently. this paper goes on to report the findings of two empirical studies conducted in the UK. vol. Sally A. 17: pp. vol. Ennew. Following a review of the literature. which is predominantly North American-based. Bradshaw. venture capital fund or business angel. 32 . 39–55. vol. Among the different mechanisms used to solve these financial problems are credit guarantee schemes such as Loan Guarantee Association (LGA). Family Business Review. which guaranteed small business bank loans to carefully selected firms that could not otherwise obtain credit. Analysis of the outcome of economic development programmes is essential for improved public policy. Dec 2001. vol. Christine T. Ted K. (41) The Contribution of Small Business Loan Guarantees to Economic Development. These (mutual or government granted) credit insurance systems were set up to ease the access of SMEs to the credit market by covering part of the loss incurred when borrowers defaulted on loans. David Camino and Clara Cardone. (44) Venture Capitalists and Closely Held IPOs: Lessons for Family-Controlled Firms. This study reports on the California State Loan Guarantee Program. McKechnie. makes them highly dependent on short-term bank financing.5 million. Joseph H. Jul 1999. by exploring the nature of the banking relationship from the perspective of two groups of owner-managers differentiated only by gender. (43) The Nature of the Banking Relationship: A Comparison of the Experiences of Male and Female Small Business Owners. 14: pp. International Small Business Journal. Read. (42) The Valuation and Cost of Credit Insurance Schemes for SMEs: The Role of the Loan Guarantee Associations. Their reduced capability to generate resources (self financing) and their high financial cost as compared with the profitability of investment. The study found that employment increased in firms receiving loan guarantees by 40% among all firms and 27% among non-agricultural firms. and Lauren H. 295–311. 360–369. which focus on financing conditions and aspects of the overall relationship between the small business and the bank manager. 16: pp. McConaughy. 16: pp. Apr 1998. The findings suggest that gender based differences in both the provision of finance and the nature of the banking relationship are less substantial than might have been expected.they must customise their business plan according to whether they are seeking funding from a bank. Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs) have important limitations from the financial viewpoint. Firms receiving loan guarantees had a default rate of only 2%. 13–31. The study tracked the actual change in employment at 1166 firms that received 1515 loan guarantees from 1990 to 1996 during the depths of the California recession.

Important elements of this proposal are essentially recycled ideas that worked badly when implemented back in the 1970s by the U. 11: pp. International Small Business Journal. vol. However. high net worth individuals. This paper argues that there is considerable scope to expand the supply of informal venture capital. In particular. The informal venture capital market comprises individuals – commonly termed ‘business angels’ – who provide risk capital directly to entrepreneurial businesses. Because it takes time for VCs to effect changes and because beneficial changes generally occur gradually. most active informal investors are unable to find sufficient investment opportunities. firms contemplating IPOs must plan well in advance to maximise firm value. Jul 1993. Small Business Administration. This study identifies failed concepts being built into present and proposed venturecapital community development financial institutions.S. Concrete suggestions are offered that may circumvent building structural deficiencies into the emerging generation of community development financial institutions. Second. This finding suggests that VCs’ outside expertise and connections are valuable assets. Economic Development Quarterly. 23–38. business introduction services are still at the experimental stage and have had only a limited impact on the flow of informal venture capital. (46) Strategies for Expanding the Informal Venture Capital Market. Closely held firms in this study had an average of 88% insider ownership before the IPO. Key determinants in the success of business introduction services appear to be marketing effort to build a critical mass. Colin Mason and Richard Harrison. Timothy Bates. (45) Government as Venture Capital Catalyst: Pitfalls and Promising Approaches. 16: pp. It also identifies other factors that are related to the performance of closely held IPOs. or other outside capital should consider the findings of this study because it identifies factors that are associated with more successful IPO outcomes. vol. Family-controlled firms contemplating growth or liquidity options through the IPO.This study examines how the presence of venture capitalists (VCs) in closely held IPOs relates to their performance. Demand for informal venture capital is increasing in Britain as a result of the tightening in lending to small businesses by banks and the shift of institutional venture capital funds even further away from start-up and early stage investments. First. active investors represent only a fraction of self-made. thereby removing a major constraint to their participation in the informal venture capital market. VCs. Former President Bill Clinton’s New Markets Initiative includes a proposal to create companies that will invest venture capital into small firms that operate in low-income areas. The establishment of business introduction services can play a key role in enabling active investors to identify appropriate investment opportunities and also provide ‘virgin angels’ with a source of investment opportunities. Research in a number of countries has established that informal venture capital is a major source of risk capital for entrepreneurial companies. these community development financial institutions need to avoid the debt financing that government is offering as an incentive to promote venture-capital financing in small businesses. 49– 59. Feb 2002. 33 . we find that closely held IPOs benefit from associations with VCs. As a result. In general. substantially exceeding the size of the formal venture capital market. they have substantial uncommitted sums available for informal investments.

have a propensity to finance their operations in a hierarchical fashion. the main research inquiries are outlined and a set of generic hypotheses is elicited based on the pecking order theory – that is. 579–602. García-Teruel and Pedro MartínezSolano. there is room for policy initiatives that respect the financial philosophy of private companies. 34 . Mason and Richard T. first using internally available funds. 14: pp.and long-term loans is more pronounced. Dec 2007.(47) Influences on the Supply of Informal Venture Capital in the UK: An Exploratory Study of Investor Attitudes. 11–28. finally. Following the review of literature relating to financial affairs of private companies. Panikkos Zata Poutziouris. financier. This article analyses the debt maturity structure of small and medium-sized firms in terms of the risk and return trade-off associated with the use of short-term loans. The need to increase the availability of small-scale early stage venture capital has been recognised as a key factor in the development of an entrepreneurial economy. This explorative research paper draws evidence from a database of small to mediumsize unquoted private companies (n = 240) in the UK and reports on the family business and venture capital relationship from the demand side. vol. greater financial flexibility. interest rates and the rate of inflation – exerts a much more modest influence. International Small Business Journal. 25: pp. including family-controlled ventures. The paper explores factors governing the rationale of owner-managing directors of private and family companies for considering venture capital dealings as well as main areas of concern about the deal structures. 18: pp. A questionnaire survey of business angels sought to examine the macro-economic factors that influence the proportion of their personal investment portfolio allocated to investments in unquoted small businesses. (49) The Views of Family Companies on Venture Capital: Empirical Evidence from the UK Small to Medium-Size Enterprising Economy. Harrison. Pedro J. International Small Business Journal. short-term borrowing levels are higher in the smaller firms. followed by debt and. and when the interest cost differential between short. The paper then concludes with a discussion of the policy implications from the perspective of the owner-manager. 277–291.The results show that short-term loans are more common in firms with greater financial strength. Colin M. Jul 2000. (48) Short-term Debt in Spanish SMEs. particularly family firms. The findings indicate that tax is the most significant influence on the willingness of business angels to make such investments whereas the economic environment – the rate of economic growth. the size of the firm seems to have an influence on the level of short-term loans. Family Business Review. Univariate statistical analyses confirm that family companies adhere strongly to the pecking order principles of financial development. private companies. Additionally. vol. external equity. To encourage equity development of smaller privately held companies. and enterprise policy maker. and major growth options. Informal venture capital plays a key role in financing the earliest stages of entrepreneurial growth ventures. vol. The sample covers 11. This paper is an exploratory attempt to identify the factors that influence the supply of informal venture capital.533 small and medium-sized Spanish manufacturing firms over the period from 1997 to 2001. Sep 2001.

business strategy. Evaluates the importance of online business databases to the compiler and writer of market reports. Gives specific examples of market reports being prepared for publication. Internet firms choose the international markets they enter? The authors posit that international market entry decisions are based on balancing perceived risks and returns inherent in a foreign target market.S. Kevin Steensma. and Market Size.S. Suresh Kotha. Internet firms face somewhat unique challenges when expanding abroad. 16: pp. 32: pp. Feb 2006. Business Information Review. however. The analysis confirms that relatively consistent evaluation criteria are applied across the industry and corroborates previous models which suggest that the venture capitalist’s decisionmaking consists of several stages. vol. 56–82. they find that country risk. competitive mapping to determine an appropriate positioning and macroenvironmental factors of influence. and uncertainty avoidance reduce the likelihood of international market entry. this paper adds to the current literature by differentiating the evaluation criteria used at each successive stage of the decision-making process. Journal of Management. 36–57. by exploring the evaluation criteria and the decision-making process adopted at one United Kingdom regional venture fund (henceforth referred to as the Fund). the length of time taken by the fund managers in appraising propositions can lead to withdrawal of applications at an advanced stage. Internet Firms: An Empirical Analysis of Country Risk. Drawing on a sample of almost 7000 country entry decisions by 179 U. Oct 1997. and H. In the vast majority of cases. International Small Business Journal. Proposals have to satisfy different criteria at each stage of the decisionmaking process before they receive funding. 35 . David Tucker. Internet firms. International market size. however. The paper examines how venture fund managers select their investee companies. vol. cultural distance. whereas individualism and masculinity increase it. Oct 1994. Compares information search and retrieval costs of online and conventional methods. 11: pp. In addition. MARKET SIZE (1) Compiling Market Reports: The Value of Online Databases. On what basis do U. The paper presents a model of the Fund’s activities which demonstrates that the relative importance attached to the evaluation criteria changes as applications are systematically processed. vol. National Culture.(50) The Evaluation Criteria used by Venture Capitalists: Evidence from a UK Venture Fund.S. Frank T. Rothaermel. Grahame Boocock and Margaret Woods. Analyses the types of information source needed for market reports and their availability online. With the benefit of access to the Fund’s internal records. applications are rejected by the fund managers. (2) International Market Entry by U. 2–16. CHAPTER 5 The topics for which specific articles are identified include market analysis.

while strengthening the positive effects. and managerial implications and future research directions are discussed. Market share plays a central role in a number of portfolio planning models. vol. (5) Issues and Perspectives in Global Customer Relationship Management. Ramaseshan. The authors also provide a conceptual framework for GCRM and recommendations for future research. Over the past few decades. the physical volume multiplier. the authors present an overview of the GCRM environment and the challenges in formulation and implementation of CRM across national boundaries as a source of sustained advantage. In this article. David Bejou. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 17–29. Three constructs – the market share multiplier. The linkages between inter-related growth constructs such as the volumetric and dollar sales growth rate. competition. 18: pp. product sales volume and product sales growth rate. and consumer characteristics to CRM strategies to maximise customer value across the global customer portfolio of the firm. 274–292. (4) Foreign Market Entry Mode Choice of Service Firms: A Contingency Perspective. market growth rate. (3) Product Portfolio Analysis and Market Share Objectives: An Exposition of Certain Underlying Relationships. Findings from one group of studies suggest that factors determining entry mode choice by manufacturing firms are generalisable to service firms. and Joseph Pancras. vol. and the dollar volume multiplier – which aid in the strategic analysis of the product portfolio are proposed. Jain. Journal of Service Research. As the era of globalisation continues to manifest through the emergence of global companies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. country characteristics. B. cross-border business has experienced unparalleled growth. Rajan Varadarajan. Research on how service firms choose their initial mode of operation in foreign markets appears to have led to two contradictory conclusions. Global CRM (GCRM) is the strategic application of the processes and practices of CRM by firms operating in multiple countries or by firms serving customers who span multiple countries. Subhash C. privatisation and deregulation in emerging economies. Sivakumar. Oct 1998. Ikechi Ekeledo and K. A conceptual model of factors affecting the entry mode choice of service firms is proposed. P. The authors reconcile the two views by means of a classification scheme that allows some services to be grouped with manufactured goods in terms of entry mode choice. the importance of customer relationship management (CRM) in these companies has become increasingly significant. Certain generalisations regarding market share and its sensitivity to various environmental conditions are highlighted. 26: pp. Findings from another group of studies contradict that view. regulatory characteristics. 36 . vol. This article presents an exposition of the underlying relationship between market share. and the nominal and real dollar sales growth rate are discussed. Jan 1990. Nov 2006. which incorporates relevant differences in business practices. research propositions are developed. market size.moderates these relationships by weakening the negative effects. This growth is due to advances in communication and information technologies. Charlotte Mason. and emergence of the global consumer. 9: pp. 195–207.

The authors discuss the implications for marketing strategy at both business discipline and public policy levels. the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and importance of the domestic rural shopping market in Canada as a ‘niche’ market in rural tourism. Lists and briefly describes. reports. including those from the DTI. Propositions are proposed to guide future research. Rural shopping is emerging as a tourism market that is under-researched and offers potential for the economic development of rural regions. In particular. and to provide a description of the characteristics of rural shoppers. and Learned Information Europe Ltd. Lists and describes some of the sources of regular surveys of specific publishing and information sectors: Directory and Database Publishers Association. Marketing Strategies for Industry (MSI). Dec 1999. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.(6) Marketing. Market growth plays a central role in virtually all strategic marketing models developed in the past 30 years. vol. 203–209. Information Market Observatory (IMO). Market Growth. this article explores the link between marketing actions and market growth. 347–359. matching. periodicals and legal documents. and market research publishers. (8) UK Business Information Market: Sources of Statistics and Market Data. newspapers. Periodical Publishers Association. and Songpol Kulviwat. Although marketing scholars seem implicitly to assume that marketing efforts contribute in some way to market growth. and Endogenous Growth Theory: An Inquiry Into the Causes of Market Growth. Publishers Association. selected surveys. its general coverage and the problems posed by its rapidly changing nature. in either hard copy format or via electronic formats such as the Web. vol. vol. Terry Clark. Frost & Sullivan Ltd. Key Note Ltd. Headland Business Information. Using new developments in endogenous growth theory. 33: pp. 37 . the authors develop a conceptual model arguing that the effect of endogenous actions on market growth is mediated by knowledge creation. Secondary data analysis of the domestic Canadian Travel Survey (1998–2001) reveals that there are many rural visitors who also participate in shopping. Focuses on the market for published information. Business Information Review. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Carmichael and Wayne W. Jul 2005. Market segmentation using cluster analysis identifies five activity-based groups that differ on the basis of demographics and trip characteristics. and that rural shoppers display different characteristics from average Canadian domestic travellers. Indications are given of the current availability of key sources of statistical data and other information on the UK business information market. 10: pp. Fred Hitchins and David Mort. and diffusion. Therefore. and market research (British Market Research Association (BMRA)) are included. 16: pp. (7) Canadian Domestic Travel Behaviour: A Market Segmentation Study of Rural Shoppers. market growth per se remains a conceptual black box in marketing. 333–347. Sources of price data (Library and Information Statistics Unit (LISU)). mainly books. Sundar Bharadwaj. EPS Ltd. Smith. directories. Web sites. Oct 2004. the largest market in Europe. other online sources and CD-ROMs. Barbara A.

The variance– covariance combination method turns out to be the best among the three combination methods. Another finding is that the encompassing test does not significantly contribute to the improved accuracy of combination forecasts.K. The author reports on both manager and researcher use of information in assessing sales estimates. This study investigates the performance of combination forecasts in comparison to individual forecasts. agents. Carmen Tideswell. 22: pp. and the discounted mean square forecast error method. Furthermore. Also reported are selected findings from 20 in-depth interviews.(9) International Marketing Information: UK Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ Perceptions of Different Sources and Types. their level of utilisation. vol. 197–207. and Haiyan Song. the interviews found that firms’ own websites provide reference points for other businesses and this has resulted in many enquiries and orders for a relatively large percentage of firms. outbound leisure tourism demand for the United States. Nov 2001. vol. 38 . Nov 2008. Dave Crick. Shujie Shen. This study provides robust evidence for the efficiency of combination forecasts. Studies have shown that lack of information can provide an obstacle in firms’ endeavour to be competitive in overseas markets. Michael Y Hu. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. The empirical study focuses on the U. vol. and Bill Faulkner. Trevor Mules. 162–171. (10) An Experimental Study of Managers’ and Researchers’ Use of Consumer Market Research. 40: pp. plus perceptions of the types of data required. This study provides empirical data that examines how managers of internationalising UK firms perceive the usefulness of overseas market information sources. 44–51. 14: pp. Journal of Travel Research. 114–122. social contacts and the Internet in comparison with other data sources in finding various types of information. (12) An Integrative Approach to Tourism Forecasting: A Glance in the Rearview Mirror. The combination forecasts are based on the competing forecasts generated from seven individual forecasting techniques. Findings indicate that the two groups differ widely in their decision-making style and research use. Results establish that a high percentage of firms actively utilise internal staff. vol. Business Information Review. Findings are primarily based on a postal survey of 446 firms. Little work has been done to experimentally measure the impact of information on new product decisions. Sep 1986. The three combination methods examined in this study are the simple average combination method. the variance–covariance combination method. Gang Li. FORECAST ERROR (11) An Assessment of Combining Tourism Demand Forecasts over Different Time Horizons. Journal of Travel Research. The empirical results suggest that combination forecasts overall play an important role in the improvement of forecasting accuracy in that they are superior to the best of the individual forecasts over different forecasting horizons. Jun 2005. 47: pp.

19: pp. However. but not on structural variables. and time series analysis with explanatory variable models. the South Australian Tourism Commission initiated a tourism forecasting and economic impact study to assess their future tourism industry potential. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is used to measure the accuracy of forecasting methods. single moving average (SMA). derived time series cross-section regression (TSCSREG). such as New Zealand and Other Asia. Turbulence is found to have a significant causal impact on both the levels of entrepreneurship and the marketing orientation of the firm. this apparent accuracy disguises some significant inaccuracies for particular segments. and complex external environment. NEW PRODUCT FAILURES (14) Perceived Environmental Turbulence and Its Effect on Selected Entrepreneurship. vol. Results of a survey involving personal interviews with managers in 93 firms representing six industries are reported. and Organisational Characteristics in Industrial Firms. Rachel J. Michael Morris. Marketing. innovativeness.In 1996. Methods used in this article are readily transferable to other hospitality and tourism data sets with annual visitation figures. Entrepreneurship and marketing are approached as pro-active corporate responses to an increasingly dynamic. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. This study uses three major U. and Frederick W. (13) Comparing Forecasting Models in Tourism. single exponential smoothing (SES). 32: pp. based on the South Australian experience. followed closely by ARIMA. Jan 1991. time series analysis with explanatory variable model. The article provides a retrospective assessment of the forecast accuracy for South Australia’s domestic and international tourism markets. vol. and risktaking. Forecasting methods assessed include Naïve 1. Chen. Brown’s. autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). marketing activity. and Naïve 2. The findings suggest that the forecast accuracy for both international and domestic visitors was quite high overall. Cubbage. followed by SES. and marketing-related structure of a firm to the degree of perceived environmental turbulence confronting the firm. Based on the MAPE values. C. Consideration of the most appropriate methods for updating existing state tourism forecasts. 39 . Feb 2008. Holt’s. A conceptual model is proposed relating the levels of entrepreneurship.S. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. Holt’s and TSCSREG models produce the next most accurate forecasting. and Jeff Allen. 43–51. 3–21. Merits and limits of the proposed forecasting methods are discussed. threatening. illustrating the difficulty of using time-series-type approaches to tourism forecasting in situations where the numbers are quite small and subject to significant volatility. Naïve 2. Both represent organisational orientations built around creativity. national parks as applications of statistically selecting appropriate methods to forecast attendance. and Naïve 1 models. along with a qualitative delphi survey to gather key industry input to the forecasting process. is also made. Duane Davis. Peter Bloomfield. SMA produces the most accurate forecasting. The integrative forecasting approach adopted advocates a combination of quantitative top-down and bottom-up approaches. flexibility. Brown’s.

based upon a stable housing market. such as simulation software. Therefore Scottish tourism domestic revenues should rise from £4. The resultant ‘research value-added’ process integrates technology description. Oct 2005. and industry has only met a fraction of its potential. The model and process are presented as is the application of the model to technology developments from a research laboratory that are either potentially disruptive or sustaining. 12: pp. 1–19. Walsh. The study makes an attempt to identify the role of market orientation as a moderating factor between entrepreneurial proactiveness and business performance. This paper sets out to explain this forecast. very little research has been done to examine this relationship. but in order to see into the future it is important to understand the correlation between economic performance and tourism revenues. The statistical technique used is path analysis. The study used validated scales to measure the entrepreneurial proactiveness and market orientation. In order to do this. 11: pp. The paper presents the results of the study carried out in the Spanish ceramic tile sector. However. Commercialisation and transfer of technology from laboratories in academe. Colin Munro and Ian Yeoman. Andreu Blesa and Maria Ripollés. vol. Mar 2003. government. The forecasts are based upon economic conditions and represent the opportunity for 40 . Many suggest that the processes used are currently more of an art than a science. Journal of Entrepreneurship. 83–99. which again in turn has a positive effect on business profitability and sales growth. VisitScotland. The relationship between entrepreneurial proactiveness and business performance has often been implicitly assumed to be positive. (16) Acceleration and Extension of Opportunity Recognition for Nanotechnologies and Other Emerging Technologies. such as nanotechnologies. The research concluded that entrepreneurial proactiveness has a positive effect on market orientation. the national tourism agency for Scotland. Forecasting UK domestic tourists to Scotland is never an exact science. The present study makes an attempt to examine this relationship. or applications or research findings that are disruptive and/or emerging technologies. International Small Business Journal. Linton and Steven T. vol. VisitScotland is projecting a robust performance for UK tourism in Scotland up to 2008. The thrust in this argument is the firm’s ability to anticipate needs in the marketplace and also to anticipate the action of its competitors. MACRO-ENVIRONMENT (17) Impact of the Macro Environment: An Examination of the Economic Propensity of UK Regional Markets for Tourism to Scotland. Here we provide a plausible normative model that is used for idea generation and opportunity recognition developed for and used at Sandia National Laboratories.(15) The Role of Market Orientation in the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Proactiveness and Performance. 26: pp. the dual process model of innovation and a product introduction model. 370–381. Journal of Vacation Marketing. The generalisability of research value-added process to both disruptive and sustaining technologies is key to the success of the model and process. uses econometrics (the Moffat model). it is of value in considering alternative uses for existing products. Consequently. vol.4bn in 2008 in terms of real expenditure (excluding inflation). a tight labour market and low interest rates. Feb 2008. Jonathan D.1bn in 2005 to £4.

by means of factor-cluster analysis. It begins with a review of the historical perspectives of strategic flexibility. product. evolving marketplace. Competitive marketing strategy focuses on how a business should deploy marketing resources at its disposal to facilitate the achievement and maintenance of competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. This article presents an empirical study of tourist segmentation based on motivations. This article develops the concept of market-focused strategic flexibility. Oct 2002. Rajan Varadarajan and Manjit S. 169–186. The research reveals that each of these segments presents a different profile in terms of motivations and in terms of vacation patterns. However. and options. Johnson. vol. This article presents a conceptual framework delineating the drivers and outcomes of marketing strategy in the context of competing in this broader. Such projections are used as a guide to the future. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 296–312. In addition. and Bianca Grohmann. buyer. leisure. 74–89. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. followed by a discriminate analysis. 32: pp. (20) Portuguese Charter Tourists to Long-Haul Destinations: A Travel Motive Segmentation. Ruby Pui-Wan Lee. Propositions are developed relating market-driven and driving orientations to market-focused strategic flexibility with consideration for how turbulent macro environments modify the relationship.tourism. and buying environment characteristics. (19) Market-Focused Strategic Flexibility: Conceptual Advances and an Integrative Model. The proposed framework provides insights into changes in the nature and scope of marketing strategy. The present study. and Cláudia Moço. Jan 2003. 31: pp. To support the conceptualisation. In a growing number of product-markets. and the unique skills and resources of the firm that assume added relevance in the context of competing in the evolving marketplace. and social tourism. in terms of sociodemographic 41 . they do not account for shocks such as 9/11 or extreme weather conditions. rather than the exact future. P. the authors propose an integrative model that explicates the mediating role of market-focused strategic flexibility in marketing strategy frameworks. (18) Marketing Strategy and the Internet: An Organizing Framework. aims to provide a deeper insight into profiles of Portuguese tourists travelling to Latin American and African destinations. vol. The research was conducted with 1097 tourists travelling on Air Luxor to long-haul destinations. Antónia Correia. the authors offer propositions regarding outcomes of market-focused strategic flexibility under conditions of macro-environmental turbulence. Amit Saini. João Albino Silva. Three market segments were found: adventure. specific industry. 30: pp. the authors offer a theoretical schema that considers market-focused strategic flexibility as conceptually rooted in capabilities theory. vol. Yadav. exploratory by nature. Jean L. resource-based views of the firm. the competitive landscape has evolved from a predominantly physical marketplace to one encompassing both the physical and the electronic marketplace. Competitive strategy is primarily concerned with how a business should deploy resources at its disposal to achieve and maintain defensible competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. With the conceptualisation in place. May 2008.

Jun 2008. the differences are not so evident. there are three types of Firm Impact Spheres: Localised. The nine hypotheses will guide and direct future research towards generating an empirically based understanding of what determines small business website adoption. Firm performance has different distinct characteristics in each of these types. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS 42 . Gillian A. The managerial implications of these findings are highlighted. with a concentration on international strategic alliances structuring and building. vol.characteristics. Studying the way firms are using bridging tactics. Globalisation and e-globalisation are terminologies of high significance when focusing on smaller firm mechanisms of survival and growth. including strategic alliances. supported by the literature. The concept of the ‘Firm Impact Sphere’ is re-introduced and related to the structure of strategic alliances. Critically. International Small Business Journal. 26: pp. This is certainly true for the smaller enterprises. Aug 2006. There are different tools in literature that are used to analyse the strategic partnership within the international context. 243–257. which relate to the critical interactions and integration. that will provide an interpretation of what determines small business website adoption. to increase their chance of survival and growth is an important issue. Therefore the key contribution of this article to current knowledge is the development of a conceptualisation. the extant literature relating to small business website adoption is fragmented and fails to provide an understanding of what determines adoption. Armstrong. as an example of an effective bridging tactic used by firms to expand into global markets. vol. Semi-globalised and Globalised. and Mark G. 7: pp. Geoff Simmons. (22) A Conceptualization of the Determinants of Small Business Website Adoption: Setting the Research Agenda. In this article important existing knowledge about Information Technology’s (IT) impact on the management and other functional aspects of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are reviewed. One of the new approaches to understand the interaction between the firm’s activity and its environment is the concept of the ‘Firm Impact Sphere’. As evidence mounts on the importance of small businesses and the opportunities presented by website adoption globally. within and between four determinant groupings underpinning the conceptualisation. However. Durkin. Adli Abouzeedan and Michael Busler. (21) Information Technology (IT) and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) Management: The Concept of ‘Firm Impact Sphere’. Global Business Review. it becomes important to understand the key issues that determine website adoption. The article develops nine hypotheses. this is the first article to incorporate the important role that the small business marketing context plays within Internet technology adoption. Using this differentiation. 351– 389. According to this concept. the article analyses the way the concept of ‘Firm Impact Sphere’ would be used in understanding bridging tactics between functionality.

The research was guided by an integrative conceptual framework proposing that consumer identity may shape responses to a spectacular consumption site. Sara Dolnicar and Friedrich Leisch. An essential function that is recommended for destinations and tourism and hospitality organisations to undertake is to learn about developments in the external environment that may have a substantial impact on the competitiveness of their business. 46: pp. 316–334. This study explored the relationship between consumers’ identities and their responses to spectacular and sustainable retail design at REI Denver. (24) The Influence of Consumer Identity on Perceptions of Store Atmospherics and Store Patronage at a Spectacular and Sustainable Retail Site. These segments are associated with distinctly different vacation preferences and can consequently be used by destination management for target marketing. 43 . Karen H. vol. Oct 2006. Journal of Travel Research. Dunbar. May 2008. leading to the conclusion that different combinations of demand and supplyside measures may be suitable to reduce the environmental footprint of different segments. 71–91. Hyllegard. Journal of Vacation Marketing. However. A store intercept survey approach was used to collect data from 186 consumers. Jennifer Paff Ogle. The environmental sustainability of the local tourism industry is increasingly a concern. 381–391. vol. 12: pp. programmes. The healthy-living lifestyle has been gaining momentum in the USA and in various parts of the world. little empirical evidence supports the feasibility of such a demand-driven approach. products. 24: pp. The Recreational Equipment Incorporated (REI) Denver flagship store represents a spectacular consumption site that builds REI’s brand identity and corporate image as an environmentally responsible business while contributing a unique combination of lifestyle retailing and sustainable development to the community. health has been approached from the angle of tourism experiences’ effects on an individual’s wellbeing. Zaher Hallab.(23) An Investigation of Tourists’ Patterns of Obligation to Protect the Environment. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. Authors have proposed a demand-driven approach to sustainable destination management as complementary to traditional supply-side interventions. Gaps between people’s proenvironmental behaviour at home and at the destination systematically differ across segments. including perceptions about store atmospherics and intent to patronise that site. more than ever. Results indicate that distinctly different moral obligation segments exist that differ in pro-environmental behaviour and attitudes. and Brian H. In the field of travel and tourism. vol. This study contributes to this gap by investigating whether individuals who feel morally obliged to behave in an environmentally friendly manner represent useful target segments for destination management aiming to improve the ecological sustainability of the local tourism industry. Jan 2006. and regulations are being developed and implemented to cater to members of the mentioned lifestyle and to support the overall wellbeing of societies. (25) Catering to the Healthy-living Vacationer. Findings indicated that consumer identity as an outdoor enthusiast and/or an environmentally responsible citizen had little impact on consumers’ perceptions about the importance of selected store atmospherics in the decision to shop at REI Denver but did influence some of their intended REI patronage behaviours.

Path modelling is used to achieve this objective. 43–59. The notion of a ‘digital divide’ is too simplistic to capture the complexity of social barriers to Internet use. using multivariate analyses of national survey data. Several models are investigated to compare the regression coefficients across the two student groups to test the significance of differences. recommendations are presented on possible public and private sectors’ roles in supporting the development and marketing of hospitality and tourism products and services positioned to cater to vacationers who have a healthy-living oriented lifestyle. preferences for activities and lifestyle are examined. vol. Advocates of the ‘digital divide’ thesis argue that the Internet advantages privileged groups while further marginalising disadvantaged social categories.S. (27) Modeling Psychographic Profiles: A Study of the U. and Australian Student Travel Market. The increasing potential of the Internet to widen access to information and enhance communication capacity has brought opposing arguments about the social consequences of Internet use. we examine the social barriers to Internet use in Australia over a five-year period. age. Although the Internet has become more accessible to all social categories. the strengths of relationships among the variables are different. education and occupational class location remain as key dimensions of differential Internet use. Journal of Sociology. Destinations as well as tourism/hospitality organisations cannot afford to waste their resources on decisions taken based on personal opinions and not hard intelligence on specific markets of interest. Using the findings as guidelines. The relationships between major psychographic factors such as cultural values. personality. 28: pp. In order to assess which view is more plausible. Yvette Reisinger and Felix Mavondo. Thus. vol. household income. This article presents the findings of a research project that aimed at unveiling the travel motivational characteristics of the healthy-living market segment along with its socio-demographic characteristics. it has become a must to learn about a specific segment’s characteristics. 42: pp.S. Significant differences were found in eight out of nine hypothesised paths. Feb 2004.There has been no attempt to explore the characteristics of a healthy-living market segment and its travel motivational characteristics. In today’s competitive environment.S. Suzanne Willis and Bruce Tranter. promoting social inclusion and facilitating democratic participation. and 424 Australian undergraduate students. CHAPTER 6 44 . Critics of the thesis see the expansion of the Internet as enabling and egalitarian. travel motivation. Mar 2006. and further technological diffusion should widen this accessibility. A self-administered personally handed questionnaire received responses from 528 U. (26) Beyond the ‘Digital Divide’: Internet Diffusion and Inequality in Australia. despite the model being conceptually equivalent for the two student groups. The primary purpose of this article is to use a multiple group comparison in covariance structure to test the equivalence of a psychographic model of the student travel market across the two markets: the Australian and U. 44–65. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. The article concludes with a discussion of the research and marketing implications of the study.

Journal of Entrepreneurship. (3) Corporate Entrepreneurship: Changing Perspectives. They define shared knowledge as the aspects of product representations that are common across the minds of market actors. is being widely recognised by firms irrespective of their scale of operation. Sep 1997. As the characteristics of shared knowledge are explained and linked to stages of productmarket development. vol. making it possible for them to understand one another. the authors develop a set of researchable propositions to guide future research. 12: pp. 33: pp. This position contrasts the view that large enterprises. productivity. The importance of assuming an entrepreneurial stance. The paper proposes an empirical research for ascertaining this hypothesis. vol. Sep 2003. Apr 2005. It is hypothesised that small enterprises have certain learning characteristics which enable them to adopt new technologies faster than large enterprises. no attempt has so far been made to derive any coherent framework of analysis. and therefore are expected to learn quicker than small enterprises. Different scholars have approached the concept differently. vol. The authors attempt in this paper to bring together the varying perceptions about corporate entrepreneurship and critically analyse each of them. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. the role of HRM. Several other factors point to superior absorption performance of the small enterprises. 183–199. quality management and exploiting IT. 233–244. 6: pp. Journal of Entrepreneurship. 197–216. Corporate entrepreneurship is an evolving area of research. The authors extend the field’s understanding of market-shaping shared knowledge through a theory-informed discussion of how shared product knowledge comes to exist and how it changes as product markets develop. Anjan Roy and Arijit Sikdar. They argue that despite the realisation that entrepreneurship occurs at various levels within an organisation. financial resources. This work draws on consumer and psychology research to explain sociocognitive aspects of product-market dynamics at a higher level of specificity than prior research. Some have viewed it as a process and others as a set of activities. (2) Technology Absorption in Large and Small Enterprises: A Proposal for Comparative Research 1. nevertheless. José Antonio Rosa and Jelena Spanjol. The entrepreneurial work structure of small enterprises is exemplary for large enterprises where cognitive and goal dissonance amongst members act as impediments to technology absorption.The topics for which specific articles are identified include niche-based business strategy. Vinayshil Gautam and Vinnie Verma. they propose a conceptual model of 45 . owing to their higher R&D spending have higher absorptive capacity. The theoretical arguments and propositions in this article complement extant marketing strategy research by integrating individual-level consumer theory with market evolution models. The authors also discuss ways to track shared knowledge content that is expressed in market narratives. Using the insights from an exhaustive review of writings. MARKET LEADERSHIP (1) Micro-Level Product-Market Dynamics: Shared Knowledge and Its Relationship to Market Development.

(5) Strategy Clusters in Japanese Markets: Firm Performance Implications. vol. 21–31. The methods used to gauge the performance of large companies may not be relevant to assess the success strategies of small enterprises. 46 . teamwork. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. and (2) standardisation strategies that are concerned with the establishment of technical legal or market standards that define the ‘normal’ processes involved in the production of some good or service. 23–36. Apr 1999. Researchers differ a great deal in this respect. 161–187. Masaaki Kotabe and Dale F. Drawing on a study of the Canadian forensic accounting industry. Joseph Kryska. vol. Thomas B. empowerment. and growth strategies. John H. (6) Institutional Strategy. 215–236.W. These Japanese strategy clusters. It also includes generalisations that can be used in other organisations. Wingham. vol. The ability of organisations to strategically influence their environments has become a central concern in organisational research. the concept of ‘institutional strategy’ is developed to describe patterns of organisational action that are directed toward managing the institutional structures within which firms compete for resources. It is based on Japanese executives’ perceptions of the veracity of various PIMS strategy principles in Japan. 21: pp. Sep 1995. Journal of Entrepreneurship. and Stewart L. (4) Determining the Relevant Factors in the Success Strategies of Small Enterprises. Darrell Cooper. Jan 1993. 25: pp. Tubbs. This study identifies generic Japanese strategy clusters and explores their performance implications. and total quality management. Collating a number of research studies cutting across several countries. 3: pp. vol. offer unique performance implications for the Japanese market. the authors of this paper have attempted to develop a framework. 4: pp. In this article. Three distinct strategy clusters are identified around market position and product strategy dimensions.corporate entrepreneurship that integrates the influences of individual. either through the reproduction or transformation of those structures. Kelmar and Dianne L. firm competencies. Journal of Management. Oct 1996. when moderated by such contingency factors as strategic orientation and product life cycle stage. Duhan. organisational and environmental factors. The methodology is explained along with the results. Lawrence. two types of institutional strategy are described: (1) membership strategies that involve the definition of rules of membership and their meaning for an institutional community. This article describes a seven year attempt to systematically improve a company using such modern leadership tools as employee involvement. LEADERSHIP (7) Leadership Over the Long Run. centred around three classifications of strategies: firm characteristics.

Many questions are encountered when discussing charisma. the organisational theorist. catalytic. vol. From macro to micro in dimension. Van Muijen. Oct 1995. Arnott. vol. business. Examples are: Is charisma an exceptional phenomenon or is there such a thing as ‘everyday charisma’? Is charisma only to be found in the eye of the beholder. vol. Koopman. inspirational or visionary leaders. this article reviews the evolution of leadership. charismatic leaders. collegial. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. 2: pp. families. (9) Charismatic Leadership. Jan 1995. in other words merely an idea in the heads of followers? How does the process of motivating followers work? What is the role of the leader’s vision? Can charisma be learned? Are there situations that help or hinder the occurrence of charisma? What about the dark side of charisma. the organisational behaviourist. This trend is often called ‘the New Leadership’. and lastly. In this paper several views of charismatic leadership in business organisations rather than charismatic leadership in political arenas or religious movements are the focus. Paul L. 35–49. In this paper similarities and differences in the numerous available views of charismatic leadership in business organisations will be explored and several controversial issues and measurement problems will be addressed. Den Hartog. the human resource person who sees leadership as a microscope. who sees leadership as a pair of glasses which are designed in the correct shape. they are: the strategist. In the last decade there has been a substantial increase in the attention given to charismatic leadership both in science and practice. (10) Leadership Styles for the New Millennium: Creating New Paradigms. and Jaap J. Leadership is explained by five ‘lenses’ which top management teams may adopt for use in viewing leadership in their particular organisation. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. The New leaders. leadership educators should examine what can be learned from the evolution of leadership as modern societies have developed. 4: pp. 2: pp. Charismatic leadership is a controversial topic. so they see leadership as having perfect vision. are also referred to as transformational. is charisma always beneficial? The various theories give different answers to these questions. 47 . Aside from these questions there are also some research problems relating to the measurement of charismatic leadership and its effects – it is not inconceivable that other types of leadership or other circumstances could have the same effects. and participate in creating new leadership paradigms for the future. are people who see organisations as not needing leadership at all. 137–141. Kenneth Culp. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. health-care. who sees leadership as contact lenses. social activism and religion will necessitate new leadership approaches in Millennium 2000.(8) The Five Lenses of Leadership. who sees leadership as a pair of binoculars. III and Kathryn J. and proposes alternative administrative. knowledge/technology. As the second millennium draws to a close. Jan 1997. Deanne N. David H. 3–17. A State of the Art. Central to the New Leadership is the notion that leaders need vision. Changes in government. To begin discussion among leadership educators in preparing for these new paradigms. projects changes which may occur during the next century. Cox.

vision has a force to it that requires further exploration. (12) Myth and Leadership Vision: Rhetorical Manifestations of Cultural Force. The nature of myth is such that it may be involved in any personally significant or group-significant attempt to change behaviour or attitudes. (13) Leadership and Organisations for the New Millennium. 7: pp. based on a social-cognitive information processing approach in the perception of leadership. in one sense at least. In contrast to the ‘New Leadership Approach’. Andrew Douglas. 19: pp. and Douglas C. 48 . Niall Levine. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. 4: pp. This position is derived from the concept of charisma as Max Weber understands it. (11) Charisma and the Archetypes of Leadership. Jan 2001. co-authorising constructs. vol. The development of leadership theory has paralleled the development of organisational theory. the article departs from a ‘polymorphous phenotype’ of charisma. vol. 807–828. The models of laissez-faire. Roger Gill. Marcus and Richard R. Pitt. 32–42. Second. 55–69. innovative. The new post-bureaucratic organisation is analysed in terms of the four ‘I’s of transformational leadership: individualised consideration. departing from prototypical attributes that are inherent in the cognitive category of leadership. and L. Third. Laurence R. The bureaucratic organisation is analysed in terms of laissez-faire leadership and the transactional leadership elements of management-by-exception and contingent reward. It tries to operationalise charisma. In short. the father (‘paternalistic charisma’). the saviour (‘missionary charisma’) and the king (‘majestic charisma’). transactional and transformational leadership both explain the old paradigm of the bureaucratic organisation and reinforce the new organisational paradigm for the twenty-first century. and idealised influence. Based on the concept of ‘archetypes’ of leadership.humanitarian/activist. Sep 1998. vol. four different phenotypes are then defined: the hero (‘heroic charisma’). intellectual stimulation. inspirational motivation. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. one explanation for such force is that myth may be involved as a rhetorical resource or as a cultural imperative in effective vision. Kristine Pond-Burtis. The main idea of this model is the correlation that is brought out clearly between charisma and stigma. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. co-activated. myth and vision are described as symbiotic. Burtis. John O. the article argues that considering myth and vision as an amalgam enhances our understanding. Organisation Studies. and the Visioning Process. and thus also the idea that both ‘hyper-representativity’ and ‘antirepresentativity’ as well as ‘social dramatisation’ and ‘social reversion’ can occasion the allocation of charisma. Inferences are drawn for the required roles and behaviour of future leaders. Followers. Smith. The following contribution attempts to develop a charisma model in the context of business organisations. Johannes Steyrer. Jan 1998. vol. 46–59. and visionary leadership paradigms which may evolve. (14) Leaders. 5: pp. religiosity. Jan 1999.

corporate mission and its corresponding system of implementation. We argue that newly chosen leaders of organisations must make choices regarding the best leadership strategy for their organisations. 4: pp. service organisations. 49 . we suggest. A description is provided of an educational methodology that utilises collaborator feedback to assist both leaders and collaborators in the development of transformational leadership in a relational context. Contrary to expectations. Craig M. RESOURCE BASED VIEW (16) Antecedents of New Service Development Effectiveness: An Exploratory Examination of Strategic Operations Choices. Aleda V. Several literature-based relationships are tested with a recursive path model using a multi-industry sample of U. Journal of Management. and External Environment. Knowledge Development and Utilization. Apr 1997. Additionally. We define strategic leadership as the art of creating a balance between external environment. Roth. 489–509. Froehle. Zhang. student assessments are provided regarding their perspectives of leadership education that actively engages leaders and collaborators in sharing and receiving feedback. Ray Maghroori and Erik Rolland. Voss. NSD process design. This paper addresses the problem of how transformational leadership is best developed in the collegiate population for both leaders and collaborators. vol. We provide a methodology for assessing organisational conditions based upon the concept of effectiveness. vol. (17) Expert Systems. (15) Strategic Leadership: The Art of Balancing Organisational Mission with Policy. the concept of leadership as a relationship between leaders and collaborators is being accepted and understood as a significant framework for leadership education. no direct relationship between the use of cross-functional team structures and the speed of NSD was found. 24: pp. and information technology (IT) choices on the speed and effectiveness of NSD efforts.Transformational leadership is emerging as the operational leadership paradigm for twenty-first century leaders. Aug 2000. vol. and Christopher A. Most results for the service sector are similar to those found in manufacturing: (a) NSD crossfunctional team structures directly influence the effectiveness of the firm’s NSD efforts. Procedures. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. 62–81. This article examines the strategic process of new service development (NSD). Aug 1998. The authors empirically explore the strategic influence of team-based organisational structure. 3–17. and (c) IT choices directly affect both the speed of the NSD process and the general effectiveness of the firm’s NSD activities.S. Journal of Service Research. Additionally. Lado and Michael J. leadership education. This choice. 3: pp. should be based on the leader’s evaluation of the organisation’s total conditions. This observation/reflection dynamic adds a strategic component to experiential. (b) more formalised NSD processes indirectly influence the firm’s ability to develop new services by increasing the speed of NSD. Chase. Richard B. and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based Model. In this paper we present a general framework for strategic leadership. Augustine A. We then propose a number of leadership strategies associated with various types of organisational effectiveness.

Kurt Christensen. The article briefly describes the contributions to knowledge provided by the commentaries and articles contained in the whole issue. rareness. Rank Xerox and Ford U. (20) The Resource-based view and Marketing: The Role of Market-based Assets in Gaining Competitive Advantage. company culture and organisational realignment were conceived of and operationalised as complementary elements of their competitive strategy. vol. We examine the impetus. From these case studies we conclude that significant business turnarounds were achieved by these companies because strategic choice. The article also illustrates how resource-based view (RBV) and marketing considerations in the context 50 . Jr. Journal of Management. Jan 1988. Alan McKinlay and Ken Starkey. Dec 2001. Srivastava.This paper proposes a resource-based model to explain how expert systems generate sustained competitive advantage for a firm. and H. (18) Competitive Strategies and Organisational Change. 625–641. In this context maintaining or regaining competitive advantage is critically dependent upon striking an optimal balance between maximising the productivity and versatility of work organisation. the latter two companies were distinctive in that they drew vital conceptual elements of their change agendas from their organisational links with. the article discusses how expert systems yield sustainable competitive advantage through fostering organisational knowledge development and utilisation. Jay Barney. Current shifts in the contours of previously stable mass markets and product and process innovation demand equally profound organisational change to maintain competitiveness. Pilkingtons. Specifically. The debates about organisational responses to economic crisis have focussed on the need for strategic and structural realignment. Propositions are offered to facilitate future research. Dec 2001. leading to sustained competitive advantage. Rajendra K. Work organisation is rarely considered as an integral element of competitive strategy. 9: pp. respectively. vol. Ketchen. While Pilkingtons relied entirely upon existing managerial expertise. (19) The Resource-Based View of the Firm: Ten Years after 1991. mutually enhancing relationship with organisational competencies is examined.K. some additional areas of research wherein the resource-based view can be gainfully deployed are outlined. 27: pp. a Japanese and American company. These value elements and competitive advantages can be leveraged to result in superior corporate performance and shareholder value and reinvested to nurture market-based assets and capabilities in the future. the resource-based view of the firm is perhaps the most influential framework for understanding strategic management. and David J. the extent to which expert systems (ESs) exhibit the attributes of value. the role of ESs in engendering a reciprocal. Finally. Liam Fahey. 777–802. imperfect imitability. This article posits a framework that shows how market-based assets and capabilities are leveraged via market-facing or core business processes to deliver superior customer value and competitive advantages. vol. Journal of Management. and nonsubstitutability associated with a rent-generating resource are analysed. work organisation. Then. At present.. Mike Wright. dynamics and impact of pervasive change processes in three contrasting organisations. 555–571. In addition. Organisation Studies. 27: pp.

Dec 2004. We draw a number of implications for strategic Franchising as a Small Business Growth Strategy: A Resource-Based View of Organisational Development management from this synthesis. For example. not only for academics interested in franchising. 539–559 Over the last two decades. notably into resource value and sustainability of competitive advantage. 119–143. (22) Customers and Customer Relationships in Service Firms: The Perspective of the Resource-based View. This is not surprising. This exploratory article uses case study material from a number of ‘exemplar’ franchise companies in the development of a resource-based view of organisational development. at any one time. International Small Business Journal. in order to strengthen its dynamic dimension. around half of all franchise systems are less than five years old with less than 10 outlets. The article should hold considerable interest. (21) Franchising as a Small Business Growth Strategy: A Resource-Based View of Organisational Development. while not totally independent in the sense of the conventional small business person. and have certain expectations of participation in the process of which they are an integral part. It links the RBV and Austrian ideas in the context of the theory of complex systems pioneered by Herbert Simon. but so are many franchisors. certainly do not see themselves as conventional employees either. there has been no theoretical discussion as to whether and why customers – as well as relationships with customers – are really important resources of 51 . Celia Stanworth. drawn from Austrian economists as well as Frank Knight. up to now. In many publications on service management and marketing. Anna Watson. and Simon Healeas. Marketing Theory. High turbulence and attrition rates in the formative years of franchise businesses result in an industry profile whereby. Mar 2003. 22: pp. This article argues that the RBV may profitably draw on insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory. the resource-based view (RBV) has become dominant in the strategic management field. but also for those examining fields such as small business strategic management. 3: pp. It has often been observed that the RBV is lacking in the dynamic dimension. Matthias Gouthier and Stefan Schmid. particularly in the formative years of their franchise businesses. processes of building competitive advantages by means of combining existing complementary resources in novel ways are not inquired into. David Purdy. vol. vol. However. Not only are most franchisees themselves small businesses. since a basic characteristic of services is the participation of the customer in the production process. the article posits a set of research directions designed to enable scholars to further advance the integration of RBV and marketing from both theory-driven practice management as well as a problem-driven theory development perspective.of generating and sustaining customer value can refine and extend each other’s traditional frames of analysis. The question arises: how do successful franchise organisations plan their human capital development in order to accomplish successful growth? An adjunct to this question is the role of franchisees who. John Stanworth. innovation and intangible asset growth. the customer is said to be an important resource of the service firm. Finally.

Jan 2006. The resource-based view can be positioned relative to at least three theoretical traditions: SCP-based theories of industry determinants of firm performance. Dec 2001. opportunism. Whereas prior literature has examined environmental turbulence as a contextual condition shaping the market orientation–firm performance relationship. Journal of Management. neoclassical microeconomics. 25–38. such as innovativeness. 30: pp. vol. 643–650. Barney. The empirical results support the authors’ theory that the effect of market orientation on firm performance is strengthened when market orientation is bundled together with internal complementary resources. vol. this study takes an internal approach by focusing on existing stocks of resources within the firm while controlling for environmental conditions. Jay B. their businesses are similar to those of their nonfamily business peers in performance outcomes such as size and growth. 377–395. vol. It tests this hypothesis in a large U. Jonathan Levie and Miri Lerner. (24) Creating a Firm-Level Dynamic Capability through Capitalizing on Market Orientation and Innovativeness. such as innovativeness. 27: pp.-based sample of 319 family business and 258 nonfamily business owner/managers. it also discusses some of the empirical implications of each of these different resource-based theories. (25) Resource Mobilization and Performance in Family and Nonfamily Businesses in the United Kingdom.the service firm. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Family Business Review. The analysis revealed that adverse selection. A conceptual model is developed that explains how market orientation can be transformed into dynamic capability when complemented by transformational (reconfigurational) constructs. and it discusses managerial implications for customer relationship management. 22: pp. Shepherd. This study draws on agency theory and the resource-based view to hypothesise that family and nonfamily businesses differ in the capital that they deploy and the way that they deploy it. 52 . 63–73. The authors discuss the findings in the context of varying stages of the product life cycle and at different levels of market development. The present paper draws on the resource-based view within strategic management. 34: pp. Mar 2009. which suggests that weaknesses in human and financial capital choice are offset by strengths in the social capital of family firms. It explores the potential of the resource-based view for analysing customer roles and customer relationships within service firms. Jun 2004. and niche marginalisation are more prevalent among family business owner/managers. Young Rok Choi and Dean A. Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm. Bulent Menguc and Seigyoung Auh. This article briefly discusses some of the implications of positioning the resource-based view relative to these other two literatures. (26) Entrepreneurs’ Decisions to Exploit Opportunities. vol. (23) Resource-based Theories of Competitive Advantage: A Ten-year Retrospective on the Resource-based View.K. and evolutionary economics. this study addresses the dynamic capability–generating capacity of market orientation on firm performance. Yet. Journal of Management.

Implications for future research on opportunity exploitation are discussed. Hitt. the organisational economics perspective contributed transaction costs economics and agency theory to strategic management. The structure-conduct-performance framework and the notion of strategic groups. Hoskisson. Perhaps one of the more significant contributions to the development of strategic management came from industrial organisation (IO) economics. this review examines the future directions. The research methodologies are becoming increasingly sophisticated and now frequently combine both quantitative and qualitative approaches and unique and new statistical tools. This review of the development of the field and its current position examines the field’s early development and the primary theoretical and methodological bases through its history. Journal of Management. the findings of this study shed a light on a less emphasised aspect of the resource-based view: the new product’s anticipated lead time acts as an enhancing moderator in entrepreneurs’ exploitation decision policies. Jun 1999. specifically the work of Michael Porter. Studies of small firms tend to assume either that models derived from large firms can be applied directly or that small firms are uniformly distinct from large ones. the current field of strategic management is strongly theory based. more fully developed necessary technologies. and Daphne Yiu. 26: pp. Oct 2008. and greater stakeholder support. Moreover. Wan. yet there has been little conceptual and empirical development of this issue in the literature. strategic decision theory (process research) and knowledge-based view of the firm. Mark W. and is eclectic in nature. This study examines the decisions of entrepreneurs to begin exploiting business opportunities from a resource-based view.Opportunity exploitation is a necessary step in creating a successful business in the entrepreneurial process. both in terms of theory and methodologies. Edwards. often referred to as business policy. High-tech SMEs. are flourishing currently. The development of the field of strategic management within the last two decades has been dramatic. the resource-based view was largely introduced to the field of strategic management in the 1980s and became a dominant framework in the 1990s. While it has its roots in Edith Penrose’s work in the late 1950s. as the study of strategic management evolves. with substantial empirical research. Early developments include Chandler’s (1962) Strategy and Structure and Ansoff’s (1965) Corporate Strategy. Robert E. (27) Theory and Research in Strategic Management: Swings of a Pendulum. William P. 531–558. Gilman and Paul K. greater managerial capability. vol. 417–456. Our analysis of a sample of entrepreneurs whose businesses are located in incubators suggests that entrepreneurs are more likely to exploit opportunities when they perceive more knowledge of customer demand for the new product. International Small Business Journal. vol. as well as providing a foundation for research on competitive dynamics. These early works took on a contingency perspective (fit between strategy and structure) and a resource-based framework emphasising internal strengths and weaknesses. The IO paradigm also brought econometric tools to the research on strategic management. Finally. Based on the resource-based view. developing concurrently were research on strategic leadership. More recent theoretical contributions focus on the resource-based view of the firm. (28) Testing a Framework of the Organisation of Small Firms: Fast-growth. While its roots have been in a more applied area. Building on the IO economics framework. Michael A. 25: pp. A recent 53 .

Aug 1993. This research applies a resource-based perspective. 755–775. organisations will need to build their capability to leverage not only their customer assets but also the valuecreating knowledge and innovation assets spanning multiple relationships within their business network form. 27: pp. to the question of how the focus and differentiation strategies affect the economic performance of entrepreneurial firms. and the firms displayed tensions between ‘modern’ business strategies and ‘traditional’ and informal employment practices. Elaine Mosakowski. Busenitz. Sharon A. We develop dynamic models that separate the period of creating or acquiring these resources from subsequent periods. though it also needed further refinement. organisational learning. The relationship management capability. vol. Key substantive implications were: apparently similar firms in fact behaved differently. The results generally support the hypotheses that. Drawing on theories of evolutionary economics. and organisational capabilities. 819–839. for reasons to do with their market situations and the choices they made. 19: pp. Journal of Management. (29) Conceptualizing a Relationship Management Capability. (31) The Entrepreneurship of Resource-based Theory. resource advantage. With longitudinal data on entrepreneurial software firms. we examine the dynamic effects of multiple forms of these strategies on a firm’s performance. vol.framework. Dec 2001. Alvarez and Lowell W. relationship learning capability and relationship behavioural capability. The call for marketing practitioners and academics alike to move relationship marketing’s dyadic perspective into a multi-firm network context is building momentum. performance is higher than for other firms. and was useful in capturing practice. As network forms of organising work expand. By 54 . 287–309. Denise Jarratt. a model of a relationship management capability is conceptualised. which emphasises a firm’s specialised or unique resources. 4: pp. Entrepreneurs have individual-specific resources that facilitate the recognition of new opportunities and the assembling of resources for the venture. tensions that the framework helps to capture. when the focus and differentiation strategies are established. Marketing Theory. The results fail to support the hypothesis that firm performance will decrease when these strategies are adopted. This paper examines the relationship between resource-based theory and entrepreneurship and develops insights that advance the boundaries of resource-based theory and begin to address important questions in entrepreneurship. We extend the boundaries of resource-based theory to include the cognitive ability of individual entrepreneurs. Dec 2004. is represented through second order constructs of relationship infrastructure capability. combining both functional and integrative capabilities. (30) A Resource-Based Perspective on the Dynamic Strategy-Performance Relationship: An Empirical Examination of the Focus and Differentiation Strategies in Entrepreneurial Firms. based mainly on low-wage family-owned firms. The framework identified market conditions and strategic choice as key measures. This article tests out that framework in a different context: four high-tech and non-family-owned firms. has identified an analytical space to identify different types of small firm. Journal of Management. vol.

it will increasingly move toward customer-centric marketing in the next century. (32) The Strategic Imperative and Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Public Policy Implications of Resource-Advantage Theory. 67–81. As we enter the twenty-first century. from opportunity recognition to the ability to organise these resources into a firm and then to the creation of heterogeneous outputs through the firm that are superior to the market. and Arun Sharma. Jan 2000. This article addresses the strategy-is-anticompetitive thesis with the goal of grounding strategy in a theory of competition – resource-advantage theory – that does not imply that the strategic imperative and its achievement are presumptively anticompetitive and antisocial. Sisodia. vol. 28: pp. Tedlow. As such. MASS MARKETING (1) The Beginning of Mass Marketing in America: George Eastman and Photography as a Case Study. the marketing function seeks to fulfil the needs and wants of each individual customer.S. Richard S. Neoclassical perfect competition and traditional industrial organisation economics.focusing on resources. organisational culture and the effective operation of a team. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Jagdish N. Dec 1997. Journal of Macromarketing. 144–159. Eastman transformed picture-taking from an expensive. Apr 1999. issues can be identified that begin to address the distinctive domain of entrepreneurship. Hunt. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Strategy theorists share (1) the view that the strategic imperative of a firm should be sustained. The authors propose that just as the marketing function gradually shifted from mass marketing to segmented marketing in the twentieth century. vol. imply that the sustained performance goal advocated by strategy theorists is anticompetitive and its achievement presumptively detrimental to social welfare. however. superior financial performance and (2) the belief that this goal can be achieved through a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. technologically complex craft into a very simple process. this article initiates a discussion of the public policy implications of resourceadvantage theory. CHAPTER 7 The topics for which specific articles are identified include alternative business strategies. Rajendra S. (2) The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer-Centric Marketing. 27: pp. Shelby D. the marketing function remains concerned with serving customers and consumers effectively. 55–66. He was both a leader in his field and an example of what was happening as mass marketing swept through numerous U. making it accessible to a mass market. 17: pp. In the practice of customer-centric marketing. Sheth. vol. industries late in the nineteenth century. The antecedents of 55 . This article offers an interpretation of the birth of mass marketing through an intensive study of one case: George Eastman and the photographic industry. market positioning. mass versus a niche-based marketing strategy.

and resellers in a world increasingly dominated by very large retail organisations with substantial power within the marketing channel. Current shifts in the contours of previously stable mass markets and product and process innovation demand equally profound organisational change to maintain competitiveness. and customer-centric organisations.. the latter two companies were distinctive in that they drew vital conceptual elements of their change agendas from their organisational links with. Alan McKinlay and Ken Starkey. respectively. vol. increasing market diversity in household and business markets. Organisation Studies. not the consumer. work organisation. 28: pp. there are substantial implications for brand management and the role of the brand manager. and technology applicability. 9: pp. consumers. Consumers.K. Work organisation is rarely considered as an integral element of competitive strategy. 555–571. fixed-cost marketing. not resellers. dynamics and impact of pervasive change processes in three contrasting organisations. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Jr. a Japanese and American company. This article examines the historical evolution of the relationships among brands. It is widely believed that manufacturers’ brands are becoming less important as major retailers are becoming more powerful. vol. This view is based on the mistaken assumption that brands are relationships with consumers. The debates about organisational responses to economic crisis have focussed on the need for strategic and structural realignment. This article highlights the implications of customercentric marketing as well as the boundary conditions that will affect its adoption. cocreation marketing. From these case studies we conclude that significant business turnarounds were achieved by these companies because strategic choice. NICHE MARKETING (4) Competitive Strategies and Organisational Change.customer-centric marketing are the increasing pressure on firms to improve marketing productivity. While Pilkingtons relied entirely upon existing managerial expertise. customer outsourcing. On the basis of the shift toward customer-centric marketing. 56 . 17–23. Jan 1988. We examine the impetus. company culture and organisational realignment were conceived of and operationalised as complementary elements of their competitive strategy. Jan 2000. In this context maintaining or regaining competitive advantage is critically dependent upon striking an optimal balance between maximising the productivity and versatility of work organisation. Marketing strategy implementation will require increasingly careful coordination of marketing programmes with sales strategy to achieve the necessary coordination of reseller. Pilkingtons. and Resellers. Rank Xerox and Ford U. Arguments about the decline of brands are often confused with arguments about changes in the brand management function.and consumer-targeted communications to maximise the value of the brand to both the retailer and the end user. Frederick E. Webster. As major firms redefine their customer as the reseller. (3) Understanding the Relationships among Brands. the authors expect increased importance of marketing as a ‘supply management’ function.

They explicitly map the relationship between service quality perceptions and cultural dimension positions and draw the implications for international service market segmentation. They also test the hypotheses constituting their theoretical analysis. as a way of overcoming these problems and considers how they can impact the Internet strategies of niche publishers. Business Information Review. Olivier Furrer. Sudharshan. Lesley Roberts and Derek Hall. 15: pp. tightly focused on the needs of particular professional communities. This is more than a question of semantics because the labels used influence perceptions that shape the nature of policy issues and management practices. 10: pp. what spa services they use. Common perceptions of ‘rural tourism’ industries are influenced by a range of terms (such as ‘green’. Patricia A. It also examines how to connect with guests who use spas and how to increase market share of this group. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for owners and operators of resortbased spas who want to increase and expand their market share of people who use spas. (6) Marketing a Resort-based Spa. This paper explores the nature of niche markets and argues that the application of niche marketing may have a place for some traditional activities that are ‘pure’ forms of rural tourism but not for the greater part of rural visiting. The authors argue that perceptions of service quality vary across cultural groups. Their perception as ‘niche’ markets further reinforces such views. Jul 2004. Journal of Vacation Marketing. ‘nature’. Options for this type of Internet publishing are seen to be: migration strategies. why they go to spas and how they feel after their spa experience. Ben Shaw-Ching Liu. They also used the correlation coefficients to compute a Cultural Service Quality Index that could be used to segment international service markets and allocate resources across segments. Jul 2004. May 2000. vol. low-impact activities offering an alternative to mass tourism. and characterised by large numbers of visitors and contemporary consumption patterns that render the rural location far less important than the activity and sometimes almost irrelevant to it. 50–57. Monteson and Judith Singer. 355–371. as defined by each culture’s position on Hofstede’s dimensions. vol. vol. Andrew Gray.(5) The Relationships between Culture and Service Quality Perceptions: Basis for Cross-Cultural Market Segmentation and Resource Allocation. 10: pp. better described as ‘tourism in rural areas’. Discusses the characteristics of community-oriented Web sites. They show that the importance of SERVQUAL dimensions is correlated with Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. and D. Journal of Vacation Marketing. (7) Consuming the Countryside: Marketing for ‘Rural Tourism’. 253–263. (8) Niche Publishing on the Web: Using Online Communities to Change the Economics of Niche Publishing. Mar 1998. ‘eco-’) that position them as small-scale. Journal of Service Research. The paper concludes that both the rural environment and the small tourism businesses that depend on it will benefit from a better understanding of contemporary rural tourism consumption and marketing. It profiles spa-goers in the USA and examines who they are. new product 57 . 2: pp. 282–287. vol.

Sirmon. Internet links. Journal of Entrepreneurship. STRATEGY (9) A Model of Strategic Entrepreneurship: The Construct and its Dimensions. It is concluded that in the case of technology intensive firms. and there have been only a few efforts made to study hightechnology firms funded by VCs. small. and community strategies. local area search engines. Michael A. database content. The result is the creation of a unique supply of complex resources within each organisation. Herein we develop a model of SE that explains how these dimensions are integrated to create wealth. Steven Walsh. Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits. and David G. Feb 2008. Journal of Management. Emerging Technologies. Emerging Markets. entrepreneurial ventures are effective in identifying opportunities but are less successful in developing competitive advantages needed to appropriate value from those opportunities. people. if not the risks.strategies. vol. This article reports the findings from a study of the strategies of venture capital-supported firms particularly in areas such as technology. Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. K. large. Outlines briefly the common issues associated with the first three options then details the attractive features of the community-oriented approach in terms of: real-time news. alerts. Web sites. and Khairul Akmaliah Adham. 10: pp. new market strategies. Duane Ireland. finance and organisational growth. discussion boards (forums). and sector-specific malls. On a relative basis. (10) Management Strategies of Venture Capital Funded Firms. directories. vol. vol. of both emerging markets and emerging technologies. Thukral. Emerging technologies and emerging markets present both unique challenges and tremendous opportunities for those firms and individuals who focus their search for competitive advantage on them. Groen. Peter Van Der Sijde. but along with this. Aard J. their strategies are naturally driven by technology. Sep 2001. Dec 2003. James Von Ehr. In contrast. We argue that SE is a unique. Inderpreet S. An entrepreneurial mindset. 129–141. distinctive construct through which firms are able to create wealth. it is their appreciation for and application of the other functional strategies that makes them winners. established firms often are relatively more effective in establishing competitive advantages but are less able to identify new opportunities. Here. we provide examples of 58 . (11) Entrepreneurship. 26: pp. Many of the entrepreneurs have been able to create and sustain market pull for their products because of the synergistic effect of their resources and strategies. Hitt. 101–116. 29: pp. International Small Business Journal. Strategic entrepreneurship (SE) involves simultaneous opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking behaviours and results in superior firm performance. Most studies on venture capital have focused on the strategies and criteria followed by venture capitalists (VCs). information wizards. the strategic management of resources and applying creativity to develop innovations are important dimensions of SE. Ramachandran. marketing. R. 963–989. an entrepreneurial culture and entrepreneurial leadership.

Propositions are developed relating market-driven and driving orientations to market-focused strategic flexibility with consideration for how turbulent macro environments modify the relationship. Recent studies on marketing and the natural environment have called for research that links environmental marketing strategies to the performance of the firm. 59 . vol. both of the respective commercialisation strategies are based on competency theory. William E.g. vol. This article develops the concept of market-focused strategic flexibility. Sinkula. Rajan Varadarajan. Amit Saini. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. (13) Market-Focused Strategic Flexibility: Conceptual Advances and an Integrative Model. we describe how one intrapreneurial large firm is investigating emerging markets such as India and China (emerging economies) with emerging technologies to create a worldwide business solution power. P. Johnson. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. that of nanotechnology. This research operationalises the enviropreneurial marketing (EM) construct and examines its relationship with firm performance.effective commercial pathways for both intra. Interestingly. Ruby Pui-Wan Lee. A nationwide study of top-level marketing managers supports this perspective.g.and entrepreneurial ventures embracing these phenomena. by a small entrepreneurial firm utilising emerging market skill sets to define and enable worldwide business solutions. In addition. change in market share). With the conceptualisation in place. Then the investigation of an emerging technology is provided. (12) Environmental Marketing Strategy and Firm Performance: Effects on New Product Performance and Market Share. vol. 18: pp. To support the conceptualisation. It begins with a review of the historical perspectives of strategic flexibility.. 74–89. Jean L. resource-based views of the firm. The new scale. This suggests that EM formation is driven by internal rather than external forces. albeit used differently. the authors propose an integrative model that explicates the mediating role of market-focused strategic flexibility in marketing strategy frameworks. 31: pp. and Bianca Grohmann. In addition. 461–475. 33: pp. we discuss the ability of large and small firm competency-based strategies to wrest value from the opportunities inherent in emerging markets and technologies. Oct 2005. Jan 1990. It is the first empirical research to operationalise the EM construct. albeit a first attempt. the authors offer propositions regarding outcomes of market-focused strategic flexibility under conditions of macro environmental turbulence. Jan 2003.. demonstrates encouraging psychometric properties. Finally. a resource such as EM should directly influence firms’ capabilities (e. new product development success) but not competitive advantage (e. it does not have an impact on EM. Baker and James M. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 17–29. According to the resource-based view of the firm. First. although market turbulence also affects new product development success. (14) Product Portfolio Analysis and Market Share Objectives: An Exposition of Certain Underlying Relationships. the authors offer a theoretical schema that considers market-focused strategic flexibility as conceptually rooted in capabilities theory.

Joshua L. affected the U. Rosenbloom. SUSTAINED INNOVATION (15) Relationships. It is shown that throughout the twentieth century many radical technological innovations originated with and developed around generic instrumentation. Our model shows that the maintenance of adequate financial reserves enables the preservation of relational reserves and vice versa. Terry Shinn. Social Science Information. the practitioners and artefacts of which are characterised by selective and intermittent boundary crossing between academia. (16) The Geography of Innovation Commercialization in the United States During the 1990s. This article analyses the geographic distribution and interrelationship of three measures of innovation commercialisation across the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the United States and estimates a model of the factors explaining variations in the location of innovation commercialisation. the author finds that university science and engineering capacity and local patenting activity both help to account for intercity differences in the level of innovation commercialisation activity. Jody Hoffer Gittell. 44: pp. however. the authors find that having a viable business model itself depended on the development and preservation of relational reserves over time. Economic Development Quarterly. This investigation identifies reasons why some airline companies recovered successfully after the attacks while others struggled. airline industry more than almost any other industry. 300–329. Feb 2007. Sandy Lim. Dec 2005. and the nominal and real dollar sales growth rate are discussed. vol. state technical and metrological 60 . industry. and the dollar volume multiplier – which aid in the strategic analysis of the product portfolio are proposed. vol. Sep 2006. layoffs after the crisis were strongly correlated with lack of financial reserves and lack of a viable business model prior to the crisis. Digging deeper. 21: pp. contributing to organisational resilience in times of crisis. 731–764. This article presents an exposition of the underlying relationship between market share. Layoffs. product sales volume and product sales growth rate. market growth rate. Innovation commercialisation tends to be highly concentrated geographically. vol. and Organisational Resilience: Airline Industry Responses to September 11. Certain generalisations regarding market share and its sensitivity to various environmental conditions are highlighted. suggesting the presence of substantial external economies in these functions. the physical volume multiplier. Certain airlines emerged successful and demonstrated remarkable resilience while others languished. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. Evidence is provided that layoffs after the crisis. Kim Cameron. 42: pp.Market share plays a central role in a number of portfolio planning models. (17) New Sources of Radical Innovation: Research Technologies. Beyond these scale effects. The linkages between inter-related growth constructs such as the volumetric and dollar sales growth rate. instead inhibited recovery throughout the 4 years after the crisis. although intended to foster recovery. 3–16. market size. Transversality and Distributed Learning in a Post-industrial Order. and Victor Rivas.S. Three constructs – the market share multiplier. But. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001.

services. specific industry. Yadav. Mark J. evolving marketplace. two of the organisations studied are portrayed in these terms. Research technologies breed a new constellation of intellectual and institutional transverse dynamics which selectively accommodate both stability and change. The innovative feats of what are here labelled ‘research-technologies’ derive from the capacity to reconcile differentiation and integration. and managers’ perceptions of freedom. P. In this article. Competitive strategy is primarily concerned with how a business should deploy resources at its disposal to achieve and maintain defensible competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. (20) From Leaders to Leadership: Managing Change. vol. 30: pp. this mobility is not to be confused with mode 2-like anti-differentiation between science and engineering and between academia and enterprise. Group & Organisation Management. 296–312. Adamson. The proposed framework provides insights into changes in the nature and scope of marketing strategy. 10. Competitive marketing strategy focuses on how a business should deploy marketing resources at its disposal to facilitate the achievement and maintenance of competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. product. exploring factors that appear to have influenced their cultures’ development. one being particularly optimistic and adaptive. and buying environment characteristics. the other typified by feelings of constraint and relative powerlessness. vol. the competitive landscape has evolved from a predominantly physical marketplace to one encompassing both the physical and the electronic marketplace. The implications for each organisation’s ability to cope with change are considered. and the unique skills and resources of the firm that assume added relevance in the context of competing in the evolving marketplace. buyer. 2004. significant influences on job performance. This centred on four ‘dimensions of difference’: a company’s stock of managers. Journal of Leadership & Organisational Studies. Oct 2002. no. COMPANY CULTURE (19) Organisational Culture: Elements in its Portraiture and Some Implications for Organisation Functioning. and Daniel Dornbusch. Following a cross-company research study of managers’ perceptions of potential freedom in their jobs and subsequent behaviour. and to secure the division of labour embedded in speciality domains. 367–384. Sep 1982. John S. 4: pp. 112 – 124. Ahn. the military. while simultaneously promoting transverse communication and interaction between actors located in multiple and heterogeneous environments and linked to diverse interests. etc. In a growing number of product-markets. 61 . Judi Marshall. However. vol. Rajan Varadarajan and Manjit S. This article presents a conceptual framework delineating the drivers and outcomes of marketing strategy in the context of competing in this broader.A. the conceptual job model managers used. The companies are markedly different in their attitudes toward change. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. the author arrived at a framework for charting significant elements of organisational culture. 7: pp. (18) Marketing Strategy and the Internet: An Organizing Framework.

great leadership has never been more urgent or more difficult. This article tests out that framework in a different context: four high-tech and non-family-owned firms. Studies of small firms tend to assume either that models derived from large firms can be applied directly or that small firms are uniformly distinct from large ones. tensions that the framework helps to capture. and personal management styles – is one of the most fundamental and enduring aspects of leadership. Organisation Studies. 26: pp. The framework identified market conditions and strategic choice as key measures. disruptive technologies. The method of assessing a company’s culture is presented. 221–235. management practices and economic performance are proposed and discussed. It became increasingly clear that family business sustainability and accomplishment were rooted in something deeper. and John L. 531–558. Oct 2008. and was useful in capturing practice. they are insufficient to deal with the pace and polyvalent character of constant. 49–74. This article investigates under which conditions can professional knowledge and values be integrated successfully into the organisation and management of a family firm. The goal was to critically examine family business culture 62 . 61–70. Sep 1989. Through years of consulting experience and culture research. Where many popular leadership models may provide formulae to help solve some business problems. W. and then hypotheses on relations between values. (22) Integrating Professional Management into a Family Owned Business. rapid change. (24) Culture in Family-Owned Enterprises: Recognizing and Leveraging Unique Strengths.The accelerating pace of change in globalisation. Key substantive implications were: apparently similar firms in fact behaved differently. Gibb Dyer. Daniel Denison. Jan 1991. Paradoxically. vol. vol. Ward. High-tech SMEs. (23) Testing a Framework of the Organisation of Small Firms: Fast-growth. Family Business Review. Mark W. and the firms displayed tensions between ‘modern’ business strategies and ‘traditional’ and informal employment practices. 12: pp. for reasons to do with their market situations and the choices they made. has identified an analytical space to identify different types of small firm. group culture. Colleen Lief. 17: pp. This paper is based on an exploratory field study of the relations between corporate culture and economic performance. Managing change – its impact on organisational structure. Roland Calori and Philippe Sarnin. International Small Business Journal. Family Business Review. A recent framework. Belief in the innate value and uniqueness of family business culture drove collaboration on this project between the disciplines of family business and organisational behaviour. (21) Corporate Culture and Economic Performance: A French Study. capital flows and alliances have created fundamental shifts in business operations. though it also needed further refinement. Mar 2004. while the relative value of the once-celebrated individual leader as superman or woman is being questioned. Gilman and Paul K. something beyond superficial explanation. based mainly on low-wage family-owned firms. Edwards. vol. vol. a fuller picture of family firms began to emerge. communications. 2: pp.

Journal of Management.and performance relative to non-family firms. Previous research leaves open which facets of leadership foster the implementation of process innovations. Feb 2006. The sample consisted of managers from different organisations. Family enterprises scored higher on all 12 dimensions of the assessment tool. and Daniel Griesser. recent research shows that they also perform better because of what they do strategically. We hypothesise that transformational leaders boost follower performance by stimulating organisational citizenship behaviour. respectively. Although the posited main effects of both delegative-participative and consultative-advisory leadership are confirmed. (27) The Effects of Leadership Style and Team Process on Performance and Innovation in Functionally Heterogeneous Teams. vol. 63 . on the implementation success of process innovations. The Denison Organisational Culture Survey. Aug 2007. TEAMS (25) Follower Behavior and Organisational Performance: The Impact of Transformational Leaders. 15–26. In addition. Diana E. a cultural assessment tool that has linked corporate culture to financial performance. the significant interaction between these two leadership styles has a different direction than the authors hypothesised. The results showed that the corporate cultures of family enterprises were more positive than the culture of firms without a family affiliation. This study sheds light on the mediating processes by which transformational leadership influences follower performance and innovation. we do not expect these mediating effects to hold for the relationship between transactional leadership and follower performance and innovation. Anit Somech. Our hypotheses were confirmed in an empirical study of N = 91 leaders from 91 German companies. They argue that each of these leadership behaviours entails specific advantages and risks and that therefore the two patterns complement each other. whereas they enhance follower innovation by triggering controversial discussion of task related issues (debate). vol. Krause. Feb 2007. Silke Astrid Eisenbeiss. several of these differences were statistically significant. 132–157. 14: pp. transactional leadership. On the contrary. respectively. (26) Implementing Process Innovations: The Benefits of Combining DelegativeParticipative With Consultative-Advisory Leadership. 13: pp. Key words: debate. innovation. This suggests that family firms perform better because of who they are. and Eric Kearney. In this study. respectively. was administered to a sample of 20 family businesses and 389 non-family businesses. Despite the small sample. Conclusions for leadership research are drawn. Diether Gebert. transformational leadership. 16–25. the authors analyse the effects of delegativeparticipative and consultative-advisory leadership. vol. Sabine Boerner. 32: pp. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. organisational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. allowing us to compare their cultures.

A mixture of organisation-wide and local learning networks in organisations successfully implemented change. (29) The Application of Team Building. 35: pp. Susan Albers Mohrman. and a description of several models of team building. this study examines eight organisations and finds that social networks make a difference in the capability of organisations to implement fundamental organisational change. this leadership style decreased team in-role performance. This paper reviews the literature on the organisation development strategy known as team building. In a study of 136 primary care teams. de Meuse. Further. vol. CHAPTER 8 64 . Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. which in turn fostered team innovation. however. the steps in the team building process are outlined. and across system levels were found. S. internal and external. the author found that in high functionally heterogeneous teams. In accelerated change units compared to those that are lagging. behaviours. several important prerequisites to enhance the probability of success of team building interventions are considered. whereas the unsuccessful organisations relied primarily on hierarchical change implementation networks. In addition. Jan 1982. Tenkasi. a greater abundance and diversity of networks. which has an intervening impact on a functionally heterogeneous team’s process and outcomes. (28) The Role of Networks in Fundamental Organisational Change: A Grounded Analysis. a comparison of team building with laboratory training. strong and weak. a variety of techniques for problem diagnosis and solution generation are listed. whereas no such impact was found under the condition of high functional heterogeneity.. Ramkrishnan V. Jr. The impact of directive leadership was in promoting team reflection under the condition of low functional heterogeneity. Sep 2003. Mohrman. participative leadership style was positively associated with team reflection. Jay Liebowitz and Kenneth P. and Allan M. vol. These network connections facilitate change implementation not only by sharing information but also by providing the capabilities to exchange and combine knowledge and by enabling local self-design. Specifically. 301–323. 1–18. the process of team building is presented. the utility of team building is discussed. a series of assumptions underlying the strategy. and the roles played by the team-building consultant are reviewed. the major purposes of team building. this study examines whether networks enable the learning required for local units to develop the new schemata – understandings. Included are a definition and conceptualisation of team building.This study focused on leadership style (participative leadership/directive leadership) as a key factor. Human Relations. and interaction patterns – required to adopt and appropriate planned organisation-wide change. Utilising a grounded-theory approach. 39: pp. Finally.

Organisational ambidexterity. the authors review various literature streams to develop a comprehensive model that covers research into the antecedents. vol. James Brown. Electricity supply is a mature industry that is characterised by centralised generation from fossil fuels and the dominant presence of large companies. Sebastian Raisch and Julian Birkinshaw. innovation to generate new revenue. Jr. business networks. Jun 2008. Journal of Management. (3) Research on Competitive Dynamics: Recent Accomplishments and Future Challenges. and outcomes of organisational ambidexterity. (2) Organisational Ambidexterity: Antecedents. They indicate gaps within and across different research domains and point to important avenues for future research. multipoint competition. Journal of Management. and Vera L. strategic groups. Dec 2004. Ketchen. We review recent developments in six research streams relevant to competitive dynamics: competitive action and response. 30: pp. 375–409. We also describe opportunities for conceptual integration across the streams that could significantly advance the understanding of competitive dynamics. vol. Outcomes. A key technology in this context is the fuel cell. David J. Dec 2007. Charles C. and regional clusters. 603–629. which can be configured to generate electricity and heat for an individual house or a group of buildings. defined as an organisation’s ability to be aligned and efficient in its management of today’s business demands while simultaneously being adaptive to changes in the environment. This article looks at the development of fuel cells in this market space and compares the experience of two leading fuel cell companies. 779–804. Chris Hendry. 34: pp. moderators.The topics for which specific articles are identified include entrepreneurial leadership. As a first step toward filling gaps in knowledge identified in our review. In this article. and Paul Harborne. vol. first-mover advantage. implementing innovation project and assessing the Stage Gate model for the management of innovation. 25: pp. We highlight the potential for small firms to play a significant role as creators of ‘technology specific advocacy coalitions’ and promoters of a new technology in multiple experimental situations. we provide suggestions for future inquiry within each research stream. International Small Business Journal. Hoover. and Moderators. has gained increasing interest in recent years. there is now an opportunity for small high technology firms to introduce products that generate electricity from renewable sources. DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION (1) Developing Radical Technology for Sustainable Energy Markets: The Role of New Small Firms. PROCESS INNOVATION 65 . Understanding the nature and consequences of the competitive dynamics among firms is a key objective of the strategic management field. with the advent of liberalised energy markets and global concerns about greenhouse gas emissions.. Snow. However.

vol. covering 1347 respondents. the significant interaction between these two leadership styles has a different direction than the authors hypothesised. change in the profit margin. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. Vermeulen. J. the authors analyse the effects of delegativeparticipative and consultative-advisory leadership. 16–25. discourse technologists redesign organisational discourses and work processes. A project-management model is a powerful. Jan 2004. on the implementation success of process innovations. a negative relationship between product innovation (both incremental and novel) and growth in sales or productivity. This article uses Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation techniques of a large-scale survey to examine the effect of firms’ innovation activities on their growth performance. turning them into representations of consensual praxis. By contrast. These measures of growth are analysed separately for manufacturing and service firms. Mark S. Through this process. In this study. Diether Gebert. Patrick A. vol. International Small Business Journal. Freel and Paul J. growing sales and productivity appear positively associated with incremental process introductions in service firms. is the largest and most definitive assessment of enterprise in Scotland and Northern England. respectively. 561–575. vol. and Eric Kearney. but little researched. growth in turnover. Van Den Bosch. 101–121. Growth and Performance: Evidence from Scotland and Northern England. The models are re-estimated with the current sales and profit levels adjusted for the number of employees. Krause. Frans A. for manufacturing firms. (7) Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective. growth in productivity. discursive tool in the ‘new’ bureaucratisation process of multi-project organisations. Diana E. Previous research leaves open which facets of leadership foster the implementation of process innovations. STAGE GATE MODEL (6) Technologizing Discourse to Standardize Projects in Multi-Project Organisations: Hegemony by Consensus?. 66 .(4) Implementing Process Innovations: The Benefits of Combining DelegativeParticipative With Consultative-Advisory Leadership. This article traces this redesign process in a major telecom organisation and shows how the ‘new’ practices are disseminated within the organisation. Robson. 22: pp. The sample consisted of managers from different organisations. Dec 2004. A. at least in the short term. The survey. Aug 2007. It is a means of creating hegemony by consensus and can be seen as an example of the process of technologisation of discourse. (5) Small Firm Innovation. Organisation. Christine Räisänen and Anneli Linde. The most emphatic findings highlight a positive relationship between novel product innovation and employment growth and. Although the posited main effects of both delegative-participative and consultative-advisory leadership are confirmed. This article employs four measures of growth: growth in employment. 11: pp. They argue that each of these leadership behaviours entails specific advantages and risks and that therefore the two patterns complement each other. 14: pp. M.

as well as science — to create new products and processes. and complexities. fuzziness. craft skills. as it is usually told. vol. many firms still struggle with this type of innovation. creating separate companies. the front end of the new product development project is composed of uncertainties. 1523– 1546. Bernard Carlson and Stuart K. (9) A Model for Selecting Product Ideas in Fuzzy Front End. and the extraction of the most potential product ideas in the fuzzy front end that can generate significant profits has become the vital concerns of research and development managers. 4: pp. Concurrent Engineering. During this evolution. the study draws on Six Sigma methodology to create a SIPOC (Supplier-Input-Process-Output-Customer) diagram of the innovation process. The study complements the existing innovation literature and provides an additional explanation why incremental product innovation is highly complex and suffers from several liabilities in established firms. the Houghtons also employed different organisational arrangements including using consultants. Using qualitative data from the Dutch financial services sector collected over the period 1997–2002. Many product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken. Arthur and Alanson Houghton relied on different kinds of knowledge — direct experience. 28: pp.and Henk W. The most decisive determinant that can create an enterprise’s competitive advantage and core strength is the development of new products. However. ChiuChi Wei. and Ru-Jen Lin. the company did hire scientists and establish a Chemical Department in 1908. 16: pp. Volberda. W. Organisation Studies. the paper illustrates how micro institutional forces at the business unit level affect complex incremental product innovation and how the interaction of these forces delivers their impact. 37– 65. which greatly hinder the success of product development and 67 . Rather than being a revolution. However. vol. (8) Revolution or Evolution?: The Role of Knowledge and Organisation in the Establishment and Growth of R & D at Corning. Eventually. vol. To provide an overview of how different kinds of knowledge can be leveraged for innovation. and establishing departments inside the company. It argues that although the impact of micro institutional forces is often overlooked in innovation studies. is a story of revolution: that the coming of science to industry wiped away the irrational patterns of invention and ruthless competition and ushered in a new rational scientific order. R & D evolved over two decades at Corning. Moreover. This paper uses an institutional perspective to investigate why established firms in the financial services industry struggle with their complex incremental product innovation efforts. Management & Organisational History. Feb 2009. Sammis. Jun 2008. to promote innovation. Houn-Wen Chang. employing experts. The rise of R & D. Oct 2007. the history of Corning Incorporated suggests a different view. 121– 128. these forces matter for innovation success. but the authors argue that this tradition of using different forms of knowledge and experimenting with organisational arrangements preceded the Chemical Department and continues to inform how R & D is practised today at Corning.

Kuratko. accountable. especially. Jeffrey S. There is a dearth of literature on stakeholder relationships and organisational posture as they affect entrepreneurial intensity inside established organisations. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. Young Rok Choi and Dean A. we focus on tensions related to balancing the need to explore new developments for future performance. organisational posture. cognitively legitimate. This study proposes a rational and effective fuzzy multiple attribute group decision-making approach called product idea screening model for selecting new product ideas in the fuzzy front end. Chris Hendry. the engineering problem. vol. and entrepreneurial intensity. Shepherd. 25: pp. Stakeholder support is more likely for those organisations that are old. Dec 2007. Through a case study of the development of a sound measuring sensor. 573–596.commercialisation. Using verbal protocol and conjoint analyses. A stakeholder theory framework is presented as a guideline for exploring the relationship between stakeholder salience. 31: pp. The authors find that stakeholders’ support depends on their perceptions of an organisation’s age and other dimensions of newness related to addressing management challenges of adaptation – the entrepreneurial problem. and aims to increase the possibility of successful product launch within limited resources and time pressure. and Paul Harborne. and Entrepreneurial Intensity to Corporate Entrepreneurship. and 68 . (12) Stakeholder Perceptions of Age and Other Dimensions of Newness. James Brown. and the administrative problem. economic and social) up to a certain minimum. Answering the question of how enabling technology-based firms manage tensions in their development process. we suggest that entrepreneurs use four types of functions to develop their business: goal attainment. Hornsby. PROCESS MANAGEMENT (10) Developing Radical Technology for Sustainable Energy Markets: The Role of New Small Firms. Aug 2005. Corporate entrepreneurs are depicted as those managers or employees who do not follow the status quo and increase the entrepreneurial intensity of a firm. pattern maintenance. they must then be balanced in such a way that the exploration – exploitation tension can be dealt with adequately. 13: pp. Journal of Management. Goldsby. Donald F. social networking and economic optimisation. (11) The Relationship of Stakeholder Salience. 56–72. vol. Organisational Posture. reliable. International Small Business Journal. this study examines how stakeholders assess an organisation in deciding whether to provide their support to it. it must first consider its stakeholders as a source of opportunity and acceptance of new ideas. 603–629. Based on social system theory. May 2007. cultural. the authors illustrate the four types of functions and the accumulation of capitals by exploring a set of three propositions. affectively congruent. Building sustainable firms requires the development of all four functions and the related types of capital (strategic. and Michael G. with the need to exploit existing capabilities to generate sufficient value in the short term. This paper presents the view that if a company is to be more entrepreneurial. in this dramatic global changing environment. vol.

103–118. 30: pp. Over the last three decades. focusing on innovation generation in buyer–seller relationships in supply chains. this article develops a conceptual model of innovation generation in buyer–seller relationships in upstream supply chains. and are more likely to continue funding it than managers who assume leadership after a project is started. A set of strategies for managing the workforce has emerged in response to perceived changes in the structure of industry and the organisation of production including ‘reengineering’ and ‘de-layering’. Employment & Society. Jun 2001. 15: pp. supplier involvement and alliances are routes to innovation generation. which are thought to reflect the increased need for worker participation and autonomy in the new production regime. construction and mining and a growth in social. Innovation generation has increasingly been recognised as an outcome of interaction between a firm and various outside entities. K. modern capitalist economies have experienced significant changes in the structure of industry. Subroto Roy. According to this view. The authors test whether factors unrelated to a new product’s forecasted performance cause managers to continue NPD projects into subsequent stages of development at rapidly accelerating costs. the results show that escalation of commitment is a more serious problem during NPD than after the product is commercialised. are more committed to it. Apr 2002. Finally. financial and commercial services. vol. In an attempt to fill this void. (15) Innovation Generation in Supply Chain Relationships: A Conceptual Model and Research Propositions. Sivakumar. (14) Escalation of Commitment during New Product Development. Technological changes have transformed production in modern economies by expanding the possibilities for flexible and decentralised production techniques. Schmidt and Roger J. vol. 61–79. Although periodic review is a prominent feature of new product development (NPD) processes. The results suggest that simply giving managers better information will not necessarily lead to better decisions. Despite this realisation. and Ian F. The authors conclude with theoretical implications for scholars and practical implications for resource acquisition in various contexts of entrepreneurship. Jan 2004. There is also the tendency toward increased commitment for more innovative products compared with less innovative ones. There has been a decline in traditional industries such as manufacturing. The authors propose that innovation generation 69 . Jeffrey B. both conceptual and empirical.strategically flexible. vol. there is a dearth of research. personal. Calantone. Rachel Parker. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. There has been an associated increase in the role of knowledge and the importance of product and process innovation. 373–384. the nature of production and the organisation of work. Work. The results show that managers who initiate a project are less likely to perceive it is failing. 32: pp. as well as a stabilisation or decline in public employment. (13) The Myth of the Entrepreneurial Economy: Employment and Innovation in Small Firms. important questions about how managers make critical continuation/termination decisions in risky NPD projects remain unanswered. Wilkinson.

Jun 2000. Although product innovation is widely recognised as crucial to the success of organisations. and (3) interfunctional coordination increases the launching of line extensions and reduces the introduction of me-too products. (17) The Effect of Market Orientation on Product Innovation. however. Ferrell. The method is intended to provide an effective bridge between expert knowledge generated internally. Concurrent Engineering. Ismail. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Jan 2001. and P.. vol. 8: pp. manufacturing companies. 133–143. allowing key ‘success’ factors to be teased-out from the data. 29: pp. is a consequence of interactions between buyers and sellers. (16) The New Products Process: Effective Knowledge Capture and Utilisation. have been inconclusive due to limited empirical evidence.e. This paper describes a method of knowledge capture and utilisation in new product development that can be used to improve firms’ existing performance. These gaps include a lack of research employing a decompositional approach (i. (1) customer orientation increases the introduction of new-tothe-world products and reduces the launching of me-too products. (18) Generating New Product Ideas: An Initial Investigation of the Role of Market Information and Organisational Characteristics. Finally. From this data. On the basis of a sample of U. 28: pp. and the incorporation of best practice knowledge in the field. Jenny Poolton. David M. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. (2) competitor orientation increases the introduction of me-too products and reduces the launching of line extensions and new-to-the-world products.M. Specifically. vol.M. To supplement internally generated expertise. The authors investigate the relationship between two focal constructs in the debate: market orientation and product innovation. the literature still contains certain gaps that limit our understanding of successful product innovation. Lisa C. 89–101. Apr 2000. both incremental and radical. and S. Numerous scholars have debated whether marketing fosters or stifles innovation. The discussions. Szymanski. They also delineate factors internal and external to the relationship that moderate the link between interaction and innovation supply chain relationships. Lukas and O. the authors discuss managerial implications of their research and offer guidelines for future empirical research. a large database of new product’s knowledge from the past literature is used to complement the analysis. 239–247. The authors attempt to close these gaps by developing and testing a model examining the moderating effects of organisational characteristics on the relationship between the 70 . C. Rajan Varadarajan. Troy. Shahidipour. Hossam S.S. analysis of the drivers at each stage of the process) to studying product innovation and a related lack of research investigating the effect of organisational characteristics on specific stages of the product innovation process. the authors’ analysis shows that product innovation varies with market orientation. and their likely effects on the new products process as a whole. Past development projects (both successful and unsuccessful) provide the basis for analysis. vol. a risk assessment frame work is developed that can be used to alert managers to the dangers of overlooking key activities and processes. Bryan A.

This study investigates the role of work group norms in promoting innovation in hightechnology organisations. Caldwell and Charles A. O’Reilly. (21) Conflict Management and Innovation Performance: An Integrated Contingency Perspective. training. samples of senior executives identified organisational patterns and norms associated with successful innovation. Aug 2003. Jul 2006. and consequences in the context of the innovation process. teamwork. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. However. 34: pp. Results show four norms associated with increased group innovation: support for risk taking. An instrument to assess these norms is developed. TEAM-BASED INNOVATION (20) The Determinants of Team-Based Innovation in Organisations: The Role of Social Influence. mediators. or sales support were found between firms with more successful versus less successful new products. (19) The Impact of Sales Management Changes on New Product Success. Wotruba. Empirical results both support and question some of the previous findings in conflict research. III. a survey was developed and administered to a set of managers. 497–517. 263–270. Although the role of the sales force and sales management mix can be significant in influencing successful new product launch. and R. 34: pp. The study investigates the relationships among five behavioural conflict-handling strategies. vol. 341–356. and context specific. Barbara Dyer. drawing into question the validity of some previous research findings. The results indicate that integrating. this research takes a fresh look at key conflict antecedents. the impact of specific sales management programmes and tactics has not been examined in detail. The study’s findings provide insights into the types of organisational structure and climate characteristics that can have an impact on the relationship between amount of market information and new product idea generation. David F. no significant differences in the number of changes in sales force structure. In recent years. 24: pp. destructive and constructive conflict. vol. vol. multidimensional. compromising. many of the basic assumptions underlying organisational conflict research have changed. This study explores whether firms that introduce new products were more successful in achieving their objectives when the new product introduction was accompanied by associated changes in sales management mix variables. and avoiding conflict-handling strategies can have different impacts on constructive and destructive conflict in an innovation context. forcing. Small Group Research. tolerance of mistakes. Michael Song. Jun 1996. Operating from the perspective that conflict is complex. accommodating. Through structured discussions. and speed of action. Firms that were more successful in achieving their new product objectives accompanied their new product launches with significantly more changes in sales force quotas than did firms whose achievement of new product objectives was less successful. Linda Rochford and Thomas R.amount of market information gathered and the number of new product ideas generated by work groups in organisations. and innovation performance as perceived by 290 R&D and marketing department managers. Jeffrey Thieme. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 71 . Based on the results.

Implications for research and practice are discussed. Previous research has identified goal setting as an important determinant of the performance of teams with innovative tasks. Martin Hoegl and K. Praveen Parboteeah. 7: pp. The influence process differed across cultures for ADM but not for PM innovations. Advances in Developing Human Resources. McLean.(22) Organisational Culture’s Influence on Creativity and Innovation: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development. they test direct and moderated relationships between goal setting and effectiveness (quality) and efficiency (schedule. The implications of this study for practice and research are discussed. vol. (23) Goal Setting And Team Performance In Innovative Projects: On the Moderating Role of Teamwork Quality. This article reviews the literature for factors related to organisational culture and climate that act as supports and impediments to organisational creativity and innovation. Feb 2003. This study aims to further the understanding of how teams successfully perform goal setting given the collaborative nature of innovative projects. Implications for human resource development research and practice are discussed. Top managers often seek to influence or champion strategic innovations. This study examined the extent to which executive characteristics explains top management influence on product/market (PM) and administrative (ADM) innovations in four Western cultures. The results support the proposition that different executive characteristics explain influence on each type of innovation. vol. 549–574. Van de Ven. Results indicate that goal setting is directly related to both effectiveness and efficiency. Innovation is a growing source of strategic advantage across a variety of industrialised cultures. Using data from 575 members. and managers of 145 software development teams. INNOVATION NETWORKS 72 . Small Group Research. Laird D. Harvey Hegarty. Angle. The authors argue that the quality of teamwork serves as an important facilitator to the successful enactment of goal setting in team projects. 19: pp. 3–19. 34: pp. Hoffman and W. yet the social environment can influence both the level and frequency of creative behaviour. Jun 1993. and others is reviewed and synthesised to provide an integrative understanding of the existing literature. leaders. hierarchical regression analyses show that teamwork quality moderates these relationships. Richard C. (24) Top Management Influence on Innovations: Effects of Executive Characteristics and Social Culture. vol. 226–246. May 2005. Kanter. budget). Journal of Management. Furthermore. The work of Amabile. The majority of the literature on creativity has focused on the individual.

but as a sign that they rely on flexible and trustful informal communication that cannot easily and efficiently be virtualised in electronic form. The authors define a knowledge network as a structure of interlinked actors that facilitate the process of learning in firms and institutions in the process of innovation. (27) Outsider Initiatives in the Reconstruction of the Car: The Case of Lightweight Vehicle Milieus in Switzerland. re-establishing a re-centralisation pattern in both functional (size) and geographical (space) dimensions. European Urban and Regional Studies. 22: pp. Jul 2005. clusters and large economic regions. Mar 2003. in recent years. vol. (26) Knowledge Networks and Technological Capabilities in the African Manufacturing Cluster. Are they formed by networks without technologies? In order to answer this question the authors organised an empirical research in three selected Italian clusters. However. The investigation presented here is based on a selected sample of 42 firms interviewed (all SMEs). On the other hand. the assumptions of the ‘vanishing’ of physical distance could represent a fascinating ‘utopia’. There is. the ‘virtualisation’ of the spatial economic relations could offer economic agents located in peripheral areas a better access to the development of distance relationships. have managed the absorption of ICT (information and communication technologies). 8: pp. Science Technology & Society. the use of ICT could undermine those economic systems that are very distant from the strategic motors where these developments are taking place. This paper identifies emerging knowledge networks in African clusters. therefore. Their behaviours in terms of ICT technology adoption were found to be quite similar in the three IDs studied. Bernhard Truffer and Gregor Dürrenberger. They chose three cases which are representative of the empirical variation. 1–23.(25) Are Industrial Districts Formed by Networks Without Technologies?: The Diffusion of Internet Applications in Three Italian Clusters. The article reached the conclusion that neither size nor the entrepreneurial cognitive frame matters in hindering diffusion. Technology & Human Values. The results seem to demonstrate that firms adopted ICT technologies with respect to end customers while they were reluctant to use B2B linkages with subcontractors and suppliers (EDI and ERP technologies). vol. which may be considered special forms of clusters. centred on Internet applications. This article analyses the relevance of a specific form of social network. for the development of radical innovations. It is widely acknowledged that there has been a technological revolution in information and communication technologies (ICT). Clusters are characterised by two dynamic elements: the rates and types of technological learning. Firms in early industrialisation are largely imitative innovators drawing on a variety of formal and informal sources such as licensing and reverse engineering. On the one hand. 12: pp. However. Science. a significant correlation between firm-level technological capabilities and external knowledge networks. this should not be interpreted as a lock-in phenomenon. In this perspective. Banji Oyelaran-Oyeyinka. Fiorenza Belussi. vol. Apr 1997. illustrating with new empirical data front clusters in Nigeria. so-called innovative milieus. 247–268. 207–234. there is still a great controversy about the extent to which ICT are transforming the competitiveness of individual firms. Two Swiss initiatives 73 . and the nature and intensity of networking. This paper analyses how industrial districts (IDs).

While Korea tailored its policies to accommodate these conditions in each stage of its development. Franz Todtling and Michaela Trippl. India had vital links missing that weakened the performance of this system and resulted in a poor R&D performance of firms in the industrial sector. strategies and structures of science and technology evolved under a planned development approach in both Korea and India. 12: pp. They may. vol. When facing disruption the actors in the cluster have discussed various strategies for how to cope with shifts in the technological life-cycles. 229–246. The paper proposes to adopt a more focused but a multidimensional integrated approach to create technological dynamism within the country. also result in stagnation and decline. During the 1980s and 1990s new mobile communications technologies have emerged as a series of distinct life-cycles. 1175–1195. which have caused major disruptions in the industry. Urban Studies. (30) Like Phoenix from the Ashes? The Renewal of Clusters in Old Industrial Areas. 255–304. (29) Technological Life-Cycles: Lessons from a Cluster Facing Disruption. however. and (d) access to foreign technologies. 6: pp. where the economic evolution has been quite closely related to the emergence of new key technologies. The paper examines the key features of a cluster in wireless communications technologies. vol. and Gert Villumsen. the social construction of the product category ‘lightweight vehicle’. For clusters in many of the fast developing technologies. Aradhna Aggarwal. (c) welldeveloped industry–institutes–academia links.R. Four conditions need to be satisfied for building an effective national innovation system: (a) strong competitive pressures on domestic firms. vol. New disruptive technological life-cycles may initiate the emergence of new regional industrial clusters or create opportunities for further development of existing ones. (b) the presence of high-quality human capital. Pedersen. Sep 2001. while Korea created a strong national innovation system and acquired phenomenal technological capabilities. It shows that policies. May 2004. 41: pp. (28) Technology Policies and Acquisition of Technological Capabilities in the Industrial Sector: A Comparative Analysis of the Indian and Korean Experiences. To assess the milieu’s potential for radical innovation. India failed to evolve an appropriate mix of these critical ingredients. and the (mis)management of the interface between prototype development and large-scale manufacturing. the evolution is closely related to shifts in technological lifecycles. Christian Ø. The article finds that there is room and need for policy and collective action in periods of uncertainty created by new disruptive technological life-cycles. 74 . Science Technology & Society. The analysis is focused on the strategy and policy issues involved in the specific phase where one technological life-cycle may (or may not?) be succeeded by the next.which developed highly energy-efficient means of individual transport in the past ten years are analysed in terms of the resources they could mobilise and the risks they run. the authors examine the construction of a lightweight safety system. This paper reviews the science and technology policy of India and Korea in a comparative perspective to draw relevant lessons for India. Bent Dalum. Jul 2005. European Urban and Regional Studies. However.

The paper investigates and analyses the different development paths. the Internet as a promotional channel. a comparison is made of the renewal of the automotive and the metal clusters in the old industrial region of Styria. vol. Economic Development Quarterly. 14: pp. however. Competition. especially in more advanced nations. has been paid to the renewal of clusters in old industrial regions. Little attention. (32) Location. and even metropolitan economy. It is widely recognised that changes in technology and competition have diminished many of the traditional roles of location. are a striking feature of virtually every national. government. and other institutions in enhancing competitiveness. The 1980s ushered in a new era in technology and economic development policy as a result of increasing competitive pressure. 18: pp. regional. Feldman and Johanna L. Drawing on a review of the literature and a series of case studies of cluster development. knowledge-based. Maryann P. Even as old reasons for clustering have diminished in importance with globalisation. and local economies. vol. 127–137. Critical factors of cluster renewal turn out to be a well developed regional innovation system. Clusters represent a new way of thinking about national. terrestrial channels. state. After identifying relevant factors from the literature. Economic geography during an era of global competition involves a paradox. and dynamic economy. promotional effectiveness. promotional message variation by sector and online promotional communication variation. The prevalence of clusters reveals important insights about the microeconomics of competition and the role of location in competitive advantage. this article presents a set of stylised facts and policy recommendations. CHAPTER 9 The topics for which specific articles are identified include promotional strategy. the establishment of new innovation networks and new and more indirect forms of policy approach. or geographic concentrations of interconnected companies.Many cluster studies have focused on growth regions and industries covering only the early phases of cluster development. new influences of clusters on competition have taken on growing importance in an increasingly complex. Francis. Porter. Economic Development Quarterly. Start-up companies built around commercialising new technologies developed in public or private labs were seen as a means to reinvigorate economies and renew industrial competitiveness in hightechnology fields. (31) Homegrown Solutions: Fostering Cluster Formation. and they necessitate new roles for companies. Michael E. Feb 2000. This article considers the perspective of the small innovative firm and the question of what small technology-intensive firms want from state economic development programmes. state. May 2004. Yet clusters. 15–34. The aim of the paper is to address the question of how clusters renew themselves in such regions and how they adjust to changes in their environment. PROMOTIONAL BUDGETING 75 . and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy.

their emergence should nonetheless be taken seriously as an important development in the mediation of production and consumption. Results of the study show that publicity. Loda. William Norman. This study reaffirms that publicity is an important element in the tourism marketing mix. 45: pp. Marsha D. This research explores two of the basic tools used by tourism marketers: advertising and publicity. In addition. and Kenneth F. Backman. This article comprises a series of critical reflections on some current directions in marketing. the case study is presented as an example of ‘experiential marketing’: one of a range of possible strategic choices in the attempt to insinuate marketing practices more deeply into the lives of consumers. in either presentation or sequencing. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY 76 . 371–385.e. publicity only. created significantly higher mean scores than advertising for credibility. Rebecca J. Mar 2003. Oct 2004. message strength) and message response (i. publicity then advertising. and research has offered inconsistent support for planning to enhance firm performance. Message stimulus is the independent variable and consists of two parts: message presentation (i. in an attempt to extend the scope of emotional or affective bonds forged between consumers and brands. consumer websites and ‘viral marketing’ campaigns. (3) The Paradox of a Marketing Planning Capability. it suggests that a publicity-then-advertising strategy is most effective at persuading potential tourists to visit a specific destination. publicity or advertising) and message sequencing (i. Slotegraaf and Peter R. the authors draw from the resource-based view of the firm to illustrate a paradox firms may face. Given these mixed empirical effects. purchase intent). In particular. vol.. advertising only. 259–265. This. Feb 2007. attitude toward the destination. message strength. Since both of these can also increase performance. In particular. Journal of Travel Research. such as databases. The article concludes by arguing that whilst such strategies may not always succeed in their stated aims.. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.(1) Advertising and Publicity: Suggested New Applications for Tourism Marketers. 32: pp. or advertising then publicity). perceived credibility. which derives from a complex of factors including a perceived fragmentation and diversification of media audiences and new ideas about the best ways of structuring and stabilising markets. Strategy scholars have long debated the value of formal planning. and purchase intent. Four dependent variables are organised in two categories: message acceptance (i. the case study shows how these spatial practices may be connected to electronic marketing technologies. with reference to empirical material from a case study of the promotion of a series of live music events. Furthermore.e.e.. 39–60. a strong marketing planning capability may not only reduce the incidence of postplan improvisation but also contain inherent process rigidity. is related to a heightened emphasis on branding. Elizabeth Moor. in turn.. vol.e. Within this scenario. it highlights a key theme in contemporary marketing: the attempt to approach consumers in an expanded range of everyday spaces. 3: pp. (2) Branded Spaces: The scope of ‘New Marketing’. Journal of Consumer Culture. Dickson. results illustrate a performance paradox in marketing planning. vol.

Jacqueline Botterill. A firm can operationalise these strategies by adjusting its planned promotional incentives on the basis of the observed differences between actual and planned market shares and between actual and planned redemption rates. Dec 1998. its history. This article provides a starting point. This article examines IMC. Advertising’s contribution to the deterioration of meaning in consumer culture has been well established. yet an interpretive study of two totemic youth commodities. (5) Cowboys. discipline and teamwork. Journal of Marketing Education. and Mary L. 3–19. 7: pp. a focus on customer retention is not an optimal strategy for all firms. Although IMC has the potential to contribute to the development of theory as it relates to promotion and marketing communication. vol. and the effectiveness of its targeted promotions. it may prove therapeutic. 7: pp. depend on its actual market share. The research suggests autonomy and self-authentication are taken most seriously by those most immersed in the quest for anti-modern identity. 105–125. academicians need to debate its substantive contributions to the marketing and communication literature. Mar 2007. Lambert. ADVERTISING 77 . By the twenty-first century. suggests that the underlying values of freedom. Aug 2004. yet this appeal is not universal. yet. Outlaws and Artists: The Rhetoric of Authenticity and Contemporary Jeans and Sneaker Advertisements. the modern heroes of authentic individuality – the cowboy. the outlaw – had been fully parodied and debunked. Gila E. Early advertisers humanised the modern marketplace with nostalgic appeals to home. deferral of gratification. designers made increasing appeals to authenticity. John Zhang. 210–218. yet advertising also offers a therapeutic resource to audiences. against the rising tide of 1960s identity politics.(4) Marketing Dèjá Vu: The Discovery of Integrated Marketing Communications. vol. Joyce. vol. and its relationship to the marketing literature. Even if the marketplace is not a site of absolute personal freedom. 20: pp. the relevant redemption rate of its targeted promotions. Contemporary jeans advertisers rewrite the quest for authenticity within contemporary promotional culture. both offensive and defensive. IMC reinvents marketing theory using different terminology for extant concepts. This research analyses the strategic use of targeted promotions for customer retention and acquisition in a dynamic and competitive environment. customer profitability. Journal of Consumer Culture. Athletic shoe brands achieved popularity by reflecting the ideology of athleticism rooted in the modernist ethos celebrating achievement. Spotts. jeans and sneakers. In the long run. David R. autonomy and individuality are not. Journal of Service Research. Integrated marketing communications (IMC) misrepresents the nature of marketing and systematically ignores at least 60 years of marketing literature. Harlan E. to the degree it quells anxieties that the quest for freedom is disappearing in a hyper-commercialised market culture. the genius artist. Fruchter and Z. The normative analysis shows that a firm’s optimal targeting strategies. hearth and village. (6) Dynamic Targeted Promotions: A Customer Retention and Acquisition Perspective. These strategies have the attractive feature of being an adaptive control rule.

based on two well-known brands and two hypothetical product extensions for each brand. The results also reveal how marketing communication can be used to facilitate the transfer process by framing similarity in terms of common goals.(7) Advertising Theory: Reconceptualizing the Building Blocks. (9) The Advertising of Services: Meeting the Challenge of Intangibility. Marketing Theory. the author describes what intangibility means. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. vol. The author advances propositions to guide copy and creative strategy for service advertising managers. A large amount of research in advertising utilises theories from other disciplines and simply uses an advertising message as a stimulus or focal content topic. Research in each of these areas is reviewed and illustrations of how they may impact theory development and theory testing in advertising are presented. Goal-Oriented Brand Meaning to Brand Extensions. 33: pp. (c) suggests approaches to meet each challenge. vol. 7–30. and Methodological Refinements. 98–116. and derives propositions to handle that task. (10) A Content Analysis of the Content Analysis Literature in Organisation Studies: Research Themes. Journal of Service Research. Vincent J. Marketing Communication. (8) Branding Strategies. Banwari Mittal. intangibility can contribute to value rather than detract from it and that it is well within the advertising’s special talent to communicate intangibility. Four examples of possible elements are suggested here. Martin. repetition. vol. and (d) elucidates the power of transformational advertising in embedding intangible service performance into a consumer’s life experiences. Ingrid M. This facilitating effect of similarity does not occur in the absence of goal-derived categories. Implications are discussed for the organisation of consumer knowledge and affect across product categories and for understanding prior research findings on brand extension. demonstrate that the availability of well-formed. 78 . Service advertisers often are confronted with the problem of how best to communicate the intangible qualities of a service to their target audiences. 2: pp. Faber. In this conceptual article. and Perceived Brand Meaning: The Transfer of Purposive. The author argues that in services. Stewart. 4: pp. Empirical results. The article (a) identifies five conceptual properties of intangibility. message coordination and clutter. David W. goal-derived categories associated with a parent brand establishes an organising framework for consumers’ assessments of similarity that facilitates the transfer of consumer knowledge and attitude from the parent brand to a brand extension in another product category. These are scepticism. Xiaoli Nan and Ronald J. This article develops and tests a conceptual model of the transfer process whereby perceived similarity organised around shared goals facilitates the transfer of knowledge and affect from a parent brand to an extension of that brand. 275–294. and Shashi Matta. Aug 1999. Jul 2005. (b) describes the advertising challenge of each. The actual elements that make advertising unique are often ignored in this work. Data Sources. It is proposed here that advertising theory and research needs to become more focused on what makes advertising a distinct phenomenon and these elements need to be incorporated in our thoughts and research. discusses how it influences the service advertising task. Jun 2004.

marketing and advertising. SALES MANAGEMENT (12) Digitization of Selling Activity and Sales Force Performance: An Empirical Investigation. contributions to advertising theory and implications for future research are discussed. Although content analysis has been applied to research topics across the subdomains of management research. along with commentary from a prominent advertising executive. it is no surprise that its use in organisation studies has been growing in the course of the past 25 years. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. The results reveal that digitisation has the paradoxical effect of improving salesperson effectiveness and heightening job insecurity concerns. 10: pp. a general theory of creativity in advertising is developed that calls for research in five primary areas: advertising as a communication process. We conclude with suggestions for enhancing the utility of content analytic methods in organisation studies. Jan 2007. 31–58. Next. Finally. a model is developed which defines a creative ad as both divergent (i. Given the benefits of content analysis. (11) Toward a General Theory of Creativity in Advertising: Examining the Role of Divergence. The present research attempts to fill this gap by reviewing past literature in psychology. vol.e. Jun 2004. Smith and Xiaojing Yang. sales force control systems. We use content analysis to examine the content analysis literature in organisation studies. and personal process. they assess the moderating effects of environmentallevel motivational factors and firm-level ability factors on the impact of digitisation of selling activity on salesperson effectiveness and job insecurity. Reger. and also that managers can improve the technology-enabled multichannel capabilities of the firm by giving priority attention to human capital improvement. Jan 2005. Rhonda K. group process. Johnson and Sundar Bharadwaj. societal process. research in strategy and managerial cognition have yielded particularly interesting results. Then. we assess how the methodology has been applied in the literature in terms of research themes. no systematic research has been conducted to define ad creativity or examine how it relates to ad effectiveness. Pfarrer. Robert E. novel or unusual) and relevant. data sources. The authors use the motivation ability framework to shape a conceptual model that examines the effects of the digitisation of selling activity on two salesperson outcomes: salesperson effectiveness and salesperson job insecurity. we review the principles and the advantages associated with the method. and methodological refinements. 33: pp. 3–18. Organisational Research Methods. replacing many routine sales force activities. vol. Devon S. The effects of divergence and (to a lesser extent) relevance on consumer processing and response are examined and a series of theoretical propositions are developed. Using data from salespeople in 168 firms. Firms are creating a digitised selling capability by developing Web sites designed to provide information and conduct transactions with customers. From this base. and Michael D. Despite the widespread recognition of the importance of creativity in advertising by practitioners and scholars. First. and communication of the digitisation strategy. management process. 4: pp. 79 . Marketing Theory. vol.Duriau. 5–34.

a knowledge gap exists in understanding design preferences. Two empirical studies show consistent results regarding the positive effects of learning on efficacy and efficacy on performance as well as the influences of three exogenous constructs on learning and efficacy. 241–254. Apr 2004. Barton A. Following tests of hypotheses using survey and conjoint data provided by field sales forces from three companies. and sales setting characteristics may affect preferences suggest potential boundary conditions for initial findings. a widely used form of sales force special incentives. Sales contests. Furthermore. 27: pp. Self-Efficacy. and compensate salespeople and members of sales teams. The authors examine how the practice of personal selling and sales management is changing as a result of the increased attention on long-term. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. While understanding salespersons’ preferences for various contest designs is a critical first step for understanding how sales contests motivate sales people to pursue contest goals. exploratory analyses of how individual. vol. and Performance. Weitz and Kevin D. receive considerable attention in the trade and academic press. the salesperson’s learning effort directly affects self-efficacy.(13) Personal Selling and Sales Management: A Relationship Marketing Perspective. In this article. Bradford. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. The emphasis on building relationships rather than making short-term sales and the use of sales teams dictates changes in the way firms select. the authors develop hypotheses about preferences for sales contest components. Although self-efficacy has been demonstrated to be positively associated with performance-related variables. 217–228. Jul 2002. 80 . and Trait Competitiveness on Salesperson Learning. this study posits that while self-efficacy positively affects performance. supervisory. For salespeople in the partnering role. William H. With expectancy theory serving as a theoretical basis. vol. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 32: pp. 127–143. the personal selling shifts from a focus on influencing buyer behaviour to managing the conflict inherent in buyer–seller relationships. (15) Sales Contest Effectiveness: An Examination of Sales Contest Design Preferences of Field Sales Forces. Dacin. train. Changes in the traditional personal selling and sales management activities are needed to support the emergence of the partnering role for salespeople. (14) The Effects of Job Autonomy. Murphy. few studies have looked at its possible antecedents in the context of personal selling. the authors have suggested some issues concerning the emerging partnering role for salespeople that deserve the attention of scholars interested in personal selling and sales management research. Apr 1999. Implications and future research directions are discussed. buyer–seller relationships and identify some implications of these changes. Guangping Wang and Richard G. Netemeyer. vol. 30: pp. Applying social cognitive theory. and Neil M. Ford. Peter A. evaluate. two task-related factors (perceived job autonomy and customer demandingness) and one individual difference variable (trait competitiveness) are proposed to affect salesperson learning effort and self-efficacy. The results lead to an improved awareness of the determinants of contest design preferences as well as insights and implications for sales managers seeking to design effective contests. Customer Demandingness.

Whereas it has long been noted that crises may be sources of opportunity for organisations and their constituents. Aug 2000. and few businesses can survive without establishing solid relationships with their customers. a consideration of some of the challenges in enacting that agenda. In this study. However. Joel Brockner and Erika Hayes James. Wotruba. They conclude by suggesting future research directions for further academic inquiry of rapport in service contexts. The authors delineate some factors that affect the tendency of executives to adopt a ‘crisis as opportunity’ mindset as well as the behavioural concomitants of their having done so. the authors find support for two empirically distinct dimensions of rapport. This study explores whether firms that introduce new products were more successful in achieving their objectives when the new product introduction was accompanied by associated changes in sales management mix variables. Linda Rochford and Thomas R. and a few suggested ways to overcome those challenges. loyalty intent. Although the role of the sales force and sales management mix can be significant in influencing successful new product launch. relatively little is known about the conditions under which executives come to perceive crises as opportunity. that they believe may be particularly salient in service businesses characterised by a high amount of interpersonal interactions. Gwinner. 82–104. They also find a positive relationship between these dimensions and satisfaction. Relationships are an important aspect of doing business. 24: pp. The analysis also includes a future research agenda. Rapport has received relatively little attention in the marketing literature. no significant differences in the number of changes in sales force structure. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. little specificity has been provided as to which relational aspects should receive attention. training. the authors examine one specific aspect of customer–employee relationships. rapport. Firms that were more successful in achieving their new product objectives accompanied their new product launches with significantly more changes in sales force quotas than did firms whose achievement of new product objectives was less successful. 94–115. OTHER PROMOTIONAL PRACTICES (18) Toward an Understanding of When Executives See Crisis as Opportunity. Gremler and Kevin P. Jun 1996. Although the marketing literature suggests that personal relationships can be important to service firms. (17) The Impact of Sales Management Changes on New Product Success. 3: pp. and word-of-mouth communication. or sales support were found between firms with more successful versus less successful new products. vol.(16) Customer-Employee Rapport in Service Relationships. In two different service contexts. Dwayne D. 81 . Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. the goal of this study is to fill this gap in the literature. 263–270. 44: pp. Journal of Service Research. vol. Mar 2008. the impact of specific sales management programmes and tactics has not been examined in detail. vol.

119– 130.(19) Organisational Perspectives for Public Relations Research and Practice. 15: pp. Nov 1987. Griffith. The use of trade promotions as a channel-programming tool has increased substantially in the past decade. this research investigates brand awareness and brand image issues within tourism 82 . Kasulis. It sets out the major reasons for its growth and outlines some of the political and economic impacts of the expansion on the PR consultancy sector in Britain. and postpromotion channel member behaviour. some firms appear to have underestimated the tendency of poorly planned trade promotions to interfere with the implementation of a marketing strategy. They discuss the implications of these various perspectives for research in public relations and illustrate these implications with examples of research from public relations literature. Brand awareness and brand image influence strategies of distribution channel management. David Miller and William Dinan. Tracy Woodward. and James M. 5–35. Mar 2000. Public relations is politically and economically more important than ever. and critical – and some of the representative theoretical approaches within each of these paradigms. vol. Kenderdine. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. an approach for suggested courses of action is forwarded. Based on an assessment of these channel relationships. The authors argue that the adjudication of these different preference structures is addressed through the market power of the channel participants. 199–231. particularly push and pull strategies within the channel. vol. Apr 2000. interpretive. (20) The Rise of the PR Industry in Britain. 27: pp. In this article. 320–332. Different trade promotions can produce dissimilar types of channel cooperation. (21) Managing Trade Promotions in the Context of Market Power. In focusing on the tactical implications of trade promotions. European Journal of Communication. (22) Using Brand Awareness and Brand Image in Tourism Channels of Distribution. the role of the PR industry in deregulation and privatisation and the progressive abolition of controls on international movement of capital as exemplified in Britain by the ‘Big Bang’. Nick Trujillo and Elizabeth Lance Toth. Management Communication Quarterly. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 6: pp. Morgan. David E. Thus. In this article. Jack J. They conclude with a brief analysis of the public relations efforts of Johnson and Johnson during the Tylenol crisis and illustrate how organisational theory and research can inform our analyses of public relations research and practice. 1: pp. vol. resulting in differences in distribution-programming preferences between suppliers and retailers. vol. Fred W. 1979-98. Jul 1999. In particular it focuses on the ‘tilt to the market’ under Thatcher. This article charts the growth of the PR industry in Britain since 1979. consumer responses. the authors review three broad paradigms from organisational research – functionalist. In addition the article discusses the consequences of these developments in opening up new and expanded markets for PR consultancies. the authors examine the complex issue of trade promotion use from both long-term and short-term perspectives.

lower-profit wine. examining both sectors which are long term users of direct mail and those which are relatively new to the medium. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 327–336. 55–61. (23) Wine Promotions in Restaurants: Do Beverage Sales Contribute or Cannibalize?.distribution channels. 47: pp. This research demonstrates that a combination of push and pull strategies could be used by domestic tour wholesalers to send appropriate messages to both travel agents and end consumers. brand image held in the minds of travel agents was researched. (25) Consumer Evaluation of Direct Mail in the Travel and Leisure Sectors. This means that 13 to 31 per cent of the increase comes from diners who would have otherwise ordered liquor. and non-alcoholic drinks. perishability and ownership issues affect the supply and demand of tourism services. Collin Payne. (2) food-wine pairing recommendations increased sales by 7. and (3) wine tastings increased sales by 48 per cent. including the caveat to not cannibalise sales by promoting a lower-margin. 6: pp. and was supported with cinema and print advertising. Jo HowardBrown. vol. (24) Best Kept Secrets: An Evaluation of South Australia’s Direct Marketing Campaign. Nov 2006. stimulating interest in visiting and delivering a motivational and travel planning document that was valued and retained by a substantial proportion of recipients. Also.4 million households in targeted geographic areas. 69 to 87 per cent of the increase in sales of promoted wines comes from diners who would likely have ordered a nonpromoted wine. Jan 1999. It builds on ten years of on-going research conducted by the Direct Mail Information Service which latterly has expanded to become sector specific.6 per cent. In 1998 the South Australian Tourism Commission launched an innovative marketing campaign known as ‘Best Kept Secrets’ to attract visitors to the state from external domestic markets. In general. Specific implications for responsible restaurateurs are outlined. This combination may be more effective than either strategy on its own because intangibility. By tracking consumer views the paper clearly highlights areas of opportunity for marketeers in both sectors. heterogeneity. Jan 1999. Brian Wansink. Glenn Cordua. The campaign involved direct mail. Evaluation of the campaign indicates that it had a substantial impact in raising awareness of the state. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 83 . This paper examines usage and consumer perceptions of direct mail in the travel sector and certain sections of the leisure industry. A controlled field study of wine promotions in a mid-priced chain restaurant generated three key findings: (1) selected wine recommendations increased sales by 12 per cent. 6: pp. Ed Blair. Richard Trembath. The eight major Australian domestic tour wholesaler brands were measured for the brand awareness of end consumers and travel agents. vol. 76–85. and Stephanie Geiger. beer. vol. The centrepiece of the campaign was a magazine-style 148-page direct mail piece known as ‘The Book of Best Kept Secrets’ that was distributed to 1.

considerable opportunities exist to maximise the returns and effectiveness of the existing databases. (29) The Impact of Direct Marketing Appeals on Charitable Marketing Effectiveness.(26) Regaining Service Customers: Costs and Benefits of Regain Management. 37: pp. 1: pp. 3: pp. Andrew L. understood as a comprehensive marketing strategy based on a memory of business transactions with customers. Journal of Service Research. May 1999. 24: pp. It shows that the travel agencies are involved only to a limited extent in the three identified areas of databased marketing: customer retention. 205–219. 231–237. Service markets are increasingly competitive while at the same time customer loyalty decreases. Operationalising a relationship management programme requires a retention strategy that is sensitive to an individual customer’s position in the service life cycle. Jun 1996. Martin Oppermann. Mani. vol. Drew. The resulting customer hazard information leads to a generalisation of lifetime value (GLTV) that explicitly accounts for company actions and their success in relationship management. this article provides guidelines to charitable marketing managers regarding the effect of charitable direct marketing appeals on donor decision judgments. Especially in the areas of product promotion and customer creation. Building on behavioural decision research. To this end. and Piew Datta. Feb 2001. Berger. (27) Targeting Customers with Statistical and Data-Mining Techniques. D. Regain management offers service providers profitable acquisition by adopting a specific management process consisting of regain analysis. service providers have to address not only prospects and existing customers but also lost customers as a distinct target group for their customer management. This article develops a conceptual basis for ‘regain management’ aimed at winning back customers who either give notice to terminate the business relationship or whose relationship has already ended. 347–361. 219–231. while being financially sound for the provider. Feb 1999. product promotion. Gerald E. Bernd Stauss and Christian Friege. This article discusses the concept of databased marketing and presents the results of a survey of travel agencies in New Zealand. To succeed in these markets. regain actions. (28) Databased Marketing by Travel Agencies. Journal of Travel Research. vol. is a crucial step toward gaining competitive advantage in this rapidly changing world and industry. Smith and Paul D. vol. vol. Journal of Service Research.144 potential 84 . James H. Databased marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. and customer creation. Essential for this process is a customer database that allows segmentation of lost customers and a segment-specific variation of regain dialogues and regain offers. and regain controlling. Betz. The authors describe a way of estimating these quantities using a combination of statistical and data-mining techniques. Several charitable direct mail appeals (factors) were empirically tested simultaneously in a factorial experimental design involving 18. R. estimating a customer’s hazard function and remaining tenure with the company can lead to important insights into marketing tactics and constitute fundamental building blocks for methods of targeting important customers.

The game and electronic community facilitated a range of consumption and communication experiences for a transnational audience of post-fans in a branded environment which was monitored by the cultural intermediaries at Saatchi & Saatchi on behalf of their client. Ada Scupola. sports-loving and computer literate 12–20-year-olds.donors to determine how donor decision strategies influenced choice judgments about whether to give and estimation judgments about how much to give. Produced by Saatchi & Saatchi Wellington to articulate the Adidas brand as globally cool. Health Promotion Practice.. However. tracking and evaluation. Web 2. Carl L. vol. Neiger. Oct 2008. the virtual 15 All Blacks. Brad L. (31) Enhancing Promotional Strategies Within Social Marketing Programs: Use of Web 2. 25: pp. and related costs are carefully considered. 475–496. Apr 1999. 85 . holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns.e. vol. 338–343. the promotional apparatus targeted a specific niche of Adidas’s company-wide target market known as the ‘jeeks’: male.0. Rosemary Thackeray. in which users control communication. social bookmarking. downloadable rugby game and parallel website for Adidas’s sponsorship of the New Zealand All Blacks entitled ‘Beat Rugby’. Promotional Culture and the Production/consumption of Online Games: Engaging Adidas’s ‘Beat Rugby’ Campaign. 9: pp. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2. content sharing. McKenzie. Reference information (factual/statistical and narrative/experiential) influences size of gift (estimation) but not response rate. and syndication. The second generation of Internet-based applications (i. Jun 2007.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels. Jay Scherer. The results indicate that suggested anchors and framing influence response rate (choice) but not size of gift.000 participants downloaded and played in the three-month tournament with the winners. Web 2.0 Social Media. and James F. flown to New Zealand to meet their ‘real’ counterparts. 9: pp. Web 2. social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. selection of appropriate applications. social networking. Implications for charitable marketing managers are discussed. More than 43. Issues pertaining to the production and consumption of corporate websites and online games remain relatively unexplored.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. ON-LINE PROMOTION (30) Globalization. Hanson. as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences. Web 2. vol. 133–145. (32) The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Publishing Industry: Towards a Business Value Complementarity Framework of Electronic Publishing. This study examines the cultural production of a free. Journal of Information Science.0). New Media & Society.

The publishing industry, like many other industries, is exploring new markets, new services and new products in response to forces such as advances in information and communication technologies, business strategies such as mass customisation, globalisation and shorter production cycles. This paper focuses on the way in which electronic commerce (e-commerce) technologies are changing and could change the publishing processes, and develops a business value complementarity model of electronic publishing. This model gives a theoretical rationale for, and can be used as a methodology to explore, complementarities between different primary activities and supporting technologies when entering the e-commerce arena in order to maximise profitability and improve the competitive position. (33) Digitization of Selling Activity and Sales Force Performance: An Empirical Investigation, Devon S. Johnson and Sundar Bharadwaj, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Jan 2005; vol. 33: pp. 3–18. Firms are creating a digitised selling capability by developing Web sites designed to provide information and conduct transactions with customers, replacing many routine sales force activities. The authors use the motivation ability framework to shape a conceptual model that examines the effects of the digitisation of selling activity on two salesperson outcomes: salesperson effectiveness and salesperson job insecurity. Using data from salespeople in 168 firms, they assess the moderating effects of environmentallevel motivational factors and firm-level ability factors on the impact of digitisation of selling activity on salesperson effectiveness and job insecurity. The results reveal that digitisation has the paradoxical effect of improving salesperson effectiveness and heightening job insecurity concerns, and also that managers can improve the technology-enabled multichannel capabilities of the firm by giving priority attention to human capital improvement, sales force control systems, and communication of the digitisation strategy. (34) Are we Measuring the Same Attitude? Understanding Media Effects on Attitude towards Advertising, Soo Jiuan Tan and Lily Chia, Marketing Theory, Dec 2007; vol. 7: pp. 353–377. This article empirically explores the relationship between the general attitude towards advertising and the attitude towards advertising in specific media: television and print. Results support the proposition that attitude towards advertising in general (AG) is an abstract level construct while attitude towards television advertising (ATV) and attitude towards print advertising (APRINT) are experience-based constructs in the consumer’s structure of attitudes towards advertising. The authors found a significantly negative reciprocal relationship between ATV and APRINT, a significantly positive reciprocal relationship between ATV and AG, and a non-significant relationship between APRINT and AG. Macro level belief factors like ‘good for the economy’ and ‘materialism’ are related positively and negatively to AG, respectively. The personal experience belief factor of ‘product information’ is positively related to APRINT while personal experience belief factors like ‘hedonic’ and ‘falsity/no sense’ are related positively, and ‘social image’ is related negatively, to ATV. Implications for future research and advertising practices are discussed. (35) Audience Manufacture in Historical Perspective: From Broadcasting to Google, Fernando Bermejo, New Media & Society, Feb 2009; vol. 11: pp. 133–154.


The question of what is new about new media has become a central topic of discussion in new media studies. This article frames within that question a historical and comparative analysis of the process of audience manufacture, and attempts to overcome the limitations of previous literature on the internet by situating the discussion within the political economy of communication. The main topics addressed in the ‘blindspot debate’ – the debate regarding the audience as the commodity produced by advertisingsupported media – are used to guide an examination of audience manufacture in broadcasting media, and to contrast it with the manufacture of the online audience. The evolution of online advertising, in particular its relationship with search engines, serves as an entry point for questioning some well-established assumptions about the role of audiences in commercial media systems. (36) From Consumer Response to Active Consumer: Measuring the Effectiveness of Interactive Media, David W. Stewart and Paul A. Pavlou, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Oct 2002; vol. 30: pp. 376–396. Traditional measures of the effectiveness of marketing communications suggest a specific process by which marketing actions influence consumers. This article offers a broader philosophical perspective on measuring the effectiveness of marketing communications that focuses on interaction as the unit of analysis, rather than the behaviour of either the marketer or the consumer. Structuration theory is discussed and offered as a viable foundation for the identification, selection, and evaluation of new measures of effectiveness in an interactive context among active, goal-driven consumers and marketers. Structuration theory focuses on the emergence and evolution of the structure of interaction, which is posited as a critical factor in devising, selecting, and evaluating new measures of the effectiveness of marketing communications. This view broadens the potential set of measures of effectiveness of interactive marketing communications, implying alternative meanings for measures under different interaction structures and combinations of goal states. (37) Preparing for the New Economy: Advertising Strategies and Change in Destination Marketing Organisations, Ulrike Gretzel, Yu-Lan Yuan, and Daniel R. Fesenmaier, Journal of Travel Research, Nov 2000; vol. 39: pp. 146–156. Information technology, especially the World Wide Web, has had a tremendous impact on the tourism industry over the past years. It is difficult for most destination marketing organisations, however, to keep pace with the evolution of new technologies, the emergence of innovative advertising strategies, the changes in the consumer market, and the growing competition due to increasing globalisation. The National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce organised a workshop in an effort to identify effective strategies for tourism advertising on the Internet. The results indicated that information technology has led to a number of profound changes in the assumptions underlying communication strategies. It was concluded that the change occurring in the new economy involves a rethinking of who partners and competitors are and how networks with other organisations can increase organisational capacity to learn. Thus, it is argued that success of destination marketing organisations in the new economy is more about change in approach than technology itself.


(38) E-business Development: An Exploratory Investigation of the Small Firm, Ian Fillis and Beverly Wagner, International Small Business Journal, Dec 2005; vol. 23: pp. 604–634. Drawing on existing research on e-business and the small firm, this article presents a review of the literature and the formulation of a conceptual framework of e-business development. Macro-level, industry sector, firm and managerial factors are examined, together with attitudes towards e-business and the benefits of and the barriers to its development. The research is positioned within a framework that adopts the Marketing/Entrepreneurship interface paradigm as an aid to understanding how combinations of formal and informal competencies contribute to competitive advantage. A series of in-depth interviews with company managers was carried out in Central Scotland. Results indicate that industry factors, customer influences, the degree of entrepreneurial orientation of the key decision maker and the level of competency development within the organisation play important roles in the level of e-business development achieved. Also, some small firms only embrace e-business to a certain level and even revert to more conventional business practices. (39) The E-Marketing Mix: A Contribution of the E-Tailing Wars, Kirthi Kalyanam and Shelby McIntyre, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Oct 2002; vol. 30: pp. 487–499. In the context of the wars between the upstart Internet retailers and the existing bricksand-mortar retailers, many e-marketing techniques were invented. This article develops a single unifying and theoretically based taxonomy for e-marketing techniques: the emarketing mix. Drawing on the paradigms of exchange, relationships, and digital interactions in networks, 11 e-marketing functions are identified that form the elements of the e-marketing mix. Nine of the 11 e-marketing functions are considered basic, while seven functions moderate the effects of others and are termed overlapping. The 11 e-marketing functions provide a categorisation of the e-marketing techniques. Compared to the conventional marketing mix, the e-marketing mix has more overlapping elements and directly represents personalisation, an aspect of segmentation, as a basic function. The existence of multiple elements that are basic and overlapping in the e-marketing mix indicates that integration across elements should be more commonplace compared to the traditional marketing mix. (40) Niche Publishing on the Web: Using Online Communities to Change the Economics of Niche Publishing, Andrew Gray, Business Information Review, Mar 1998; vol. 15: pp. 50–57. Comments on the explosive growth of both the demand and the supply side of the Internet and the increasing problems caused by users, who are fuelling the growth in demand, being significantly less experienced than those who connected to the Internet earlier in its growth cycle. Notes that the explosion of products and services on the supply side is leading to an increasingly complicated and confusing array of products. Discusses the characteristics of community-oriented Web sites, tightly focused on the needs of particular professional communities, as a way of overcoming these problems and considers how they can impact the Internet strategies of niche publishers. Options for this type of Internet publishing are seen to be: migration strategies; new product strategies; new market strategies; and community strategies. Outlines briefly the


common issues associated with the first three options then details the attractive features of the community-oriented approach in terms of: real-time news; database content; information wizards; local area search engines; Internet links; directories; discussion boards (forums); Web sites; alerts; sector-specific malls. CHAPTER 10 The topics for which specific articles are identified include pricing, consumer purchasing behaviour, the Internet as a new distribution channel, retailer pricing, sales promotion and of social networks. PRICING STRATEGY (1) Remembering versus Knowing: Issues in Buyers’ Processing of Price Information, Kent B. Monroe and Angela Y. Lee, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Apr 1999; vol. 27: pp. 207–225. A traditional assumption concerning how prices influence buyers’ purchasing behaviours has been that buyers know the prices of the products and services that they consider for purchase. However, empirical research during the past four decades repeatedly has discovered that buyers often are not able to remember the prices of items they had recently purchased. One conclusion that has been drawn is that buyers often do not attend to price information in purchase decisions. The authors argue that this conclusion may be incorrect in that what consumers can explicitly remember is not always a good indicator of what they implicitly know. Price information not consciously remembered can still influence internal reference prices and product evaluations. In this article, the authors discuss the conceptual and methodological ramifications of the distinction between remembering and knowing to reassess and refine our understanding of how buyers process and use price information. (2) Pricing Consistency Across Direct and Indirect Distribution Channels in South West UK Hotels, Wai Mun Lim and Matthew J. Hall, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Oct 2008; vol. 14: pp. 331–344. This study seeks to ascertain if hotels across the South West of the UK price their room nights consistently across each of the distribution channels utilised, such as the hotel’s website, ‘bricks and mortar’ travel agents, third party online booking systems, telephone, and emails. While studies examining pricing consistency have been done among larger hotel chains or groups, there had been no studies looking at smaller independent hotels, particularly hotels in the UK. The results will suggest that hotel pricing across channels show no comparable difference but indicates that the star rating of a hotel plays a vital role in pricing decisions and in the methods of distribution utilised. (3) Advance Pricing of Services and Other Implications of Separating Purchase and Consumption, Steven M. Shugan and Jinhong Xie, Journal of Service Research, Feb 2000; vol. 2: pp. 227–239. It is important to differentiate between the act of purchasing and the act of consuming. Understanding this separation provides many implications and areas for future research. 89

The empirical literature suggests several factors: reference prices. 316–329. Managerial implications of these findings are briefly discussed. The authors show that service providers can improve profits by advance ticketing. Results show that consumers’ price fairness perceptions and willingness-to-pay are more susceptible to the influence of externally supplied pricing information when such information is presented in a high transparency context (i. the separation creates buyer uncertainty about the utility from consumption. mood) at the time of the concert. a self-interest bias. the costs of the seller. and Sven Pastowski. Real-life online hotel booking sites were used for hypothesis testing. and Johan J. Using a Dutch sample. These profits are possible despite a service provider’s inability to price discriminate.e.. which favours the bargaining strategy. This research analyses the circumstances under which service providers can benefit from negotiating prices for customised services. (4) Perceptions of Price Fairness: An Empirical Research. a service provider offers a service in different degrees of customisation. vol. Graafland. expected conflicts. health. Robert Gielissen. In 90 . Nov 2007.g. vol. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. Although the posted-price versus bargaining problem has been extensively discussed in the literature.For example. and the perceived motive of sellers. Consumers’ willingness to pay is typically higher for customised services. we find that the perceived fairness of prices is also influenced by other distributional concerns that are independent of the transaction. Consider buying a ticket for a concert in advance. Stefan Roth. Here. (5) How and How Much To Reveal? The Effects of Price Transparency On Consumers’ Price Perceptions. In addition. Mattila. In the authors’ model. Chris E. perhaps. This article researches factors that influence price fairness judgments. to the level of first-degree price discrimination (although usually there is no loss in aggregate consumer surplus). Dutilh. Sep 2008. buyers may be uncertain about their future state (e. vol. 530–545. 47: pp. In particular. Li Miao and Anna S. 31: pp.. Heightened judgmental confidence in consumers’ price perceptions was also observed in the high information transparency condition. Herbert Woratschek. This article explores the desirability and implications of this separation and the creation of it (which is often a consequence of the service provider’s selling strategy). previous work does not address the relevance of customisation and has not yet focused on its impact on the pricing mechanism. (6) Negotiating Prices for Customized Services. price increases are judged to be fairer if they benefit poor people or small organisations rather than rich people or big organisations. As a pricing mechanism. Journal of Service Research. The authors’ two-dimensional information transparency framework (sufficiency and diagnosticity of pricing information) is grounded in the HeuristicSystematic Model of Persuasion. The model shows that the decision in favour of the bargaining strategy depends on several factors. 370– 389. This study investigated the effects of price transparency on consumers’ price perceptions. Business & Society. 8: pp. the service provider either applies a posted-price or a bargaining strategy. information high in sufficiency and diagnosticity). May 2006. we find empirical evidence that these factors significantly affect perceptions of fair prices.

(9) Tracking Strategy in an Entrepreneurial Firm. 29: pp.e. 285–315. The author introduces a comprehensive customer value framework and tests an extended value model with lodging products. Their findings reveal that as satisfaction increases. Most of the previous research on price changes has focused on price decreases. the results suggest that satisfaction moderates the impact of perceived motive fairness. 24: pp.addition. vol. 136–162. The extended value model in this study newly incorporates the concepts of brand awareness. and price fairness. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. This article investigates the effects of price increases at an individual level. Haemoon Oh. this study found the traditional customer value process to be useful for lodging research and marketing. Sep 1990. Brand Awareness. The conclusions focus on patterns of strategic change and on contrasting characteristics of entrepreneurship and planning. (8) The Effect of Brand Class. Jun 1997. Furthermore. According to these results. May 2000. vol. The authors also find that the level of satisfaction can influence the valence of the perceived motives in response to a price increase. 3: pp.. and Nicole Koschate. Henry Mintzberg and James A. and Price on Customer Value and Behavioral Intentions. as compared to brand or product class. Waters. 36–49. (7) Customers’ Reactions to Price Increases: Do Customer Satisfaction and Perceived Motive Fairness Matter?. the negative impact of the magnitude of a price increase is weakened. 91 . The authors argue that customers’ reactions to price increases (i. the authors examine the role of customer satisfaction in influencing the impact of these two variables on repurchase intentions after a price increase. 95– 101. 33: pp. Jan 2005. Jennifer Rowley. In this context. This study tracks the strategies of a retail chain over 60 years of its history to show how that vague concept called strategy can be operationalised and to draw conclusions about strategy formation in the entrepreneurial firm that grows large and formalises its structure. vol. re-purchase intentions) are strongly driven by two factors: the magnitude of the price increase and the perceived fairness of the motive for the price increase. brand awareness and price fairness concepts were found to play significant roles in the customer value process. low bargaining costs and low consumer bargaining power make the bargaining strategy even more attractive. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science. service providers can benefit from negotiating prices for customised services and posting prices for standardised services. ON-LINE PRICING (10) Price and the Marketing Environment for Electronic Information. The article includes discussions on both managerial and research implications. Christian Homburg. vol. Family Business Review. In addition. Based on Baron and Kenny’s guideline for mediation analysis. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. Wayne D. Hoyer.

and Suggestions. CD-ROM may offer a number of advantages. A number of different types of discounts and options are available. The article concludes with some case studies which assess the pricing strategies for specific CD-ROM products. connect time charges. (11) The Applicability of Porter’s Generic Strategies in the Digital Age: Assumptions. volume purchase plans. 30: pp. We also argue that. with differing added-value features and potential applications.bricks firms that closely integrate their on. session rates. regardless of business strategy type. (12) Pricing Strategies for Business Information on CD-ROM. but there is likely to be some realignment of 92 . but this may be at a price. Focuses on three of the four variables in the marketing of electronic databases: product. Because current management theories evolved in the context of brick-and-mortar firms. display and print charges. CD-ROM pricing strategies have two distinct components: prices charged for single-user use and prices charged for network use. Stimpert. and J. this paper examines three key questions raised by the advent of e-business: (1) Will the strategy types found among e-business firms resemble terrestrial company generic strategies? (2) Will we find performance differences among e-business firms pursuing different types of strategies? (3) Will we find differences in the strategy-performance relationships of pure online firms (pure plays) and firms with both online and offline operations (clicks-and-bricks)? We conclude that integrated strategies that combine elements of cost leadership and differentiation will outperform cost leadership or differentiation strategies. Pricing strategies for electronic information are complex. discount plans. Jennifer Rowley and David Butcher. noting that many producers are still involved in printed products. distribution and price. The key players in the business information marketplace will continue to maintain their presence. Dae-Il Nam. Journal of Management. charges for special commands. marginal cost pricing. Concludes that the complex and chaotic information marketplace may be alleviated by standardisation in pricing structures for products such as CD-ROMs and research which seeks to link the factors that influence pricing structures to a more closely defined model. statistical reports and end-user services). Considers the distribution variable in terms of three potential distribution channels: CD-ROMs. L. Discusses the product variable in terms of the nature of information as a product and its value. vol. Purchasers of business information on CD-ROM are often concerned to assess its costeffectiveness.Argues the central role of pricing strategy in determining the future characteristics of the information marketplace. 39–46. The marketplace for business information on CD-ROM is characterised by a range of products that embraces a number of different kinds of databases. data networks. Journal of Information Science. vol. 569–589. Jan 1996. and free distribution of services. and facsimile transmission. telecommunications charges. as compared with print and online access. is omitted. clicks-and. Discusses the price variable by considering five key approaches to pricing and charging: optimal pricing. promotion.and offline operations will enjoy performance advantages over their pure play counterparts. 22: pp. pricing according to value. Eonsoo Kim. consumption. Oct 2004. dynamics. life cycle and individuality. and charges for special services such as SDI. Analyses the pricing structures for online searching of external databases (subscription charges. Conjectures. The fourth variable. Presents a similar analysis for CD-ROM databases. pricing for full cost recovery.

DISTRIBUTION (14) Challenges and Opportunities in Multichannel Customer Management. traditional retailers have the highest prices. 9: pp. and product bundling or packaging. With regard to price dispersion. Nov 2006. They conclude with a summary of where the research-generated knowledge base stands on several issues pertaining to the five challenges. In this article. 321–338. require an effective distribution strategy to reach their target tourist and local markets. show that when posted prices are considered. vol. and development. Robert Leghorn. (b) understanding consumer behaviour. Their results. These findings suggest that online markets offer opportunities for retailers to differentiate within and across the retailer types. bricks-and-mortar (traditional). but the lowest standard deviation. Distribution involves the dissemination of information. 95–112. A review of academic research reveals that this field has experienced significant research growth. Venkatesh Shankar. (13) Price Levels and Price Dispersion Within and Across Multiple Retailer Types: Further Evidence and Extension. multichannel retailers have the highest prices. (c) channel evaluation. (15) Distribution Channels for Events: Supply and Demand-side Perspectives. and Peter C. Fabio Ancarani and Venkatesh Shankar. The authors discuss what has been learned to date and identify emerging generalisations as appropriate. 32: pp. Marije L. Multichannel retailers have the highest standard deviation in prices with or without shipping costs. and bricks-andclicks (multichannel) retailers and test them through an empirical analysis of data on the book and compact disc categories in Italy during 2002. Thomas. vol. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. like other tourism products.720 price quotes. This article systematically 93 . Karen A. in that order. coordination. The authors also propose a framework that shows the linkages among these challenges and provides a means to conceptualise the field of multichannel customer management. vol. 176–187. the means of booking and purchase. (d) allocation of resources across channels. special events. Multichannel customer management is the design. However. Dhruv Grewal. 13: pp. Verhoef. Smith. retention. followed by pure-play e-tailers and traditional retailers. based on an analysis of 13. Apr 2004. when shipping costs are included. Oct 2007. enhanced products and adjustments to pricing strategies before the market reaches greater stability. but the growth has not been distributed evenly across the five major challenges.product ranges. Jacquelyn S. pure-play e-tailers have the highest range of prices. and evaluation of channels through which firms and customers interact. Scott A. the authors develop hypotheses on how prices and price dispersion compare among pure-play Internet. The authors identify five major challenges practitioners must address to manage the multichannel environment more effectively: (a) data integration. Journal of Vacation Marketing. In an increasingly competitive market place. deployment. and (e) coordination of channel strategies. with the goal of enhancing customer value through effective customer acquisition. in that order. Neslin. and pure-play etailers. Teerling. followed by multichannel retailers. Journal of Service Research.

Six case studies are used to examine the response strategies of dominant US firms to the entry of Japanese challengers into their domestic industries. Free events have simple distribution channels focused on disseminating information. 31–44. (16) The Response Strategies of Dominant US Firms to Japanese Challengers. There is limited bundling of event tourism packages and a number of barriers exist to their further development in this destination. The results suggest that the US firms that had a slower but more concentrated and aggressive response lost less market share than firms that responded quickly. This article looks at market calibration including the development of new stimuli. Journal of Management. export profit margins. This mode of classifying exporting firms. reviewing ideas about how new rules might be developed for successful participation in them. 93–104. The need to examine new markets is being driven by the convergence of information technology and telecommunications. H. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Jan 2000. 94 . and other factors. Conceptual. globalisation. increased channel turbulence caused by the Internet. The two groups are shown to be similar along several key dimensions of exporting behaviour such as size. 28: pp. and models. capacity. vol. (18) Segmenting Corporate Exporting Activities: Sporadic versus Regular Exporters.P. channels for ticketed events are more complex. one of New Zealand’s main event tourism destinations. and size of export orders. 19: pp. and information use. vol. which has not previously been studied in a rigorous fashion is shown to be valid and has important policy implications. This study examines the question of whether it is better to respond quickly with individual competitive responses or wait until a broad strategic reorientation is possible. This classification is robust. with a high degree of convergent and internal validity. customer-focused action. practical. the embodiment of information technology in new products. export distribution channels. and maximising their installed customer base. there are distinct differences with regard to such factors as initial market entry influences. However. The primary focus of this study is an examination of differences between characteristics and activities of sporadic and regular exporters. Feb 2003.integrates data from interviews with events organisers and a survey of attendees at four events in Wellington. Donald Hopkins. Mar 1991. and the increasing concentration and interdependence of industries. 29: pp. Walters. Saeed Samiee and Peter G. This article examines emerging technologies and the markets that they create. (17) Developing New Rules for New Markets. These critical differences relate to dynamism and level of export marketing activities undertaken. The complexity of event distribution channels is influenced by the event’s target market. partnership relationships. maintaining. It then takes the results of that calibration to show how firms in the new millennium can focus marketing action not only on a well-targeted marketing mix that has historically been the focus of marketing in the 1900s but by developing. measures. vol. John H. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. and policy implications are discussed. age. Roberts. 5–25. New rules to succeed in these markets depend on (1) an understanding of the market and (2) an ability to take that understanding and exploit it into profitable.

A variety of research needs still exist regarding constructs and issues examined in prior channels research. However. vol. Jan 1989. Ravi S. ON-LINE MARKETING 95 . Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Joseph Cronin. Gary L. 146–163. The article develops hypotheses that are tested on survey data collected from a sample of franchisee firms. 31: pp. using structural equation models. The effects of secondary goals are not unequivocal but informative nevertheless. vol. as well as market power. vol.(19) Satisfying Customer Expectations: The Effect on Conflict and Repurchase Intentions in Industrial Marketing Channels. Still. are more evenly distributed in the channel. During the past three decades. The typical view of a marketing channel is that of a manufacturer-designed and -controlled distribution system. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on how channels research should proceed in the future to promote the most progress. Furthermore. Etzel. Apr 1999. The nature and key determinants of expectations in industrial buyer behaviour are examined. it is important to understand the business circumstances and priorities confronting channel members. 41–49. This article studies how reseller firms establish their goal hierarchies and how these goals are related to performance. many issues of managerial importance relating to the organisation and management of channels of distribution have received no attention in empirical research. we have barely touched the surface of all the managerial issues that need to be addressed. Discrepancy theory is used to assess the (dis)confirmation of expectations process. 226–240. In organising and managing the modern channel. 27: pp. The results support all the hypotheses about the effects of primary goals on performance. Frazier. The article investigates how the marketer’s fulfilment of middleman expectations impacts upon conflict and repurchase intentions in industrial channels. Results suggest a direct causal effect of (dis)confirmed expectations on repurchase intentions and on conflict. Overall. Achrol and Michael J. the study points to interesting theoretical and managerial conclusions. (21) Organizing and Managing Channels of Distribution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. It hypothesises that goal priorities emerge in relation to the environmental imperatives faced by the firm. marketing functions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Apr 2003. A series of hypotheses are developed and tested in a large manufacturing and distribution network engaged in the marketing of fluid power products. J. 17: pp. It is hoped that the article will help to shape the future direction of marketing thought with regard to channels of distribution and its fundamental domain. (20) The Structure of Reseller Goals and Performance in Marketing Channels. JR and Michael H. Morris. and that the effect of expectations on repurchase intentions is not modified by the creation of conflict. today. tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of how firms should organise and manage their channels of distribution.

future scenarios and regulatory responses to the online distribution of music files are identified and evaluated. and the unique skills and resources of the firm that assume added relevance in the context of competing in the evolving marketplace. buyer. vol. such adoption might destroy investments in present market channels and thus has the characteristics of radical innovation. and Vladimir Vanyushyn. George Michael Klimis. Rajan Varadarajan and Manjit S. 30: pp. Competitive marketing strategy focuses on how a business should deploy marketing resources at its disposal to facilitate the achievement and maintenance of competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. In this article. evolving marketplace. New Media & Society. International Small Business Journal. strategies of the major players. 27–48. The conceptual model for this study is centred on the set of internal and external factors size. This article presents one of the first detailed empirical studies on the impact of internet technologies on a specific industry. 417–441. and sometimes overlooked part in the transformation of communication and distribution channels. 25: pp. Yadav. In a growing number of product-markets. However. Martin Kretschmer. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Oct 2002. the authors draw on the literature on innovation to investigate what differentiates adopters of advanced Internet-based marketing operations from non-adopters in firms of different sizes. the competitive landscape has evolved from a predominantly physical marketplace to one encompassing both the physical and the electronic marketplace. Feb 2007. With a global market volume exceeding US$40 billion. and Roger Wallis.(22) Marketing Strategy and the Internet: An Organizing Framework. and buying environment characteristics. specific industry. music is not only one of the primary entertainment goods in its own right. willingness to cannibalise. it also permeates many other services across cultural borders. The data suggest 96 . product. entrepreneurial drivers. vol. P. vol. Competitive strategy is primarily concerned with how a business should deploy resources at its disposal to achieve and maintain defensible competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. 3: pp. Analysis is built on survey data from 379 Swedish manufacturing firms. Music plays an important. (23) Integrating the Internet and Marketing Operations: A Study of Antecedents in Firms of Different Size. current business models. (24) Music in Electronic Markets: An Empirical Study. Dec 2001. management support. The proposed framework provides insights into changes in the nature and scope of marketing strategy. 296–312. The results of analysis show that composition of factors on which firms base their decision to adopt advanced Internet-based marketing operations varies significantly with firm size. This article presents a conceptual framework delineating the drivers and outcomes of marketing strategy in the context of competing in this broader. anticipating social and economic trends. Maria Bengtsson. Håkan Boter. Since music is easily personalised and transmitted. Drawing on more than 100 interviews conducted between 1996 and 2000 with multinational and independent music companies in 10 markets. Adopting the Internet for advanced marketing operations opens up challenging opportunities for firms of all sizes. and market pressure. A number of implications for further research as well as for managers and educators are discussed.

A review of the recent export literature suggests that a new paradigm may be needed to take into consideration the electronic marketplace. vol. The strength of the Big Five’s cartel has a momentum of its own based in its market oligopoly. recent technological advances force us to rethink whether existing theoretical frameworks are sufficient in explaining today’s export marketing strategies. 5: pp. 75–104. Because e-commerce is able to provide instantaneous access to numerous global markets. These inhibiting effects represent a status quo bias. older people. Tom McCourt and Patrick Burkart. evaluative conflicts (dissynergies) between service channels exist. Current theory on export marketing is based on the assumption that each exporting decision is made in isolation. Maik Hammerschmidt. the negative relationship between offline channel satisfaction and perceived usefulness is significantly stronger for men. Finally. (25) When Creators. Expressed concerns about piracy mask the actual intentions of the ‘Big Five’ – control of all modes of distribution. Corporations and Consumers Collide: Napster and the Development of On-line Music Distribution. whereby a set of factors are considered for single market entry only. vol. Journal of Service Research. May 2003. 10: pp. without the consideration of simultaneous entry into multiple foreign markets. the authors propose that in a multichannel environment. We use a political economic approach to examine the case of A&M Records et al. which has been secured through its ownership and management of intellectual property. Nov 2007. Jeroen Schepers. v. Trust in the bank shows both adoptionenhancing effects and an adoption-inhibiting effect. Media. Mar 2005. This study has both theoretical and managerial relevance as it helps to understand consumer behaviour in multichannel environments and provides implications for the design of multichannel service strategies. and Hans H. 143–160. The Internet is often depicted as the ultimate arena for unfettered capitalism. 333–350. (26) Identifying Cross-Channel Dissynergies for Multichannel Service Providers. Building on status quo bias theory. Bauer. vol. This article traces how public and private reactions by the five major record companies to new Internet distribution technologies have undermined this popular myth. Data were collected from 639 customers currently using offline investment banking. (27) Integrating E-commerce into Existing Export Marketing Theories: A Contingency Model. they develop a model that relates offline channel satisfaction to perceptions about a new self-service channel. Munib Karavdic and Gary Gregory. Results show that offline channel satisfaction reduces the perceived usefulness and enhances the perceived risk of the online channel. but disintermediation is not the likely outcome. Culture & Society. both in the process of entering 97 .that changes in the music industry will indeed be far-reaching. Marketing Theory. In this article. Napster. and discuss how this case underscores the importance of controlling the Internet as an entertainment distribution pipeline. erasing geographic boundaries and barriers to entry while providing a plethora of goods and services to consumers. 25: pp. and through lobbying and legal activities. Tomas Falk. through format changes and setting standards for other technologies. and less experienced Internet users.

within and between four determinant groupings underpinning the conceptualisation. This paper examines the use of the Internet as a marketing and promotional tool within the tourism and hospitality industries. the use of the Internet as a promotional tool has not taken hold among small to medium tourism enterprises. Search engines are playing an increasingly important role in Internet marketing and commerce. Rick Christian. Therefore the key contribution of this article to current knowledge is the development of a conceptualisation. Green. 351– 389. 170–178. Armstrong. Gillian A. export market strategy and export performance. which relate to the critical interactions and integration. 7: pp. and in the management of operations within those markets. (b) proposes a contingency approach to compare and contrast the relationship among environmental variables. and Mark G. The nine hypotheses will guide and direct future research towards generating an empirically based understanding of what determines small business website adoption. Specifically. International Small Business Journal. This paper suggests that a poor understanding of the technology combined with the plethora of jargon and confusing information concerning Internet marketing and promotion is more likely to be the main cause of the slow uptake. Business Information Review. As evidence mounts on the importance of small businesses and the opportunities presented by website adoption globally. vol. the case of a special-interest site that serves small to medium businesses is looked at. vol. the extant literature relating to small business website adoption is fragmented and fails to provide an understanding of what determines adoption. (29) Developing an Online Access Strategy: Issues Facing Small to Medium-sized Tourism and Hospitality Enterprises. search is once again central to portal strategies. Taking the situation in Australia as an example. However. supported by the literature. (30) Search Engine Marketing: Why it Benefits Us All. vol. David C. it becomes important to understand the key issues that determine website adoption. The purpose of this article is to present a model that integrates e-commerce into existing theories on export marketing. Geoff Simmons. that will provide an interpretation of what determines small business website adoption. Apr 2001. 195–202. Dec 2003. This paper also outlines some of the main considerations in developing a site and/or choosing a specialinterest site or portal to join. 26: pp. Jun 2008. Critically. and. (c) provides a clear direction for future research through the development of research propositions investigating the role of e-commerce strategy in the exporting process. Having once been sidelined by the major portals in favour of other ‘sticky’ features such as news. 20: pp. Finally. (28) A Conceptualization of the Determinants of Small Business Website Adoption: Setting the Research Agenda. It has been suggested that this reluctance to embrace the Internet is due to a range of impediments such as high costs and issues related to adopting new technologies. this is the first article to incorporate the important role that the small business marketing context plays within Internet technology adoption. Yahoo has 98 . Journal of Vacation Marketing. The article develops nine hypotheses. the aim is to develop a theoretical framework that: (a) extends existing export marketing theories by incorporating e-commerce strategy.

International Small Business Journal. Ulrike Gretzel. In addition. we find that a customer’s online interaction propensity. Geralyn McClure Franklin. there are increasingly sophisticated technology tools and approaches to utilising search engines to achieve marketing goals. and Cynthia Frownfelter-Lohrke. vol.recently spent almost US $2 billion acquiring other search technology providers to compete with Google more directly. Envisioning the future of tourism and examining possible ways of reaching various future scenarios are essential exercises in this process of deciding which strategic approach to adopt. Mar 2007. Firm-hosted commercial online communities. Lohrke. vol. We extend a model of social capital to incorporate and contrast the direct impact of commitment to both the online community and the host firm. The strategic responses to these developments are essentially decisions to proactively shape. Caroline Wiertz and Ko de Ruyter. The world-wide search market is forecast to grow from US $2. 24: pp. Daniel R. (33) The Internet as an Information Conduit: A Transaction Cost Analysis Model of US SME Internet Use. on quality and quantity of knowledge contribution. Sandro Formica. vol. (31) Beyond the Call of Duty: Why Customers Contribute to Firm-hosted Commercial Online Communities. as well as reciprocity. We empirically test our framework using self-reported and objective data from 203 members of a firm-hosted technical support community. and Joseph T. Journal of Travel Research.1 billion in 2003 to US $7 billion by 2007. 45: pp. we examine the moderating influence of three individual attributes that are particularly relevant to the firm-hosted community context: perceived informational value. thereby reducing reliance on channel intermediaries for customer 99 .and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can use the internet to establish direct customer contact. or passively struggle through a crisis. Fesenmaier. and the informational value s/he perceives in the community are the strongest drivers of knowledge contribution. However. leading destination marketers from the midwestern United States were invited to participate in a large focus group to discuss the specific challenges encountered by their organisations. against the background of a rapidly consolidating search market. 347–376. In response to the increasing need for new visions of the future of tourism and particularly destination marketing. O’Leary. Small. commitment to the community. sportsmanship. Organisation Studies. 116– 126. Apr 2006. Franz T. and online interaction propensity. 159–178. in which customers interact to solve each other’s service problems. represent a fascinating context to study the motivations of collective action in the form of knowledge contribution to the community. 28: pp. Threats in the external environment and changes in the industry’s markets and structures have challenged destination marketing organisations to change in fundamental ways. In addition to several interesting moderating effects. (32) Searching for the Future: Challenges Faced by Destination Marketing Organisations. This article summarises the issues raised and their implications for destination marketing organisations as well as tourism research. adapt to. Nov 2006.

Results based on a survey of 42 US SMEs generally supported this relationship. 6: pp. Whilst website adoption within UK SMEs is widespread. Furthermore. the link between export channel relationships and website/e-commerce adoption has mainly been the focus of normative writings or anecdotal evidence. (35) Understanding Consumer Choices and Preferences in Transaction-Based eServices. Based on transaction cost analysis. which could explain the low adoption rate amongst exporting SMEs. (34) The Effect of Website and E-Commerce Adoption on the Relationship between SMEs and Their Export Intermediaries. Moreover. Zafar Iqbal. 369– 388. This result is surprising given indications that the medium may be valuable to SMEs and to exporters in particular.than industry-level factors impacting information specificity. International Small Business Journal. 22: pp. vol. consumer preferences for features of transaction-based e-services differ between offline and online consumers. The rapid increase in transaction-based e-services creates a challenge for firms: What combination of features should they offer to satisfy consumers while realistically considering operational and financial constraints? This article explores the above question by highlighting similarities and differences in consumer preferences between different segments for a transaction-based e-service. trust and commitment) is useful in understanding channel relationship scenarios. The findings presented here both support and challenge normative and anecdotal literature. differing from each other in terms of non-web-based and online-only features. price per transaction. Overall. By building on the rich literature on authoritative control (manifest conflict) and relationship marketing paradigm (trust and commitment). 100 . Evidence presented indicates that the Internet has the capability to be both a constructive and destructive influence on channel relationships. in which 1430 consumers are offered e-service options. Houghton and Heidi Winklhofer. as well as in-depth interviews with exporters. Similarities also exist in consumer preferences between various usage-frequency-based consumer segments. Among the multitude of factors suggested to affect adoption. results were generally stronger for firm. The study employs a Web-based discrete choice experiment. Journal of Service Research. Rohit Verma. Aug 2004. with increase in consumer usage frequency. and marketing promotions. our conceptualisation demonstrates that a combination of authoritative control and relational paradigm constructs (manifest conflict. interesting trends regarding the relative importance for features are observed. the article proposes a conceptualisation of the potential effects of website and/or e-commerce adoption on conflict and the mediating effect of trust and the number offering ecommerce activities is declining or static. 51–65. Furthermore. and Roger Baran. vol. The results demonstrate that overall. Aug 2003. Kathryn A. this study examined whether SMEs facing high asset specificity in product information transmitted to and received from customers employed the internet to a greater degree than those facing lower information specificity. these findings highlight the important benefit that internet use can provide in reducing an SME’s transaction costs. The authors believe that these results have both managerial and research implications for design and operations strategy formulation for transaction-based e-services.

In this research. 209–224. Sinha. and digital content – to customers almost anywhere and at any time. 5: pp. vol. largely as a function of taking upon themselves the transaction costs for the consumer to find and select appropriate travel facilitators. Two major threats currently perceived are the disintermediation of retail agencies by primary producers. Journal of Service Research. the findings confirm that higher order global attitudes toward service technologies influence intentions to use SSTs. Electronic business-to-customer (B2C) operations are making it possible for companies to deliver service products – conceptualised as bundles of physical goods. characterised by the flexibility of process technologies. retail travel agencies have acted as intermediaries between primary creators/suppliers of travel products and the consumer. Matthew L. (38) Repositioning travel agencies on the Internet. Meuter. Feb 2003. (37) A Product-Process Matrix for Electronic B2C Operations: Implications for the Delivery of Customer Value. 101 . Gregory R. 3: pp. who rely more heavily on global attitudes toward SSTs when determining intention to use an SST. 143–152. 7: pp. Interestingly. characterised by the digital content of service products and the target market segment. The findings indicate that intentions to use SST options are driven by multiple. Surprenant. Traditionally. offline services. Journal of Service Research. vol. They also present illustrative applications of the matrix to examine the B2C operations of two electronic food retailers. the authors develop and empirically test three nested structural models that include a hierarchy of consumer attitudes toward both the interpersonal and the technological aspects of the encounter to better understand their intentions to use SSTs. hierarchical attitudes. 286–299. and Carol F. defines four service product categories. Internet-related technologies dramatically change transaction costs in communication-based activities and raise both challenges and opportunities for this business sector relating to issues of the nature and value of intermediation. In this article. In addition to the direct effects of attitudes toward specific SSTs and individual employees.(36) Intentions to Use Self-Service Technologies: A Confluence of Multiple Attitudes. defines four service process stages. Heim and Kingshuk K. Journal of Vacation Marketing. The introduction of self-service technologies (SSTs) into the service encounter necessitates research to better understand customers’ attitudes toward service providers and technologies. The authors present propositions relating customer value to positions on the product and process structures and on the matrix. Apr 2001. vol. Martin Barnett and Craig Standing. The electronic service process structure. Positions on the matrix capture the product-process interrelationships in electronic B2C operations. The electronic service product structure. and the emergence of new virtual intermediaries. The building blocks of the matrix are an electronic service product structure and an electronic service process structure. Curran. the authors develop a product-process matrix for electronic B2C operations. and their intentions to use technology-based service delivery systems. the findings indicate that heavy SST users rely more on attitudes toward specific SSTs than do light SST users. James M. May 2001.

Through this analysis. A rapidly changing business environment. (2) A Stakeholder Perspective on Family Firm Performance. Nason. social entrepreneurs. we develop a typology of performance relationships between performance outcomes: overlapping. Data gathered over the 1992– 2002 period confirm that family firms tend to experience higher employment and revenue growth over time and are more profitable. Family Business Review. Jun 2006. this article deepens our understanding of financial and non-financial performance outcomes in family firms across multiple stakeholder categories. Founding families are present in about one-third of the S&P 500 – the sample of this study. 19: pp. have access to new products and be creative in their marketing. which in turn increases organisational effectiveness. It is argued that the characteristics of traditional travel agencies are not yet aligned with the demands of the new travel economy. synergistic. FAMILY FIRM PERFORMANCE (1) Family Firm Performance: Further Evidence. and substitutional. Thomas M. 203–216. we extend the common one-dimensional and cause-effect understanding of performance in family firms and move toward a comprehensive stakeholder 102 . vol. data from the most recent recession support the role that founding families play in maintaining employment stability during temporary market downturns. together with an appreciation of their potential for application. will require companies to quickly develop new affiliations and alliances. Based on this foundation. 103–114. Through the lens of stakeholder theory. 21: pp. largely brought about by the Internet. including the family level of analysis. Jim Lee. are able to increase stakeholder satisfaction. The lowering cost of information and communications technology calls into question the sustainability of many existing implicit online models. vol. succession planning. We argue that these relationships. This article empirically investigates the competitiveness and stability of family-owned firms relative to firms owned by diverse shareholders. Family Business Review. social enterprise initiatives and social enterprise in developing economies. Zellweger and Robert S. To aid in the creation of new forms. Although evidence on the relative stability in employment among family firms over the long run is tenuous. Regression analysis also supports that firm performance improves when founding family members are involved in management. when used between constructive (positive) performance outcomes. the authors use a series of seven models to describe the range of virtual organisational structures and apply these in the travel industry. The value of each of these forms lies in there being an appropriate response to the communication and transaction needs within a given nexus of market forces and opportunities. causal. Sep 2008. CHAPTER 11 The topics for which specific articles are identified include family business. It is suggested that an awareness of the range of organisational forms.The potential for structural changes in the travel sector highlights the need for travel agencies to actively select between business models which can best support an effective online strategy. will aid successful adaptation by travel companies within a changing business environment.

vol.performance perspective. Williams. 25–38. Family Business Review. The authors test this hypothesis in a large U. Dec 2006. Jr. W. Timothy G. 21: pp. (4) Resource Mobilization and Performance in Family and Nonfamily Businesses in the United Kingdom. The bundle of resources that are distinctive to a firm as a result of family involvement are identified as the ‘familiness’ of the firm. which provides insights for increasing organisational effectiveness of family firms. Jacques Jaussaud. Mar 1999. their businesses are similar to those of their non-family business peers in performance outcomes such as size and growth. and dynamic within a particular firm. The Resource-Based View (RBV) of competitive advantage provides a theoretical framework from the field of strategic management for assessing the competitive advantages of family firms. 19: pp. and niche marginalisation are more prevalent among family business owner/managers. Family Business Review. opportunism. Dec 2008. 12: pp. which suggests that weaknesses in human and financial capital choice are offset by strengths in the social capital of family firms. (3) A Resource-Based Framework for Assessing the Strategic Advantages of Family Firms. Mar 2009. 1–25. This approach provides a research and practice method for assessing the specific behavioural and social phenomena within a firm that provide an advantage. The RBV isolates idiosyncratic resources that are complex. The ‘family effect’. (5) Examining the ‘Family Effect’ on Firm Performance. 253–273.K. Using a familiness model for assessing competitive advantage overcomes many of the problems associated with the generic claim that family companies have an advantage over non-family companies. 103 . Bruno Amann. José Allouche. The purpose of this article is to provide an explanation for the contradictory evidence in the literature regarding the performance of family-owned firms. It also provides a unified systems perspective of family firm performance. vol. based on agency theory and the resource-based view of the firm. (6) The Impact of Family Control on the Performance and Financial Characteristics of Family Versus Nonfamily Businesses in Japan: A Matched-Pair Investigation. Gibb Dyer. The article suggests that most of the research fails to clearly describe the ‘family effect’ on organisational performance. and Toshiki Kurashina. Family Business Review. The analysis revealed that adverse selection. Family Business Review.-based sample of 319 family business and 258 non-family business owner/managers. Implications for theory and research are also discussed. vol. vol. is described and propositions are generated that examine the relationship between families and organisational performance. Habbershon and Mary L. Jonathan Levie and Miri Lerner. Yet. This study draws on agency theory and the resource-based view to hypothesise that family and non-family businesses differ in the capital that they deploy and the way that they deploy it. intangible. 315–330. 22: pp.

On the basis of data covering the years 1998 and 2003. 18: pp. and Allison Pearson. manufacturing family firms. The introduced framework contributes to a more fine-grained understanding of the turnaround challenges of established family firms and how they can be addressed. Kellermanns. 31–50.S. Eddleston. The implementation of these strategies was. Tim Barnett. Mar 2005. We assess the empirical relationships of these variables to both entrepreneurial behaviour and subsequent firm growth. moderated by eight characteristics generally associated with family firms. however. This study employs a case-study approach to identify unique characteristics of established small family firms that affect their ability to initiate turnaround strategies when encountering an organisational crisis. (8) Turnaround Strategies in Established Small Family Firms. Entrepreneurial behaviour by the CEO is essential for such growth to occur. Family firms are essential for economic growth and development through new business start-ups and growth of existing family firms. Family Business Review. John Cater and Andreas Schwab. Kimberly A. we found better performance among family businesses in Japan. vol. whereas the long tenures of CEO founders have the opposite effect. Entrepreneurial behaviour can be influenced by inherent characteristics of the CEO. To obtain a more precise result. Broadly speaking. and long-term goal orientation. Shaker A. infusion of external management expertise. such companies perform better than non-family businesses. 23–40. (7) An Exploratory Study of Family Member Characteristics and Involvement: Effects on Entrepreneurial Behavior in the Family Firm. as recent investigations in Japan support. 1–14. Mar 2008. as indicated by the number of generations involved in the business. Family Business Review. The results show that family ownership and involvement promote entrepreneurship. this study uses agency theory to highlight key correlates of risk taking among 209 U. this research has applied to the Japanese context a research methodology that has proven its worth in Western cases. 104 . Family firms are widely recognised as a major source of technological innovation and economic progress. 21: pp. These results urge managers to capitalise on the skills and talents of their family members in promoting entrepreneurship and selective venturing into new market arenas. altruistic motives. such as age and tenure. Zahra. Mar 2008. Yet. internal orientation. This is a topic of substantial practitioner interest considering the high failure rates of family firms. including strong ties to the family firm. (9) Entrepreneurial Risk Taking in Family Firms. Franz W. and retrenchment that have been proposed in the general turnaround literature. vol. vol. 21: pp. over time. Adopting a broad definition of entrepreneurial risk taking.Research on family businesses has undergone rapid development in the past two decades. we found evidence for family firms employing the standard strategies of top-management changes. In our case studies. as well as by the degree of family influence in the firm. Family Business Review. some family firms become conservative and unwilling to take the risks associated with entrepreneurial activities.

(10) Are Family Firms Born or Made? An Exploratory Investigation, Jess H. Chua, James J. Chrisman, and Erick P. C. Chang, Family Business Review, Mar 2004; vol. 17: pp. 37–54. Do businesses tend to be born as family firms or do they become family firms at a later stage in their development? The question has important implications for family business studies. In this article the authors examine this question using data extracted from survey responses of small business clients of the Small Business Development Center (SBDC) programme in the United States. The results suggest that most family firms are born that way but that a significant number of firms do arrive there through time. The relationship between age and family involvement appears to be concave – the rate of increase in family involvement slows as family firms become older and at some point family involvement may even decline. (11) Strategic Management of the Family Business: Past Research and Future Challenges, Pramodita Sharma, James J. Chrisman, and Jess H. Chua, Family Business Review, Mar 1997; vol. 10: pp. 1–35. This article reviews the literature on family business from a strategic management perspective. In general, this literature is dominated by descriptive articles that typically focus on family relationships. However, the literature does not usually address how these relationships affect the performance of a family business. Taking a strategic management perspective, we outline a new set of objectives for family-business research. We also identify some of the key issues and gaps that should be explored in future studies if research is to contribute to improving the management practices and performance of family firms. FAMILY BUSINESS SUCCESSION (12) Family Business Succession in Portugal: An Examination of Case Studies in the Furniture Industry, Carole Howorth and Zahra Assaraf Ali, Family Business Review, Sep 2001; vol. 14: pp. 231–244. This paper explores the transferability of theoretical constructs developed in an AngloAmerican culture to Portugal. Cultural effects on succession are examined within three Portuguese family firms, which were selected for their ability to generate theory. Much of the extant literature appears to be valid in this context. Notable exceptions include difficulties in applying stages models of the succession process with more than one predecessor and successors at varying stages. Harmonious rather than contentious relationships were commonplace. Daughters were more highly educated than sons and less likely to enter the family firm. Sons joined the family firm with little or no outside work experience and low levels of education. These facts are highlighted as concerns regarding the ability of Portuguese family firms to compete in the new economy. A conceptual framework is presented as a basis for further research. (13) Succession Planning in Family Business: The Impact of Owner Gender, Paula D. Harveston, Peter S. Davis, and Julie A. Lyden, Family Business Review, Dec 1997; vol. 10: pp. 373–396.


Research on succession planning in family businesses has largely neglected issues linked to owner gender. The present study examines the extent to which differences are evident between male- and female-led family businesses in succession planning processes. Using data from a national survey of family-business owners, the authors explore the predictors of the comprehensiveness of succession planning. The results confirm that there are similarities and differences between males and females in the determinants of succession planning. (14) Succession in Family Business: A Review of the Research, Wendy C. Handler, Family Business Review, Jun 1994; vol. 7: pp. 133–157. This paper reviews the research to date on succession in the field of family business management. Five streams of research are highlighted: (1) succession as a process, (2) the role of the founder, (3) the perspective of the next generation, (4) multiple levels of analysis, and (5) characteristics of effective successions. Gaps in the literature and future research directions are also presented. (15) Factors Preventing Intra-Family Succession, Alfredo De Massis, Jess H. Chua, and James J. Chrisman, Family Business Review, Jun 2008; vol. 21: pp. 183–199. Although research on management succession is a dominant topic in the family business literature, little systematic attention has been given to the factors that prevent intrafamily succession from occurring. Based on a review and analysis of the literature, this article presents a preliminary model of the factors that prevent intra-family succession. (16) Succession Planning as Planned Behavior: Some Empirical Results, Pramodita Sharma, James J. Chrisman, and Jess H. Chua, Family Business Review, Mar 2003; vol. 16: pp. 1–15. This paper uses the theory of planned behaviour to hypothesise the influence of the incumbent’s desire to keep the business in the family, the family’s commitment to the business, and the propensity of a trusted successor to take over on the extent to which family firms engage in succession planning activities. We test these hypotheses using data collected from presidents in 118 family firms. The results show that the propensity of a trusted successor to take over significantly affects the incidence of all successionplanning-related activities. Succession planning may, then, be the result of push by the successor more than of pull by the incumbent. Such a view has negative implications for the succession process that the family firms in our sample follow. (17) The Succession Transition Process: A Longitudinal Perspective, Barbara Murray, Family Business Review, Mar 2003; vol. 16: pp. 17–33. Based on longitudinal case study analysis, this paper provides a metaview of the succession process as it unfolds during the generational transition periods in family enterprise systems. The results indicate that the transition period contains a sequence of phases, here called the transition cycle, during which time the system has an opportunity to do the work or tasks required when changing from one archetypal form of ownership and leadership to another. Each phase in the transition period has a distinct task that the system needs to address, and the whole process requires between three to eight years to complete. Three distinct types of transition ‘journeys’ are identified, based on the extent 106

to which the system was able to make progress with and achieve the tasks required within the transition cycle. One of these journey types was most likely to lead to continuity of the family enterprise, whereas the other two journey types were more likely to lead to disintegration of the system. (18) A Study of Succession in a Family Firm, A.B. Ibrahim, K. Soufani, and J. Lam, Family Business Review, Sep 2001; vol. 14: pp. 245–258. For many founders of family firms, the decision to retire and relinquish control of the business to their offspring is difficult. Pierre Peladeau founded Quebecor Inc., a family business and a communications leader in the new economy. The present research describes the reluctance of the founder to let go of the business to his offspring and the succession process after the death of the founder. The methodology employed is a combination of case history and study of public documents. The study underscores the need to manage conflict between family members and to plan for succession for the next generation effectively. (19) The Succession Process from a Resource- and Knowledge-Based View of the Family Firm, Katiuska Cabrera-Suárez, Petra De Saá-Pérez, and Desiderio García-Almeida, Family Business Review, Mar 2001; vol. 14: pp. 37–46. A major challenge facing the family firm is the succession process. One reason for this challenge might involve the successor’s ability to acquire the predecessor’s key knowledge and skills adequately to maintain and improve the organisational performance of the firm. This paper uses two theoretical approaches from the strategic management field to explore this critical process and analyse how it can be managed effectively: the resource-based theory of the firm and the emergent knowledge-based view. This conceptual framework provides a powerful tool for understanding the nature and transfer of knowledge within the family business, which becomes the basis for developing competitive advantage over non-family businesses. (20) A Four Factor Model: A Guide to Planning Next Generation Involvement in the Family Firm, Eleni T. Stavrou, Family Business Review, Jun 1998; vol. 11: pp. 135–142. The involvement of and the reasons for the involvement of offspring in their parents’ firms can significantly affect the firm’s future. In this paper, a conceptual model is presented that explains the decision process through which the most suitable level of involvement for the next generation in the firm may be assessed. The decision process involves four factors: family, business, personal, and market. These factors set the context for managing intergenerational transitions in family firms. (21) A Comparison of Successor Development in Family and Nonfamily Businesses, Mark K. Fiegener, Bonnie M. Brown, Russ Alan Prince, and Karen Maru File, Family Business Review, Dec 1994; vol. 7: pp. 313–329. Although many streams of management research address leadership, succession, and executive development issues, significant gaps in the literature remain. In particular, few studies have systematically explored the systems by which the future leaders (successors) of family firms are developed. This research presents a descriptive study in 107

Nov 2001. Literature indicates that succession is critical to the future of a family firm. Handler. Yet this is precisely the task confronting them if they are to sustain family management of their business through intergenerational succession. In this article. 38: pp. The findings are delineated in a framework that portrays these influences. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. and conflict resolution are drawn on to develop intervention strategies aimed at helping family firm members both increase awareness about forces that sustain destructive sibling conflicts and find ways of working through them. This article reports on the Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network. 0899764008326198v1. relationship-centred approaches to successor development. 0: pp.which the successor development approaches of small to medium-sized family and nonfamily firms are compared. and (3) company size has no real effect on successor development. Competition for parental love and attention spurs sibling rivalry. and environment in Silicon Valley. Such intersectoral initiatives are of paramount importance for the capacity of a region/community to set up innovative solutions to socioeconomic problems from the bottom-up. 4: pp. Mar 1991. vol. Stewart D. task-oriented development approaches. 2211–2224. (22) The Succession Experience of the Next Generation. 3–20. a nonprofit organisation launched in 1992 to promote a series of intersectoral initiatives at the edge of the economy. An in-depth biographical study of 32 next-generation family members indicates specific factors critical to succession. Wendy C. society. Friedman. their relationships. (2) non-family firms prefer formalised. Sibling relationships can turn into rivalries that destroy family firms. The findings indicate that (1) family firms favour more personal. they face unique challenges in overcoming sibling rivalry’s harmful effects. vol. Social entrepreneurs are playing a pivotal role in promoting intersector initiatives to address economic and social challenges in regions and local communities. organisations. 5: pp. However. Family Business Review. such as Silicon Valley. 283–307. going beyond the limits of markets and government institutions. Flaminio Squazzoni. clinical and theoretical research on families. Whether siblings become rivalrous depends largely on parental responses to this contest. Trust and Social Capital. Sep 1992. Derrick Purdue. Family Business Review. vol. (25) Neighbourhood Governance: Leadership. (23) Sibling Relationships and Intergenerational Succession in Family Firms. This is increasingly happening not only in depressed but also in developed regions and communities. little is known about how the next generation actually experiences the process of succession. Urban Studies. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS (24) Social Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in Silicon Valley: A Case Study on the Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network. vol. and the effect they have on the succession experience of next-generation family members. 108 . Nov 2008. This generates social capital to support an initiative-oriented collaboration framework among participants and across sectors. Because adult brothers and sisters in family firms remain organisationally subordinated to their parents.

Riki Savaya. Sep 2007. process. combining entrepreneurial skills with a vision for the neighbourhood. The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. such as the type of host organisation or public attitudes toward different target populations. namely. 478–493. This article examines what is arguably the most well-established example of local economic development in South Africa. Local economic development and promoting racial reconciliation have been key foci in addressing the legacy of apartheid in South Africa. as social entrepreneurs or community representatives. The findings reaffirm the importance of the human factor. vol. vol. (27) Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis. Feb 2002. the authors discuss these relationships in the context of African American women engaged in high- 109 . 16: pp. Laquita Blockson. As the project has evolved over a decade. McQuaid. Nel and Ronald W. (26) The Evolution of Local Economic Development in South Africa: The Case of Stutterheim and Social Capital. More general lessons include the significance of key social entrepreneurs and the development of social and human capital in concert with physical and business infrastructure. This depends on community leaders. and culture) influences the context. The degree of social capital accumulated in a neighbourhood affects the path leadership succession takes as partnerships develop. Etienne L. Shimon Spiro. Social entrepreneurs resemble ‘transformational leaders’. The study reveals that even though the project has had difficulties. In addition. (28) Exploring Stratification and Entrepreneurship: African American Women Entrepreneurs Redefine Success in Growth Ventures. Jeffrey Robinson. Engagement with partnerships can also generate vital new resources of social capital for the community. social stratification (social structure. Community representatives resemble ‘transactional leaders’ who interact with their followers. The study findings identify characteristics of the programmes. Economic Development Quarterly. vol. The relationship between social stratification and entrepreneurship is one that is underexplored in the literature of management and organisations. 613: pp. and Roni Elran-Barak.Social capital consisting of trust relationships between a community and its leaders can contribute to the effectiveness of neighbourhood regeneration partnerships. the findings of these case studies point to factors that until now have not gained sufficient attention. In this article. American Journal of Evaluation. experience. the commitment of the leadership of the host organisation. Dec 2008. the host organisations. Ambivalence over trust between individuals and organisations in both partnerships and community reveals difficulties in accumulating social capital. 60–74. 29: pp. its sheer survival and ability to adapt in a rapidly changing society have been important. institutions. and the social and political environment. which differentiated programmes that are sustained from those that are not. 131–154. it has changed its development focus to reflect the changing context and various internal constraints. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. and Sammie Robinson. and outcomes of entrepreneurship. namely a local government and community-led development initiative in the small rural town of Stutterheim. In the authors’ view.

with rural and marginalised populations displaying a greater propensity to engage in social rather than profit-driven entrepreneurship. enterprise culture is widely viewed as a by-word for contemporary capitalist culture. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. raising questions not only about whether the promotion of profit-driven entrepreneurship in marginalised populations is akin to parachuting in an alien enterprise culture but also whether a focus upon social entrepreneurship might promote greater inclusiveness in the enterprise culture agenda than is currently the case. Jan 2000. The aim of this article is to evaluate critically this dominant narrative. The finding is that one-third of all entrepreneurs are driven primarily by social goals rather than profit. (30) De-linking Enterprise Culture from Capitalism and its Public Policy Implications. Nicola Robinson. the authors demonstrate how a social stratification and entrepreneurship framework may be useful for scholars who seek to understand the process of entrepreneurship. 260–282. Oct 2007. Better policy and processes are needed to include and represent the interests of low-income groups. To do this. 22: pp. what they want and what the planning process does and does not offer them. The authors support their premise by presenting the limitations of prevailing approaches that exist within the current minority and women entrepreneurship literatures. Williams. Consumers reported varying levels of satisfaction with retail provision. (31) Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study. the idea that entrepreneurship and enterprise culture might be other than profit-driven capitalist endeavour is seldom entertained. Instead. 110 . The findings suggest gaps between what people have. Health Education Journal. Using the concept of entrepreneurial success as an example. Sep 2004. Colin C. transport. Letts. The article concludes by discussing the public policy implications of this finding that enterprise cultures are not everywhere and always profit-driven. 121– 136. Concern is mounting as the retail stranglehold upon access to food grows. and Tim Lang. Sarah H. GEM’s UK Social Entrepreneurship Monitor is used to compare the levels and ratios of commercial-tosocial entrepreneurship across various population groups and areas in the UK. Martin Caraher. Research on the implications of restructuring retailing and health inequality has failed to involve low-income consumers in this debate. L.growth entrepreneurship. vol. and Christine W. This paper reports on an exercise conducted for the UK Government’s Social Exclusion Unit’s Policy Action Team on Access to Shops. Alvord. 40: pp. vol. 461–474. (29) Access to Shops: The Views of Low-income Shoppers. vol. Public Policy and Administration. The survey provides a useful baseline of the views of low-income groups in England. The choices that people on low income can make were found to be dominated by certain factors such as income and. 59: pp. and that cultures of entrepreneurship markedly vary across population groups and areas. Although a small literature has recently emerged that highlights the existence of social entrepreneurship. David Brown. most importantly.

to late 1990s. Identification. are suggested by these findings. Several avenues for further research on this understudied field. Furthermore. Jun 2008. and advocated the new model. 324–352. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. research. 37: pp. 128–137. Raymond Dart. Findings suggest that although the dot-com boom was an important prompt. a type of corporate societal marketing initiative. (32) ‘Building a Culture’: The Construction and Evolution of Venture Philanthropy as a New Organisational Field. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Ida E. 290–310. As organisational members struggled to resolve conflicts within their own identities. (33) Being ‘Business-Like’ in a Nonprofit Organisation: A Grounded and Inductive Typology. they were aided by social alliances. this integration allows both organisations and their members to align their commercial identities with their moral and social identities. and Minette E. Jun 2004. Berger. Their research finds that social alliances are an important means whereby employees identify more closely with their organisations while gaining a greater sense of being whole. as organisation of either programme service delivery or organisational management. Little research has systematically examined the concept of being business-like in a nonprofit organisation setting despite the increased importance of this concept in research. The case of venture philanthropy provides insights into the construction and evolution of a ‘new’ organisational field and ‘new’ professional culture. legitimated. and on other new fields and hybrid professional cultures. topics that require further scholarly exploration. and scaling up in social entrepreneurship that produces societal transformation. vol. The article suggests factors associated with successful social entrepreneurship. and as organisational rhetoric. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. political. nonprofit human services organisation. and economic contexts for poor and marginalised groups. (34) Identity. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for social entrepreneurship practice. integrated persons. which in turn led them to identify more with their 111 . Today the field has been refined. vol. and its proponents are more modest. It generates propositions about core innovations. Drumwright. Qualitative research examining venture philanthropy organisations and their leaders is reported here. and Relationship Through Social Alliances. The authors studied social alliances. particularly with social entrepreneurship that leads to significant changes in the social. Cunningham. and continued development. this article proposes that being business-like in a nonprofit setting can be understood in at least four distinct categories: as goals of programmes. 33: pp. 34: pp. Based on an in-depth qualitative case study of a single. vol. promoted as a way to revolutionise grantmaking. leadership and organisation. Peggy H. The fit with existing culture and institutionalisation via networks were also important. and practitioner communities. policy.This study provides a comparative analysis of 7 cases of social entrepreneurship that have been widely recognised as successful. Implementation difficulties and the business–nonprofit culture clash are among factors forcing evolution of the field. Apr 2006. Michael Moody. Canadian. ‘Venture philanthropy’ burst loudly onto the scene in the mid. the construction and diffusion of the field depended on opinion leaders who strategically defined.

(6) engage markets and market-driven solutions. (35) Wholesaling Social Change: Philanthropy’s Strategic Inflection Point. 37: pp. and (8) use technology itself to provide innovative solutions.and interorganisation identification. These ‘wholesaling’ organisations share many common characteristics such as: (1) intent to impact the masses. incremental cost to serve the next customer. In this article. indeed how. the article suggests that the definition of entrepreneurship might be modified to include the creation of ‘social and economic value’ and may thus be applied to both private. International Small Business Journal. It is argued that in the past social enterprises have been modelled on tenets of ‘not-for-profit’ charitable organisations that have attracted human and social capital with pro-social. and have engendered survival strategies premised on grant dependency. the author traces these discourses and perspectives as a backdrop to understanding social and economic entrepreneurship. vol. Throughout the twentieth century multiple discourses of the nature of enterprise and the entrepreneur have developed. Jan 2007. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. organisations can wholesale social change or develop programmes that almost overnight touch millions of people. Elizabeth Chell. vol. social enterprises should be self-sustaining and therefore entrepreneurial in their endeavours. 55–74. Unlike previous research. community-spirited motives. European Urban and Regional Studies.organisations. In seeking to understand and promote long-term and inclusive models of local economic development the notion of social capital appears potentially important. Today. Former Intel Chairman Andy Grove calls this a strategic inflection point. From these premises. it might be construed as a form of entrepreneurship. 5–26. Mar 2008. (2) marginal. Just as the internet changed the face of commerce. (7) redirect ongoing flows of public or private sector funds to institutionalise desired change. Philanthropy should define what ‘wholesaling activity’ is. (3) borderless service delivery. In the development of the social economy. entrepreneurial ventures as well as social enterprises. The article considers the nature of social enterprise and whether. Ben Hecht. 14: pp. 163–173. Feb 2007. vol. so it can change fundamentally the way that social change can happen. an aspect of the local economy which has attracted 112 . the findings suggest that the kind of connections referred to by the informants went well beyond the cold. The results also suggest that participation in social alliances may result in multiple forms of identification: intra. (5) redefining fundamental power relationships. and create mechanisms that will support acceleration of wholesale social change. (4) grants plus business model. recognise it. the author argues. 25: pp. In the longer term. There are times in almost every sector that forces of change come together to fundamentally disrupt the way that sector works. Mel Evans and Stephen Syrett. (36) Social Enterprise and Entrepreneurship: Towards a Convergent Theory of the Entrepreneurial Process. Philanthropy is on the brink of its own strategic inflection point. (37) Generating Social Capital?: The Social Economy and Local Economic Development. rational associations described in previous research to emotional attachments that appear to be critical to organisational identification.

N. Morris. Y. Oct 2006. social reforms. the relationship with social capital appears particularly significant. The fundamental logic of entrepreneurship is less apparent in this context given the social mission and multiple stakeholders involved. SOCIAL ENTREPRENUERSHIP (39) Antecedents and Outcomes of Entrepreneurial and Market Orientations in a Nonprofit Context: Theoretical and Empirical Insights. In part this is a result of the conceptual confusion surrounding the notion of social capital. in recent years massive changes have been occurring. and dissemination of the concern of volunteerism on a more planned and organised way on the other. and Jeffrey Allen. 8: pp. growth. welfare and increased theoretical and policy focus in recent years. 12–39. In the era of globalisation. successful implementation of development programmes requires appropriate policy framework. and conscientisation per se have taken place in this country and continue to do so. Minet Schindehutte. In the 1980s NGOs occupied a prominent place in the development sector. May 2007. In the 1960s and 1970s NGOs had grown manifold. (38) Perspectives on Non-profit Mission and Financing in India. vol. Findings are presented from a transnational European research project which examined the development of social enterprises and the social economy within different localities in order to seek to better understand their interrelationships with the local production and use of social capital. The early post-independence period was the era of religion-based and Gandhian voluntary organisations. there remains a lack of understanding of the nature and extent of existing social capital resources and the precise manner in which these are drawn upon in the development of the social economy to generate further social capital within the local development process. Sathyapriya. Indian experiences have revealed that there is a need for the critique of their own work and contributions. Ravichandran. but it also reflects a lack of empirical research. Nonetheless. This article explores the notion of social capital and the manner in which it is produced. India has a long tradition of volunteerism and charity. 13: pp. Susan Coombes. Gandhian philosophy and reformist approach. 207–227. a 113 . little is understood regarding the role of entrepreneurial leadership in the development. While heavily emphasised within for-profit organisations. This has to be based on appropriate research studies to validate presence. and sustainability of non-profit enterprises. An important feature during this period was that the state had provided financial support to NGOs. Michael H. challenges and relevance. position. formulation of suitable plan schemes. reproduced and used locally within the social economy as part of the local economic development process. S. Movements for liberalisation. and effective delivery machinery. Building on findings regarding entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within for-profit organisations. The history of social organisation seems to have largely been influenced by a laissez-faire movement on the basis of the promulgation of the theory of minimisation of state intervention on the one hand. and Ajit Jain. These findings emphasise the importance of contextualisation in the study of local social capital and the importance of interpretative approaches for area-based policy development. Journal of Health Management. Yet despite the apparent salience of notions of social capital. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies. vol. Rajashree. During the colonial period the voluntary movement witnessed the era of the Christian church.

Emphasis is placed on the relationship between EO and the market orientation (MO) of the non-profit enterprise. Researchers used a systems theory perspective to examine the role and impact 114 . (40) Looking Backward: Twentieth-Century Themes in Charity. EO is associated with aspects of market orientation. Voluntarism. vol. The authors identify seven themes in twentieth-century third sector study that elaborate this basic story: complement. and transformation. interests. situations) into symbolic categories (values. Mar 2006. from 2001 to 2005. therefore providing a collective significant system for the regulation of cognitions and actions. and provides opportunities for the greatest and the least in society to make common cause. beliefs. 34: pp. 26: pp. The authors conclude that the third sector articulates needs. and the Third Sector. The authors conducted a discourse analysis of 962 articles. This is the first attempt to assess the role of the public discourse in fuelling entrepreneurial intentions in the French context. apostasy. offers assurance and comfort. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal. Niehm. Mar 2001. Linda S. Social representations are the result of a perceptive and cognitive construction of reality. We identified three main categories of discourses – the legitimacy discourse. Within the consensual reality through which the social world is created and experienced. which transforms social objects (people. This exploratory study examined the relationship between lifestyle entrepreneurship and life quality. 241–259. vol. (41) The Social Representation of Entrepreneurs in the French Press: Desirable and Feasible Models?. but not with financial performance. correlates. Sara B.model of antecedents. the press can be emphasised as an entrepreneurial ‘Greek chorus’ playing a key role in the diffusion and transformation of entrepreneurial culture at the local and national levels. Marcketti. 30: pp. ideologies). Jun 2008. The researchers defined lifestyle entrepreneurs as individuals who owned and operated businesses closely aligned with their personal values. (42) An Exploratory Study of Lifestyle Entrepreneurship and Its Relationship to Life Quality. challenge. alternative. 259–298. impediment. Implications are drawn for theory and practice. the normativity discourse. and the accessibility discourse. vol. Jon Van Til and Steven W. Ross. which may impact readers’ desirability and feasibility beliefs. when the time came. auxiliary. Miruna Radu and Renaud Redien-Collot International Small Business Journal. Further. and Ruchita Fuloria. A second part of the theme says that. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. The findings demonstrate that entrepreneurship has a legitimate role in non-profit organisations. the third sector proved inadequate to the challenges posed by the Great Depression. and passions. The purpose of this article is to question the foundations and structure of entrepreneurs’ social representation in the French press. A central theme is identified in high school texts published in the twentieth century: that philanthropy and voluntary service in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries formed meaningful responses to the circumstances of their times. and the work climate can be designed to affect levels of entrepreneurship. in order to study the press’s potential impact on entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility beliefs. and outcomes of entrepreneurship in non-profit organisations is developed and tested. 112–129. permits individuals to join in creating the joys of shared community life. contexts.

food service. The authors conclude by discussing possible strategies for addressing these problems. Economic Development Quarterly. (45) Strategic Collaboration Between Nonprofits and Business. vol. and Administrative Dimensions. Nitin Bhatt and Shui-Yan Tang. vol. transactional. and communities.of lifestyle entrepreneurship on life quality for individual business owners. The research builds on and extends 115 . their businesses. (43) Board Practices of Especially Effective and Less Effective Local Nonprofit Organisations. and administrative challenges. including apparel retail. and their perceived life quality. creation. 30: pp. the collaboration value construct facilitates the analysis of the definition. Based on 15 case studies. a set of alliance drivers is identified that determines the nature and functioning of the partnerships. vol. alliance enablers that contribute to the effective management of the relationship are set forth. and integrative. Renz. indicate that local understandings about poverty are being overridden by socalled programmes of partnership support that erode local confidence in home-grown ideas about poverty and how to combat it. Second. a country where the NGO sector is heavily dependent on overseas funding. Financial. 69–97. James E. Herman and David O. focusing on their role as transmitters of grounded knowledge about poverty in very poor countries. Many of the entrepreneurs owned and operated businesses related to family and consumer sciences. Interviews with staff in 33 NGOs in Ghana. Microcredit has gained increasing attention over the past decade as a tool for spurring grassroots entrepreneurship in the United States. Fourth. Jun 2000. Collaboration between nonprofits and businesses is increasing and becoming more strategically important. Although some prominent microcredit programmes have reportedly demonstrated positive economic effects on microloan recipients. customers. Aug 2001. balance. Mar 2000. researchers examined characteristics of lifestyle entrepreneurs. 229–241. this article presents a cross-sector collaboration framework consisting of four components. This is illustrated by reference to the common donor preference for working with groups and for ‘Asian’ development approaches. 29: pp. and the community. (44) Making Microcredit Work in the United States: Social. This paper is concerned with the factors that influence and constrain NGO contributions to poverty reduction in a globalising world. Through 12 descriptive case studies. The article discusses the dynamics of the alliance marketplace. The American Review of Public Administration. The authors examine these challenges by drawing on existing studies and their own in-depth analysis of two of the oldest microcredit programmes in California. many others have suffered from various social. and hospitality firms. 15: pp. interiors. Robert D. Austin. 146–160. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. the collaboration continuum provides a conceptual framework for categorising different types of partnerships and studying their possible evolution through three principal stages: philanthropic. Third. and renewal of the value generated in different types of alliances. financial. First. their families. Two common themes emerged from the data: enhancement of business owners’ quality of life as a result of the entrepreneurial venture and a perception of the entrepreneurial venture providing enhanced quality of life to employees.

Throughout the twentieth century. information and communication technologies (ICTs) and lifestyle products and services combine. This article considers the history of this conceptual boundary and looks at new conceptualisations of nature/culture.existing interorganisational research theories by providing a distinctive conceptual framework and new empirical understanding of cross-sector alliances. in Western thought generally and within particular disciplines. or abolishing. Jun 2005. especially those that have the capacity or likelihood to transform and disturb 116 . 9: pp. visions of utopia and dystopia have often run alongside such major developments in technology. stimulated by developments both in biotechnology and in the ongoing controversies about environmental degradation. (2) The Mobile Phone as Media. rather than subjecting their practices to fully reflexive self-scrutiny. The convergence and blurring of industry boundaries increasingly see entertainment. social scientists have in their analyses of such matters often merely asserted the hegemony of ‘culture’ over ‘nature’. with or without technical savvy. where a broad range of mobile phone users. The resulting consumption is an experience economy. can harvest from the everincreasing palette of the digital domain. Instead of using these issues as means of challenging social scientific disciplinary dogmas and of engaging in constructive rapprochement with natural scientists. The possibilities that digital economies (via products and services) provide in shaping our experiences – and how others experience us – lend support to Featherstone’s comment that the ‘aestheticisation of everyday life’ has arrived. and also some natural scientists. vol. European Journal of Social Theory. knowledge and cultural processes. to characterise ‘nature’ on the one side and ‘culture’ on the other. This article focuses on the mobile phone’s permeation into ‘everyday life’ through products. social scientists have too often merely asserted the primacy of the sorts of subject matters and analytic techniques they feel comfortable with. Harvey May and Greg Hearn. vol. global warming. 8: pp. and thus in effect the superiority of social scientific over natural scientific conceptualisations of the world. May 2006. there has nonetheless been an unfortunate tendency for social scientists to bring to bear inherited analytic dispositions on biotechnological and environmental matters. 195–211. CHAPTER 12 The topics for which specific articles are identified include new technology. to rethink the relations that hitherto have been held. International Journal of Cultural Studies. Far from overcoming the nature/culture boundary. Border Crossing and the Nature/Culture Divide. expendable income and aesthetic ambitions. TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY TECHNOLOGY (1) Boundary Maintenance. In recent times developments in the natural sciences and in the sphere of environmental politics have compelled social scientists. It argues that while some of the contributions to reconfiguring. healthcare innovation and genome/nanotechnology development trends. David Inglis and John Bone. 272–287. the nature/culture division have been productive and stimulating of new ways of conceiving the world. sustainable energy industry.

The evolution of online advertising. Apr 2005. Joseph Wong. cultural and policy studies. as well as in the social sciences and other disciplines. and lessons for understanding technology futures are illustrated by research in different industry and user sectors. James Stewart and Robin Williams. The technology is very fluid. targeting specifically biotechnology and the bio-business sector. This article frames within that question a historical and comparative analysis of the process of audience manufacture. The question of what is new about new media has become a central topic of discussion in new media studies. This transition invites a rethinking of the East Asian developmental state model and in particular the state’s role in leading knowledge- 117 . Outlining a number of current states of play and future scenarios for the mobile phone in the everyday. This article criticises ‘technologically deterministic’ approaches. 26: pp. Feb 2009. and attempts to overcome the limitations of previous literature on the internet by situating the discussion within the political economy of communication.conceptions of the everyday. (3) The Coevolution of Society and Multimedia Technology: Issues in Predicting the Future Innovation and Use of a Ubiquitous Technology. It shows how a three-layer model of component. serves as an entry point for questioning some well-established assumptions about the role of audiences in commercial media systems. Multimedia technology is becoming ubiquitous in modem society. Three cases of technology-based predictions are examined from education. 268– 282. we suggest that mobile phone analytics will shift from the utopian and dystopian towards analyses by more conventional theoretical and methodological tools and approaches found in media. New Media & Society. Prediction of the coevolution of multimedia technology and society needs to be informed by a research framework that focuses attention on the key social. (4) Audience Manufacture in Historical Perspective: From Broadcasting to Google. 169–191. 133–154. The main topics addressed in the ‘blindspot debate’ — the debate regarding the audience as the commodity produced by advertisingsupported media — are used to guide an examination of audience manufacture in broadcasting media. vol. and work organisation. Oct 1998. standards. International Political Science Review/Revue internationale de science politique. (5) Re-Making the Developmental State in Taiwan: The Challenges of Biotechnology. which simply seek to extrapolate social change from technological potential. and economic influences on technology and technology use as well as on the emergence of stable uses. in particular its relationship with search engines. Taiwan has embarked on a new post-industrial or post-manufacturing industrial trajectory. 11: pp. vol. and to contrast it with the manufacture of the online audience. and it is having profound effects on institutions and expectations. and development paths. Social Science Computer Review. Fernando Bermejo. psychological. 16: pp. and development is shaped by a great many social factors. vol. Technological innovation has become the key imperative in Taiwan’s continued economic transformation. and application technologies can be used to integrate findings from the use and development of technology in specific sectors. retailing. political. infrastructures. system.

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. (6) New Sources of Radical Innovation: Research-technologies. etc. Applying a framework that captures the intensity of e-business adoption across four business process domains. industry. 328–338. the military. Vijay Mahajan. Research-technologies breed a new constellation of intellectual and institutional transverse dynamics which selectively accommodate both stability and change. 425–447. They find. 31: pp. This study questions the erstwhile claim that the growth of scientific knowledge and successes of radical technological innovation are the consequence of cognitive and organisational differentiation. The innovative feats of what are here labelled ‘research-technologies’ derive from the capacity to reconcile differentiation and integration. state technical and metrological services. Across industries. a unified framework that captures the antecedents of e-business adoption. The article first offers a framework of analysis for the post-industrial developmental state. firms have adopted e-business initiatives to better manage their internal business processes as well as their interfaces with the environment. followed by an overview of the emerging biotechnology sector in Taiwan. Transversality and Distributed Learning in a Post-industrial Order. Social Science Information. adoption intensity. that while the communication and internal administration aspects of e-business positively affect performance outcomes. and Sridhar Balasubramanian. The bulk of the article examines different political. Oct 2003. the authors find that the antecedents and performance outcomes of ebusiness adoption are best studied in a process-specific context. Aug 2006.intensive industrial development. Bulletin of Science. However. 44: pp. and to secure the division of labour embedded in speciality domains. vol. The concluding section discusses how the interventionist state has begun to adapt in postindustrial and democratic Taiwan. the more high-profile activities related to online order taking and e-procurement do not. Technology & Society. vol. 26: pp. vol. The authors’ findings provide the foundation for a more rigorous study of e-business. (8) The Role of Innovation Regimes and Policy for Creating Radical Innovations: Comparing Some Aspects of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Technology Development With the Development of Internet and GSM. Dec 2005. Fang Wu. 118 . Terry Shinn. 731–764. and that differentiation and integration are antithetic. and performance outcomes is proposed and empirically tested using data collected from senior managers in four technology-intensive industries. this mobility is not to be confused with mode 2-like anti-differentiation between science and engineering and between academia and enterprise. economic and social challenges faced by the developmentally oriented state. (7) An Analysis of E-Business Adoption and its Impact on Business Performance. In this study. while simultaneously promoting transverse communication and interaction between actors located in multiple and heterogeneous environments and linked to diverse interests. It is shown that throughout the twentieth century many radical technological innovations originated with and developed around generic instrumentation. the practitioners and artefacts of which are characterised by selective and intermittent boundary crossing between academia. Helge Godoe. for example.

Despite large potential for renewable energy sources in Bangladesh. this article examines Bangladesh’s current energy strategies and institutional settings and investigates future strategies for the advancement of renewables. 292–315. Aug 2006. The battery electric vehicle has the highest electrical efficiency. the development of fuel cells has been insignificant. a number of future energy visions. currently their contribution to the electricity supply remains insignificant. SUSTAINABLE ENERGY (9) Toward Sustainable Energy Development in Bangladesh. Although numerous highly successful innovations stemming from telegraphy may be observed. Maria Saxe. Anders Folkesson. Technology & Society.Telegraphy. 17: pp. appropriate strategies and institutional settings need to be put in place for all nations. storage. a potential radical innovation in energy generation. the distant ancestor of Internet and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). vol. In this article. a simplified 119 . Cecilia Wallmark. and end-use of hydrogen when suggesting a ‘hydrogen economy’. are identified and then performed for energy storage. Kristina Haraldsson. To address this. The Journal of Environment & Development. was invented by Samuel Morse in 1838. Bangladesh is one of the most electricity deprived nations in the world. Internet and GSM. that is. as renewables emit less greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuel energy systems. It is also shown that for stationary electric energy storage. (10) Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives. with some aspects related to the evolution of two highly successful radical innovations. Sk Noim Uddin and Ros Taplin. Bulletin of Science. However. Lars Hedström. packaging. 26: pp. Sep 2008. and Per Alvfors. fuel cell electrolysers could be feasible. It is shown that it is important to be aware of the losses implied by production. By comparing the modern development of fuel cells and hydrogen technology. Mårten Bryngelsson. distribution. slow. This article argues that further significant efforts could be made toward energy sustainability in Bangladesh and the development for a national sustainable energy strategy. Finally. Zero-tailpipe emission vehicles are compared. from a sustainability perspective. but other requirements imply that plug-in hybrids or fuel cell hybrids might be a better option in some types of vehicles. Among other future strategies. the author focuses on the role of innovation regimes and policy in a sectoral system of innovations perspective. and energy use in vehicles. One year later. William Grove invented the fuel cell. energy transportation. 264–277. to advance such sustainable energy systems. In the slow pace in fuel cells and hydrogen technology development. vol. and erratic and has not yet resulted in notable positive socioeconomic effects. are discussed. Use of renewable energy is considered an indispensable component of sustainable energy systems. two factors seem to interact negatively: weak and fragmented innovation regimes in the energy sector and the current hegemony of market-oriented R&D policies. especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen. implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol could assist in facilitation of energy sustainability for Bangladesh.

and ways of overcoming them are suggested. As well. The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic. Bulletin of Science. and other supply-side barriers that have generally interfered with success. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. Although hydrogen can provide several positive improvements over a carbon. Apr 2008. renewable and nonrenewable sources. 98–104. (11) Hydrogen Highways: Lessons on the Energy Technology-Policy Interface. Bulletin of Science. competitive technologies (e. hybrid vehicles) may offer comparatively greater economic and/or environmental advantages. Technology & Society. and Bryan Haney. Judith Alazraque-Cherni. Alex Waegel. several problems are also likely. institutional. The hydrogen economy has received increasing attention recently. Vanderburg. vol. This article first discusses the usefulness of renewable energy for encouraging sustainability in rural. and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labour. vol. 26: pp. This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyses the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short.example is applied to the overall results and used to discuss the needs and nature of an energy system based on intermittent energy sources. Aug 2006. Daniel Tobin. analyses barriers that have often interfered with the promotion and delivery of expected outputs of installed modern energy technology in remote communities. reduced environmental impacts. Apr 2008. (13) Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries. 28: pp. economic. Important questions to ask in this regard are whether a hydrogen economy can fulfil key energy needs and whether there are appropriate roles for hydrogen to play in a sustainable energy future. Common reasons cited for investigating hydrogen energy options are improved energy security. (12) The Most Economic. Intellectual barriers are identified. It takes into account supply-and demand-side options. and finally presents findings from a survey on the actual performance state of the renewable energy technology and degree of satisfaction with it. the household and other stake-holders have been left outside the scope of evaluation. vol. 28: pp. national and local initiatives have been launched in the United States. Alternative energy must be considered within such a strategy.or uranium-based energy system. John Byrne. poor areas. and net energy availability. Technology & Society. 120 . it is vital that all aspects of hydrogen be compared with other available alternatives. 288–298. Willem H. which carefully examines its effects on society and the biosphere. social. 105–114. In anticipation of these benefits. Before policies to advance a hydrogen energy economy proceed. creating pilot ‘roadmaps’ and technology partnerships to explore hydrogen economy platforms. Socially Viable. and its contribution to a transition to sustainable energy sources.. Technology & Society. Although there is substantial recognition of technological.g. and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy. Bulletin of Science.

the international community is developing the architecture of a policy response. vol. faces significant technological and institutional barriers. 28: pp. Three serious flaws are examined: (a) the potential sacrifice of small island states. Gerard Healey and Andrea Bunting. Vernese Inniss. There is now a good amount of research reporting the lifecycle environmental and economic aspects of power generation systems. Australia had little installed wind capacity. Climate change presents a fundamental challenge to the current global energy regime.(14) Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems. 200–209. and (c) the substitution of carbon sequestration for meaningful reductions in energy use. Until recently. Bulletin of Science. Formerly. Bulletin of Science. This situation changed in the late 1990s: installed wind capacity began growing rapidly following the introduction of supportive renewable energy policies and the restructuring of the electricity industry. Dec 2001. 28: pp. based on these issues. John Byrne. Apr 2008. wind farms still provide only 1% of Australia’s electricity. biogas. Technology & Society. Yu-Mi Mun. The current window of opportunity is providing – for the first time – a significant space in which these barriers can be better understood and addressed and the requirements for wind power institutionally embedded. vol. (b) the use of market-based policy measures to commodify the atmospheric commons. which need to be overcome if wind power is to play a significant role in Australia’s electricity supply. The renewable energy systems reviewed include wind. Technology & Society. and services. The article also highlights the areas where more lifecycle analysis is needed. solid biomass. hydroelectric. The lifecycle concept is a ‘cradle to grave’ approach to thinking about products. These are then compared with each other and those of conventional power generation systems. It has been applied to an increasing number of conventional and renewable energy generation systems and in an increasing range of countries. Technology & Society. Leigh Glover. Wind power. Under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Bulletin of Science. vol. Chris Lund and Wahidul Biswas. and industry momentum is yet to become self-sustaining. the future of supportive policies is uncertain. This article reviews the existing lifecycle analyses of renewable energy systems to determine the current understanding of their full lifecycle impacts. although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Any rigorous and meaningful comparison of energy supply options must be done using a lifecycle analysis approach. solar photovoltaic. 443 – 455. stateowned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. geothermal. Jun 2008. (15) Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers. Gerard Alleng. The authors’ analysis of the politics of climate change. the authors argue. An 121 . 115–127. suggests a new understanding of ecology is emerging – what they term postmodern ecology – in which a global environmental crisis is risked to secure the future of the world energy regime. processes. recognising that all stages have environmental and economic impacts. (16) The Postmodern Greenhouse: Creating Virtual Carbon Reductions From Businessas-Usual Energy Politics. 21: pp. and Young-Doo Wang. However. solar thermal (for electricity). and tidal. wave.

It marked out differences between classes. They conclude by considering the situation of their own country. and Thomas Maschmeyer Bulletin of Science. political. William N. vol. (19) The ‘System’ of Automobility. 21: pp. Australia. 149 – 158. in which consumers varied by the quantity of desired automotive traits they could afford. Culture & Society. carrying meanings and identities. Oct 2004. vol. Theory.alternative. David Gartman. and geographical factors. to illustrate that the solutions to the challenges will likely depend not only on technology development but also on social. based on principles of sustainability and equity. Biomass provides the only sustainable source of organic carbon for the production of chemicals used in manufacturing and as liquid transportation fuels. has evolved through three ages during the twentieth-century. The article further considers whether and how the twentieth-century car system may be transcended. In the age of mass individuality. In this article. and an Australian Perspective. It served to obscure qualitative class differences underneath the illusion of mass individuality. is proposed that would require abandoning the global energy status quo. 21: pp. In the age of class distinction. In so doing. 28: pp. the car expressed the different identities of lifestyle groups in a levelled and pluralised consumer culture. Technology & Society. the authors examine some of the challenges that society faces in the transition from a global economy in which transportation fuels are derived from fossil fuels to one in which they are derived from renewable biomass via a ‘biorefinery’. The extension of the cultural logic of each of these automotive ages ultimately contradicted its configuration. The automobile as an object of consumption. This notion is used to understand the origins of the twentieth-century car system and especially how its awesome pattern of path dependency was established and exerted a particularly powerful and self-expanding pattern of domination across the globe. vol. and pushed the car forward to the next age. The article assesses whether such a new system could emerge well before the end of this century. Oct 2004. (17) The Biorefinery – Challenges. the car was a reified consumer commodity. It elaborates a number of small changes that are now occurring in various test sites. John Urry. as postulated by the theory of the Frankfurt School. as theorised by postmodernism. 169–195. element in ‘globalisation’. while simultaneously misrecognising and legitimating their origins. if surprisingly neglected. 25–39. The article briefly considers whether these small changes may in their contingent ordering end this current car system. Theory. Opportunities. the authors present an overview of the technology currently available to society and highlight some of the key issues that must be resolved in order to grasp the opportunities that stem from the transition. This article is concerned with how to conceptualise and theorise the nature of the ‘car system’ that is a particularly key. factories. The article deploys the notion of systems as self-reproducing or autopoietic. ITC sites. each characterised by a peculiar cultural logic. cities and societies. whether in other words some small changes now may produce the very large effect of a 122 . Apr 2008. Culture & Society. Rowlands. Anthony Masters. In the age of subcultural difference. (18) Three Ages of the Automobile: The Cultural Logics of The Car. the car served as a status symbol of the sort theorised by Pierre Bourdieu.

The branded drugs are costlier compared to the generics. and Philippe Cinquin. vol. Journal of Health Management. 123 . the instrument can be detected in near real-time using shape considerations. Salvatore Turco. N Lalitha and Samira Guennif. vol. The industry has also responded by investing in R&D to improve further. more than in many of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries including the US. The balance of trade in pharmaceuticals has been positive. In order to control costs and promote generic drugs in the prescription. and they rank higher than the US in patents granted. turnover from the domestic sales has been declining while the exports turnover has been increasing. Strict regulatory measures govern the pharmaceutical industry in France. Leon Lachman. (22) Automatic Detection of Instruments in Laparoscopic Images: A First Step Towards High-level Command of Robotic Endoscopic Holders. This information strongly constrains the search for the instrument in each endoscopic image. Nearly 10 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in France is spent on healthcare. (21) A Status Report on the Health Care Sector in France. for mobility and for limiting projected climate change. and offering suggestions to hospital practitioners for coping with the controversies. for pharmaceutical companies it provides an extended period of power over the product. Of the total turnover of the pharmaceutical industry. The authors have developed a new method to detect instruments in laparoscopic images which uses information on the 3D position of the insertion point of an instrument into the abdominal cavity. The authors’ first experiment on a cadaver validates our approach and shows encouraging results. Though this could delay the entry of generics. 26: pp. the government has introduced several regulatory measures. 311–343. Hence. HEALTHCARE (20) Generic Drugs – A Look Back and a Look Ahead. which even other OECD countries have not fully implemented yet. The pharmaceutical industry in France is the third largest in Europe and adopted product patents even before the TRIPS agreement. UK and Canada. In conclusion. In order to compensate the firms for the loss of time in the patent application process. 10: pp. Early results on laparoscopic images show that the method is rapid and robust in the presence of partial occlusion and smoke. 3: pp. Twenty per cent of this budget is spent on medicines. Sandrine Voros. vol. The International Journal of Robotics Research. second only to the US. the government plays a significant role in providing healthcare and regulating the pharmaceutical post-car system that would have great implications for urban life. The tracking of surgical instruments offers interesting possibilities for the development of high-level commands for robotic camera holders in laparoscopic surgery. 1173–1190. and James T. JeanAlexandre Long. Jan 1990. The French have also been filing a large number of patents. Nov 2007. O’Donnell. This review includes the viewpoints of three pharmaceutical scientists tracing the origins of the generic drug industry. Dec 2008. 192–202. the French government grants a five-year term of exclusivity for companies satisfying certain criteria. Journal of Pharmacy Practice. examining the recent generic drug controversies.

Cheek. At the root of all pharmacogenomic investigations is pharmacy. infection risks and costs are some of the many advantages of MIS. 3: pp. Lastly. This paper studies these aspects associated with the emerging international healthcare market and also some of the challenges these marketers may have to face in future. 25: pp. There is a fast growing acceptance of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). 309–327. roles. the authors outline the role of the Human Genome Project and the Food and Drug Administration. Maria Chiara Carrozza. Oct 2003. particularly as it relates to their practice and their patients. Healthcare companies are organisations that have recently started going international. They have played and will play a very important role in the advancement of MIS. postoperative pain. actuators and embedded electronics. Ellingrod and Jessica Moline. which is why it is so important for pharmacists to gain an understanding of this field and clinical applications of this science. vol. 124 . Pharmacists are experts in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.(23) Micromechatronics in Surgery. although pharmacogenomics is taking centre stage in other therapeutic areas as well. As part of this chapter. vol. the authors summarise some of the barriers we still face regarding clinical applicability of this science and the potential role of genetic counsellors in the incorporation of this science into clinical practice. Apr 2001. sensors. Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control. both of which are instrumental to the advancement of pharmacogenomics. it is extremely essential for healthcare products and services marketers in the international arena to be aware of the international scenario including the international customer. Journal of Health Management. 277–282. problems they could not have even imagined when they were a single-country company. vol. 20: pp. in which surgical procedures are performed with the least possible damage to healthy organs and tissues. They allow the possibilities of enhancing the surgeon’s abilities where current MIS techniques do not permit the full range of human dexterity and perception. 43–63. and they therefore represent ideal healthcare professionals for incorporating pharmacogenomics into therapeutic drug monitoring. The goal for this issue of the Journal of Pharmacy Practice is to provide an overview of pharmacogenomics and highlight research done in select therapeutic areas such as oncology. (24) Incorporating Pharmacogenomics into Practice. Paolo Dario. (25) The Emerging International Health Care Market: The Impact of Technology and Innovation. including healthcare companies. Micromechatronic technologies involve the miniaturisation of mechatronics devices like precision mechanisms. and Louis Phee Soo Jay. and also the rapidly changing telecommunications and healthcare technology in domestic and international markets. We are currently in a critical period of time in which pharmacists need to become engaged in the decisionmaking process regarding how best to implement pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. and some present and future applications of micromechatronics in surgery. We are now living in an era of economic globalisation and many industries are now becoming multinational just to survive. psychiatry. cardiology. This increases the level of complexity for marketers of all companies. and HIV. Ashish Chandra and Ronald G. This paper discusses the objectives. Journal of Pharmacy Practice. The reduction of recovery time. Jun 2007. foreign governments. Hence. Vicki L.

Jan 2006. Five pathways for future research are recommended: (a) Multilevel approaches studying innovation simultaneously on individual. A. group. 7: pp. via innovation. (d) application of experimental designs in interventions. via toxicological testing. 66–72. and the delivery of therapeutic progress. and the critical success factors for the design and delivery of telemedicine and telecare services. within the ICH. Governments and healthcare providers have shown considerable interest in the potential of telemedicine for reducing service costs but have been slow to provide the strategic context in which the approach can move into the mainstream. An assessment of the ICH’s claims about the implications of ‘technical’ harmonisation of drug-testing standards for the maintenance of drug safety.(26) Innovation in Healthcare: A Systematic Review of Recent Research. 19: pp. (27) The Strategic Support of Telemedicine and Telecare. The modern development of telemedicine and telecare dates from the early 1990s when a combination of technological and service drivers created new opportunities. vol. Hannakaisa Länsisalmi. regulatory science and ‘progress’ may be more complex and controversial than is often assumed. Norris. which has involved both the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies in an organisation known as the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). Only in the last five years or so have we seen an awareness of the strategic underpinning needed to produce this context. Innovation and Regulatory Science in Drug Development: The Politics of International Standard-setting. C. Pirjo Aalto. healthcare professionals and equipment suppliers in policy development and strategy setting and reviews the experience of several countries. 81–89. Research on innovations in healthcare organisations published between 1994 and 2004 are here reviewed and summarised. (c) use of longitudinal designs (innovation both as the dependent and independent variable). These drivers include advances in information and communications technologies. The majority of the 31 identified studies dealt with the adoption of innovations and new practices and were cross-sectional designs applying quantitative methods. 337–369. This paper identifies the roles of government. Mika Kivimäki. it is argued that. military applications and perceived cost reduction. 32: pp. vol. (28) Progress. Health Informatics Journal. The analysis shows that the relationships between innovation. This paper examines international standard-setting in the toxicology of pharmaceuticals during the 1990s. and organisational levels. The analysis seeks to determine the key principles that facilitate the mainstream development of telemedicine. and Raija Ruoranen Nursing Science Quarterly. the need to extend healthcare access to remote and disadvantaged communities. vol. The 125 . a discourse of technological innovation and scientific progress has been used by regulatory agencies and prominent parts of the transnational pharmaceutical industry to legitimise the lowering and loosening of toxicological standards for drug testing. is presented. John Abraham and Tim Reed. Jun 2002. or multiple case studies applying qualitative methods. and (e) exploration of innovation generation and structural innovations. By demonstrating that there is not a technoscientific validity for these claims. Jun 2001. Social Studies of Science. (b) a combination of quantitative and qualitative data.

it examines the scientific ‘fact making’ involved in the clinical trials of drugs designed to assess their safety and effectiveness. Sociology. Nov 2008. Feb 2008. assessments that are the basis for securing approval for their release onto the market. recent attempts to guide research on entrepreneurship embrace innovation while ignoring the wealth redistribution aspect of entrepreneurship. Aron S. Bruce A. 26: pp. Drawing in particular on Latour’s theoretical and empirical analysis of science. Italy and the UK. widespread convergence by the firms in one economy to the same institutionally supported strategy. Andrea M. in conjunction with a more explicit consideration of power. 297–314. Yet. The purpose of this article is to investigate theories that have produced differences in entrepreneurship definitions. International Small Business Journal. 40: pp. This article examines how sociology can contribute to an understanding of the work. Schumpeter argues that entrepreneurship means innovation by 126 . and often excessive. the related loss of information on micro-level variety entails that convergence effects are more pronounced — possibly exaggerated. While scholars agree that firms need a competitive advantage. the question of how firms cope with increasing pressure for competitiveness gains momentum. The evidence suggests that it is highly implausible that these reductions in the standards of regulatory toxicology are consistent with therapeutic progress for patients. and Craig White. Kirchhoff. (29) Pills. People: Sociological Understandings of the Pharmaceutical Industry. Strategic Organisation. they debate whether firms exploit the comparative advantage of their economy and converge on that strategy facilitated by national institutions. into supposed therapeutic benefits derived from promises of greater access to more innovative drug products. Innovation. vol. vol. ‘Yes’.mobilisation and acceptance of this discourse are shown to be pivotal to the ICH’s transformation of reductions in safety standards. It also examines postapproval drug assessments and the fuller evaluation of a drug that emerges with time. NANOTECHOLOGY (31) Entrepreneurship. and Wealth Distribution: The Essence of Creative Destruction. Joan Busfield. Spencer. argue strategic management proponents of the resource-based view. Herrmann. use of pharmaceuticals. especially in the pre-approval stage. It shows how the industry’s control over this science. 343–374. which are apparently against the interests of patients and public health. Power. power and impact of the pharmaceutical industry. ‘No’. claim contributors to the competitiveness literature. and highlights a worrying aspect embedded in the ‘technical trajectories’ of regulatory science. has helped to encourage extensive. (30) Contrasting the Resource-based View and Competitiveness Theories: How Pharmaceutical Firms Choose to Compete in Germany. We raise this issue because equitable wealth distribution is a fundamental focus of economics. Whenever macro-level indicators are used. Apr 2006. The discrepancies between these findings and the analyses of the competitiveness literature are attributed to differences in the indicators employed to measure corporate strategies. The author’s micro-level studies of these opposing views do not find evidence for a strong. 9–26. 6: pp. vol. As economic internationalisation advances.

and nano-technologies championed by high-tech start-ups redefined the electronics industry. non-medical body implants – possibly made more acceptable via the military – raise a number of problems concerning human nature. (32) Nanorobot for Brain Aneurysm. 35: pp. Military research and development in NT is expanding rapidly. Mar 2004. For the near and medium term. As the commercialisation of nanotechnologies intensifies. based on clinical data and nanobioelectronics. 558–570. independently owned firms. Special dangers to arms control and stability may arise from new biological weapons and microrobots. vol. by any firm. Currently. (34) Mediating Uncertainty: Communicating the Financial Risks of Nanotechnologies. E. The platform architecture describes how to use a nanorobot for intracranial prognosis. and electromagnetics as the basis to advance medical nanorobotics. using a three-dimensional task-based environment. the proposed model offers details about how a nanorobot should help with the early detection of cerebral aneurysm. and shows how it should be integrated for medical instrumentation. 335–361. Bijan Shirinzadeh. containment of which will need special analysis and effort. Apr 2009. The International Journal of Robotics Research. this area will grow in significance. To illustrate the proposed approach. the nanorobots must search for protein overexpression signals in order to recognise initial stages of aneurysm. Developments in the military could entail specific dangers. For humans and society. the current study establishes proteomics. transparency and international cooperation should be improved. Jürgen Altmann. several guidelines for limits and restrictions are suggested. Thus. Science Communication. The commercialisation of nanotechnologies and the rapid development of hyperbole around their commercialisation can provide a fertile field for research into how the potentials and expectations of an emerging technology are communicated to investors. This article explores how the financial potentials of nanotechnologies and 127 . Mar 2008. vol. Security Dialogue. We suggest entrepreneurship research should focus more on entrepreneurs that form and operate independent new firms. An advanced nanomechatromics simulator. most entrepreneurship scholars focus on innovation. Ebeling. as a source of wealth creation without recognising that redistribution only occurs when innovation originates in new. In this paper the authors present how nanoelectronics should advance medicine. 28: pp. 61–79. we describe how new micro. Adriano Cavalcanti. Mary F. (33) Military Uses of Nanotechnology: Perspectives and Concerns. As a first step. Further research is needed to find the best way to avoid possible dangers. deconstructed the mainframe computer industry and are redefining the pharmaceutical industry today. is implemented to provide an effective tool for device prototyping and medical instrumentation analysis. Furthermore. 29: pp. Potential future applications span all areas of warfare. and Seiichi Ikeda. Toshio Fukuda.independently owned start-up firms that cause creative destruction that yields equitable wealth redistribution. providing details on the teleoperated techniques and equipment design methodology necessary for the effective development of nanorobots. It is predicted that nanotechnology (NT) will bring revolutionary changes in many areas. with the potential for both great benefits and great risks. vol. nanobioelectronics. In this article.

The other group of arguments can be identified as the contextual position by emphasising the social context wherein technology is produced. and Donald Maclurcan. nanotechnology has been more of a dream than reality. One can be identified as the instrumental position. The authors divide the arguments expressed in this discussion in two broad groups. used and adapted. 123–148. institutions and meetings. however. vol. marketers. vol. The authors summarise and analyse the main arguments in the debate on nanotechnologies. Although nanotechnology is often defined as operations on the 10-9 metres. Science and politics converge in debates about the future of technology as expectations serve to create and enforce power and legitimacy in the emerging area.the promise of high returns for investors are constructed by marketing professionals and mediated through financial media. Science. Mar 2007. Afterwards. The outline covers the period from 1997 to late 2007. more fiction than fact. and reviews the documents that most directly address the issue. Noela Invernizzi. In recent years. Cynthia Selin. technology and society. 128 . May 2008. 13: pp. Attention is focused on how the immense uncertainties that surround nanotech as a commercialised field are managed by scientists. Technology & Human Values. the lack of charisma in the scale-bound definitions has been fortified by remarkable dreams and alluring promises that spark excitement for nanotechnology. and in non-governmental organisations since 1997. and journalists and on the communication strategies used to take advantage of the ambiguities of nanotech in order to translate the technologies into a profitable industry. (36) Nanotechnology’s Controversial Role for the South. Science Technology & Society. This work examines how future claims work to define what counts as nanotechnology and reveals dilemmas that accompany temporal disjunctures. which emphasises the technical capacity of nanotechnologies to solve poverty problems and spur development. This debate over time and timing is loaded with paradox. The possibility that nanotechnology will turn into an instrument to aid development or alleviate poverty has been discussed explicitly in academic circles. Guillermo Foladori. at meetings held by international bodies. development and poverty. The article considers the most influent opinions from organisations. presenting their main ideas in chronological order. From its inception. The different positions on the role that it can play in the process reflect particular interpretations of the relationship between science. 32: pp. the term nanotechnology has been actively drawn toward the present to begin to deliver on the fantastic expectations. the main issues at stake in this controversy are highlighted and analysed. The story of the rhetorical development of nanotechnology reveals how speculative claims are powerful constructions that create legitimacy in this emerging technological domain. 196–220. (35) Expectations and the Emergence of Nanotechnology. public relations professionals.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times