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Musical ornamentation

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143. for appoggiaturi read appoggiature. . and so throughout. 120.ERRATA. Page Page Page Tig. Page IX. — Line 10 — Line 8 for acciaccaturi read acciaccature. — The G Clefs should be on the second lines as usual. wherever the term appoggiatura occurs in the plural. — Line 23.



Beispielen und wiederum Beispielen ist etwas klar zu machen und schliesslich etwas zu erlernen." (Wagner. 1879.) .) (Only by example. Un texte mddiocre apprend souvent autant qu'un chef-d'oeuvre. by example and yet again by example can any thing be clear and thoroughly learnt. qui semble d'abord insignifiante." Nur an Beispielen. peut devenir plus tard un 6l6ment fondamental pour la solution des probldmes importants.) made " II n'y a pas de ddtail inutile en philologie." (Ernest Renan. Telle particularity.

and T.. Sweelinck : III. . Couperin. VII. Le Begue. .. Simpson Locke..... L'Affilard. . LuUy. . XIII. XXIII. ' Handel ... XIV. XII. IV. XVI. V>. . . II... XXII. Gabrieli. PART Section I. and G. Dieupart Mattheson. XXI.. Carissimi Praetorius VI.. MufFat Corelli Scarlatti. XI. Frescobaldi Mersenne.CONTENTS.. Pachelbel... D'Anglebert . . . D'Ambmis Reinken.. Merulo. Purcell X. Fischer Chambonnieres. .Bach . Monteverde.. Kuhnau. Diruta A. Tartini. Page Introduction I. Froberger. The Parthenia Caccini. Murschhauser. XIX.. Mace Herbst. Gaultier VIII.S. IX. XVIII. Walther." Tosi Geminiani. Rousseau Quantz Marpurg XXIV.. XX. Mondonville .. J... XVII. Rameau XV. G. Playford.


Tempo. many important pitch. and even when they are theoretically followed. all were left. and may hope to I'each something like a ornament diatonic. ought at least to understand them. in* what relation does it stand to the main note what proportion of the main note does it occupy ? Which has the stress the ornament or the main note ? If the ornament has — — correct execution of their music. however. &c. In the case of practical musicians there has always been a tendency to deviate from once accepted traditions.good and right. they are frequently found to be incomplete or perverted. or the resuscitation of a habit of improvising facile varior running into division.* by clear precept gradations oi piano and forte. - INTRODUCTION. as usual. by dint of studying the various kinds of ornaments and embellishments at first hand. They are interesting. the way bass to play accompaniments from a figured "Diminutions. Lessons for the Harpsichord. Hence the importance of a historical survey and a comparison of materials. and many more. or does it require an accidental ? Does it fall on the beat of the main note. may be brought into closer sympathy with the instincts of 'older composers for time and tone. that the explanations and modifying comments of a competent master may be required. The order. Divisions and graces have had their day and have served their purpose. to the discretion of the executants. so long as it is made by one generation of artists to the practice of their immediate forefathers. If one attempts to apply the explanation of an ornament given by this or that composer to contemporary music or even to music of his own. because the writers. and certainly authoritative. to practice arise. if anything practically worth having is to be derived from some of the information given.. have taken more pains to show up what they deem bad practice and hold to be reprehensible. towards which the just because questions they are tables are Is the —that is to say. for instance. or can it be meant to precede the main note? Is 'it quick or slow? If slow. But there are so many details. abstracts-^fail to furnish a sufficient answer. are difficult to deal with owing to their discrepancy and their occasional and apparently arbitrary substitution of one sign for another. and to teach and example. both old comparatively new. which before and during the eighteenth century approved singers and players a sufficient appeal no doubt. and a deplorable paucity of special examexamples in which the signs for graces are ples given together with the context. If. 8157 * Tosi. materials for this little book on Musical Ornamentation are arranged in quasi-chronologicaX Thus they serve for a general survey as No one will care to advocate the revival of a host of obsolete curlicues and twirligigs. we are fortunate enough to attain some measure of success in tracing the links from one phase of expression to a number of puzzling questions as tables. much is gained. more or less. But we shall not understand them from the usual and instruction books. Questions of taste and style have ever been decided by an appeal to tradition and the example of The a little tables of signs and explanations. The books contain an abundance of so-called "Explanations" concerning the execution of graces. but rather vague and puzzling after the lapse of a century . for instance. the singing master. Care has been taken to make each detail so full of intelligible. in points in what they it believe to the execution of music were matters of tradition. formed the usual adjuncts to printed copies of Pieces de Clavecin. or so. We may thus arrive at' a better notion of technique in times past. and the subject is seeming contradiction." and the way to render certain embellishments in both vocal and instrumental* music. and we anles well as for a special study of ornaments.." "Divisions. . than to expound Up to Beethoven. vocal music a be . and the execution — is written out in full. : Some such another. capella.

Beginning with Claudio Merulo in Italy. Vlll the stress. dent to and contemporary with him. from the endless variety of divisions. In the end. Like local peculiarities of accent. ludes and in almost every bar a the ornaments indicated source of doubt and difficulty. S. and rules are laid dov/n for their execution then a process of more or less conscious selection and rejection takes place and. If there is any kind of law at all. only in this instance. Pieces such as the slow to trace the use. Bach's ways by reference to the practice antece- recorded specimens —the six Violin Solos of Corelli (Op. Many indications of the presence of conventional Some groppi. Couperin. wen The often directions given the various tutors are only for use the fact Sebastian Bach makes copious. and are tending to disappear more and more completely as time goes on but several of them still occur in daily practice. p. that the details which constitute the first part of Rossignol " of Suites. clavicembali). They are improvised by one person. 5). in the end.and pronunciation. and it is imposYet not sible to play the piece without them. when. showing the important part division played in the execution of solo music during a considerable number of years. chieily with a view to illustrate J. accurate knowledge of the manifold and various stenographic signs for ornaments tremoli. when divisions are. Bull. therefore. some rapid shorthand character is devised or borrowed to record the best of them. In secular songs. is — graces. in the sixteenth indispensable to the student^ and the too.. which Quantz wrote for Frederic the Great. pipers and violists. then which part of the ornament in ? and the it entire number cannot be that . the Graces (one grows fond of the quaint old English term) appear as short additions to the tune tremblemens. In church music the grace notes. and especially the impromptu expansions and variations which come under that head in the vocal airs. the ornaments have been found in mediaeval vocal music. already in part obsolete. beats. spinetti. The attempts 8157 of early instrumentalists to . improvised and interpolated by the singers. and Byrde. Early century they signs and the quaint things they stand for are are of frequent occurrence in instrumental music organists. Franc. numerous grouped. the viol. and in due course to florid counterpoint and divisions.* the Agr^mens this study of and Doubles to the Sarabandes certain Bach's ornaments have been gathered and In the second part an attempt is made florid arias of Handel. ignored. players are confronted render the the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- we fortunately possess a few completely with a series of puzzles of the like nalure. whom The tables and specimens given in due order below present interesting material for tracing the gradual differentiation of ornaments proper. nieren — — little trills. * It and gradual with five disuse of Bach's ornaments up to the present day. his Air Doubles (D minor) in the third set of harpsichord lessons. or who taught it practice satisfactory answers —no matter —and that can to particular questions only be got by historical comparison. Let any player. this process will be found to be practically complete in the time of Bach and Handel. as expressed by signs. cembalo. the ^ Adagios from the first " Double de in J. S. who with Bach. written out in full and incorporated in the text.. and a variety of signs remain to express the ornaments. The * Edit. Prelude in C He will find Fugues. They form an integral part of the master's design. both ecclesiastical and secular. and the collections of vocal divisions contained in Burney's History are also good examples. the lutenists. 242. for the most part. extensive is of so many. inflections of the voice. and the Adagio in F which opens his second Suite. Brahms. partial perversion. maTrue. the student is forced to the conclusion that not fully conversant was somewhat lax throughout what was taught. it is " case law. and flute solos of turies. and players upon' stromenti da penna (virginals. III. and Gibbons in England. try to sharp minor (Pre- but one author contradicts another. one and all make extensive use of them. would be idle to inquire where. . agr^meris. and consistent enough per se. such things arise Avhenever people sing and play upon instruments. imitated by another.). * * * * * *'* movements of the Concertos for the Flute. or by any particular sort of musical grace or ornament was first introduced. Part II. It is. gave rise to the so-called contrapunctus a mente. until they become common property. but in very many important instrumental pieces by Bach. like." As to Division. .

clumsy graces though. and of which the latter is the form most frequently met with. In Diminution." " Tremolii" "Accenti "). a little more tasteful than the latter. by the insertion of little shakes. after the fashion innovation at that time." the " elevathe English masters — — In Germany this process was known as "organi- tion. such as short shakes." Vol. In their hands division takes the form of variations dn popular tunes the tune — being given to the treble. however. . Their probable significance is discussed in the chapter on the Parthenia. whilst the main notes of a subject are changed into notes of shorter tastefully applied. up for the organ. of vocal runs (" Minuti — run into division abundantly even riotously. the shake —or of some bits of florid counterpoint melodic outlines are preserved. they take the trouble to write out their long trills in full. These English variations are akin and the variations or merely prelu- was nothing else than a cheap and Whether composing dizing. the earliest instances of a species of stenography employed to indicate ornaments in music for keyed instruments. beats (short appoggiaturi from below or above). which he calls " Groppi. v.. turns. belongs the credit of having first made really artistic use of Diminution. or at least to indicate them with so many notes that there can be no doubt as to when and where a rather short or a prolonged shake is meant. of virginal. with that of the Italians and Germans perhaps a little more reticent than the former. and seventeenth century the or rather the trick to the " Differencias " of the Spaniards "Partite sopral' aria " of the Itahans. they employ a sign which amounts to no more than one or two little slanting lines drawn through the stem of the note. Examples in A. Orlando Gibbons. music. which will be explained later siren." and certain others consisting of shakes of greater or less duration.. originally a sort of improvised counterpoint. — — * Descant.* Peter Phillips {circa 1600). Like the Italians. consisting of little turns and runs. dis-cantus." " colorieren " (to furbish to colour). f diverse song. easy method of replacing the long notes of a piece music by groups of short notes or diatonic "). to alloy) consisted of tunes and their transcriptions of vocal music. so far as the writer is aware. circa 1571German organists " coloured " everything dull mechanical fashion. Byrde. hardly begun. To the great and comparatively very earl3' group of English composers and virginal players. of rather The early attempts at diminution in Italy are usually no more than a conglomerate . occur in Benjamin Cosen's MS. as they called it. and use graces as true embellishments. and appoggiaturi (" Groppi. led to what contrapuntal was called Diminution the introduction of groups of three or six notesequivalent to our turn. for the but for the simpler graces. Elaborate ornaments the quaint " double-relish.«Ritter's " Zut Geschichte des Orgel- spiels. The colour was the parts of a piece. It must." for instance. to flatter. &c. by syncopation (also sometimes called " Accenti "). or Division. Such signs also stenographic nothing but poor descant* indiscriminately applied to all — sake of a in busy instrumental effect. and the divergence between divisions on the one hand and graces on tjie other has duration ." to the tenor. note for note. v. in a From Faumann to Woltz. mordent. Bull. 8157 The pieces by Byrde and Bull in the Parthenia appear have been written not later than 1591. mordents. In Spaip and Portugal vocal pieces set out in diminution for the organ were known as " Glosas. and the slur or slide. so early as 1593. and the " Flores de Musica" (1626) of the Portuguese Padre Manoel Roikigues Coelho". and later). 1530. Diruta tried to establish a distinction between certain diminutions. a. II. Merulo and the two Gabrielis. be said that they * to "Obras de Musica" of the I Good specimens in the Spaniard Antonio de Cabe9on (1500-1566). These signs are. The English masters thus make division the groundwork. With some of diminution of the organists of the sixteenth art..t hands of French organists Diminution the in may be studied Attaignant's publications (Paris.— IX introduce changes inlu their versions of popular alcar. G. and transient the beginning of Figuration. Virginal Book The process is identical . on — are also carefully written out. when tunes employed as canto fermo were usually allotted of lutenists— an which he calls " Tremoli."J The favourite " Glosas " and "Alcados" (from (Her Majesty's Library Buckingham Palace) the single line rather oftener than the double and in other old English MSS. and by the use of dotted quavers or crotchets followed by shorter quavers or semiquavers ("Clamationi" "pricked crotchets"). a double song. 1617.n.

. as the virginal was that of the ladies. and in places where and published for the clavecin." lute fashion. has started f It is in the on the right tack. to division is incor- l and writer. 1630Andr6 Hardelle. French. who died before 1680 1665 Le Begue. organist and* cembalist. no less than we most commonly use upon the early English. cembalist." 1676.. § the and " Concerts en Trio " of Rameau. 1620-1670. and. — be studied in the Pieces de Franfois Couperin (1668-1733) \X the Suites of Dieupart. divisions after Byrde. circa 1689 the process of selection and specification from among a multitude of graces and glosses. Herr Oscar Fleischer. That Bach was acquainted with the Suites of Dieupart is shown l»y Spitta {see Mr. " the ever famous Charles Colman. as the heads of a school.). in Thuringia. in Frescobaldi's works {circa 1608-1635-45). in Paris. the use of various and more elaborate signs to express them. MSS. Henri Dumont. like German. stood for lutenist generthat of Bach. the contrary has come to light No ." a capable musician Chambonnieres._ transcribed. distribute their graces in rather fashion. &c. diminutions and divisions. some features of which It may Clavecin S. them profusely as taining to the inner parts. About 1650 a number of rather complex ornaments begin to take something like a permanent form." seven for signs in all "shaked Graces". and Italian lute is players upon cembalists. I Charles Dieupart will have to he counted among the obscure sources ofBach. Fuller Maitland's EngUsh translation. according to his wont. 1717 the designation " choses lut6es" is used by Frangois Couperin to express the notion of pieces | in which the chords are played arpeggio. and tr. acknow- ledges himself so much bewildered by the multitude of signs that. for the trustworthy "Explication" he thought himself bound to give. side by side with graces indicated by a few simple signs. the ornate French style attains its fullest developporated in the ment. 1630-1702 Raison. In 1659 Christopher Simpson. Four books. for their pleasure often carried lute the task of a historian of musical notation. to * For a considerable time Gibbons. together with a steadily growing subtlety of interpretation is found to be rapidly on the increase. . 1. It is evident that Bach made a close study of several movements. where certain short trills are marked t." In the matter of ornamentation the influence of * The name ally. for organist. circa 1688 D'Anglebert. Such is. contains five only. London. to trace the origin and development of the stenographic signs for graces. An with them. which form the basis of later publications."* With the French clavecinists and organists of the time of Louis XIV. i6g6). and musician all round. are indicated by those signs with many of which we are still familiar. Louis Couperin. J. for instance. p. X ' admirable and accurate reprint edited by Brahms and Chrysander. — .. in his capital essay on Denis Gaultier.the case. The amountof his indebtedness is here stated (post. imitated.t In the hands of the next generation of clavecinists. Bull. whilst everything else is fully written out and the same method of notation is found in the works of his pupil Fro. nine . an expert methods of philology. professional and amateur. It is reported that about 1650-1660 Froberger. — ever5'thing that pertains text. and its method is clearly set forth in the Pieces Monument. Lute players. approve of. At the same time. "which of Gaultier." he had recourse to his friend. Simpson's and Colman's tables have thirteen six for "smooth Graces. came to the English Court from France. who died 1667. and musical publications abroad contain and ornaments elaborately written out. fifteen. instance of but as late as they can have played any sort of grace without a sense of diffiit is difficult to make out how culty and incongruity. . lute. under Dieupart). 8157 ." and the numerous and choice ornaments which they. Doctor in Musick" (a harpsichord player-). abundantly evident. berger.. 1610-1684. or else rhythmically divided or "broken.:. when on Germany from Rome. 203. went to the French Court from England. The lute was the gentleman's instrument jSiar excellence. often indicating an indiscriminate per- transcribed from lute tablature to staff notation. In their publications or in their goes on apace. went to his way back Paris with the avowed object of watching the style and taste of the French lutenists.. Bach thought worthy of imitation . author of the " Division Violist. during the reign of Louis XV. vastly improved upon them. with regard to " shaked graces. Matthew Lock's " Melothesia. Purcell's " Lessons for the Harpsichord or Spinnett" (a posthumous pubThomas Mace's " Musick's lication. the " Gaultiers. and even organists. of 1673.* French lute Gentlemen travellilig and lute book music was sometimes many * Vide the correspondence of Huyghens.

A. S. He does not profess — to be a guide to — any man's practice . though for the most part they emanate directly from the circle of his pupils and friends.. the same ground as regards ornaments. 1753. As has been done in the excellent articles. By the all aid of to the spinet. " Vorschlag. The German names for the French signs. Scheidt of Halle. clavicembalo. the clavier proper from which pianoforte. numerous examples. E. 1750. of the and adds sundry complications of His book represents the high-water was from this distinguished school bonnieres and the Couperins that J. are still in use." C. all at first "Vorhalt. 8157 hand and perfectly reliable. organist at Nurnberg— from friends and colleagues whom Bach heard and admired in his youth. did At the time of his death. none of that remarkable cluster of instruction books which appeared soon after Bach's decease can be taken as adequately representing him." he quotes to enforce his them simply own views. organist at Weimar family and even from older members of his own Faustina Hasse and the vocalists of the Italian Opera at'Dresden. clavecin. as well as to the harpsichord came the square had no notion. Few really teaching the Friedemann queer (1720). Bach even includes elaborate pieces for the organ in his " clavier-uebung " (clavier practice). even in the matter of graces. as set forth in C. got his signs. Ph. mark The things expressed by the French steno- chap. organist at Liineburg. and probably reached C. who spent six years in Paris in Lully's time from Pachelbel. Flugel. Bach "clavier"* before the advpnt of the The chapters on " Manieren " have pianoforte. J. of which he makes so great a specialty. i). Bach also follows in the and continued in his ways as a practical organist and clavier. more extensive field than Couperin's. musicians — — not feel the value of his example as feel it. Accordingly. and he goes into many subtle details. still less as a composer for and nobody thought of keyed instruments analyzing his style as an executant or of recording his precepts as a teacher. . and though he speaks reverently of his "blessed father" (mein seliger Vater) and quotes his words as those of a " great man." " Doppelschlag " (turn). and are given in extenso (Part ii." As to the construction and mechanism of the old instruments of the clavier tribe. E. virginal players accept None the less it would be him as the sole guide to works. such as George Bohm. merit of being simple and definite. "Manieren"* to his infant son Bach designated them by a conglomeration of Italian and French names. graphic characters are of course much older than the characters themselves. he explains * f the signs from which came the modern Grand." &c. Ph. Bach is representative of the German admitted to be the leading school of " clavier" a mistake to his father's • Europe from the English and composers of the Parthenia through Sweelinck of Amsterdam and some of many disciples. therefore been translated. classical school of French harpsichord playing le separately.player. * Before and after J. virginal. S.. " Nachschlag. The German term for graces. His sons and disciples started each on some by-way of his own and strove to develop some specialty. Bach cannot be traced without constant reference to the works of his The predecessors and the contemporaries of his early days. and Reinken of Hamburg from Frescobaldi in Rome through his pupils Froberger and Franz Tunder. However this maybe. E. Emanuel Bach's "Versuch ueber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (Essay on the true way of playing the They have the Clavier). may be wake of the French masters. Bach from all parts of — playing. in Grove's Dictionary. Ph. and Johann Gottfrom the fried Walther. his Bruhns of Husum. In the matter of " Manieren. Three of these books. of own." 1717. neatness. qualified by German adjectives. Hipkins's articles. we now one and few were aware his of more than followed side of genius.t — " XI .nd." and cover . it is certain that Bach's use When of signs is mainly based on French models. of which Couperin apparently Bach German musicians applied way to all instruments with a' key- board — viz. to the clavichord. from manus =zha. and for that reason deserve to be adopted. his Couperin's "L'Art de toucher It Clavecin. who became organist at Liibeck through German organist and cembalist South the George Muffat. by Professor Franklin Taylor in Grove's Dictionary of Music. But his view embraces a far and good taste. Buxtehude of Liibeck. Bach's " Versuch. Ph. ChamS.other than his own.. — | practice of J. the term clavier in a general whom he praises for their accuracy. consult Mr. which are contemporary with C.

only did he accept the highly specialized signs and the practice of writing " les agr^mens in full. until a need is felt for concentration and a more careful choice of words. In the mature works of Bach's* two greatest successors. Beethoven and Wagner. in the course a change from the 8157 intermittent and uncertain practice of composers cause of the elaborate disQussions and directions in the. in enough. E. and the eighteenth century. Bach's teaching. in a roundabout way it has come to pass ornaments fully written out form a by no means inconsiderable part of J. Minute many rules being laid down for their proper use and application.. Marpurg's "Die Kunst das Clavier zu spielen" (1750). that certain traditional thorough —the the instinct for a grand style has led to the almost total extinction of the graces as such. and Leopold Mozart's " Grundliche Violinschule" (1756). seventeenth." Xll mentioned here: Fr. S. finding still that the license of execu- tants was an impediment. Even a fourth. mental chose to insert divisions man lutenists. and of so embody them he chose to ornaments and his text. conventional divisions constantly employed by the Italian vocalists violists. It would seem that the curbing and regulating influence which. Bach. is themselves on their apparently performances of such " fiorituri." it and expansion forms. got the upper hand of random ornamentation. E. in secular songs as well as in • solo music for the lute. In this They prided connection. in this respect is the * The . Turk's " Klavierschule. to put them in the wrong place as to time. With a group of poets the vocabulary may increase whilst the range of similes. the French and Gerand organists of the graces whenever and wherever they thought first half of the only superficially accounted for by a reference to the prevailing taste of the sixteenth. Ph. Ph.. a school of composers. clavecinists. practice of defining the signs for such From speech origin." as they called it of each grace. however. ******** great simple well balanced series of fundamental harmonies it was felt that divisions and ornaments ought to chime exactly with the rhythmic movement of the bass. comparisons. Wilh. most vocal and Uirtuosi many instruand fit. So. G. with of divisions examination discloses that he generally did this when graces occur in a position where a lax habit might have tempted an executant to misapply them. a musician's of point view.* The number and and variety of graces and On the other hand.' to take them too quick or too slow. a convenient link between the old " clavier" knd the new "forte-piano. ment our instinct for variety and in the delight which variety gives. or an allusion to the poverty of tone and other supposed defects of the fashionable instruments cases when composers worth while to prevent vagaries and to describe the —the lute of and the divisions ornaments the in small notes (grace notes) or to adopt harpsichord. S. the tendency and graces to luxuriate and run riot may bring about a desire for some check. deserves notice. D. In early days. harmonic system with its figured con- and to the timio. and images widens. Expert harmonists among composers were thus induced to determine the exact position— the " seat. was developed bass in Thus. parcel —elements The But musical having a common explanation of their rapid develop- ornaments by means of a table. the use of graces was permitted without much regard of time or to regularity any special rate result. arose more and more found frequently. it times for elaborate and courtly finery. and the instinct of executants could be trusted to secure an acceptable of the seventeenth century. &c. regarding the conditions under which it may or may not be proper to apply a particular sort of grace. Not J. Joachim Quantz's " Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote traversiere zu spielen" (1752). Bach's figuration. This is obvious lies in it but. in the end. But when." impromptu and strongly inclined towards tempp rubato. although it is little more than a recapitulation contrapuntal to the harmonic method of treat* ment became more and more marked when pieces of music came to be founded on some — of C. or to introduce! dubious accidentals." which is comparatively late (1789). Bach went further than this. is not so easy to assign the incorporate virtually to many of the ordinary cause of their minute specialization. of speed. instruction books of Quantz and C. of and graces are part and style. and to show by some sign what sort — — of grace ^ was best for a particular note in a par- ticular position.

56. to some extent.* light witness the very frequent occurrence of thecommon their touch compared with tmn. circa 1580. The juxtaposition of the movements. were brought up on the the modes. A clever organ builder. it would appear from Diruta (before 1593) that in his time the clumsy old fingering for keyed instruments had some connection with stress. This being so. and in the hands so readily to fall into 'division of iiigenious players the result was the Toccata. with certain deviations from the steady progress of the bass. and the modern major and minor in the seventeenth century. or to re-tune lute. melodies written in the modes formed the theme of many a fine piece scales — — witness Vorspiele. and Recercari " (1624) and in Purcell's lessons (1696). 22). XVIII.sang. as it obsolete ornament called the " double-relish. And there is a survival of * See the specification of one of the organs at St.." &c. therefore. organs. found correct and according to rule (see One other point demands notice. it ceases to be a matter for surprise and dubious shaking of the head when we find so many instances of ornaments fully written those that have it not. an impression Yet such bits are readily intelligible and can be played in a satisfactory manner. music. . but as late as Couperin (1717). where one might expect to find it.e. divisions and graces of the vocal part for the sake of expression. In the comments to the quotations from Caccini's it is tural emendations for. and the rest of the so-called brilliant school of pianists. p. were meant —besides their usual significance suggest the speed of the units of time that is. Canzone. The fact that (U I time signatures and seventeenth centuries." the open bass strings of the This is the true origin of the "ordres des pieces. phrasing " Good fingers " are to play good notes— i. in the case of ornaments. — — to made their way rapidly. accent." were —and —imbedded in the text. this sort of thing. "The Lord of Salisbury. 55. the grace notes being allowed the harmonic succession will p. Czerny." bad notes — towards diatonic progressions generally and. replaced counterpoint. Yet. thorough-bass. not only in Frescobaldi. some of Bach's Chorales and Choral- It is natural. so that they might be in a position to play several pieces in succession without having to stop and fumble the leaves. Mark's? Venice." Parthenia. [ There is a good parallel in the tone and touch of the Viennese pianofortes in Mozart's time and the ornate playifig of Hummel. or the connection one thing with another has come to light." " suites des pieces. The musicians when the were . with a view to contrast which occurs twice over in Orlando Gibbons' Pavana. broadly written out and fused with the context in Wagner's Tristan and Meistersinger. It would appear that the rather absurdly so-called the Suite and cyclical forms before the sonata and to cultivate a and fiorituri. but. No. "bad fingers. up to the time of Bach and later. and the directions for registration with regard to the various modes. Modern editors of the Parthenia thought such passages corrupt and tried conjec^ and pleasant sequence. as we would now write Largo f is clearly brought out in Frescobaldi's preface to his " Capricci. With the rise ecclesiastical scales of the opera and the growth of instrumental of the sixteenth — G ^ I 1 3 4 3 1 Z 4 4 all &c. For instance: the Italian "Partite sopra 1' aria" of Frescpbaldi's time prove identical with the earlier English variations and divisions of the Parthenia. with whom our task begins. — — pieces in the same key one after another. those that have the stress. who were in the habit of playing from the book "a livre ouvert " found it convenient to copy Lutenists. like Attegnati of Brescia. p. and probably along.f Elaborate ornaments are sometimes discovered in the alto or tenor parts of old pieces written out note for note — Partita— arose from the practice of lute players. that the feeling of Bach's predecessors and contemporaries should incline By way of analogy to this.* — — : xin absorption even of some of the simplest of them The and peculiar disposition of early Italian organs. * See the discussion of the old method of fingering and the corollaries in the chapter on Diruta. explains how the organists in Italy German came Many of a curious fact or inference with regard to taste for little trills the true origin of certain things. conveying to the eye. if only the he is dealing with a player realises that Compare the remarkable case of the "grace. ear. is a later affair. towards diatonic changing notes. produced an instrument easier to manipulate. if not to the of intolerable cacophony. be - " Nuove Musiche" probably originated shown that the tempo in the Monody {circa rubato i6oo). tempo in the modern sense. 8157 .

. with/ few and insignificant exceptions. such as fingering on keyed instruments.. Vol. irrelevant. are at first hand. to abbreviate. condense. With regard to the voice. Every temptation accurate. with which the theme of Bach's Fugue in E minor (No. given authentic tables in extenso. For the lute. cases of the with the fourth are by no means rare. III. mordents." II.) opens. and Fugues. of the first set of Six Preludes and Fugues for the Organ)* begins. for the m. To say that the accessory note ought to be a semitone so as to chime with the semitone which arises when the mordent is applied to the answer beginning on the tonic E. is The succession of tables with comments is intended to set forth the various ornaments with their signs together with each master's interpretation of his own signs. Museum. Compare diatonic changing even in the the which does not naturally cohere would produce a false impression.ost Some were conpart. A not A sharp. sifted and arranged. have been avoided as superfluous and possibly misleading. who stands for his disciple Froberger.. which exists only in tablature. the chapters headed Caccini and Tosi should be consulted. Purcell. Organists will remember the case of the two mordents. at the British . . stands for Claudio Merulo. and that in the light ments the application will be less uncertain of the of the accompanying comornaments signified than it and difficult has hitherto been. with which the subject of the' Others. on the other hand. &c. and C. or indifferent — detestable or desirable. on Domenico represent the French school Handel. are at now and then discussed some length. Corelli. and they Ornaments qua ornaments were diamust be fifth much that Systemisation would involve so suppression of minute differences and so much fusion of matter it so interpreted. With regard to instruments organ and harpsichord those on Diruta. the reader can at any moment satisfy himself whether or not a particular phase of the subject deserves to be called good. Her Majesty's Copies of the works quoted are. author of the first . The modern ear is The true centrepiece is. and occasionally the hooks of isolated notes have been drawn together. as well as for the composers of the Parthenia and for Sweelinck. The words and notes of the quotations. of accidentals. loa. A few of the tables are the result of compilation by the writer. Gaultier. D'Angleand Pachelbel Fran9ois Couperin. ^Esthetical considerations.). Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli. . It is hoped that the signs occurring in G and F clefs any master's the — — works will be readily understood by a glance at table and explications bearing his to name or the name of the leading contemporary whose school he belongs. and Geminiani. of course. J. on the fifth B. to include. as the Fugue have been deciphered and explained A according to the author's intentions. all the way through and no effort has been made to lessen the amount of repetition which a complete reproduction of the originals involves. " Musick's Monument. like the table in Mace's treatise pn the lute. Part or the mordent on the also written out. on Frescobaldi. good instruction book. Marpurg. sulted 8157 * Bach Ges. very themes of Bach's Fugues. Ph. bad. Christopher Simpson. literal the translations will be found substantially fourth. tempo. in which the changing notes in shakes. XV. Bach and contemporary with him. Such as Quantz the flautist. therefore. Scarlatti. regarding technical matters more connected with ornamentation. few words may be added as to matter and' arrangement. Mace 'for the viol. Besides. and indirectly for George Muffat on Chambonnieres. S. tonic before and in Bach's time. subject of the Fugue in C sharp major (Preludes fifth. the amateurs and clever connoisseurs Matheson. turn on the fifth fully written out and in the persistently kept up I. in C major (Part II. the garrulous clavier pedagogue Turk. who. The accessory note belonging to these mordents is meant to be the diatonic their insertion where everybody and everything. and may be taken for the originals of which they Though not always are an exact reproduction. The leading authorities are presented in something like historical sequence before J. and Rameau. Around and by the side of these authorities are grouped the lesser luminaries. In view of the authentic materials. Bach. All of graces are. p. Bach. the use Corollaries or less .— XIV out. who bert. see the chapters headed Mersenne. inclined to demand accidentals in places would be an anachronism and a blunder. or systematise has been avoided. and turns are simply diatonic. Jean Jaques Rousseau. who appears to embrace the whole and S. E. in the writer's possession. The familiar have been adopted..

for To Sir George Grove. through the publishers. and IL) Explanatory remarks and music notes in brackets. to mention but a few out of many. such as often occur tions. best thanks are due the free use of those treasures of the College have been revised but where there are so many some must be wrong.. Any corrections of fact addressed to the writer. Palace. book and harpsichord music {circa 1640). and the splendid collection of Mr. {Lib." the Suites of Froberger and Dieupart. to whose kindness the writer is particularly indebted for the loan of Richard Aylward's curious MS. " Musick's Monument. Director of the Royal College of Music. The dates." Lock's " Melothesia. in every instance. and. among .XV Library. Taphouse of Oxford. T. 1. Burney's copy of the extremely rare of the Parthenia." "Partite diverse. the quota- are additions by the writer. . and the Royal Others came from the rich Library first : edition Dr." Mace's of lute volume containing the complete edition (1637) of Frescobaldi's "Toccate d'Intavolatura." &c. W. will be very gratefully received. Buckingham College of Music. for Diruta's " Transilvano.


(virginals. spinets. 1593." — Venice.— // GIROLAMO DIRUTA sonar Organi vero modo Transilvano — Dialogo sopra il di et Istromenfi da penna. A dialogue upon the true way to play the organ and quilled instruments like). and the .


Cyprian and Giovanni Gabrieli. 8157 Ewer and Co. you play a breve or a semibreve on the organ the sound will continue so long as you hold but on a quilled instrument the soiind will disappear before you have done with half the value of the note. represents the position of the hands upon I Jan the keyboard vyith his usual fidelity. Je comprens cependant qu'il y a des gens k qui cela peut estre indiff6rent. differs from ours. by implication. . which he states to be that of his teacher. Andrea — — It for a comes to this somewhat : two or more parts or chords in the less frequent use of the thumb. I. Bull. Black keys — * Quills jerked the strings. dite cattive. the third over the second. the —ascending. to excite their sound. DiRUTA conveys his instructions in the form of a dialogue between himself and his pupil. For Diruta. in the hand —descending. nor must and second. they chose players before Seb. which have . but ' that the instruments ought to be equally quilled. and the sound powerful enough to. — "You must not descend with the third and fourth first you ascend with the molle (flat — fingers. in his picture of SL Caecilia at the Organ. The old mode of fingering and the position illustrate one another. Claudio Merulo (1533 — 1604). allowing But in scale passages Diruta's method. parce qu'il's jouent 6galement mal sur quel qu' instrument que cesoit. the German Hans Leo Hassler. and. in the right left same hand are treated as we still treat them. —" I might give many reasons. \j . Florenzio Maschera. second over the third. altar of Ghent." notes which have the stress. p.^ ^e ^^ 2 3 2 3 2 trfes 3 2 Diruta. and in all probability also of the Englishmen Byrde." van Eyk. 1635." ^ le Left hand. In a word. Venice. if you want to play with taste and dexterity.^ \j o . spinetti. 1891. bad fingers. to Bach and his sons. where you will find everything needful. the third over the fourth. and "note catttve. claviers ." example : if down the key . and fifth fingers. ." Transilvano. ascending. unaccented notes with the first. Diruta proceeds to expound the correct method of fingering. 45 : —" II faut surtout se rendre delicat en un instrument bien emplumfi. the Dutchman Sweelinck. : pass the fingers over one another hand the third over the second-.TRANSLATED FROM THE THIRD EDITION. descending. good fingers it not. —" How is it that many da penna (virginals. " II Transilvano. because the thumb is not fit to play the B black key) though it is serviceable enough upon B quadro (natural white key). a Transylvanian prince. and Orlando Gibbons. by Novella. Peter Phillips. Luzzasco Luzzaschi. of the disciples of that school. third. et avoir toujours Copyright. Merulo's method can be taken as representative of the Venetian school generally Willaert. sustain the harmony. so that the prolonged sound which is peculiar to the organ may in a measure be reproduced. Right hand. J Diruta distinguishes between "note buone. yet many people do so. It is therefore necessary to make up for this loss by vivacity and dexterity of hand and also by lightly touching the key several times in succession (con percuotere piu volte il tasto leggiadramente). study the works of Signor Claudio (Merulo).t The player ought to adorn his performance with tremoli and accenti (improvised changes). Clavecin " (1717). and begin by saying * the touch easy. clavicembali) as organists do not succeed so well in playing upon istromenti upon the organ ? " I will ' state the most important only. " L'art de toucher \ Compare Fran50is Couperin. because it is inconvenient." notes Accented notes to be played with the second and fourth fingers. de Rore. ^'HLr t 2 3 a *-J. dite buone. and that of all The' old virtuosi did not pass the thumb.

3*3434 notation of the fingering being reversed. of fourths. Salto cattivo (unaccented skip). ascending. 1690).) Played. extent. " L'art de toucher le Clavecin " (1717) 1 234343 4 3 j :— i i 4 3^ 2 Maniere plus commode." and the thumb and fifth have an Nicolaus Ammerbach (one of J. such as skips of thirds. and fourth fingers. Progres de tierces coulees I j ^ 1 2 3 4 2 3 < 4.. S. say from F to E. If the phrase descends. ^ ^ 3 2 2 3 S157 . E and F with E. the thumb being . 1696) : Right hand. Compare Cabezon's directions below." 1571. in his '' Orgel oder Instrumental Tabulatur. The third finger shall also play the unaccented notes which form skips (' note cattive che saltono '). 3 2 1 -^ i hand is =^ _ The queer fingering for the left probably meant to apply to the scale of C." thus (Written.. begins with the fourth finger. the process is reversed.„ finger is the first . "fanno tutto la fatica." published by his widow." These precepts as to a certain to the use of good and bad fingers taken together seem to imply that the fingering. also describes two kinds of what he calls " Mordant " : — " If the phrase ascends. fourth. Zl • ^ 4 jfjg -«J- 8 ^ j?^j=^^ 4 S 4-^- Z^ * 3 4 3 4 • 2 Thus the second." Leipzig)." Henry Purcell Lessons. Antonio de Cabezon's "Obras de Musica. and E with F. has the following fingering for the scale the thumbs being marked o and the fingers with the first three numerals — : Right. : Right hand. " Skips of larger intervals require the following fingering " Salio buono (skip with the accent). The so on to the fifth." edited by his son Hernando (1575-78): "Ascending passages with the right hand are played with the third and fourth fingers descending passages with the second and third fingers. stood for phrasing. et bemolis^s. " your little . pour les tons dieses. fifth edition. 12 Left hand simile.— — — — — are generally to be played with the 'dite buone' (good fingers). gives directions for fingering similar to Diruta's. say from E to F. left hand. — counted as one. "Li primi Albori Musicali " (Bologna. easy time of it.and vice versd. Bach's predecessors at the " Thomas-schule." Fran(jpis Couperin. Lorenzo Penna. goes on to the thumb.. of fifths. or at least that the rules of fingering were to be applied with a view to proper accent. Ammerbach alternates with D... hi iSHi Left. F alternates with G." thus (Written. third. 4.) Played. 1656. The (" and so on. Antwerp. and that the phrasing required would suggest the fingering. then again starts with the Descending.

) Groppi with accidentals — rss- ^ — "C7" (Accidentals are to be inserted at a cadence. quavers. HOW TO IMPROVISE DIVISIONS). cjz Doric Mode transposed.) m W Diatonic Groppi. .TO S (Subject. notes.* HOW TO I!LAY GROPPI {i. jn.) :^ i'JJJJJ^JJJJ^JJTO. and accidentals in brackets are the writer's. Ionic Mode transposed. (Subject. Diruta. and semiquavers also with semiquavers and demisemiquavers.TT^ B (Subject.) T?" -rr- -Tzr ^ (m ** J—* J *Q ^3^ c. S1S7 . Further examples of Groppi ^ s (Subject.e..) i 4' w JiJ^jJ^'^^ rrrrrrfr J^''^i^^-i ->j-iJ''jjj^^ Si * Words. " Groppi are played in various ways that is. requires \? for fa. as shown in the following examples " : — — — a.) -j'^ ^J J (Subject. (Subject. ascending and descending diatonically 4 also with accidentals. They move diversely. zrzz 32Z i JiJXOJJ^ 9' ^ ^ * E5 5 6. 35=*! ^J^J^JjJJJ.) !)' ' J. requires \> for its minor third and Jf for the cadence. with crotchets.

is to is. shall be Tremoli upon minims Tremoli cannot be played upon semiquavers. : repeat what I have said before : . and I shall write out the examples for the right hand as well as for the left " plays the single part may introduce Tremoli. you piece of music*. Transilvano.e. When a subject Gibbons's Fantazia. by wl^ich you will understand that sometimes the fingers are to move slowly these ornaments of any other value : that is to say. this example there are eight demisemiquavers if : do they constitute the Tremolo ?" will last only —" You must understand that a Tremolo be made upon a minim. zy.) r ± - < p ' =P2: HOW TO Diruta. as some care to play Tremoli lightly and with agility. the lute. &c. a Canzone. and subject to the approval of organists. If you have ever watched players upon the viols. and you should not perform them with the key below. and softly. PLAY TREMOLI (SHAKES). Compare the subject of 8157 . The following examples of Tremoli on minims Tremolo with the right show this " : — hand Tremolo with the left hand. the speed of the notes upon which Tremoli are to be made and secondly.. may when one hand introduce Tremoli at the beginning of a Ricercare.. And the same thing takes place with notes half a minim —that Diruta. (A CHE TEMPO SI DEVONO LI TREMOLI). you must have seen that they accompany the main note of a Tremolo with an upper accessory note and not with a lower. — " In .-^" First. as you will see in the Moreover." WHEN AND WHERE TREMOLI MAY BE INTRODUCED FAR Diruta. is given out by a single voice or part it may be embellished with tremoli.) ^ ^ S ^ :r 32= TTzr (Subject. the third upon quavers. then the hand which If Furthermore. the very name of Tremolo . or players upon wind instruments. to succeed well with Tremoli. or any other plays several parts and the other hand one part only. the Tremolo one crotchet—as the example shows. because they are too quick. shake takes just half the value of the main note. I will now give the examples I promised The first the second upon crotchets. Then I shall do the same with a subject in crotchets and with a subject in quavers. and at other times quickly and energetically.— — ' (Subject. you must take care of two things first. Doric. they are sure to improve the effect and enliven the harmony. also. and introduced in the proper place. all — " You should will ta. . Doric. the various examples which follow. I shall first give a subject in minims and show how Tremoli can be applied to it in two ways. : *I. I will Tremoli are played gracefully. p. but with the key above.

) i ^ lE ^—& J J J - D^^^0 ^^^^ . ^^^BTJ. right hand— (Subject.) ^ f= — p' c> =f=z= Tremoli on croichets(Subject.t=^ ^ J_JJ_J ^ S *-i-^ ^ Tr«»8o/t o» crotchets-^ ft: yjvj^j^jj *-•-* ^-^-^-w- (Subject. Doric.) /-V . ^ ^^ g=^^^~^~g ^ — ^^^^ j^ Tremoli on minims.) IE ^ ^^^??^j (Subject.) S" Tremoli on quavers(Subject. .) ( ^^r r r ^^2^55^ ^^^ Tremoli on quavers — (Subject. left hand Phrygian.^ — Tremoli on minims.

)* . if it is The second Tremoletto upon the accented note. you must start with such fingers as will enable you to finish I hope the following example will show you what I mean " it conveniently. in the second example.. inasmuch it will be impossible to finish the trait in the as the syncopation compels us to turn an unaccented note into ' ' an accented one. and the second Tremoletto falls upon an accented one. If — " You have understood you should find that matter.) 3SQ (3 4) (3 ^ j^it 2) fe ^ — 0^^ mfm r r^rf ^m J'JJJJ Transilvano. and the same thing takes place with the right hand on similar _ * In the original the tie is expressed by dots in a semi-cir6le 8157 '''""'•. and is played with the third and fourth fingers. I am bound to say that if you observe the rules for Tremoli in general. Now. we must take the Tremolo with a good finger (il dito buono i. in the end. — " These Tremoletti appear to me be more than the others. find all these Tremoletti easy enough. and is The second Tremoletto falls upon an played with the second and third fingers of the right hand." Diruta. to difficult for . and is played with the middle finger.) — t= ^^^i (2 Jv?j_^P (3 3 2) (343) 4 3) ^^ 5 (Subject. — " True — they are so beginners but. The third Tremoletto also falls upon an unaccented note." — perfectly. as we are talking of Tremoletti.e. : ." especially of those ' Examples of Tremoletti on quavers (Subject. and played with the third and second fingers ordinary way of fingering. you will. : (Subject.— — B Transilmno.—" So occasions. left hand." Diruta. on the contrary. a finger which usually takes accented notes) . and not otherwise. unaccented note. I find the same the Tremoletto of four demisemiquavers falls upon an unaccented note. " In the first example I find that the first Tremoletto falls upon an accented note. Furthermore. last . seeing that you cannot finish the trait with the fingers at your disposal in the ordinary course. therefore we must play it with the second and first finger.' where they form the principal traits. But I will tell you something more with regard to this you are short of fingers. m -& (»'•«) Transilvano. — " Here the first Tremoletto falls and first fingers of the left hand. and which Signor Claudio (Merulo) is in the habit of using in his Canzone alia Francese. Diruta. and is played with the second of four demisemiquavers falls upon an unaccented note." it is.

But in both the first and the second examples of tremoletti . he demands.B. shakes "with the key below" as bad practice. S. Mozart. regard to " repercussion of the key " The treatises of and " accenti. Beethoven. the number of notes which constitute a shake was not so rigidly fixed as his examples seem to demonstrate. and they are played with the upper accessory." . Like Groppi. shakes Moreover. Bach. or half-shakes.. however. Ph. it is further noticed by Tosi. unless a cadence demands an accidental. forming part of the shake. his groppi exhibit shakes which start with the upper accessory and not with the main note as This ambiguity in Diruta is representative of the vexatious question whether shakes shall start with the accessory or with the main note which persists to the present day.e. (see N. in the preface to "Canzoni Francese" (1599). Here. and turns up again and again. with the lower accessory tone or semitone were common enough in his time." Diruta unfortunately does not give Caccini and Praetorius.ih the main note. it is case law. called Trillo in the examples from Caccini and Praetorius . 7). show that mordents i.— 9 The following points demand notice here : Shakes. his examples. ******************* : pupil and expositor Diruta Claudio Merulo. take up half the value of the main note and stop upon it they start w'. shakes are diatonic. and they are of Repercussion is sufficiently early date to stand for the practice of Diruta's time. in practice. under many a curious aspect. E. p. With examples. and the first Again Diruta stigmatizes example of diatonic groppi contains a shake with the lower diatonic accessory. in J. it follows that. and Wagner. however. there is a case of the lower accessory note — — " Shakes are both slow and quick " . Chopin.. and C. as already stated. pays a memorable compliment to his " Ha fatto a lui et a me insieme singolare honore. according to Diruta. if there is to be any law at all. contain what is wanted.


8157 . . .. . JAN PIETERS SWEELINCK. 1510-1586. 1561-1621. . .. GIOVANNI GABRIELI . 1533-1604..ANDREA GABRIELI CLAUDIO MERULO . 1557-1612-13. .


ANDREA GABRIELI. TREMOLI FROM "TOCCATE D'INTAVOLATURA D'ORGANO.rrjjjj i=i= :iS3 J JJJJJ ^ ^ ^^. i 1^ tr^ :?2= y . (H) J J J i :j' JJPj nr:! i \ ^ r r r ^og-T^ ^^p i J j J=i ? -I 1- ^ :4± f frr^f r (ft) I* I* m r'&^i s rtdsn s . il ^ ^ ^ jjj -J- 231 J- CLAUDIO MERULO." Lift.f.f.^-^iJ^ J .t::ffrr -J II J ^^ rrc^r — t-rn -^-j. /. j | i?j :p=q!!= !i J ^—a^- ^ r . —^ (1598).f !^ ^^^ ^ ^ . I ^— I- -* I — Eit •I -^ ^a ^r^££^^f-f 8157.^ — jj^tt^j:^. . 'it^ ^•^ &c.f 13 II. GROPPI AND TREMOLI FROM r " CANZON ARIOSA " r izz: (1596).

^^ p=f= . FROM TOCCATA -r:!- IV. ^^^^ &- it^ tA <s- -trr -& f ' r'f^ - ^rr^T^ ?^ -. [fiirca 1600).g^ p' Z3I 221 r ^ ^ ~i'^ rr i r r g r- JAN PIETERS SWEELINCK. ^ 1 ^^ I S^ 22. =?= ^ rnf. B. W^a^ J^J]]Pa |J_J. Jun. TRBMOLI. FROM THE "TABULATURBUCH" OF Duodecimus Tonus.14 GIOVANNI GABRIELI.: d=^ 1 . (1607). SCHMID. r r r-r-rr r gff-ferf f l ^ ^pgs^pf— ^ fe 8157 . _C2_ i f ^ . -r^ pi . 1 i r~ 9' ? .



Byrde's twenty years. 48-49. The Caxton Exhibition at South Kensington. somewhat quicker. in . 74. 1538 (?)— 1623. placed upon various lines i * fe^ m s I Occasionally. Pavana and : : Galiardo " Sir William Petre " minor the Pavin is a stately piece. for naturals if a natural is required after a flat. Gibbons's pieces are not grouped. " Publications of the Musical Antiquarian Society. By Dr. but one of the earliest examples of music engraved on copper plates 161 1 is the date of first publication. Gibbons. sort of Bars often quite regular. — G — — — — : . Dr. both sharp and flat. two clefs on a stave ^ etc. Rimbault Very slovenly requires revision from beginning to end. but most of the pieces — — : are older.G two Galiards in D minor. 1635. A reprint of Rimbault. may and 1659. C . 1583— 1625. 1650 or 1651. p. 1563— 1628. Parthenia was reprinted. and Purcell's. 8157. in triple time Prelude and Galiardo " Mrs.: — 17 III. pp. By Professor Pauer : " The old English Composers for the Virginals and Harpsichord. and Galiardo " St." 1847. in 1613. Thomas' Wake " in . 8 H4) below each particular note concerned. DR. Burney's copy of the first edition of the Parthenia " presented to me this day (May 29. but also now and then of unequal length. Modern Editions a." 1879. 1791) to Salisbury by Lady Nevil " is now in the library of the Royal College of Music. : . C. A stave of six lines for each hand . ORLANDO GIBBONS. and six by Orlando Some are grouped with a view to being played in succession. clefs F. in a vague Time signatures : — (= 1 °'' 2) e(=f) Accidentals. in square time. The be ten years older than those by Orlando Gibbons. JOHN BULL. : : — — b. in 1877. Pavana. the Galiard. Bull. Dr. always from the same plates. Byrde Prelude. and G. Bull Prelude. Bull's or even more. WILLIAM BYRDE. Mary Brownlo " in C Pavana " The Earle of Salisbury " and two Galiards in A minor. No special indications of tempo.* * The time signature was deemed suiBcieiit —compare Frescobaldi's directions. carefully placed before or Sharps stand feasible. showing rhythmical sections way. Rests are omitted wherever an omission is in plenty. demonstrated that the Parthenia was not the first. seven by Dr. to facilitate the reading of extra lines. The Parthenia consists of twenty-one pieces eight by Byrde.

also as " a shake beginning by the note itself. T. Lute and Virginal book. is of music for the Virginals (Her Majesty's Library.— — — — . Is the Rich. where giatura from below or from above." but he very rarely uses it himself. Bach. The writer submits his conjectures." a " backfall " With Christopher Simpson in the Parthenia sometimes stands for an appoggiatura from below or from above. With Purcell (before 1696) a shake beginning with the upper accessory. signed Rich. Lock. way ll ^.e. for a short appogand then for a mordent (semi-shake. whereas the sign reversed **i "beat." " a transient or passing shake. Aylward (circa 1640). in case of a semibreve. therefore. 1659 (compare Playford's publication of f Anthony van Noordt. from the tables of Lock and Purcell. The double sign 1^ occurs with varying significance up to the time of J*. with the upper accessory. 1. an appoggiatura beginning from above. " II Transilvano " (1593)*-" a If we accept the statement of the earliest printed authority in the Parthenia someshake takes up half the value of the main note. and how are they to he applied ? "We know that certain kinds time— lutenists and violists and all remain open to correction. tremoli. therefore.. appoggiatura beginning from below. a MS. volume of corantos. or a single oblique from left to right and -— Such lines are drawn across the stem of the notes— Divisions (groppi. and accessory).e." " a turned shake. With Reinken {circa 1680 1700) a short shake beginning on the main note. jigs.. The graces of the Old English lutenists were 3. placed above or below it Unfortunately there stand for. instruments of the harpsichord The question. ^ . among the favourite graces of lutenists we find and imitated by the players upon keyed instruments SF I ^''. Aylward of this MS. tail of a note a B ::is | and the mark x. — Diruta.* With Van Noordtt (1659) it signifies a shake.. very numerous Graces are indicated by two oblique lines. undoubtedly the case in a MS. S. is no evidence of sufficiently early date to show the particular g-races these sign of graces were constantly employed by the instrumentalists of the players of " stromenti da penna. Buckingham Palace. 1.e... and airs. rising . tiratae) abound. Side by ^ line. i8 There is not a page without them. represents our I Such is writer for transcription into of No. presumably. Taphouse. Mace (1676). which must graces are likely to apply. i. as well as by organists and players of wind instruments. side with these.A. ." it would appear that the sign times stands for a short shake or " Prall-triller "t prolonged shakes being written out in full.040. with the lower diatonic it meant for a slide of *— signifies a (1659)." and " a beat. or now a third upwards. copied.'" &c.11^ ^g and -•— are the equivalents of short trills and dementi's " Introduction to the Art of Playing on dementi explains it as a shake beginning the Pianoforte " (1801). in the Archbishop's Library at Lambeth ? 8157. or appoggiatura i. kindly lent to the modern notation by Mr. is which of such tribe. or. signifies a " cadent. Oxford. the R. ^S has even found its into the excellent table of graces in "Psalms in Division"): shakes are marked by crossing the ^." or " half-fall "—i. as in Sweelinck'S Tabulatur.e. " Tabulatur-Bock van Psalmen en Fantasyen. and Purcell the ascending line " forefall." i. for a double that the sign — 2. * In Walsh's reprint of certain pieces from the Suites of Dieupart mordents. W. The single sign >-* occurs in early MSS." a It is likely. With Matthew Lock (1673) the same. elsewhere). a slide..

p. simply " weighs " the key. we have touch the key lightly several times in " the vibrato of the old singing masters. f — Bumey's Travels. and Gibbons . the " sting " or " verre casse " of the lutenists. and harpsichords. shakes with the lower accessory. and the vibration of the string Of course a true — was continued by repeated pressure. Ph.t its expressive qualities. often occurs in the harpsichord pieces of Domenico Scarlatti (Czerny's Edit. spinetti. who proclaims his preference for the clavichord on account of is capable of producing this particular kind of Bebung. E. and does not leave it. S. 3) ^ . very slight and extremely rapid fluctuation of the pitch. of Beethoven (Op.... VI. as aforesaid. Clavichord players. and one of the neatest in the Parthenia. when they wished to prolong the sound of a note. Samuel Scheldt (1587-1654). 118." will serve to show how the graces occur. the organist at Halle. . the finger retained its hold of the key. Bach. ^ in the Diruta's " percuotere piU volte succession . occurs in Froberger's *' Suite de Clavessin " {fede Partita) in (before 1650) :— D Allemandb. and no) and of Chopin. A later and familiar example : is contained in the bass of J. Bach's Gavotte in G minor ("Suites Anglaises.C. But an effect closely resembling it can be got upon the clavichord. Byrde's Pavana " The Earle of Salisbury. 6g. 6a.. —may possibly apply.. vibrato. digitis in una tantum clave manu turn dextra. and how they may be executed :— * Sweelinck's pupil. Bach and of Mozart. allowed the key to rise partially only. played with a change of fingers. and particularly because it Frobergers's date is half-a-century later than that of Byrde.g. f I* E^ ^ &c. however. &c. Probably.e. we may. is common in C. is occasionally intended to signify the reiteration of a note. the " Bebung " of Sebastian and Ph. The earliest instance known to the writer in which a substitute for vibrato* is written out in full. with slightly disturbed pitch. He attempted an by the rapid interchange of the fingers on the same key. but since Diruta mentions such repercussions of the key as an effect which good cembalists ought to be able to produce. if placed over long notes which cannot well be sustained. il tasto leggiadramente If so. Parthenia sometimes represents a short or long mordent. 106. turn sinistra. produced by a tremulous motion of the finger upon the strings is impossible with the mechanism of keyed instruments. and especially ^ over prolonged notes at the end of a section. latter are mordents i." No.. the process was simply one of repercussion." imitation of vibrato Leipzig. perhaps. Accordingly it may be that in the Parthenia. This latter tremolo. Bull. in the sense of the lute players of old and the violinists of to-day— j. 1892. 8157. No. tried something of the kind. the " close shake " — of Christopher Simpson. On the virginals.. No. take for granted that the English masters were acquainted with it. " Bicinium imitatione tremula organi duobus See Max Seiffert's edition of Scheidt's Tabulatura Nova. The shortest piece. E. therefore.— — 19 a The two 4. at more or less regular intervals.) whereas the former tremolo (Bebung) played with a single finger which.

) I ^ ^ ^^^ ife 32= ^^^^ ^i •<J _^ r ^^^ 8157 (rit. i2l f=^ r a j=*=^ ^: Jl 3^ "i*^ ^ rTn n i /^ SE -j'^r- J..Spr=^ ^ i 4 rj zzsb dim.)rs. f^ ^J-V ^ ^ 1_-J- ^ =P -s^ Vi^ The writer plays it thus [Moderato. 33K s t . 4 ? 3Cia =r=F p WD ^^r ! /^ (Animaio.) mf•r f r ^^g^^ ^ v^^H] =f^ .) " fe 3 -r:!- ^^ {Tempo.— 20 J ^ g ^ -HS^ A cxr F J.

BYRDE'S GALIARD " Mrs. and not. Bach. as Diruta directs. MARY BROWNLO. all beginning with the diatonic note above such shakes ex ahrupto upon skips and jumps. .. Dr. always begin with the upper accessory.1 m -T srrrrr r rrrf -g-r^rFff In this respect the instinct and the practice of the English masters rather agree with that of the French school of the next century. wholly or partially written out in the Parthenia.) ^^ -I "5- m .— 21 —— ^^ "?^ r ^ ^ I J. v. and with J. : No. —he also introduces A curious grace occurs in Gibbons's Galiard in C. : i 9 And in the fourth bar of his ± Z2I ^F^? : unpublished Fancy beginning thus 8157. :^ $ &c. S. I XVI.^^3-.i' rrr' r % J I ^^^^^^ ^ J. (Tempo." i iE tJ . regardless of any clash that may ensue. . with the main note piece Diruta's practice of starting Tremoli and Tremoletti with the It is. ^^^-^^^ » ): ' ' ^ t^fWf>r jjJJJJjJ j"^ r m . apply perfectly. No. interesting to notice that the very numerous shakes.5!^S J Blffi-r /^ ^ In this little P 'o' main note appears to however. Bull h^s long strings of shakes.

-29. "T^ > j^^ Y J . Together with Gibbons's superb: This latter piece is inserted below as a further illustration of graces.— 22 (Short mordent.) T C ^ (Slide to E. HIS PAVIN. 13. fol.^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ff -S-' Wrr\i r i l£ st i "^^^m TT ^ A. . p. 8157. Mace occurs in Simpson (1659) and the "elevation " and "doubleGibbons's Pavin " The Lord of Salisbury " (bars 7 and 9). 25. Mus. XVII. (The large notes represent the text without graces..) ^ 3te (Double-relish. which immediately precedes it in the Parthenia. p.* we have the best of extant music for the virginals. w ^ ^ ^ ^^ : ff^^ T ^ >r^ y?^ T * See /losf. " Fantasia of foure Parts. W IE (Note the tonal fugue. 23." BY ORLANDO GIBBONS." No.) ^ T ^ Here we have the " relish "of quaint old ^ It also ^ ' *S* d r ^j^ IC2Z &c. Brit. 31. 403. Indeed.) MS.) P ^^ r r f r V ^m if' V r ^ ^ (Short mordent. there is nothing of equal weight in instrumental music before Frescobaldi and Froberger : "THE LORD OF SALISBURY. double-telish " of Christopher (1676).) W d B (^)<l' : ft ' =F ^^m (f) a im.

) D I -aU-^J^J §^ 3=3=J: fefepi -l-« al ^ t^ i ^^^--gy^ {simile. .) A (or a slide froin B to a nd A to C.^M=^5Jj^^: r 'HT yu' '^ '-gl T^rrj EL^ m I.) m grt^ -iSl-^Bi(simile.J 23 ^p fc "P: r^^ >«ij I =S=FB 3iii£S=Ni^ -Tdn 31^ f j=F?^8*5B p=^^=gj^.) gJ^J ^ =pz: JijJ-rJ J b i =d= ^ EfEj^ =P=^ ^ :|^ 'flW^ ^ J I :^ f ^^T^Q-f3:i: r ^1^ ^^^^^ r Ei i^^ -J^- r ^ .^^: ^m ^ F^"^fff^?^^^^ :^ ^Tjj f" (or f=^J'"' m dEB^^^^^E^: ~?^~ 1^ a slide from to C. I ^ ^mJ^ J :»* 1 i^ I22I I22Z tr'-r *!• ^ ^ =^ 8157.

24 (or a slide A) JJJJJ^ K) Jz TTT" ^jwj J ^ ^^V from A to C.) .^1 :J- 3 J 2:i: •P 1/ '•' -I- J Ml J u^T^ '^ ^ 1 - = . i J * ^ j' (/i r ^ (simile.) =?Pr j^ I 7 j r^ ^ 1 .

403.) ~^' zzzi T Signed Edward Bevin : ^v a descendant of The notation of the fingering agrees with Purcell's. ought to be plain G and F . Begin the i. and let the closes " have a dying fall " calando. The tenor part. —D for G in the As to style. diminuendo. 64) —does not apply. The study of ornamentation throws a curious light upon the apparently objectionable cacophony in bars 8 and g of the original.: — 25 — — according to earlier practice. occur in the book. but the vacillating use of the major and minor sixth and seventh is characteristic of Gibbons. contains the following signs for graces." r appoggiatura " shake turned . which repeats the treble of bar 7 is simply a " double-relish " written out in ^ i - full. the compound sign ^^ a slide and and shake with peculiar closing notes. and their explanations. observe each lead and imitation. 15.e.^ here signifies a sort of slide. ::P2:5 f- which first is perfectly correct . r ^ „^ "). before. ^^ ^£ :Ai ^E ztezil: i^s w ^s=* {sic. bar 9 (" Old English Composers. -r is m izsr Vi/ The S4 S454S432 43434323 here exprest in notes. volume of music for the virginals and harpsichord. without the ornaments readily understood. and follows that Professor Pauer's conjectural emendation crotchet of the alto. catalogued at the British Museum as No. Therefore the harmony must be taken to stand thus *= -^=T=^ -^ r it ^ \ I ^ : -J. 31. 8157 £= a shake with a turn (Purcell's .. which from the position they occupy in the book may be assigned to that date • " Graces in play. circa 1680." 1 ^r m /TN ~-B~ m ' r ^ graces. At first read the large notes only. Accordingly. . the simple sign slide Elway Bevin ? Both names . the older portion of which appears to A3. the best hint is perhaps this play the piece as though it were sung a capella. the musical significance of the piece will thus be more A MS. sections deliberately." p.

alto (Pauer. Parthenia. 64). g ^ Compare also A Other slides are contained in bars 20 and 35 of the same piece. in the. No.. XVI. binds. treble F. to say • transcriber mistakes plain notes. Rimb. last crotchet C. and also last two crotchets. and the same in the tenor. Rimb.. treble. Rimb. bottom).." p. Soc. bars J- ^ ^ ^ is -^^A J.e. 9. G. 8. 31. left hand the it should be entire bar is a third too high . : : . bar 19. 19. the out in full.4 ' i. bar 20. 7).. bar 22) sometimes stands for a slide of a third upwards. semiquavers. add F natural minim. which it. slide between the notes of a chord — makes this all the more likely. Rimb.. top line. second half of last bar. J^ The i J note of the second treble is final D. penultimate bar of Byrde's Galiardo in G. left . 68). bar 21.the by Dr. they indicate ritardando. in the baritone part. p. not F sharp (Pauer. line i. p. Rimb. who in his 3. bar 14." p. p. and tenor.. Musical Antiquarian Society's tranis very misleading. 46. 16 (Pauer. p. and signs of prolongationyai introduces accidentals where they are not wanted. 44 (Pauer. treble. p. Rimbault. it Anyway. the source of later edition and extracts. crotchet G. left hand (Pauer." Comp. 1847. 8157. The fact that circa 1700 such a stroke appears in general use to designate the acciaccatui'a— It may be then that the simple stroke first — above. not G sharp. and . slide was known to Gibbons. it should be— 'J-' E * Sic. 25). Galiardo in C. impossible but it seems worth while to note a few of the most annoying blunders Rimbault. not B. bar 9 before end (Pauer. p. and omits the signs for graces altogether. . line 2. p. •" M. " Old Eng. bar 3 before end. 5. p. add C minim in the tenor part. p..— 25 -• in the Parthenia (compare Gibbons's Pavin transcribed hand. bar 4). end of Gibbons's Galiardo in A. 29. 5." post p. Ant. bar i—the treble part is a third too low . To supply the least of The ' all the missing graces here is. overlooks rests. of course. writes 6 : both upwards and downwards. bar of Gibbons's " Fantazia. the fifty-second Original copies of the Parthenia are extremely rare script . p.

last three bars (Pauer. J7i^ contained in the r r' t^ The old copyist is An fol. not far out rhythmical arrangement of the notes vagaries.. 5 ^ f r ^crrffffi r- ^ -z±: 3ij :#^ifc^ ^ iri: J J J J^ '-^i -rr ¥^ J I J IJ JJ J 3 ^ i ^^ J m ^^ 10.j Kp J T===P ^ ^i -' ^. are so hopelessly garbled that the reader must be referred to the transcript of the entire piece which here follows strictly in accordance with the original The last thirty bars of — : "FANTAZIA OF FOURE PARTS" {PARTHENIA." The passage contains a number of slides written out. line 3. seems to have taken a hint from the practice of the " Ecole des simplificateurs.403. 31.J. —and — such guesswork of his has probably given Rimbault's Gibbons's Fantazia.J ' =fet P 8157. volume. No. early attempt at a simplification of this puzzling passage 15. already mentioned. has- ^^ W^ is Here the transcriber. to which the latter correction belongs.J I J J :i=^ J^^^^^^. both here and elsewhere.. 62). p.C2. apparently puzzled by the lack of rests and the engraver's neglect to place the notes one over another. i 3.). p.J lj. British Museum. yet he has blundered in the rise to .-^^ 1 ^ ^ ^: m r- * . ^d—sK- J' J T ' l "T T J.TrJ. f cTT rr . 40.— — Rimb. XVII. BY ORLANDO GIBBONS. and should stand thus i w=^ J"J ji-jr I Jij ^ r ^ MS.

! l ^^ ^ ^^ 1*i»^ ' r .^ '" Lq) Hf r^ '"^ ^ 321 fJ . -^ =^ !S>- r ife P ^ I r - #' i . n.M 28 ^ ^ £.j. Ei J J J.S — f" ATtl j»j i tt j ^ J-Tjj C^f- J J p-^i i i F.J- J =t 321 ^ ^\-^ E ^j^- ^^^ ^) I 4 4^4^ 8157.i'lJ. m ^^ I' ' r'^-''^>rr'^ J: ^ ^ ::sz ^^ r r"0-f <^^ I i J J. — [•• r If T r f . ri. '^ - " \ r - rr v irr^r .T ^ J'i J p'^ptLr^^r'T ^ irr-n^^^ J i ' M j^^^ ^ m r \' 30.

»4g t^=^ J i i^ J-JT ^^ 8157..F- ^ ^^ jJ^J | J—J A ^J ^ tJTJ rf -J.-^ =F=^ f jij ^— J icz^ ^ 5fe ::fei: f^^iia*^ « ! j=^ J J.JJ. j. =22: i 1^ 3-r Cj^(=. .J jy^J J^t J I P g S IE J14 4"4j ^ gJ J - ^^^^ 'J- O J 1-^ 3E S I i^J j* -L=L ^- ^ 50... . o 1} fj Sg ^ ^ j-_ -Jl^^J-J p'^ . . f^l=fc ^-W-gj- c/f"- ^ ig^ C.^jd"v^^^ ^^ i ° .^ — 29 i i ^ ^ f^. l —-^ *=i^ J lP ft=z_ r? =^^==P ^ rf^ 40. m J.fli disT -^r r ^^^ ' " 35= T-=P i i 3^=^ ' iii=^ cr:i=i ^y Sep crf-r"fi^ »J ^ -f—r^ ^^ tt*^JJ ^ rm ^^^ ^ . W ^^ J ^ =?2= ^ ^^^^^^ f^^^ A. ^ J «S: '' =^ ^-"-J :^ "i^.:j D=ii ^J J-J -ST- T" ^ ^Cj*-' ^ r J. r f'-fr r r -^' r* ^S r^— f rr .' i ^ 1 .

ifegE ^ -»- ' r r -^1-H«r j . ^i 8157.-n ^ I "^ ^ E^ Ig ^ w. J J » g ^??Tn^ E g^J J3J ^n JJ. r rr J ^ I g^j^ .— 30 ^ '^ r ¥ i f Jr" n V f -^ ^^^^ r f=^ -TJ-^-T^ ^ ? ^m 1 -SI- '-' S =it=:S i«-s'- 60.i r ir r J 4-^ f >»..ji J ^ -•- I U 1 I frJi^SJ j-^^ ^°i S - -ar-^ e J4 „ O i &^f-r-r . 321 j^ J J r 1 ^•"•^ |. f^ r 1 y JJ^.f J > !. ^J.nJ ^ -J- J^ f '^f T Aj y..&it:U: 2i sg ^ r 1 A^gj ^ r - j^ r f^ f^^F^ m ^5? A J ^- ^EEi r^'uJ^ I j' i c/ ' ^j...^ tt J.r ^^^ i-J H ^ *^ r-gr ? W 5 St - :::p= r r^gr 1 i ^ ^—^^ Pp.^^ i^ f^ i s^ X^-. ^ ^^g?^ .j r J 1 .---.i ^' ft•^jJ IT" ^- 'V.. r H-F-i" err 4tt Cf r. j.

where another accidental a matter of course). d. ^ * gj : ^ 6. drawn to the point here in order to state the fact that very frequently in the Parthenia.— — — . g I Ei^ ff" -si: XJT'J ~g7~ S f ^^/—E^ f ^' J J J- /y f r tJ . Bar 67— 74. and thus to spoil the indication oi rapid shakes which has The modern notation. Subjects : I. f. e. of which the subject consists. Rimbault to turn them into semiquavers. and not =«f^=P^ sag for the g. m 3. induced Dr. where tremoletti on G sharp and D in the alto and treble will make the . is —All the ornaments require diatonic accessories i. A. Bar 72 — 80. exactly represents the effect required.]• —J ^ . as above. cr cr r r i S m — ^ M." a. » N. C.e. =^==PlL :g= ^ Bar 31—48. and Attention is S157. they are to be taken without additional is accidentals (except in the case of a shake upon an accidental at a final cadence.. Bar 53—64. The ornaments are indicated by the sign organ they are better omitted except.) ^ 5. needs no accidental. intended by the composer. where a short mordent on C hides the lacuna and at bars 13 and 14.B. 4. ^ — I 17. the first subject with its ornament ^^4&j^ Hexacordum naturale. &c. At bars 23 -and 24 the original contains two shakes with the upper accessory. at bar 9. written out as if But the eight demisemiquavers are not enough to fill the time. consisting of eight demisemiquavers each. 31 J m f=]^ ^^==S ^ J- J'J i ^ . g^ F f r r r* 80. perhaps. ^ crossing of the parts more intelligible. SXi Sl=^ i tr =^ (The scale in both directions. Bar 17 =?^ — 31. * _ _ _ ^ ^ rf r r ^ '!^f=#^ :^ |- :d^ 4Wf=iat= The Italians would have Bar called this piece a " Recercar con sei soggette. . For instance. On the pianoforte or the as they stand in the original.

. indeed with all old masters written out in full. For the reproduction of the Parthenia the writer would suggest Photography it is only a matter of twenty-nine pages.32 till past J. is (Compare Frescobaldi's directions. 48. and its relative duration being also at his discretion. Pavana. at Her Majesty's Library. Nos. 4 and 6." With such an example. and III. belonging to the Marquis of Abergavenny and the Virginal books of John Baldwin." transcribed for her by John Baldwin. like Nos. Will. 49. would be a boon. pp. — — 8157 . Cosyn. the number of repercussions was left to the player. and an edition of the valuable collections of music for the Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book (the name is inappropriate). Byrde's fine Preludium.) A correct transcription of the Parthenia. Bach's time. Foster. it would be a comparatively simple task to play the remaining pieces properly.. Petre. Cambridge " My Ladye Nevill's Booke. and Benj. title included and the translation into full modern notation of one or two representative pieces. the notation of shakes even if they are apparently approximate only. preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum. virginals known as : . the introduction of a stop on the last occurrence of the main note. I. and Galiardo " Sir Wm. Buckingham Palade. of Windsor. S.. II.

GIULIO CACCINI . (Tempo rubato. GIAC. CLAUDIO MONTEVERDE GIOV. . . CARISSIMI . . . 1558 or 60-1640.) 8157 . 1568-1643. 1604-1674.


" of writing. and we have all heard similar and very pretty effects from Madame Patti. which up to the present day has been so often employed. in the preface to a collection of his Madrigali and Canzoni for a single voice. and by means of which it may be said this or that singer sings with more or less grace and amenity. and the fact makes it all the more probable that his trillo was closely akin te the vibrato of lute players." One " Bockstriller " — — Julius Stockhausen and " vocalisazione aspirata. which. i r-! 5 ^-»h Sung thus r i' ^SE 22Z 8157 . Caccini. if the writer's conjecture be admitted that thej — — — accurately represent the tempo rubato.. attaches to them. 642. I will show how I write the Trillo and the Gruppo " — Trillo. and the following notes are each to be articulated in throat separately and upon the vowel a. treat it as a legitimate grace. 3^ The manner the. wife and daughters and the Gruppo shows the way I taught the execution of these graces to my both are to begin with a crotchet. in their vocal Jenny Lind sang^ — instruction books. says : I will now show how various are the things pertaining to good singing.: : : — • — 35 IV." 1601 (Kiesewetter's quotation and translation into German). the Trillo : aspect of Caccini's trillo. He A singular interest. are yet capable of producing very different impressions. however. Gruppo. French. ^^^ S^3 pp ^^rrrirrrrj &c. Caccini is reported to have been an accomplished lutenist. Act III. where the Tailors of Niirnberg who sing their grotesque chorus to the tune of Rossini's " Di tanti palpiti " are directed to execute their shakes " as so-called Bockstriller." ." Hennig. entitled " Nuove Musiche. " chevrottement " has survived as a comic effect in Wagner's " Meistersinger. p. " that like the quivering of a goat makes one laugh " (Tosi) German. then proceeds to show some other graces divisions apparently insignificant little changes. orchestral score. and so often misunderstood : Written thus ^ 5^ r r r r 2. though written in one way.

can be taken as representing should be remembered that they are extracts from Caccini's solo cantatas— operatic it It was the constant tradition of the older Italian singers that all airs for a single voice with a bass. with different sorts of notes and figures. signifies to vice versa ^^m tr tr tr fe &c. his graces and divisions only in so far as they accord with the steady measure indicated by the And this is the very essence of tempo ruhato. Witness Tosi. such as Nos. ^ trillo. i "And this sort of thing. it is from their neglect of keeping Time. "can be applied in various ways. m ^^ ^ &C. and 8c. the bass as a rule proceeds in time. 8.— — — . the recognised authority on Italian bass. 86. and the vocalist is free to introdude the bass.) (Altra cascata simile." Agricola (Sebastian Bach's pupil)^n a note to his * One is reminded of Chopin's saying : : — — — : rob a note of part of Written thus: " translation of Tosi's " Opinion de' Cantcjfi antichi e moderni its value and add as much to another note." Nissen records of Mozart's playing Adagio movements " The rubato of the right hand was never permitted to disturb the regular movement of the left. deviations from strict regularity in the vocal part must be made to chime with. —gives and an example with the bass " : " tempo rubare.the movement of In other words. in the Pathetick and Tender. which ought to be inviolable. and not To : The expression " Stealing the Time " {tempo ruhato) and divisions. for sacrifice to their beloved passages the sake of expression. the other Part retards or anticipates in a singular manner. understand how little divisions." "regards particularly the Vocal. or the Performance on a single Instrument.) (Cascata per raccore il fiato. 5. T3 & - ^-^ jJ I S ^—Sh (Cascata doppia. " If I do not advise a student to imitate several of the moderns in their singing in Handel's time manner of singing airs. With the right some liberties. and different sorts of time." BIST . when the Bass goes an exactly regular Pace. 36 i w=^ ^ ^ g trillo." Or Liszt's " Here is a tree ^the wind plays in its leaves and branches ^the stem hand you may take remains unmoved such is Chopin's rubato.) tempo ruhato.'' ^ ^ tr. Rubato thus : or thus:— ^ &c. he continues. 6."* Fancy Caccini singing the above be that of a perfect tempo ruhato ? divisions to the chords of a theorbo or cembalo — would not the effect " Your left hand is to be the conductor— it must not give way.

(Groppi. and being Hawkins was not aware that the " tract " iti question was a translation returned. in his " Introduction " (edit. refers to it.^ — 37 Two other graces of Gaccini's may be quoted : " Ribattuta di (jola "- &c. 8157 . of his opera " Orfeo " (1608-9}. and groppo In van Carissimi's " Ars cantandi " — if one may judge from the old translation into German.) U^^^^t^ p* ^"^ * * MoNTEVERDE (1568-1643)." " Ars cantandi. ^gand "Qroppi"— (Subject. which not contained in the excerpts from Caccini already given. -I— trillo.) s g- g-p ^^ m ^ trillo. introduces a combination of Caccini's ribattuta. trillo." from Act III. or in those from Praetorius which follow. The same remark applies to an English translation without author's name or date " A brief discourse of the Italian manner of singing. as it offers nothing referring to our special subject. 1666). of Carissimi's — — . Orfeo. taught the same here. as the Trill and Gruppo used in Italy and now in England written some years since by an English Gentleman who had lived long in Italy." Playford. in the "address to Charon. Tenor. wherein is set down the use of the Graces in singing. 1696 is —need not be quoted from here.


MICHAEL PRAETORIUS Syntagma Musicum. III. 8157 . . . (1618-19). . Lib. 1571-1621.


and 5TH. Praetorius's crotchets without stems are to be read as minims. 3RD. 4TH.) s i =**t ^ s ::— :* ^^s F3^- jb n J ^^_:-4==:= J^T~-^ .) : Applied to the Prime. (Accenti. the 2nd. — fully written out. Caccini.* or. in some cases. Monteverde. The third volume of Praetorius's " Syntagma " contains a large number of graces which he has compiled from Italian sources Diruta. and others. as notes indefinitely longer than a crotchet. ACCENTI (Subject.41 V.

) W^ i (Subject. violists.-^* TREMOLI. turn).) lb J-m Jjg The Accenti represent our apjjoggiaturi from below and from above.) (Subject.) (Trem.) ^ GROPFI.) (Tirata. and represents the vibrato of lutenists and 8157 .) (Subject.) aj'^° iii (Groppo.) (Trillo.) (Tremoletti.) (Subject. turn.) (Subject. they are interesting as examples of improvised ornament and figuration.) («)S m=f^ {a) Sjrrrr (Groppo. (i) A kind of shake with the lowei (c) A combination of shake. Doppehchlag (gruppetto. (Subject.) (Subject.) (Subject. and slides.) fc ^ ~?=^ rri^rrrr: TIRATAE.) (Trillo.) wm (Tremoletti.) (Tremoletti. The Groppo The here stands for (a) or upper accessory— our mordent and shake. Trillo is Caccini's trillo. changing notes.) (Groppo. and vibrato. r=i (Tirata.) TRILLI. (Subject.) v—^- JJJjJJJ ^ ittatt 5 ^^ (Subject.) (Trillo.) (Tremoletti. (Subject.

Organist of St.GIROLAMO FRESCOBALDI . . Peter's at Rome from 1608 to i6a8. and again from 1635 to 1643. 8157 . 1583-1644.

" Fiori musicali : i . 1628.) Corrente in A. firmi).. 1635.) " Canzoni alia Francese." is bound up with the first book. Fuga in E. Versi d' Inni. " Peccavi. 2. (Rotterdam. " Toccata e partite. Fr. 1614. published an augmented edition in score. Kyrie. should be 1874. * For further details consult Haberl's " Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch. Lib. N." After Clementi. That of 1637 is a second edition of the first and second books of Toccate. Consists of twelve Fantasias upon is i. Liuto e Violino. Canzona in F. incomplete extracts from " Fiori musicali. et Arie." in the Library of the Royal College of Music." for cantus and tenor. it there. 1627. Consists in part of pieces Toccate. IL." 1887. The publication of 1626 " Capricci. " In Partitura. canzoni francese e Recercare" ^is a sort of second edition in one volume of the publication of 1615 and 1624.. Toccata in G (1616). A rather hasty transcript of the Also. the " Studiosi dell opera. Canzone.. 138 to 157 Canzona in G. G. Mereaux." &c. previously published. z. miscellanies there is a note " In Frescobaldi's house there are compositions in tablature for the Cembalo." Fabio Constantini's Select. Litzau. at Rome." first Professor Pauer. A.. Paris. " Capricci. Antwerp. and 11. e 4 voci. London. : — — A copy of Lib. Toccata Farrenc. Sebastian Bach treasured a copy. I. hbro delle Canzoni a i. 1889). 1645. A copy at Bologna. A complete copy four parts and basso gen." Rome. L." copies Clementi. Corrente and Canzone after Clementi. and Berlin. " Alte Meister. I. Raimund Schlecht. a. una per sonare con Spinettina sola. Book I. Cant. 1630. " Pract. What has become of it ? A copy. e 4 voci. made complete. " CoUectio Musices Organicae ex operibus Sixty-eight pieces—a model edition— to be continued. This second book (edition 1637)." Venice. J. overo 3. 3." &c. Grassi. London. " Hieroymus Frescobaldi" in 8157 ." " Capricci fatti sopra diversi soggetti. Toccata cromatica. " Geschichte der Kirschenmusik " Capriccio. fatte sopra diverse oblighi " (various canti Copies in the British Museum." &c." Vol." Lib.. MS. " Fuga in E minor. Christe dominicale. "Canzoni ad i. V." No. A. 1634." for two trebles and tenor. " Orgelcompos. e 3 voci. Capricci e Ricercari a 4.. Toccata XII. was in Farrenc's Library. 2.. Canzona in G. Kyrie de B." Five pieces at second-hand. in C (1616). as against the twenty-seven numbers ' — — . Milan.— — 44 Dates of first i6o8. X. F6tis —three of each " Fantasie k 4 voci. Commer. Canzone. I. 3. Frescobaldi's pupil. IV. and with the addition of the two Partitas "sopra ciaconna" and "sopra passacaglia. revised. Fr. which he acquired in 1714 it is now at BerUn. Accomodate per sonare con ogni sorte di stromenti. Copy in the British Museum.) B. Rome." Venice. 1873 and Lange. (subjects) " Madrigal! k 5 voci. at Breslau In the same year the copy at Bologna lacks the thorough bass part. di durezze e ligature in F. . " Angelus ad pastores. sort." I. as already mentioned. and a duo. il I. " Tresor des Pianistes. In Padre Martini's MS. . Fuga in G. Lib. Con due Toccate in fine. with a " Toccate." : Heft 2. An almost complete and highly interesting reprint. — : Modern transcripts: — Clementi." Rome. perhaps unique." Lib. Ritter. Harmony. (The edition of 1637 " al lettore. M. L. 61-66. Haberl. of the former edition in parts. Royal College of Music. " Znt Geschichte des Orgelspieles " (Hawkins. &c.. Paris. preface Rome. and unpublished. Fuga in D. rather garbled. L. Capriccio di durezze in D (1624). "Alte Claviermusik. Capriccio pastorale in G (1616). twelve Toccatas. " Les Clavicinists.B. Rome. biographical and bibliographical study. Per sonare con ogni sorte di stromenti. (Posthumous. hke the edition of Palestrina. This score contains thirty-eight Canzoni and two Toccatas. I. " In Partitura. froni the same plates. (1626). It ought to be Hierorymi Frescobaldi Ferrarensis " (Leipzig. p. Canzona in G. or 4 soggetti 1614-16.. Rome. A copy at Bologna. contains two vocal pieces a motet. A copy with the address Lib." Lib. to " Recercari et Canzoni Franzese. — — editions of Frescobaldi's publications* : says he saw 1608. II. Bart. from the same plates. " Arie Musicali per cantarsi nel Gravicembalo e Tiorba.) 1615. at Berlin and of the whole at Ferrara." Lib. Florence." Lib.

i Cf ' !j' E£4rr- CJ E4£/r J2^ E That is— :n :^: ^^-4fp- ^ &c. Ibid.e. tremoletto 4^ which he indicates by a sign. t (39). (59). ^ rp ^—u^rt^W r f 8157 /TN s: i: ^ I' . Ibid.. ^E $ ^ J-^L^ Canzona II. I'TS -irr- ^ ^i^.. (49). FioRi Musicals i !K'D"^/f^ ^S ^_ ^- Jbd ^^=i= m J: l?2 p ^^ f\^ ^ p^ z^^ -g"^" T r ^&:^d. C sharp and B in the three quotations following Ibid. &c. That is— 1 r rjrrffr M VC/ r ^ Ibid. the main note of the shake before the resolution. In such cases Frescobaldi's own directions apply " Play the shakes rapidly." i. -!ry- (57). i ':}' w^ [fa Very frequently shakes are partially written out. Frescobaldi writes out all his divisions and ornaments except the short shake t —tremolo. e. (19).g. and dwell on the last note.— — 45 — : VI.

1' written out in the 8th bar of his setting of the popular tune I. well worth transcribing and reprinting. 47.he has it w La Romanesca. TnS23. i^ ^ w as . :& ^^=fe^ .. and of which he was fond.B. divisions. =F i i ^ J. : r'-rr-j-r ^ rrr ^ rj-t J—^J f^r- mM Toccata VI.^ 4i. of a species of appoggiatura (Vorschlag) new at the time. Agiunta to the Toccatas. r i f'' hs> P ^ Z M i $ CjLr^~£r —1^= i * 1 = r r r- ^^ h p * ^ ¥ r"f «'' ^ rrfT^^ eS -I-d ^^ S J-J uj J (O.. -^ -^ 1 J J .17 =P^ (Thirteen variations follow.. It is derived from the common appoggiatura.r ^ ? 81. 2^ J ^- r W 4 i f - • ^ rj U -^lA i!p= d ^^ $ P^ n ' if-r\' rfiGi P' ^ J =f=^ mfe== »g=s. and do not properly concern us here with the exception perhaps. i »: r-trr. ^^ -i J^^'j^jm — M^ r | "f of Frescobaldi's works furnishes plentiful Stpeeimens of other curious and often highly original But they pertain rather to division. ^ ^ I r-J^-rtftftfA- i ccfiaziJij^i^j J •' ^. see N. Bobk " Partite (i. (1614)..— 46 Toccata »: 221 II." ^ m s Prima parte. familiar to everyone long before Frescobaldi's day p.e. ^ ^Jid^ ^ at: ^^S (^) I /.) . variations) sopra aria della Romanesca.! !P 'J T=Sf^ A perusal ornaments.

s rm^rn i^s r ^7" f ^S i =JH^*= i ^ f-fp ! *• r * I i #- I* ) # ^: I*- I* * I ^1^ :J= ^^i^vjj ^^ <^ J^ ** ' Apparatus musico-organisticus. J fi ^a ' gr- fj -^ ^^ ^ETV^" ' ' ^Ca A. ^ N JJ r *^ j . in the third Toccata of the in A minor." also Similar effects occur frequently in Frescobaldi's Toccatas.B.B..^->^ ritornando r^i^ r al £ momimento P ^ fow^o prima. gir -^ f& piacere doppio . 6. George Muffat. and 7 of the following "FiORi MusicALE " (44) Toccata "Avanti il Recercar. closely imitates them.— J 47 Now prelude observe the ingenious use he puts this appoggiatura to at N. 8157 ." i) ''i^ 1^ ^5^ '^^'p^J ^^ «* N. bars 5'.

and different passages will not be 4. fingering. si saggi di salto. make placito di chi suona. the sections being so arranged as to enable the executant to choose among them. 8157 (See p. &c. Nelli toccati As regards the Toccatas. di sonare stare soggetto a battuta modo come ueggiamo > I. which are of very great interest and deserve attention : < PREFACE TO THE TOCCATAS A.. 6 senso —be 2. come anche nel mezzo del opera si batteranno insieme per non lasciar noto 1' Istromento il qual battimento arpiglierassi k bono3. 4. gradations of sound. AL LETTORE. who may approve of the senti- 1. to play likes. 6. piece. it is manner of playing is not subject to ^trict time usarsi ne Madrigali moderni. quanto affettionato con questi ner of playing. best of the instrument. i loro affetti. et osseruo ualor di 1' them with the directions subjoined. con- fonder r un passaggio con a series of skips^ no matter whether the said note be a quaver or a semiIndistinct phrasing will quaver. as the sentiof the ment or the sense ho hauuta consideratione non words may I require. : or sustained notes. Hauendo io A. the text offers no directions as to tempo. and indeed the bulk of each one beat the . meets with favour. this . The beginnings < played adagio and V of the Toccatas should be arpeggiando tied.e. con cui espongo alio studioso. Having found that a vocal and expressive man- conosciuto quanto accetta sia la affetti maniera di sonare con cantabili e con diver- sita di passi. 2. : '--. detta nota sia croma. and that I shall feel grateful ing. TO THE READER. Allegro and " Adasio " (Venetian for Adagio) excepted. Pi-^mieramente. to be held. protestsame time. secondo delle parole. Frescobaldi's publications present music notes only. /-- those he prefers. and to stop as he pill li sari gusto. et di affetti anche si possa ciascuno di essi passi sonar 1' uno dall' altro onde il sonatore senta qbligo di finirlo tutto potrjl terminarle ouunque separate : ma che such as contain a variety of traits and expressive ornaments. registration.— : . combined with a diversity of traits. and so fort"h. to chime with another tempo) must be but. it has occurred to me to gather together these feeble efforts of mine. confounded one with another. Neir ultima nota cosi di trilH. 51. are to be taken in proper proportion. thus be avoided. 3. The last note of a shake. (1614-16). e cortese Lettore. But the composer gives a cluster of leading hints in his prefaces. i quali quantunque ageuolano per mezzo della battuta portandola hor languida hor veloce. and to imprint miei deboli fatiche. however difficult. . languid or quick or sustained. at the ciascheduno che gradiscasi 1' affetto. slurred. First. 48 An occasional After the prevailing fashion. 6 uero durelli. is facilitated by the fluctuations of the (conductor's) beat it etiandio in aria. perche tal posamento schiueri altro. in order to {i. che non deve questo . Li cominciamenti delle toccati sieno fatte adagio. the beat of left the nuances of the to the good taste executant. have selected solo che siano copiosi di gassi diuersi. presentandolo in istampa con gli infrascritti il auuertimenti : protistando ch' io il preferisco merito altrui. mi i paruto dimostrarmelo altrettanto fauoreuole.) . et arpeggiando: e cosi nelle ligature. 6 sostenendola i difficili si governed rather by the (changing) beat as is the case with the modern madrigals. of is or of a scale passage. that I do not proscribe the merits of others. come di pasdee fermare ancorche alia il biscroma o dissimile 1' sequente . the rendering of which. 6 di grado. beg to submit my effusions judgment of studious and accomplished to the I toward every one ment with which readers.

altra ache solo nello si stesso tempo pasil seggiersL mano non deue compartire k trillo 6. 52. and manner of playing Li il Passachagli del 1' si potranno e altra separatamente cossi delle The Passacagli (Cento Partite sopra Passachagli) sonare.Le conuiene sostenerle assai. 8. tempo Largo) and the same holds good as to the Toccatas. per tanto agiliti della mano. tempo una parte. of the executants.e. Those pieces which are not written in division (non passaggiate) may be taken at a somewhat quicker pace this may be left to the good taste and delicate judgment . and the other hand at the same time plays a passage. tempo II pill adagio. Observe that if you have to play double both hands in semiquavers— you must stop on the key (note) preceding such passages— even if it be a black key (accidental) then . ma la seconda sia col punto 6 cosi tutte. not the first but the second shall dot. passagio. : . somewhat sustained Cadences. d' ambidue le written for both hands at the full close. rimettendosi al il fino giuditio del sonatore' buon gusto e guidar il tempo nel . Nelle Partite quando si troveranno passagi il 9.) passaggio sia portato : men uelocemente rapid and the passage expressive and less rapid else there will be confusion. con dgiustare may the Ciaccone.— . veloce. si il poi risopiii fare . 51. 6. C you meet with a passage of quavers in one and semiquavers in the other. who will choose the proper tempo for the perfection of this style consists in the tempo. provided tempo be adjusted from one section tc Christophorus Blancus. qual consisti lo spirito. 1' una no. 6. cio 6 non la prima. passages — — 9. Auanti che le si facciano li passi doppi con amendue lutamente apparire 1' mani fara di semicrome douerassi fermar* ancorche sia nera : alia nota precedente. but simply take care that the shake be (See p. at a indicated by a plain chord). . che osservarassi anche' nelli toccate. et il ma cercar che sia for note. e di semicrome insieme a tutte due le mani. portar si deue non troppo veloce e quella che sara lo semicrome doueri fade alquanto puntato. though written quick. et affettuoso altrimente sarebbe confusione. or if the left hand has one. you meet with it traits and expressive the time . should be when they are found at the . e r altra si.) 8. . non passagiate si potranno sonaro allegre' di L' altr6 will be il well to take alquanto . Trouandosi alcun passo di crome. 49 cadenze benche sieno scritte veloce 5. Quando 1' si trouera un trillo della man destra vero sinistra. thus letting the dexterity of your hand appear so much the greater. 6 la perfettione di questa maniera 6 stile' di sonare. 8157 another — and the same applies to the Ciaccone.resolutely play them. The end of a section separare e concluder di passi sar^ quando scritta di may be troverasssi la mani consonanza insieme minime. end of passages preparatory to a final cadence. e nelle accostarsi il concluder de passaggi 6 cadentosi ander^ sostenendo il 5. If in the Partite (pieces written in division et affetti sari bene di pigliare tempo Largo . conforme k chi piu piacersl. the tempo should be retarded. 7. and the hand which has the semiquavers must play them somewhat dotted 7- If (liand that is to say. If the right hand has a shake. you must not -take it too quick.'deliberately (pigliare battuta. sculpsit .. you must not divide note nota per nota. (See p. be played separately at pleasure. — (Signed) i6i6. known when a consonance of minims is same time (i. il variations) "^lOrnaments. have the and so on in succession.

| time caminare la battuta Allegra.. and many players have given up the practice of reading from the score * I will here remark : il fine dell' autore circa la dilgtsi tatione dell' udito. so as to impart fire and animation to It is advisable to dwell yvhat follows. a (also '' and sextuple time {i. so that they ' may gain in liveliness and spirit as they proceed. will readily be obtained. si portino Adagio. in a lively manner f on certain dissonances near the end of a section. Conviene in alcune durezza fermarui con arpeggiarle accio che riesca piil spiritoso il seguente passo il che sia detto con ogni modistie. moreover. and also on account of the variety of as it appears. may prove troublesome to play ad alcuni di molta . in the habit of adapting the style of his performances to that end. piii The major triple piii allegre. f). and to retard the closes '^rpeggiando. Come anco havendo atteso insieme la facility studio e vaghezza. che non paressero regolate. faranno sei per quattro si dia il lor tempo con be taken slowly (Adagio) sextuple time {i. e finire in quelli che termineranno del suo tuono.. con 1' use del contrapunto. paredommi cosa assai convenevole k chi suona che se 1' opere paressero di faticha il cominciar da principio' sino al fine si pottra pigliar. e variationi come anco pare. *The Capricci and Canzoni are printed in score. careful to conclude with some passage closing in the key. € con rimettermi al buon giuditio degli studiosi.e. Inquesticomponimentiintitolati Capricci. a stave to each part. Si deveno i principii cominciarli Adagio a dar e si (^ As a rule the pieces should be started at a slow maggior spirito e vaghezza al sequente passo. the executant must endeavour to realize the musical sense and expression and do justice to the intention of the composer. that divisions. the desired effect them render as the Ricercari . and beg to submit it to the kin^ judgment of students. A GLI STUDIOSI DELL' OPERA. vendendole di diversi tempi. sonare queste opera potrebbe riuscire As these pieces TO STUDENTS. : C |). To make facilitate the it execution of these pieces and pleasant to listeners. . come nei miei Ricercari. quicker. (1624). si debba primieramente cercar 1' affetto di quel passo. The cadences are to be altro passo. and thus save himself the trouble of playing each but he must be piece from beginning to end . la difficolta loro but one ought not to judge of their difficulty before thoroughly practising after proper study. fatica. e il mode che ricerca nel that in those passages which do not appear to be written in the usual way (regulated by the ordinary practice of contrapuntists). whereas in the Toccatas Frescobaldi adopts the so-called Italian tablature a stave of six lines for the right hand and another of eight lines for the left. • by reason of the frequent changes of time and speed. I have ventured to say so much in all modesty. Allegro. Per che il B. following. le minori alquanto se di tre semiminime. little . the executant may be allowed to select such passages as please him best. che da molti sia dismessa la prattica di detto studio della partitura h6 voluto avvertire che in quelle cose. : 8157 . non ho tenuto stile cosi facile The pieces called Capricci are not so easy to . f) is to the minor triple and .e.5° PREFACE TO THE CAPRICCI AND CANZONI B. maggiori. trippole. e sonare. dove piij piacer^ di detti passi. nelle Cadenze sostenerle assai prima che incominci 1' pace. who always and is desires to please the ear of his audience. ma non si deve per6 giudicare prima di mettergli bene in prattica nell' instromento dove si conoscera con lo studio 1' affetto che deve tenere. ^retarded sesquialtere se up to the beginning of the sections E nelle 6 farranno allegre se far .

Lib. The passage in the other hand : last main note of a shake to be held : the shake to be taken quicker than the Toccata HI. and seventh of Frescobaldi's precepts by applying them to passages from his own works.S example. Ibid. thus- jiijjiJjJJJi/S. and writes them on extra lines or on a special stave The last text . at the shake. IV. -yrr- ^ the hideous cacophony in Toccata IV.£3 come to will accordingly something like this f7\ 5 ^^ tr^ =FF rit. and VI.. No one who has studied Frescobaldi's organ works can doubt that that the pedals are here intended. is extremely difficult to play on the manuals as it stands in the And it is not a mere guess it is simple enough if the pedals are introduced as indicated.. In three instances only he Capriccio-Pastorale expressly demands pedals.— — — 51 These two addresses to readers and students appear as a complete confession of and execution. Ad." might serve for a motto to Wagner's treatise Ob Conducting 8157 .c^3 (D® «=? J. he made a far more extensive use of the pedals than he has been credited with. sixth. whereas : * " The 1 perfection of this manner of playing consists in the tempo. * faith concerning style It may not be superfluous to illustrate the fourth. W" 321 S?* And ]^J7P-g^. i^ ^ ^^m^^4. 2 krrfrrrrr-0^ ^m ^ assumes rather a more pe: ^^ ^ ^ f< <^ PP •w^^ fe^ =^ ^ 7^=^ -Mf frfTt'ffr ^ mf:!^ ^ <3J3g3r~B^ civilized aspect.

{Lib. indeed. I. II. VI.) sopra Fa. Sol. I. there are numerous instances where the pedals are obvious and. p^pg . indispensable—ai (Toccate. Lib." But in the pieces specially intended for the use of organists.)—the latter entitled " in the closing bars of the Recercar (No. La. Fa. and VI. caprici and recercari. Fa (Capricci.) and Toccatas V. J> 1 J J 1 J p. as well as ii the toccatas.52 Per 1' organo sopra i Pedali e senza.). Lib.

ou mouvement. and the passage is important. ^P ziirj or to write Trrr for trtr : : ' obtained in France a century later witness Fran9ois Couperin " Pieces de Clavecin " Premier Livre." . 53 (6) Frescobaldi frequently employs the rarer form or in Toccata II. Mais. He continues. Couperi'n. : S f! f ' as in the little Toccata quoted above ^^ ^ (p. I.e. discussing the defects of " notre fagon d'€crire la musique." says le : In " L'Art de toucher "Par example: nous pointons plusieurs. 39 and 40. and we persist in our ways. " Sans lenteur et les double croches 1713.." or Vivaldi's " Concerti. I. et cepandant nous les marquons 6gales . tons * 5Ko«ate=sound-pieces= Klangstuecke ." 1717. * J-" f iKfcn* m 4. notre usage nous a assc^vis. /if MV -? 1 J' A'^Jn 4 Clavecin. et nous continuons. he means pieces such as 8157 Corelli's " Senate da Chiesa. et l'6galit6 des terms: et Cadence. Mesure d6finit la quantity. we are slaves to our habits. croches de suites par degres-conjoints . and the It may be inferred that the semiquavers forming the third and eighth minim of the seventh minim of the right. the Allemande "La Laborieuse" is headed — un tant soitpeu pointees " {the semiquavers a trifle dotted) — . i ^_ H^ J J Ji ^ i m^ ^ f=i" m ^:71. as he keeps the ancient practice in view and indirectly defends his own way of suggesting " Examinons done d'ou vient cetU contrariUt : Je trouve que nous confondons la mesure avec expression by means of words ce qu'on nomme cadence.") He has just been " but this applies to the Italians. Lib. Second Ordre. . Les Sonades des Italiens* ne sont gueres susceptibles de cette cadence.— — —— : — . saying. his contemporaries— whereas the French practice he reprehends : is clearly that of the earlier Italians. pp.4 ^ -^ ? ^ hand. " Les Italiens 6crivent leur musique dans les vrays valeurs qu'ils I'ont pens6e . 47). et I'ame qu'il y faut jomdre." ("We dot a number of crotchets succeeding one another diatonically nevertheless we write them as equal. est proprement I'esprit.. should also be played slightly dotted left m*: i A similar practice i.

d the probability was touched upon that the — — — — may have been applied with a view to proper accent that the phrasing required may have suggested the fingering. forward to J.. both a generation before and after Frescobaldi— from Claudio Merulo. still a little Passacaglia.. comme Tendrement. increase of figuration. et With the awkward fingering which was in constant use up to J. George Muffat. 8157 . Je souhaite que quelqu'un se donne la peine de nous traduire. toccatas and the like seems to represent rigid time than that. de violes. * * * * * * ** — but in * practice there * * ** was tempo rubato. p.—And Quantz (1753). Vivement. designent. form a sufficient guide for the execution of his works. Bach. section by section. Franz Tunder. § iz. and perhaps Byrde and Gibbons on the one hand. such as— was easier to play than2 » i 4 3> 4 3 4 3 4 In connection with the old system of fingering. 6th. I'utilitd des strangers. Quaatz then proceeds to give examples—and many exceptions but he returns to the point again and again. § lo)rales of fingering : — . and 7th note of each figure— are dwelt upon a little longer than the had ones— i. ce ijue nous voudrions faire entendre. I Pavana. as the Italians call them) have the stress—the bad notes pass. pour puisse leur procurer les moyens de juger de I'excellence de notre musique instrumentale. 5th. : Increase of speed together and with and Partite sopra Passacagli (variations on an ideal ground. they can be taken to represent the best contemporary style of organ and harpsicjiord playing. a further consideration presents It itself : has been shown {ante. The main Tempo. an."3. Measured time. and again cum grano. somewhat irregularly. although they appear to be written equally so that the good notes—». — 54 — nos airs de violons. nous tachons d'y remSdiei en marquant au commencement de nos pieces par quelque mots. lively. a little Partite sopra arie (variations on airs) quicker quicker : Dance Measures { Corrente. in an Adagio.«. . slow and stately usually of two bars) also require measured Gagliarda. Sweelinck. Bach (see the notes on fingering. time—the character of the tune or the ground to guide the variations—each variation to be played on its own merits— speed to increase or decrease according to the amount of figuration. Couperin conveys something of the kind. or. S. S. read in the light of the foregoing comments. " Versuch " XL. Applied cum grano they enable us to reconstruct his peculiar style. and more 4i if Frescobaldi's precepts. the and. and in a measure to play his pieces as he played them himself. p. states " The main notes (good notes. : . moderato. as though it were a matter of course. for Canzoni and Versetti d'Hinni. 105. on the other— and thus. fht P. &c. 112. ou caractferes pour communiquer nos id^es particuliSres. The transition from one section to another to be adjusted. Because of this rule we ought to play the quickest notes in a moderately quick tempo." &c.. Froberger. Caspar Kerl. and vice versa. notation of certain preludes. and 8th. always enforcing the same thing that certain notes are stressed and slightly dwelt upon (p. pp. a little less lively than Passacaglia. the ist. Ciaconna. 3rd. moderato. disciples . . points may be stated under the following heads Measured time." c.e. for Rccercari and Capricci. Moreover. § 5 All along. 3 and 4) a jerky scale. from before Frescobaldi to Bach and later. Sec. to his and imitators. then. 4-peu-prfes. et semblent vouloir exprimer quelque sentimen^ Ainsi n'ayant point imaginds de signes. 3) that Diruta distinguishes between good and bad fingers " dite buoni " and " dite cattive " the good fingers playing notes which have the stress " note buone "— the bad fingers notes which have it not " note cattive " . nos pifeces de clavecin. 4th.

semiquavers. 5.). Shakes to be rapid the last note (main note of the shake) sustained. rather feeble as compared with contemporary Geirman organs. Octaves. spezzato "). 13. L'Ottava. 16 ft. Peter's. indicated by changes in the notes^rom and by changes in the time signatures Cadences at the end of sections to be played is broadly. such as ^ we are now accustomed f f to f . but with pipes an octave lower the result being the eifect of a 33-ft stop. 9. —ranging from Adagio to crotchets.) 10. had fourteen registers. an old organ in St. Registration to be simple and robust. and Decima nona 2f '. final Toccatas. An acceptable modem equivalent for Manual: Principals (Open Diapason). La Vigesima seconda (Octava z ft. Mark's. Principal divided (" Pr. La Trigesima terza (Quinta J ft.— — . increase the speed by degrees cadences sostenuto e ritardando assai. Extremes of speed. . La Quinta decima (Octava 4 ft. I. to these couple the foundation stops of the pedal (16 ft.. Venice. dwell slightly on the final note of a run. 1608. minims I from f. The old-fashioned fingering may occasionally suggest peculiarities of accent and phrasing.). however. penetrating. A shake in one hand must not be divided note for note with a passage in the other. to connect with Octave 4'. with a number of larger pipes not wanted for the manual. The pedal so arranged that it connected. but The qu-un certain chant. (4 ft. 6. rather than on any subtle of power.). 8 ft.) and add a 32-ft.* harpsichord pieces demand distinct alternation of forte and piano. which had nine registers. ** " L'Arte Organista de Constanzo Antegnati.).)." being reserved as " extraordinaryregisters " for special effects. somewhat ritardando. — 3. 55 Tempo rubato (improvisation) ) for the semi-cadences poco ritardando . quavers. or quasi-staccato. I breves. The flute stops were not as a rule employed in " organo pleno. 8157. and make by playing the remainder a little quicker than it is written. 8. un effect different. in his VoUkomener Capellmeister. Principal. and by no means ignoble —though. of wood. that extracts translated from Diruta Diruta's directions apply to the' better class of organs in Frescobaldi's time. can be taken as a fair specimen: ** will — 1. „ nona (Octava i. Mattheson. 466." * Authentic directions for Registration are so rare with the early Itahan organists. 1580. Another Vigesima seconda (Octava 2 Flauto in Quinta decima Flauto in Ottavo (8 ft. The changing pace to Allegro. (Ritter asks : " Gedackt (Ritter: " probably a Gedackt-8'. Flauto 8'. . is the total effect. bass. Rome. Begin deliberately .both a generation before be welcome. the penultimate . In this connection again a remark of Couperin's is significant: "II est sur gradations excluded. circa 1620. 7. except by • de gout. to be taken quickly dwell on the first note. not with the pipes of the equivalent keys of the manual. for the sake of clearness. ft. 4. ritardation or accelleration of a note or group of notes. Frescobaldi's " organo pleno " would therefore probably be . ft. semibreves." Brescia.). notes to be dwelt upon. and Quints. on hearsay. or of a series of shakes. Runs and connecting passages are usually meant . etant fait d'un certain fagon. The organ built by Bartolomeo Antegnati for the Cathedral of Brescia. sexta (Quinta ij ft. perhaps. What chiefly concerns us. and. Pedals to be used freely at discretion.. Expressive phrasing is by no means it must' depend on the relative value and duration oi the notes. which must have been bright. f. which served the pedals. Also. produit a I'oreille de la personne But the mechanism of the harpsichord affords little chance for expression. La Decima nona (Quinta 2j ft. p..).). mentions. to. . 16 ft in the manual. and after.") The principal organ at St. are excluded. which produces the effect of Cometti." ?) 8'. 2. qu-un certain passage. up for the loss Fingering.

Quinta decima. e. g. d). book 4. D. b). dignified and devotional "Harmony. : XI. is by Flauto. and Hypoionic Mode : g. or Flauto "The seventh Mode : G. " The eighth Tone " (Hypomixolydian Mode and Octave. and Octave." Part II. also Flauto or Ottava sopra. A. X. and Vigesima seconda. G. Quinta decima. " IV. "The tenth Tone" (Hyposeolian Mode: e. also Toccata 33 and hilarity. Quinta decima. it is therefore best played with Principal and Octave or Flauto. a) requires Principal and Tremulant. e) is plaintive Principal (i6') and Flauto (8'). 17) : . 815V . : : : "Toccata cromaticha— Per I'Elevation V." should have has Ottava. " II Brackets mark off the writer's additions. VIII. d) demands a dignified and touching " Harmony. and XII. sombre. and the I. f Transilvano. decima. C. " The iirst Tone " (Dorian Mode or Scale : D. e) is. Ottava. " The third Tone " (Phrygian Mode E. "The "The fifth Tone " (Lydian Mode F. and Vigesima best expressed Principal. or Flauto solo." This may be applied to Frescobaldi's —both tones should be played with Principal and Tremulant. and Flauto. c . a. or Flauto and Quinta decima. f). " The eleventh and twelfth Tones " (Ionic Mode C. assigns a peculiar character to the several registration he recommends is intended to express this character Modes or ecclesiastical Tones. c." and requires Principal II. Which character consists in the different position of the semitones (mi. its moderate with its may be expressed by Octave. like everybody before and after him. may be expressed by Principal. The " Finals " are here indicated by capital letters. d. a) of a similar effect.— 56 Diruta. No. c). to a certain extent. " : d. 46. g).f * resulting. or both together with Vigesima nona also Ottava with Quinta decima and Vigesima seconda but for the twelfth Tone take Flauto. E. and Flauto. like the second tone. demands a sad and sombre " Harmony " Elevation. of a free and pleasant effect. Haberl. with F. Octave. and Quinta . sixth Tone" (Hypolydian Mode: Tone" (Mixolydian c. .. or Flauto and Quinta decima. For the eleventh Tone take Flauto. being mild and lively. at the III. The ninth Tone " (Aeolian Mode : A. seconda. " The fourth Tone " (Hypophrygian Mode b. VI. IX. fa) and the finals. VII. : "The second Tone " (Hypodorian Mode a. " (edit. btj. and in the various cadences when the notes of the scales are accompanied contrapuntally. g) require an agreeable and lively sound.

1886. (Edit. DENIS GAULTIER." circa 1650. Vierteljahrsschrift fiir Musikwissenschaft. " Pieces de Luth. Oskar Fleischer. and " La Rh6thorique des Dieux.MERSENNE." 1636-37.) ." published 1660. " Harmonic Universelle et Trait6 des Instruments k Cords.


) (effect. or to a Schneller). " Verre casse. rests' upon this understanding. and F " Batemens redoubld sur un mfeme note qui ne lui (le clavecin) convient pas extremement." for the voice and Tiirk." . f=^S^ species of vibrato Trillo "Accent plantif. " Battement. they are not. p. t : . is simply our staff notation — six or more lines and the familiar G» C.t was used to denote certain arpeggii (the notes of a chord played in succession and in any order) as well as various kinds of short and strident shakes (akin to a very rapid mordent. as he underlutenists adorned their performances .] " Tremblement." besides standing for the repercussions of a shake with the lower semitone. the pitch of the sound elicited will depend on the vibrating length. MERSENNE. Mersenne further mentions the " Martelement " and the " Battement " as modes of playing with which and. 82 " Martellement avec deux notes.* Names of graces and their signs : Effect Sign. written out in :- accordance with Mersenne's directions Tablature.. post. The term "Battement. size and and every system of " Tablature " for the lute. if a finger of the left hand " stops " at one of the frets. &c.— — — : — — 59 VII. for the clavier. the upon the lute. and Tremolo Monteverde. 8157 .— THE LUTE. (effect. theorbo. or something between the two." i A resembling of Caccini. and similar instruments tension of the string . which were taken for an equivalent of staccato." i W b b . clefs. graces proper." \ Couperin's Compare L'Affilard's example 4. % applied to the repetition of one note thus : but he gives no signs for them — such as lute players i ¥ \ =?=FF * Italian tavolatura. indeed. Part 11. Names and signs of " tremblements " with their probable effects : : Table subjoined It should be understood that the letters on the left of the perpendicular line denote the frets on the neck of the lute i. stands them. as on a guitar or banjo.. or of a single note.e. for keyed instruments.

after Fleischer. with full tone. and the hand vibrates quickly.— " LA RHETORIQUE DES DIEUX. As a good instance of the close connection between French music for the lute and the clavecin. a soft and lute-like effect is thus obtained.: — 6o DENIS GAULTIER. this delicate little piece deserves a place The writer plays it on the pianoforte." Paris. rather. long or short. shake. and or. A species of vibrato (verre cass6) akin to a shake the finger is placed with the lower semitone on a fret. / Arpeggic io:- rfiE^ The single stroke ascending to indicate an arpeggio occurs frequently in French publications oi It was thus transferred from lute tablature to staff notation. ^ \itJ: J}J -g ^'jr^-'jrop- m^ ^ (edit." BY DENIS GAULTIER. 55 of the " Rhetorique. 1886). 8157 —avec les regies pour les . usually the major second above. ^ A Effect.) f\ Se 2Z IE m siz q^ T" ^ . where all arpeggi are so indicated." Hamilton Codex present version. Fleischer). : f> S^ fTTr-^F^^rT^^^rWS i-^with (Jie m ^^ * It will be found worth while to compare No. in his valuable edition of Denis Gaultier's " Rhetorique des Dieux " (Leipzig. which begins with the main note. here." Signs. effect something like . music " for the lute or the clavecin.* soft pedal throughout . 1680. being the accessory note : i III. molto moderato. something between the two. quotes a Pavana in staff notation. is taken from " Perrine Pifeces de Luth en Musique toucher parfaitement sur le Luth et sur le Clavecin. which. (Tempo di Marcia. or II. "PAVANE. IV. but with the It is given in modern notation." Herr Fleischer. the second.

. 3 'r / ^ f Q*" -<s^ iph-*- ^ T-C/r P- T^ /^ J J ^ J S = - h: ! ^^ calando. --^ 122= =£2- 8157 .— 6i fe ^ -^ ^ J^J -1^ / ^ -J: ilj_i :^ ^ r iT ^ J^ izzr ^ r^ - it^^^-^Tp:r7 r p r 23" ^ s &F S ^ ^g i J!!!' r'-^-f"ji Si (A" wrrn— :5l: * ^ "f fp U: rJj I r T ZZ2L jr"~^ ±i i-JTltJ J J ^ ^ -P =1 =-. Perf.v^. J. ^^^ f' g i^rrzir ^i^'^ ^ P zai rL_&u -hi- i^ f=r^ ?= rft«j.ri -^— S i-^ll j .-N. ^ 1 ^'- P (risohito.) ?^S -tg- ^ .


" (1659. or.CHRISTOPHER SIMPSON.) .Violist. " The Division. An Introduction to the Playing upon a Ground.


but something thicker. according to our Fancy. or soft. in imitation of the Voice . or falling. and proceeds to give directions as to " Divisions " (impromptu how to contrive them. and shaked. with a word or two of elucidation playing — . or the Humour of the Musick. and soft. that called a : Backfall.. Consort-Viol. or Semitone. He then variations) His explanations. down. up. ''/. This sliding a Third. the Sound from one Note to another. and then (as Some also affect a kind of Shake or Tremble it were) swell. To these may be added. : "OF GRACEING NOTES. now something Sometimes from the Third above which we call a Double Backfall. like those of a lute. a little after the touch of the Bow. are of two sorts viz. Played with the same or we will call a Cadent. which he divides into "smooth" and " shaked. . or more Notes with one Motion of the Bow.^ " Sometimes a Note is graced by sliding to it from the Third below. goes on to the " Graces " proper.t There is yet another plain smooth Grace. Viola da Gamba. and is expressed by setting down. were it not for the fact that he makes a he mistake common to writers of instruction Ipooks in trying to teach divers things simultaneously attempts to set forth what graces are ^ev se. by the Bow. and by the Fingers. or Ornament." Bass. Again. with the Bow. it makes that Grace which we call a Plain-Beat* or Rise. viz. but to the Note following . which would. " Graces done with the Fingers. or grow lowder. or obsolete. or taking off the Finger. VIII. and how to play them. we seem to draw as it were. was a six-stringed Violoncello length of strings thirty inches from the bridge to the nut. Short Vorschlag from ft^/ozc. . or ending.— 65 .. upon the viola da gamba. Simpson. and at the same time to show how they should be executed upon the viol. It seems impossible profitably to condense or abridge his remarks. I Nachschlag. in his instruction book "The Division Violist " begins by teaching the rudiments of. in descending. having the effect of an Anticipation. as when we Play lowd. called an Elevation. and they are therefore subjoined in exUnso. would leave nothing to be desired. called a Springer.Viol. The " Division-Viol. tuned thus : ^ compass a little -^ beyond three octaves. a Tone. as when we make it soft in the beginning.." " Graceing of Notes is performed two wayes .^ which concludeth the sound of a Note more acute. By the Bow .«. smooth. A kind of Nachschlag." indicating semitones ." simple and to the point. is sometimes exprest in One and the same Note.--whose following Quaver is Placed with the ensuing Note. if they were played severally. Smooth is. a Note is sometimes graced by joyning part of its sound like a Prickt-Crochet . towards the middle. that of Playing 2. Again this lowd. when in rising. how to apply them. . is alwayes done upon one String. like the shaking Stop of an Organ : but the frequent use thereof (in my opinion) is not commendable. 8157 F . In ascending. by clapping down ' oi his Prickt-Crochet: This " Bow another Finger just at the expiring of it. fingerboard furnished with seven "frettes. ^ t The same from § a6oK«. 3.not have that Grace.

A Beat. 8157 .Relish. before we fix it upon the Place designed. are Play'd with one Motion of the Bow. imploy an open Shake. ^^ Springer.* This may be used where no other Grace is concerned. Double Backfall. following. applyed to their proper Notes. : 1 " Graces made with open Shakes are these." " The other sort of Graces is done by the Shake. or distance of one Frett. Close." Exp. by playing the like moving Notes with one Motion of the Bow. when a Finger is shaked in that distance from whence it was removed. . an Elevation. Plain Backfall. The Beat is the same in Nature with the Plain-Beat or Rise . the difference only a shake of the Finger taken oft which must be done in that wideness whence it was removed. Cadent. and their Explications. a Backfall. ^ 1 j ^ jl Ixp.f Trillo. of these Graces. . . only a short shake of a Finger. How an Elevation. and nicely. Gruppo. Those Notes which have an Arch."SHARED GRACES. as to make no Variation of Tone . W ^ ^ ' EXPLICATIONS. Open is. J ^^ ^ the slide marked in the Parthenia. ^^ =?z: ^ This appears to be Backfall.. i " NAMES AND "MARKES. therewith. " The Markes SMOOTH GRACES. and double. a Cadent : and doubleRelish. . or two Fretts. To these may be added the Groppo. Close. Exp." Original Clef. or Tremble of a Finger of which there are two kinds viz. is commonly made from The shaked Backfall is likewise the same in Nature with the the Half-Note. set under. are as you see Exp. for wider then that we never shake. ^5 I' r T + ^^ r Elevation. is set for Explication. will better appear in their Examples. or Stroke. is that when we shake a Finger as close and near to that which stoppeth as may be 'touching the String. This. the difference.' Beat. * A sort of vibrato. £* i Exp. W * ^ ^ ^ b. as also the Plain-Beat. or is to be set down supposing the distance exceed not the wideness of a whole Tone. or over them. imitated on the Viol. or any other movement of the Voice. '^ -^r— ie£ ^*^- 1] ^ ^ f Caccini's Cadent. so gently. and Open.

and acting by turns all the Parts therein contained. as. I — .) Shaked Beat. your shaked Beats and Backfals. Colman's notion of a " cadent " and an " elevation " from his own. Compassion. we do frequently use both shaked Beats and Backfals : as. as a shaked cadent and a shaked elevation for Simpson's table of smooth graces contains them both in a much less elaborate form. g (battement. and this. Doctor in Mustek. ^ * Elevation. and more peculiar to the Basse. 8157 ." smooth and swelling * Simpson ought here to have distinguished Dr. Backfall Shaked. i I * r^ Double-Relish. your close-shake and PlainYet when we would express Life. therefore ." After thus candidly confessing that he had consuhed an expert upon keyed instruments as to the more elaborate graces. i ^ ^_ Cadent. ^ (if) ^ ''p {vibrato. on the contrary. upon the Treble. not only on the Treble. which are more natural to the Treble. And all these are concerned in our Division-Viol. Courage. Others more smooth and feminine as. or upper Parts. or Chearfulness.* the " Master of Division " concludes as follows :— " Of these (graces) some are more rough and masculine. when we would express Love. Sorrow. as imploying the whole Compass of the Scale. Notes.) Close Shake. Graces. 4r ^ 1' r >-• Or thus -i r r' r-^ obliged to the ever famous "For these I am Charles Colman. but sometimes also upon the Basse.^ 67 SHAKED GRACES. . or the Like .


" Melothesia. (1658-1695). A posthumous 81j7 . JAC. FROBERGER (+1667).MATTHEW LOCKE (1632 or 33-1677). HENRY PURCELL publication. JOH." 1673." 1696. " Lessons for the Harpsichord or Spinnet.


Shake. occurs in Fore-fall. 13) :- Matthew Locke's " Prelude" . Beat. In " Melothesia " the signs for graces and their names are given as follows : A A A A A A curious double shake. partially written out. Back-fall.— 71 IX. (p. Fore-fall and Shake.

according to the key you play in . Like the suites of later composers they Gigue— but they are properly Partite. and that upon ye note above that which is mark'd and shake the other half. this peculiar method of construction was given up and the name Buxtehude and Kuhnau.' Courante. Partita remained. but if it be a note with a point to it you are to hold all the note plain and shake only the point. . is made to represent the various dance measures. forms the link between Frescobaldi's " Partite. Wy^ — TT 4. inasmuch as they are written in the shape of variantes on a single subject— which. of course representative Toccata or two. A Froberger himself calls some of his series of pieces Partite. and for ye plain note and shake* if it be a note without a point.72 but without addition or literally in modern notation. and perhaps a Partita. divisions.'. explain'd thus ^ ^ is ^ * I t e. L). two-thirds. Froberger ought to be edited — — subtraction. the appoggiatura -takes about half the value of the main 8157 I. variations. Later on.£ ^ : A plain « note and shake thus • A fore fall mark'd thus :" . Bach's " Partitas" (Clavieruebung. . written out in accordance with Frescobaldi's directions as to style. Sarabande.e.. you are to hold half the quantity of it plain. by consist of an Allemande. together with HENRY PURCELL. and J. S. which are collections of pieces in the same key. and rhythmical transformation. appoggiatura and shake. would suffice to indicate the proper reading. that is to say. . explain'd thus explain'd thus : S explain'd thus (j) > jg~^ explain'd thus : ?^ \ P*^ explain'd thus -^ w m explain'd thus ^^ explain'd thus g " Observe that you always shake from the note above." which are essentially Variations. note—if the main note dotted. A shake is mark'd thus : . and beat from ye note or half note below. A beat is mark'd thus : ."t A slur is mark'd thus : explain'd thus The mark for ye batt'ery thus : . Thus Froberger. A backfall mark'd thus : A mark for the turn thus : The mark for the shake turn'd thus m ^ ^^ m ^ ^ ^ 3 .

. and carefully presented the ornaments. ^ ^-j^=^ A i" o^y^ -a^- it^ m iL-i- % n J ." shakes generally begin with the upper accessory. an appeggio of four notes legato. 8 — 9— 10. I'-^rrir^ ^^ :^ it ^ tF=W^ (§) m IJ- 1=^ r 4 ^ i\^ r J 4 " . i nm u.rj. require completion and revision. Finale) the explanation reduce the stretch. Musicians . table in hand. are used instead of naturals.e. The notes for the and the So much rectified. ^^'ej'l . etc. or rather B ? And the answer is to set free the thumb and thus remains In Beethoven's notation (compare Sonata C sharp minor. ^m ^m ^m^^ftr7^r^"r--£r' f \^ ^ ' M (li) ±- t^ 2^~~ 8157 -^—T* . P — -ti*'^ There is no need of further comment the names and signs for Purcell's graces are obsolete but the things intended still exist and the directions apply graces are diatonic " according to the key you play in. — — may well be grateful to Professor Pauer for his reprint of Purcell's Lessons in " Old English Composers.. pp.— 73 The "explanation of ye Battery" in the original stands thus (cleff jg: )— I obviously a bundle of blunders. the question ties connecting the quavers for the middle and little finger are missing..^ au . Subjoined is one of the best Sharps. -. " Almand " : Purcell's Lessons." The text is correct as far as the notes go. published 1696.^jj. : : would accordingly stand i. of which the upper three notes are to be held down. A task for the Purcell Society.J^^n^|J.j. it will be seen. why the dotted minim G. £ thumb and index are engraved a line too low . >. niT. however.j^3jJ | feb ^ m dtra^ rzjr J J . of Purcell's pieces with the graces as they stand in the original edition.

to the first there is three Minims in a barr. this or this allways ^ to mark.— 74 . Triple time consists of either three or six Crotchets in a barr. distmguished by this Q. fom. by saying one. y next a little and y ^ last a brisk and airry time. eight Quavers as long as four Crotchets. rh-*-^ 5fe ^ 'tis ^ \^ =w i r 1 PURCELL ON TEMPO." difficult in There being nothing more all Musick then playing of true time. of which there are two is Common time and Triple time.-^:J^iJ. therefore nefsesary to be observ'd by is practitioners.. and is commonly played very slow. and they are to be play'd slow. and each of them has y« length of one Semibreif in a barr. B* g5=aJ. Attention has already been drawn to the fact that in early days various time signatures served to In this respect Purcell's evidence italicised below supports and completes ante pp. which is to he held in playing as long as you can moderately tell four. four Crotchets as long as two Minims. is the second has three Crotchets in a barr. sixteen Semiquavers as long as eight Quavers. and faster. indicate the speed of a piece. 8157 . y last has si» Crotchets in a barr and Commonly and Paspys. three. 3t=«! ^ 51. the third has to brisk times as Jiggs y same as y former but play'd faster. h^m£3^^^ vi :fc 'T*^ ^"S^JV ^ sorts. 46 that of the Parthenia and of Frescpbaldi and " EXAMPLE OF TIME OR LENGTH OF NOTES. two. y^ first a very slow movement. two Minims as long as one Semibreif. and is to be known by this | this ^6 this 3 or is this f marke.

. it further indicates a slow but unmistakable increase of speed in the execution music all round S. but this which I have delivered will. This subject is further discussed in the chapter * Loulie's " Principes. after alluding to Loulie's project of a " chronometre"* which he knows only through Walther's Lexicon. — 75 of speed. the third is quickest of all. Mace's words. and (three. direction . by which to compute the length of other notes . 1676. with your hand up which measure I would have you observe in this slow You may sort of common time (marked C)i the second sort of common time is a little faster 0. four.. xvii. about ^nd of a minute. et seq." words — Quantz... . . etc. be most useful to you. three.. in which " Some speak of having recourse to a lively let the words (one. (3) adagio cantabile. In the writer's opinion. and their sub-divisions.. ." a felt the want of some such measure. and also in simple and V All this shows a gradual change in the notation of music from what Beethoven called big pound-notes (Pfundnoten) to our crotchets. 1732. tell one. with your hand down as you hear it strike. (4) adagio assai as types of speed for comparison subject to various modifications "for the sake of expressing the passions.. He compound proceeds to explain the same thing in alia breve time that each beat has half the above value groups of three quavers form one beat or pulsation." . four) to Compendium or Introduction to practical music. — instrumental music especially. three. He takes (i) allegro assai. 1637. four. four." in an equal length as you would (leisurely) read them.. 8157 ." In common square time — — : allegro assai allegretto adagio cantah'h' . adagio assai „ : quaver quaver \ two pulsations. " Versuch. Diruta's groppi and tremoli seem to show a somewhat slower rate for the average minims in his time. almost as fast as the regular motion of a watch. triple time how in 1 1 f : . of Christopher Simpson's "A the counting process is applied to crotchets and quavers : " Pronounce the words (one. i. two. four) with^t up. two. of J. quoted p. 46. but with an addition " Stand by a large chamber-clock and beat your hand or foot to the slow motions of the pendulum.. each „ „ minim crotchet = = = = one one . quavers. like his contemporaries. cover Purcell's. as that of one beat of the heart. " one semibreif in a bar to be held as long by saying one. in a bar. indicates the duration of half a " tactus. pulsation „ . or measure . (2) allegretto. 1718.e. which make up the quantity or length of a semibreve." shows that Purcell. 91. Thus Mersenne. then fancy those four be crotchets." 1752. telling one... The 17th edition.. three. of Playford's "Introduction to the skill of musick" virtually repeats Mace's and Purcell's The attempt to suggest tell some workable measure as you can moderately four. and which failed to gain approval proposes " the pulse at the hand of a healthy man " for a unit. two) be with the hand down. or the little minutes (seconds) of a steady-going watch for quavers.. two.." etc. Bach..t . 7. minim. two. 47. par. $. In the 8th edition. and consequently of a time." pulse for the measure ol crotchets . and three.. I think.


" Musick's Monument. (The Lute).THOMAS MACE." 1676. 8157 .


1 /a . marked thus /. a : i . be these : Explanations written out in accordance with Mace's directions. Beate.. The ist and chiefest is The Shake. which we most commonly use upon the Lute. " The Names of such Graces Tablaturc. .79 X.

— A Back-fall (appoggiatura from above) explained " Let your Note be what : it . thns: (See Fr. represent intervals of semitones . The 15th and Soft S^ so : ° — : : before • a. by others." " As soon as E — that is. is but not distinctly to be heard. upon the several keys. quick. is a very excellent Grace. that it may suddenly take away that sound which you last struck yet give some 107. very neat and curious. without some other help than by the left hand. so that F may sound strongly only by that fall which will cause a pretty. or requiring of the humour of the musick which if in its due place be made. " none of which are to be struck. express the True Note perfectly or your pretended Grace prove a Disgrace. my next finger must fall smartly into F. X See Couperin's Table. under Suspension.. j. by any sliding or falling of notes. and soft sound. Also used in the sense ^_j^j^__. as others are . throughout the instrument (either Lute..* f nimble. . See Orlando Gibbons's Galiardo in C. xvi." " In encient times. viz." . the finger perfect sound. new : which Grace. " as you see.. though now... penultimate bars of the 3rd xviii." f.. because it consists of too many notes. Page 104. as any other whatever"). without any other striking. " " ^ /^ or tills: a n (Fermata). d. and even The Double Relish "is a Grace. "which although it be not a Grace. b. loi. or two frettes below (according to your Ayre) as if you did intend to stop the string to sound. e. The Elevation " is generally to be made in the ascension or descension of a 3rd " (major or minor) " and always upon the middle note.— — 8o 13. else will is off is a full Note's distance). „ Pause. if well done and Pages 109. and his Pavin under " Suspension. according to the nature. as a note very taking and pleasant. in proper places. : A see Nos. but as often from one Frette (which of a Liite. Page — . fromyour Fare-well. nor likewise numbered among the Graces. The Springer " is a Grace. — " You must likewise know that a Shake not always to be made two Frettes " " culled Page 105. 110. in . neat. and 5th in parts.. or standing still." (which Page 103." post p. hnked together by a hooped stroak " (compare table). but only so. in that stop (so dab'd) . small tincture of a properly. we use it not at all in our compositions for the Lute. of any performance. The " Frettes " upon the fingerboard by the letters a. Directions Mace. "After you have hit your note. Orlando Gibbons's Galiardo in C. and t It occurs in the Parthenia minor " The Lord of Salisbury.. to be performed. — it. or Viol) was accounted an eminent piece of excellency. adds much to Grace and the thing to be done is but only to make a kind of cessation.— The Pause. a little pause Q ' I'TS _. you must. t yet the performance of it. bar 7. the well and true performance of it." It consists " of five letters " (notes). ^ 14.. will the tuning of the Lute-strings being known. but only the first. indicated is Half a Note Distance).." bars 7 and 9. very profitable to practice. and all the rest are to be performed by the activity of the left hand in the manner of falling or sliding (glissando). Co^-^^ last. thus. ^A Half-fall explained its (short appoggiatura from below) sound.«. you must (just as you intend to part with your note) dab one of your next fingers lightly upon the same string. before it : fret E—has given . 8157 ." Effect: -^- Page 106. — " Whatever your Grace be. which you intend to make the Grace upon.) ^ ' and Loud lo : (" which is as Oreat and Good a Grace.. for some sort of notes and is done thus. c. . part i. sometimes longer and sometimes shorter."t Page T09. the tablature can be deciphered with ease. it must first partake of the Tone of another Note or Half-Note above Page stopped at 104. " ." note . note. The Tutt. a frett. g£j^. * The " elevation " occurs in the Parthenia. for the making of the hind but upon the Lute is not used to be performed. marked thus :a V p : stop the sound _(> • rfZpZ or.gggg^^i(jjj.

1635). New Lessons for the Virginal or Harpsichord" (1663). MICHEL L'AFFILARD. (A Parisian Singing-master. . . 8157 . ANDREAS HERBST (A . German Capellmeister and Singing-master.) " Livre d'Airs. D'AMBRUIS. PLAYFORD. " Musick's Handmaid.) " Musica moderna prattica. la Musique " JOH. " Principes tres faciles pour bien apprendre (First Edition. 1588-1666. avec les seconds complet en Diminution " (1685).JOH. overo maniere del buon canto" (1658).


has the following {i. amongst other illustrations of Diminution. x. quoted from Rob.. Eitner's : Monatsschrift fur Musikkunde. G ^ (Subject. BolUus).— 83 XL Herbst Passaggi (1658).e.) ExCLAMATio LANGUIDA {after • I Dav. N hi h J^ i I Jl . 103..

B.) iF ^ ^=g: 32 1 ^ M3a lla. e. s 5 (Sung. Cadence coxipee avec v. s 6. Martellemeni avec deux Notes ^i'' r f '^ ^u^j^ ^^S^ (N.) ^ i S S' . Feinte ^ge 1*-^ (Written. Balancement. i)^ flj J'.iJ_/>C^^ (Sung.) ^ (Written.) Double cadence battue.) (Sung.) (Simg. ( Note.) 5.") (Sung. ^S -»v< ^ f . (Written. ftp" ^ (tt) Tremblement (Written^ - i^ ? 1 IE ^ — subit. 1705. (Sung." (Written. " Bebung.) (e- $ 10. " Helan vJ ! ou aspiration un peu violente. (N.B.) .B. Double cadence coupee.) (N.)(D (N3.) ±i= =^ Double cadence battue.) I "TNTBir^ t2^=JS 9> Coulemenis.) ^ IT (/. IE ^ et Pince.B.) ^' et ^ d'un Accent.) 3^ 5=rS ^^ S 10a.) ^ 7.) . n fe ^ 1705.B. has : The fifth edition..) ^^-^ 8. (N. (N. (Fifth edition.B. HelaH qui est compost d'un Port de voix (Written.) jt^f^^^r^ m^ 8157 m (N.) (Written. « V f±: _£2_ (Sung. (Written.) (j) I ^(Sung.) W 11.) (Sung.

B.) (Written. also not written out.) ^ .) et fermie.) n zzr (Sung. 1705. which occurs A in No.— 85 12. „ (Written. (Fifth edition. stands for a semi-shake °^' .. / 1 J.B. ^ ^ to 12a. mostly in the same time and key. and signifies a shake with the upper accessory. 4 as sung.) I (N .). batue (Sung. stands for our tr. Cadence soUtenue. require the following evidently intended be + not written out.) QE Cadence soutenue.^^J^ These interesting examples. The sign *v. P The sign ^ 3E e :3r-yzr Ab ^ comments : i". to which attention is drawn by (N. i ^ Cadence appuyee. and representative.

Here the sole sign for graces is still t!iai and no explanation is given. p- 0-0-\- . Diminution. In Part II." as Purcell has it. i 5 ^ ji IS'-^ i 5 J? i \f r ^ ^^ ^ ^m ^r ^ 321 &c. In the " Introduction to -the Skill of Music " (17th edition. and Vs for " a plain note. and shake." in Baches time. **' occurs for a shake. _j5 "A close sha ke " I ^^a i y — : Expl. 1718) ^ Playford has " A Springer": Expl. . specimen from D'Ambruis's "Livre d'Airs avec les seconds (the repeats) completsen Diminution" may be compared with " Les Agr6emens de la m6me Sarabande.-- " A Cadent" : Expl. (an anticipation). 2nd Edition. Part I.— ^ 86 of the Parthenia Playford. - P A (in (a sort of N-aphsohlag). " Musick's Handmaid " (1678). (Vibrato) Division) Air.

PACHELBEL .JOH.. 1653-1706. 1667-1712. FERD. . JOH. FISCHER . KUHNAU . GOTTFRIED J. Circa 1700. WALTHER . 1623-1722. FRANZ XAVER MURSCHHAUSER 1670-1733 OR '37. CASP. . JOHAN ADAM REINKEN JOH. 1684-1748... .




Pachelbel's " Hexachordon Apollinis," 1699, has t
printed from a
for shakes.




Geschichte des Orgelspiels

II., p. 132),

contains a

His Organ Toccata in C major, number of bars marked thus :—


.^^Ti j-^^i JTT^ J-^m

mark —«•, which

Ritter does not explain,


the lutenist's sign for arpeggio.

Therefore the passage should

be played
(quasi staccato) thus


(legato) thus



: ,

His shakes written out almost invariably begin with the main note.

His table
















ffi ^

Acquivalet huic.

Acquivalet huic.

" Hortus Musicus,"* describes J. A. Reinken superne tonum contingit "



qui inferne



and " Tremul


" Admonitio,


i s

quis forte ignoravit,




any one be ignorant of the

signification of the sign


simplex X

sibi velit is sciat



him know that

means a



which the note below

qui inferne tonum feri,at quemadmodum hae duse tremulum notant, qui superne tonum contingit."

the principal note is used as the assistant grace note, while

indicates a



which the note above



H Seb. Bach's friend,




Johann Gottfried Walther

(they were togefhti^^t "Weimar, 1708-14), has the

following signs and explanations


The examples at A are slides (Schleifer) and turns (Doppelschlag). At B. I is the " Nachschlag," 2 and 3 ^, and ^, (the old English sign from the Partheuia) is here used to signify a short shake or a short mordent 4 and 5 are again slides (Schleifer). In his Musicalisches Lexicon, 1732, Walther indicates the "Accent," appoggiatura, by means of the sign (, or »*•, ascending, ), or •»•, descending; and he further says, " appoggiaturi are generally short, taking very little of the time of the main note sometimes, especially when marked in the French way i.e., by means of a tiny note preceding a main note of short duration, they may take up something like the half of such main note."







^) W






Walther also states that the Frenchman, Louli6, in " Elemens, ou Principes de Musique," p. 80— a copy
* Edit. Riemsdijk (Leipzig).

his instruction
in the British

book (Paris and Aihsterdam, 1698)

Museumt— has

explained the accent





there spelt without the accent on the final

; Louli6's sign being a little perpendicular stroke small grace note connecting two main notes, thus a


which, applied to various intervals signifies


.CHAMBONNlfeRES LE BEGUE . tl670.. 8157 . 1630-1702.. 1633-1687.. '..... LULLY D'ANGLEBERT . .. Circa 1650.


"Les Pieces de Clavecin de Monsieur de Chambonnieres " (Livre Premier). ff^rrrrrrrrr V ^ SlUlA^^^^ Le Begue. ^^ Pinc6 autre. :^ -•a^ 1^ nr et " Les Pieces de Clavecin.* Organist du Roy Museum). g. published in 1670. f In the second edition (1686) of Lully's opera " Armide. ^ ^ ^ ^ Coul6.— — — 95 XIII. year of his death. WA^J -II ^ ^ C011I6. Pincement." the sign for the shake (t) is replaced by x . i Harpfegement. the " Demonstration des Marques" : c/o g Cadence. trag^die mise en musique. Tremblement appuye. Henry D'Anglebert's " Pieces de Clavecin. ( . : de I'Eglise Saint " Demonstration des Marques " j± ^ [ ( Cadence ou tremblement." 1689." Paris. (British Museum). the 8157 first E&^^ Museum. " Marques des Agr6ments et leur signification ": or> i w tJ Treinblement simple. 1677 (British Compos6es par Monsieur le Begue. m ! Harp^gement. Tremblement et pinc6. * There are two Livres d'orgue of of which only is in the British . Frederic. Pincement. g Cadence S autre. Double cadence. cr Double cadence CX> cw e^ t ? autre iV5 sans tremblement sur une tierce. Port de voix.

Double cheute a une tierce idem a une notte seul. Could sur une tierce autre. 8157 . de voix en montant ^^ descendant ^-^ — ^ ^ P^ Cheute et 96 (N.B. - ^-hr &rJ" -f-hJ-J^g (The could starts from the line 6. m ^ tremblement.—The coul6 starts from the space a. 4m 'i autre ^^ autre.w—t^ ^^ m^ Cheute o port ou en aescenaant. Cheute sur z nottes.) Cheute sur une note. Arpegd 1^ i-=*= ?E5- #^ autre i.) yf) autre (could) sur a notes de suitte pince.=^=^ s^ Detachd avant un Detachd avant un pined.

1668-1733.FRANQOIS COUPERIN. . Clavecin " (1717). " L'Art de toucher le . 8157 . . RAMEAU " Pieces d§ Clavecin " (1731)- 1683-1764.


" Contents : Position before the Remarks on fingering. The publications of Fran9ois Couperin are : " Pieces de Clavecin. according to the key. Clavecin." whenever in the Pieces there is anything out of the way as regards fingering. " Pieces de vide. and position of the hands. and highly esteemed by them. " Merits sur le ton de mes pieces. An " Allemande " (the prototype of Seb." Brahms and Chrysander have (Denkmaeler der Tonkunst IV. 1730 (Eight " ordres "). 8157 whom it was an advantage . calls it toucher le Clavecin — "ma methode. and organists. was derived from the practice of earlier or contemporary lutenists. Second Livre. augment^s de rapoth6ose de incomparable Lully. Bach and his the representative method of French Clavecin playing. with a succession of pieces without having to re-tune the open bass strings. 1713 (Five "ordres." and an Allemande). Quatridme Livre. to form a group or a series consisting of an indefinite number of pieces of similar or diversant to be able to play character. and his " explications " are readily intelligible. as soon as one has mastered the quaint old French terminology for " Les Agr^ments. 1888). cembalists. Troisieme Livre. et des Signes given in the " Table. tant de mon premier livre. Ornaments.— " 99 XIV. in the same key. by examples from the author's " Livre de Pieces. or ornamentation. and may be played by way of overture to this or that : " ordre " or suite." With regard to ornaments in general. A Total of 236 pieces. 1716-1717 (Seven further " ordres "). 1722 (Seven " ordres ").* quarter of a century anterior to the date of publication. His table can be applied to his pieces. In the dedication " Au Roi. I' ou nouveaux Concerts." Corelli. Bach's " Allemande " in B minor. " edited an admirable reprint of the four books of " Pieces de Clavecin and. L'Art de is . There are frequent cross-references from the one publication to the other " Voy6s ma M6thode. the habit of French and German violists." Couperin says " it is : twenty-three years since your Majesty has listened to instrument.+ Couperin's remarks on graces form an amplification of the " Explication des Agr^mens. and II. and the reverse." or sets)." 1717 (" Y compris huit Preludes. Suites Fran9aises III. ' f In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." eight in number. London : Augener. some of tjiem) are " composes sur le ton de mes pidces " . It can be taken to represent the French style during at least a sons. expression." as Couperin when referring to it in his pieces The book was known to Seb." " L'Apotheose de " Trios " for viols." which accompanies his " Premier Livre des Pieces." I. The eight Preludes of the M6thode (very valuable. " Pieces de Clavecin. Couperin states his views tersely enough. Preliminary exercises. and it ought to be reproduced by photogravure." L'Art de toucher le Clavecin was issued immediately after Couperin's first two collections of "Pieces." ' „ L'Art de toucher „ le Premier Livre. players of wind instruments. illustrated my compositions." and forms an indispensable adjunct to them. que de mon second " fingered and — arranged in order of difiiculty and interspersed with observations showing how they are to be played " in good taste." „ „ " Les gouts reunis." * Copies are now extremely rare.) Divers " Preludes.

Port de voix simple. ^^ 5 ArpSgement. EXPLICATION DES AGREMENS.Premier Livre. et li6. k Port de voix double Effet. or expression. or style. ^^ Effet. E* 1221 Tremblement appuy6.'. $ *^ Pinc6 double. ET DES SIGNES. p. <S2J i)^^ ^ J r^c Accent. Table d'agr6ements. Tremblement d6tache. M6thode the tremblements are generally marked not /v. ± ^m Effet. An attempt at re-arrangement would lead to further complication. now-a-days. ^^ 5 * In the out. ^^ ^ i S ^£^ ^ ^^ Effet. en descendant. etc. im -»v r-ffd. come under the head of phrasing. of which he is justly proud. whilst Couperin is treating of graces. from " Pieces de Clavecin. 104. li^ I ^ Effet. strictly as they stand— to translate his words. Effet. 1713. en montant. It appears best. and append a few elucidations. i S :& Tremblement ferm6. m i^'J'J s J|J. therefore. and that he chooses at the same time to enforce certain innovations in fingering. Arp^gement.^ Port de voix coul6e.100 The disturbing features are that. m Pinc6 simple. Signe. The tremblement appuy6 will be found written 8157 . to reproduce Couperin's Explications des Signes.. ^ ZS3Z =fet ^ ^ Tremblement 116 sans etre appuy6. he also treats of matters which would. But such lack of perspicuity (with musicians it is simply a lack of literary skill) is the rule in early instruction books. Effet. i s Tremblement ouvert.

Unisson. i ^ i n r 1 i Aspiration. I' fttvr Bffet. continu.lOI t t p Coules. tJ ^ ^ ^ i s Effet. ^^ B#e<. en descendant.ic £#«<. et b6inolis6s. r eIe ^ ^^ B#«<. r 1 j g ^ ^ l^ ^ Suspension. Signe. t ^ Tierce couI6e. appuyee. -1 (if> r Double. ^ Effet. I c". '^^ tr~ Z3I 5^ Pined Effet m Tremblement Z2I continia. fe £#6*. ^ mfir^ Effet. Tierce coulee. en montant.^>J.. ^^ Double. Lti/r Effet. dont Us points marquent que la seconde note de chaque terns doit etre plus Pinc6s di6s6s. r —rr^ 8167 . We Signe. <Ji Effet. rl r 1 ^-^^ /.

des ports-de-voix-doubles ^t des tremblements. The value of the main notes determines the duration of the graces such as Pinch-doubUs (long mordents. . Example : i rrrrirrj ^^ Pinc6-double. f- r r r r r Tout pinc6 pour doit 6tre fix6 sur la note ou il est pos6 : et faire entendre.102 AGREMENS QUI SERVENT AU Signe. et la note ou I'on s'arfete. Ports-de-voix-doubUs (appoggiatura from below joined to a long mordent) and shakes. pince-double. : . playing takes the place of the martelement (long mordent or tremolo played with the bow) upon instruments of the viol class." 1717. /»|V JEU. tieat lieu du martSlement dans les instrumens k Archet.. et du The Pince-double (long mordent) in organ and clavecin clavecin. doivent tons 6tre ccfmpris dans la valeur de la note dssentifele. fiy 1^ . dans le Toucher de L'orgue. je me sers du term de Point-d'arSt. Every mordent must be fixed upon the main note: over which it is placed to explain what I mean I use the term Point-d'aret (stopjping place). d6terminer la dur6e des pincfis-doubles. . i^. i i ^ me La Pinc^-simple. qui est marque cy-dessous par une petite 6toile ainsi les batemens. — I 5 Pincfe-double. shakes with the lower accessory). en general. from " L'Art de toucher le Clavecin. C'est la valeur des notes qui doit. which is indicated below with a httle star thus the repercussions and the stop are all comprised in the value of the main note.

My pupils concur and I conclude that there is some truth in the matter as to which I appeal to the concensus of opinions. where two parts have to be played with the same hand because. it No matter upon what sort of note a shake is indicated. 6tant compose de deux notes de valeur. which thus loses some portion of its — — — — — value). ou sur le demiton. the third and second third. beinig obliged to demiire crocbe de valeur ou y a une petite croix. Ceux de la main gauche se font du premier doigt . I do not permit the old-fashioned of fingering. Je ne passe la maniSre ancienne que dans les occasions ou la main se trouve obligee de faire deux parties differentes. 6tant obliges de quitter la il finger marked 3 marked 4 in the in the third progression. selon moi I'une est ! Le port-de-voix : preferable k I'autre. dont je me raporte a la pluraKte des sentiments. mais cette gradation doit hire imperceptible. Although shakes are indicated by notes of equal value in the table of graces given in my first book of pieces. I have found that I can distinguish by ear whether the two repercussions in question are played with the same finger or with a change of fingers. The httle note perdue (grace note) of a port-de-voix (appoggiatura and mordent) or of a coule (the term is used here in the sense of an appoggiatura from above or below) must be struck with the harmony that is to say. except in cases way 123 Premier * * 23 progrfes. notes which count in the bar) and of a little note which is not counted {note perdue). est plutot et au deuxifeme progrfes ou le remplac6 par le doigt 2 . or if the melody has been — ^m w * Fagons anciennes. against my intention. Le doigt marque marqu6 4 dans le 3 dans le troisifime et le doigt The finger last quatrifeme. ils doivent Dependent commencer plus lentement qu'ils ne finissent avec le .e. but the gradation must be imperceptible. laissent moin de liaison qu'au premier progrfes. fourth. when the third finger at once replaces the fourth. dans la table des agrdments de mon premier livre. 8157 they ought. nevertheless. it pertains to that part of the bar which would be occupied by the main note that follows it (».. flats). pour rebatre la petite note perdue. * * 34 w= ^ ^^^ * 234 45 QuatriSme progres. . contre mon et intention. quaver in the bar (at the little cross) so as again to strike the little note perdue (grace note) necessarily produce a less complete legato than the fingering given in the first progression when the second finger at once replaces the third or. ne sont pas inutiles : d'autant qu'on pouroit souvent faire Ips uns pour les autres. it takes the place of the main note. d'une petite note-perdue J'ay trouv6 qu'il y a deux mani^res de le doigter dont. As the Port-de-voix (Appoggiatura from below followed by a mordent) is made up of two notes de valeur {i. 234 Deuxieme progr&s. ont 6te foits d'un m&me doigt on de deux doigts differens. and with the fourth and second et du 2 avec le 3.e. Test aussi plutot par le doigt marqu6 3. allors on est trop g&n6: sur tout quand les parties sont eloygn6es. : de petites croix dans Les notes-de-valeur des ports-de-voix sont marquees par les exemples cy-aprSs. au dessus. In the left hand they are played with the first and second.«. and the quit the * Reasons for preferring the new way of fingering Ports- de-voix to the old. Sur quelque note qu'un tremblement soit marqufi. Fagons modernes. en question. J'ai Je faut que la petite note perdue d'un port-de-voix. The' Pinces-diezes. Mes 61eves le sentent comme moi. descending. ou d'un coule frape avec I'harmonie. c'est k dire dans le tems qu'on devroit toucher la note de valeur qui la suit. in the second progression. De li je conclus qu'il y & nn vray. progr&s . should always commence with the upper accessory i. are not superfluous—inasmuch as the one might often be taken for the other. Shakes in the right hand are commonly played with finger.. Raisons de Pr'efirence pour la Fagon Nouvelle des Ports-de-voix. to commence slower than they end. Les tremblemens les plus usit6s de la main droite se font du troisifeme doigt avec le second et du 4feme avec le 3&me. I'une de I'autre Ou lorsque le chant vient de descendre. je distingue 6prouv6 que sans voir les mains de la personne qui si les deux batements. joue. la et b6inolis6s que j'ai introduit dans gravure de mes pieces. the player would not be at ease especially if the parts happen to be somewhat apart from one another. doigt 4. et bemoUses (mordents with sharps or which I have caused to be engraved in my pieces. ou le doigt marqu6 3. then. The little notes de valeur of the ports-de-voix are indicated by crosses in the examples subjoined. ^ * 123 34 Troisifeme progres..: — — 103 Les pinc6s-didz6s. even if I do not see the hands of the player. I find that they may be fingered in two ways one of which appears to me preferable to the other. Quoi que les tremblements soient marqu6s 6gaux. and with the second and third. the tone or semitone above the main note. il faut toujours le commencer sur le ton.

y en a d'appuy6s. The " Tremblement The " Tremblement if ouvert " is a shake with the closing note ascending. fernl6 " is a shake with the closing note descending. Couperin's Table of Graces further explained. m r6gard des autres ti emblements ils sont arbitraires." 10 and II. ny point d'arrest. . m . 3". other than tremoletti. sar la note au dessus de I'essentiele. "Pinc6s [| : di6sds.. " Tremblement appuy6 et li6. the repercussions of which belong to the time of the preceding note. No. transient shakes) have three constituents. i=*: and the direction that the second note of each beat should be plus appuye. d'autres si courts qu'ils n'ont ny On en peut faire m&me appuy. appears to be an anticipatory shake. a long Vorhalt (appoggiatura). which in the execution appear as one L'appuy. ending with an abrupt rest) can be played. The Coul6s quoted are to be played thus P 13. means that the finger of the harpsichord player must force or snap the key German " schnellen " = to snap the effect being as indicated. reuferment trois objects." judging from the " effet " written out. L'appuy qui se doit former sent qu'une mfeme chose. dwelling the point-d' arrest and the same thing First." and the three constituents of his shake "L'appuy" (the dwelling). Some d'aspir6s. then play the repercussions finally dwell somewhat on the main note. A matter g.. S . i ^ Effet. et b6molis6s " = mordents with accidentals—jf. 7. If this be so. final stop. li6 The " Tremblement sans etre appuy6. slurred. repercussion at intervals of one and the same note) are arbitrary. the repercussions {Les batements) Third. — Le pomt-d' arrest. . is a shake starting with the upper accessory and 5played in this wise dwell upon the accessory for about half the value of the main note. Even shakes " aspir6e " (cut short. " Schneller. All shakes of some duration {i. cessory. —the stop. Les baUments.: T04 Les tremblements d'un valeur un peu considerable.) = slurred. the melodic main notes ascend or descend the shake must terminate accordingly. : 6. The " Accent " is a plain " Nachschlag. but not both come under the head of " Nachschlag. for regret perhaps. Second. 4. . fa. " Port de voix simple " " Port de voix coul6e " " Port de voix double " a short mordent preceded by a short Vorhalt (appoggiatura). Arpeggio. upon the initial upper ac. transient or half-shakes. " Coulee " (adj. Remember Couperin's direction " Shakes ought to commence slower than they end. : The The The The The " Pinc6 simple " is our short mordent. slurred. 11 A other sorts of shake (». I. " Le point d'arrest" (the stop).* 12. and b." written out above." or any attempt at vibrato.e. 34- is a long mordent preceded by a long Vorhalt. 3°. is is The " Pinc6 double " is our prolonged mordent. The " Tremblement d6tach6 " appears similarly to be anticipatory. qui dans I'execution ne parroisi°. These terms are intended to show that 8. The sign for a descending arpeggio is obsolete. have the upper accessory sustained others are so short that they neither have an initial note sustained nor a . but the gradations should be imperceptible. sustaining. Observe that b is the equivalent of £3^ m s * i^rrrrr ^ mir gegrusst " 8157 \ Compare Liszt's transcription of Schubert's " Sei Grieg's Albumblatter. " Les Batemem" (the repercussions). Tremblemmt. &c.«." 10.

17. the peculiar expression and style of a piece (la cadence. "Tierce coul6e.." There II sacrifier au gout k la Finally. 242. et le gout) can be preserved in spite of some " slight change in the speed. 1" Tremblement continu " = prolonged shake. en montant" „ . Edit. Page 15 of the M6thode contains Couperin's comments on the two agrements " L'aspiration " and " Suspension. in . These two agr6ments being opposed to one another leave the ear in suspense (laissent I'oreille indeterminS) so that in cases where stringed instruments would increase the volume of suspension of the notes. Neverto pieces of a delicate little less it is With regard well to take them a ." which graces he specially claims for his own.. The expressive effect I mean is. slowly than they would naturally be taken upon other instruments and this mainly on account of the fact that the notes of a harpsichord can not be sustained very long. en descendant = Strict legato „ descending. Compare Pifeces already mentioned. effect desired. Brahms III. has been adopted by Brahms and Parry (5) and 'J )• * t I Caccini. and as the power of each sound can not be increased or diminished. calls " aspiration " indicates a quasi- staccato 18.. This comes under "Tempo rubato. 446. .— — — — i'^5 14 and 15. by means produce the of the ' suspension ' (slight retardation of a rubato — the note being played a is trifle late).:. in fact. post. p. * i. "are isolated one from the other." 19. Brahms and Chrysander IV. . = slide ascending.. " Aspiration. it has hitherto appeared almost inconceivable that a player can play with expression upon the instrument (donne de I'ame k cet instrument).fr f r/r/gf -^f ^ ^^i^ijL &^ t f^-^r ^Yfif ffy-^^^^^fe ^ i ^^ i^3 r r pt^ 1 -t=F=gi It J^^ rP=:P= ^ r r r J ( This very useful sign ought to be revived.e. The Suspension employed it is in slow and tender movements only." was the and the sign Couperin it.f il faut tout propret6 des passages et k bien atendrir les acceas marque par das pinc6s. uiid Geminiani. See the Double de Rossignol in the Quatorzi^me Ordre des See Edit. perhaps worth transcribing. Couperin's very frequent use of a sign for a sort of breathing of phrasing —deserves notice i —a rhetorical pause. p.e. . a note with a breathing space after " Suspension " = breath is before the note and thus slightly retarding it." : is also a note. "With " regard to the expressive effect of L'aspiration (the sound of a note being stopped = quasi^staccato) the notes must be detached less abruptly in tender and slow movements than in light and rapid ones." Page 42 has the following remark as " tempo and tender character which are to be rendered on the harpsichord. and sound note {i. The " Double " our turn. " As the sounds of the harpsichord. .. j" Pinc6 continu "--prolonged mordent. stress. introduced in the right place. 8157. ante. as to modification of tempo ne faut pas s'attacher trop pr6cisement k la mesure dans le Double cy-dessus. crescendo) the harpsichord may. rule. owing to the cessation and accordance with the character of the melody of the Preludes and Pieces. left : The duration of the rest which is to precede the note over which marked must be to to the taste of the executant. theless." he says. an indication (?) thus J \ JIM r. 16.

) Pinc6 et roix: port de voix : 0. flj-^^^^^.«. Cadence.) \:^ ^ A^ i i f A^ (Idem. avec une Reprinted by Walsh. Li r^' ~ [ Pincg et ^( port de voix: v-) Son coup6 :i ¥ ll 5^ Son coup6 :^ 5 ion: Suspension Suspension :i ^ 3. Cadence NoMS ET EXPRESSION DES AGR^MENS. i s L»»v . ETC. 31 St 1* Cadence appuy6e SI ua Cadence nee appuyee f ff : Double cadence i FIGURES. : table pour les agr6ments. London. {continued) — i s i iE s : i 5 4 ^ rrrrrrr In the Concerts pour le Clavecin avec une Flute ou Violon at Viole (i.= Arpfegement simple: #''^'» ^^^ ' 11 fr:jm Ih ^ f Arp&gement figure Arpegement figure : >K ^Q) w^ ' p* J ~ W'"'y -i 8157 .: :: : : : : : io6 Jean Philipp Rameau " Pieces de Clavecin. Bass Viol).. {cont'muecl) Double . ETC. fS>-5- Pinc6 . C|) :t=b=: Arpfegement jgf simple: ^^ fe'r^=fl~£?:z=: H^. 1736." Paris.adence : i^ ( Sizzilsb— r ^ rTSSS rf - NoMS ET Double — NoMS ET Double EXPRESSION. pinc^: Port de voix fc \^ <- Port de voix Coulez : ^ 3^ ST \y i 53S '-^- Coulez : ^ ^ ^ S ^ (The semiquaver rest indicates when the finger shall leave the key. 1741. 1731 and NOMS ET FIGUKES DES AGr£mENS. Rameau marks the shake thus +).

— 107 i s ^ ^ r ^ ^Et= ^ ^ 1- g- ^ Expression. sert de agr6mens. Une liaison qui embrasse deux nottes differentes. =1=^ . La notte k celle que porte une Cadence ou un Pinc6. Example. ? m I j-'^^ZZp. ^ 4 ^W{& F= 8157 . come ^ commencement k chacun de ces marque qu'il ne faut lever li6 le doigt de dessus la premiere qu' apr^s avoir touch6 la seconde. n _ y^ 1^' I I Expression. Expres sion. 4 ^ r i nottes. F F ^ m bout de la liaison t Une I'autre eI liaison qui embrasse plusieurs mesure qu'on les touche.p^ ^ tg Liaison. marque qu'il faut les tenir toutes d'un Example.


1690-1770. 8157 .GEORGE MUFFAT " Apparatus musico-organisticus " (i6go). Cembalo " (1727). TEOFILO (GOTTLIEB) MUFFAT " Componimenti Musical! per il . 1635-1714.




George and Gottlieb Muffat,
the father an organist, the son a cembalist,


be quoted together,

though thirty-seven years separate the dates of their principal publications. George Muffat, in a dignified, and often rather interesting sort of way, follows Frescobaldi Gottlieb (" Theofilo," as he chooses to call himself), a much weaker musician, apes the contemporary French masters.

George Muffat's " Apparatus " consists of a series of twelve Toccatas for the organ, with addenda— Ciacona, Passacaglia, and a sort of Cappriccio entitled "Nova Cyclopeias Harmonica." It contains a Latin address to the reader anent the signs for ornaments and their explanation, as follows

Porro signatum t simplex, tremulum ordinarium, quo nota ita signata cum proSdma ciavi superiore tremiscit, significato i vero cui similis virgula subducta cernitur,

A simple t signifies an ordinary shake marked shakes with the upper accessory.


note thus

semitremulum vulgo mordant, quo nota ita signata cum clavi inferiore proximo, eiqae saepe (ubi aures id not vetant) per semitonium majus distante tremiscit, fc ita circumflexum, tremulum recentioris modi, soil, qui post absolutum tremulum ordinarium more solito cum not4
superiore exhibitum, inferiorem etiam notam unicd vice tantum assumit, denotat. Hoc vero signatum (tm) tremu-

t with a stroke through the letter (thus, *) designates a half shake, commonly called a mordent the note thus marked shakes with the lower accessory, which is often (if /^the ear does not forbid it) a major second', fc thus bent round designates one of the shakes of recent



accessory, to which


an ordinary shake with the upper added a short close introducing the

lum longum, ad extremum usque continuatum, indicat. Litterae P.M. Pedale ad libitum, ad Manuale claviarium simul usurpandum, significant. P.S. Pedale solum. M.S. Manuale solum.

lower aocessory. A shake marked thus (tm) signifies a shake prolonged to the end of the note. The letters P.M. indicate pedals ad libitum to be used together with the manuals, as the player chooses. P.S. Pedals only.


M.S.= Manuals


Organists are indebted to Herr S. de Lange, of the Hague, for a new edition of George Muffat's Apparatus (Leipzig, 1888). The representation of the text leaves nothing to be desired; but one or two statements regarding ornaments in the editor's German preface do not agree with the directions in the foregoing authentic address to executants. See p. ib of the Vorwort under " Bemerkungen," paragraphs 3 and 4, before " Pralltriller " insert Triller, sowie for " Doppelschlag " read Triller mit Nachschlag. The attempt at an English version of the " Preface" and " Remarks" is a failure and should be cancelled. Preface,







"renowed" read mentioned.







"collapse" read

coincide, or collide with. Par. 5, for "trilletta" read ordinary shake and transient shake; for "doubleturn " read mordent ; for " slur" read slide. P. VIb., last example, after "Quintole" add or septole, thus:




— — —<-

p. VII., under N.B. to page 39, read


the transient shakes, Pralltriller, should be added in the bass

part, as indicated in the line for the pedals.

Theofilo (Gottlieb) Muffat, " Componimenti Musicali per


Cembalo," 1727.










SpiegazicJoi dei ioni

1% )


sopradettil Segni. ttil











i lE^ ^




^^ f

:st=^ #"»#!*





ri rr


i S

Job ^^=^











^i^^J.II J>J J^





—n— ^^ ^r^rrff JJ







.S '^



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J (o«Ja.)'

fc^ d







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inxsia.) (OSSM.)










^f S








reprinted in London about 1711 by is J. and the Adagio from Sonata which here follows." The authenticity of these graces all y* Adagios and other places where vouched for by the Dutch musicseUer." or rather. ^ ¥^ I ^^~. who. Violin. Suonate a VioHno e Violone o Cembalo. occasions. divisions II. Walsh and J.'" in one of his printed catalogues signified thai: the original copy of them. The writer can see no reason to doubt the authenticity of these " graces.S=3= e£ 2^^=!^ ^e ¥=^ Jt ^ be ^^^^^^^ m ^ tr ^^^^^ f 76 ^^E^^g ^ -^— £^ ^ y— h^^^ i ^ — -r^-^ ^-^ ^ - f S \) ^^^^ :£= =S ^ m iy=f= ' f 6 5 f 6 V. . as also some letters of the author on the subject. was published at Rome (1700) and several times reprinted in London and abroad. Bass... Etienne Roger. sometimes figured. Hare. is quoted as representative: Ye Graces. sometimes not.r — . * The particular edition that concerns us here first is the rare and curious one containing Corelli's own embellishments to the six sonatas.11''." &c. were open to the inspection of the curious at his shop." Compare the admirable edition of Corelli's works by Joachim and Chrysander. :e t 4 8157 . CoRELLi's Opera Qumta contains the solo sonatas whidi tta composer used to perform on special The work is entitled "XII. who recommend it as possessing "y° advantage of having y" Graces to the Author thought proper. according to Hawkins. XVI. It -consists of a plain violin part over a bass. it u* r Ljr ^ ^=^^fe^^^ fe "SS^ . London.

and post. not specially indicated.. appoggiaturi. so long as the bass is not very per- — Practically this amounts to little more than that the longer notes of the sometimes dwelt upon beyond their proper duration. under Geminiahi.r^^ ^ ^ fe=it: 176 =#*= =st :*i^ 5t=^ ^ may ^ ^^ To some extent. ceptibly retarded or accellerated. and it is a matter of tradition that many other short shakes. and vice versa. of course. the bass proceeds in time. Shakes are shown by the sign x mordents. be taken quick or slow. Tosi. were constantly employed by virtuosi of Corelli's day. such ornamentation iniplies tempo rubato but the grace notes solo part are i. as the player chooses.Ii6 r rrrrrrrrrvr. 8167 .e. . Compare " tempo rubato " antef under Caccini. whilst the shorter notes are played quicker by way of compensation.

.DOMENICO SCARLATTI . • 1683-17571685-1759. HANDEL 8157 .


is no need to pass them in review here^ as no one can mistake the common shakes. turns. tJ I I Compare also Czerny. and appoggiaturi (the latter mostly short). whith underlies Domenico Scarlatti's treatment of the harpsichord prompted most familiar ornaments. ^Q^ ^ Couperin would have called The. ^r^T-T^ . ^ : ^^ ^ i ^^ —the ^ i &c. T Here the notation not accessible for i f ^s>-- i f &c. No. inordinately — so. mordents. • 8157 ." is meant w f^fito be The chord violent is to be broken and the dissonant acciaccatura this sort is quoted touched as though the key were (Geminiani. of the acciaccatura'. No.^^' ^ ^-ly^r r ^tat W V ^ ^^ n=a= i=i ^ SS ^ ^ 3 ^1 jT^ j *'=f=^ :ip=^ H^ i ^ J=FJ 5=^ . and most eccentric passage of from Czerny. following slides and acciaccaturi are from a lute-fike piece in it Czerny. Billow's "revised" version of eigh-teen pieces by Scarlatti. No." It is. in Cadi Banck's edition of: thirty further " Sonatas. * Rather cooked. which appear in Czerny's edition of aoo of his pieces and subsequent reprints. 91 ^ {sic) j.— : — irg xvn. the arpege figure occurs. 13 G —even a veritable minor— "piece lut6e. in the preface to V.sufficient to state that Scarlatti's shakes may as often be begun with the main note as with the upper accessory— ah old Italian practice which dates from Gabrieli and' Merulo (see " Tremoletti " uader Diruia). for i MS. 68. from which he worked is which Czerny may possibly be responsible —appears misleading e " hot.) A H. w^. good' sense The practical him to avoid the use of all but the He is fond of the slide —and."* or in any of the recent copies of Walsh's early English editions of " Lessons. There." glissatiAo as Fr.

the player is at liberty to break them in D up and down several times in succession to widen them and even intersperse them with acciaccaturi as he fit. in the British Museum. Of course. 8157 . No. in measured time (Couperin's " mesurS ")... Bach. sees — — — — The dot. and none that are ambiguous. R 1. like ^ Fj 11 ^ 1. may sometimes. with Handel. S. ante." by Le Begue and by D'Anglebert. Bach.. in many cases has but an approximate value: for instance. but not as a rule." If Handel's harpsichord lessons were not in every English musician's hands this would be the place to quote those fine specimens of combined graces and divisions the Adagio in F which begins the second Suite and the Air Handel. in such cases. as with . arpeggio chords in such pieces as the preludes to Handel's Suites I. begun with the main note "in the Italian manner. and C.. III. Ph. like Scarlatti. Suite in D minor. J. the tempo is also entirely at the player's discretion. and as Handel has himself done in the last four bars of the prelude to the Suite in D minor." Frescobaldi.5 After short shakes the dot often stands for a short rest : AUemande. tr m . which derives from It is interesting to compare the older {"non mesure") way of writing such things the practice of the lutenists.120 His shakes has comparatively few signs. V. signifies something rTj I. merely to facilitate reading. Those who happen to find the latter piece somewhat of a puzzle should Concerning the refer to Billow's selections from Handel. Preludes of this type were written. Louis Couperin and in the "Pieces de clavecin. especially a Prelude by of Gaultier Curious specimens in Fleischer's edit. post. E.m Compare ^^^ Q^S^^"^^ J- 5^ f^ Handel in his essay * Sir William Cusins has conclusively established this point with regard to on " The Messiah. be — : minor from the third Suite. VII. No.1 in •* the Overture to the Suite in G minor. or rather partially written. where they will find every detail written out. No. III.

Berlin. by Galliard. Bach's pupil. o sieno osservazioni Canto figurato. FRANCESCO TOSI "sopra il ." Bologna. " Opinion! de' Cantori antichi e moderni. by Agricola. " Observations on the Florid Song. " Anleitung zur Singkunst. Circa 1650-1730." with explanatory notes and additions. 1757. or Sentiments of the Ancient and Modern Singers. 1723.PIER. J. London." German translation. . S. 1743. second edition. . English translation. 1724.


After having searched for it among Singers of the first rank in vain I considered that Musick as a Science ought to have its Rules. passing without any the least Obstacle through all the five Tones. From the time the Appoggiatura* has been invented to adorn the Art of Singing. obtained the sole Privilege of being heard often without tiring. .* " * " These are all Tones Major and Minor. in almost as complete a way as C. or a Beat from the Note below. To a Semitone Major one can N. E. from whence it leads. and the two Semitones. were in their . besides its Beauty.— 123 XVIII. . at least. : go with a Rise or a Fall distinctly easier than from a Tone Major. gracefully to the following Note. a Voice can ascend and descend gradually with the Appoggiatura. which from their professional character are valuable. From Practice. either in rising or falHng. deals with that of harpsichord playing." a generation or two later. like himself. but the judicious However. it none so easy for the Master to This. and with Galliard's notes. a musician of siar who settled in London. writing. you lean on the first to arrive at the Note intended. Bach's " Versuch. than the Appoggiatura. The same in a Preparation to a Shake.'' to a Semitone Minor one cannot. and Space . S. the true reason cannot be used in all Places remains yet a secret. there is teach. has does not go beyond the Limits a Note added by the Singer. § " I. * " A Semitone Major changes Name. shakes. should be borne in mind that Tosi's experience belongs to the time before the tempered scale came Hence his puzzling way of showing the fitness of certain appoggiaturi. In this sense. Johann Friedrich Agricola. and according to the value of the Note. 2." By the Ancients he means those singers who. It deals with the art of singingj as understood a little before and during Handel's time. $ ^ s £ ^3^ ^ J <^ ^ ^^ ^^m German origin =f=i= * John Ernest Galliard. Observations. Bach's pupil. rising or falUng and you dwell longer on the Preparation than on the Note for which the Preparation is made. J. The word Appoggiatura is derived from Appogiare. 1687^^1749. express it by two different terms. Ph. Tosi's book was considered authoritative. Instead of resting his precepts on the rules of thorough bass and correct partIt into general use. as the English do by a Prepare and a Lead. and Semitones Major. that make an Octave. From a Tone Minor the Appoggiatura is better and — 3. provided prescribed by Professors of good Taste. he chooses to appeal to the sense of just intonation "major and minor semitones. Among all the Embellishments in the Art of Singing." is it is * "Appoggiatura a word to which the English Language has not an Equivalent. treating of a matter wholly produced from my will see. and by the Moderns the singers then OF THE APPOGGIATURA (VORSCHLAG. for the arriving more The French . I perceive that from C to C by B Quadro (B Natural). translated it from the original Italian into German and augmented it.. I should hope for more Indulgence in this chapter than in any other. and the unfitness of others. The chapters on graces are here reproduced from the second edition of Galliard's English translation."' 1743. to lean on. No Appoggiatura can be made at the beginning of a piece there must be a Note preceding. or less difficult for the Scholar to learn. Line. or on some intelligible system of harmony. that I am come near it.B. and that all manner I do not flatter myself that I am arrived at it of ways should be tried to discover them. VORHALT). a Semitone Minor changes neither. &c. Port de Voix and Appuyer . prime about thirty or forty years before the publication of his book before the public. § " why it .

* " Because they are Semitones Minor. as well as from all of the C F to G. that from in suspense. W $s ^ " 10.: 124 "4. or Flat. ^ :a f :t ip-s- jf" II ^^f^=q That two consequent Appoggiaturas cannot pass gradually by Semitones from one Tone is to another. contrarywise.* * " Because one a Semitone Major and the other a Semitone Minor. these being $S " 8.* * " Because they are Semitones Major. The most conspicuous maintain. all cannot descend. it is necessary to distinguish the Major from the Minor. and from F to G do not hold true. But. when any of these five Tones have a Sharp annex'd to them. with an Appoggiatura. that from F. that may be found in the Scale. us see if it can be found out by those who ought to account for it. That one cannot pass with an Appoggiatura gradually from a third Minor to the Bass. are not to D. And. the Semitones are equal same opinion For we find some who and meanwhile we are left : . tJ jJ II i^i-^^H-^-^^^^^^ B ^ ^ S= Rule. nor from the third Major to the third Minor. C to D. =N ^ it where the Appoggiatura cannot ascend. from any Note with a Flat. and return in the same manner. A.* * " Because they are Semitones Major.* * " For the same Reason. finally. rise 4 " 5. or Natural. of their not changing That from every Note that has a Quadro. or Space And which makes it manifest that a Semitone Minor cannot bear an Appoggiatura. That from every accidental Diezis.* * " Because they are all Semitones Minor. for if you change the Mood or Tone." 8157 . ^ " 9. that which was the Tone Major may become the Tone Minor. with an Appoggiatura. and it sends the Student to consult the Tetrachords. " 12. Practice giving us no Insight into the Reason of these Rules. you are in.* Authors." ^ m may be known by the above-mentioned Name. one can ascend by Semitones to everyone that has a B Molle. that treat of them. my ear tells me. to a third Major. will determine which is a Tone Major or Minor . or sharp. G. or Mood. Theory teaches us that the above-mentioned Octave consisting of twelve unequal Semitones. e * Semitones Minor. which Line. and so Vice versd : Therefore these two Examples from C to D. let " II. * " The Tone. one can gradually a Semitone to the nearest Note with an Appoggiatura. m =P2= m " 7. one cannot rise gradually with an Appoggiatura by Semitones. ° U' S"^ =is i^i- That one cannot rise by Semitone. #^'i'^ J jJ Ik =!^ St ^3g ia " 6.

gradually to a Semitone Minor. rising with an Appoggiatura. and more essential than the Appoggiaturas ? But if they mark them. But whence does it proceed. arrive to the Note with a sort of Shake. in not distinguishing those two Semitones. they ought at least to know. arise to the Note with a sort of Beat. that it cannot pass wrong Notion. does in the Appoggiatura so nicely discern the quaUty of the Semitones. take it is. that it sufficiently distinguishes the Semitone Major. which are called Commas. more or less . and less Study. to raise the Voice with a Messa di Voce. The Appoggiatura may likewise pass from one distant Note to another." " 14. five of which constitut^the Semitone Major. that from thence he may descend with an Appoggiatura to that Semitone . if the Keys of the Instrument be not spUt. author means " the holding out and swelMng of a Note i to yji m II k=#rf :) " 16. as * " So in ^ all Cases where the Interval deceitful s (By " Messa di voce " the m ^ ^ ") With a Messa di Voce. says the Ear. that the Addition of one Note costs little trouble.. A Tone. * " All Intervals. Nature will teach him to rise a Tone. it becomes so necessary. do not the Singers now-a-days know where the Appoggiaturas are to be made. it is not possible for a Singer to rise gradually with an Appoggiatura to a Semitone Minor. this knowledge might be unnecessary but since the time Composers introduced the Custom of crowding the Operas with a vast number of Songs accompanied with Bow-Instruments. . the Voice always rising till he reaches it. the Appoggiaturas will become so famUiar to him by continual Practice. he will laugh at those Composers that mark them. that they may acquire the glorious Name of a Virtuoso alia Moda. Since. from cannot rise to the next Sharp. because the Difference cannot be known by an Organ or Harpsichord.' or to shew that they understand the Art of Singing better than the Singers. with a Design either be thought Modern. that if a Soprano was to sing D sharp.* submitting myself. to better judgement. . ..— — — — 125 — . Therefore from Mi as to Fa. that from this very Fa. (that it F I or C) I for granted. that gradually passes to another. which are more difficult. is divided in nine almost imperceptible Intervals. which is also a Semitone ? It is Minor. that by the Time he is come out of his first Lessones. unless they are pointed at with a Superiority over them. Therefore going so agreeably Senpitone Major. If the Scholar be well instructed in this.* " 15. " 13. m :P=S= 1^12^: -y-i- :^ J* tr J^ tr One cannot agreeably ascend But gradually very well Examples of false or m ^^ or descend the Interval of a third Major or MinorZZ±L ^ ^ ^ ^E^ -ft- 3 i deceitful Intervals irz m is ^ * zriz * 3^ - ^i ^1 I said. If they have this why do they not write down even the Graces. a nice Ear will find he is out of Tune. (that is. that the Reason why the Appoggiatura has not a full Liberty. If one were continually to sing only to those above-mentioned Instruments. Uke E flat. because the last rises. Poor Italy I pray tell me . Every one knows not Major and Minor.' " . which is the supreme Umpire in this Art. is) from B Quadra to C. and four the Minor. or from E to F. one ought to conclude That to be a undeniably is. and the same. provided the Skip or for in that case. however. The Ear. 815" . • * " This perplexity comes from a that there is a Semitone Interval be not deceitful sing. however. will show they know not how to . or a Composer in the new Stile. or if he has a Mind to come to it without the Appoggiatura. more or less descending. whoever does not hit it sure.

for in a sharp («. with the Art of beating 8157 it a little closer.. wherein they excel. whenever it is with a may attribute the cause to the want of Force of the Auxiliary to make itself heard distinctly. which are most beautiful Qualifications. From this Shake all the others are derived.. the fault is in the Ear.e. strive attain a shake that is equal. Fa w " N. because it keeps with greater Force the Place of the Note first is The which requires it the other. I shall acquaint him. " 5. —\ ^ " 7. Eternal shame to him who iirst introduced these foreign renowned for teaching others the greater part of the polite Arts particularly.B. One. -TT- **: Me Fa.«. Modern Italian Compositions the Appoggiaturas are mark'd supposing the Singers to . that of Singing how great a Weakness in those that follow the Example Oh. Oh ! own knowledge shewed it :them. the Shake major. that one may say there are eight Species of them.. which is likewise known from its name. and in a lower Cadences. and moderately quick. as it should be. everybody does not know how to make it. from the violent motion of two neighbouring Sounds at the distance of a Tone. &c.— 126 Finger . Inferior Cadence. will easily learn it ending as . " 6.* * " Superior and Inferior Cadences are thus explained in the 8th Chapter. who it Master of the first and second. that the Scholar its may by Means of verbal Instructions. " § 4. or the short Shake. consisting of a Sound and of a Semitone neighbouring Semitone Major* and The second Shake Major i inferior or lower =F where the one or the other of these two Shakes are proper.. minor key) a Semitone r^mrmhM Semitone. and Examples vocal and instrumental. ** La Sol Fa. third is " is 8. will easily shew. injurious Insult to you Modern Singers. besides. one of which may be called Principal. the compositions Cadences. ! Instructions * fit for Children . distinguishing them with different Names. In case the Master should not know how many Sorts of Shakes there are. . key) it is *3H= —From the inferior or always a Tone.! Let us imitate the Foreigners in those things only. Superior ignorant where The French use them for their Lessons on the Harpsichord. and Negligence becomes a Habit.* * " The first Shake of a Tone— . From the or full Tone Shake is for ever excluded." THE SHAKE. but seldom for the Voice. major " If the difference of these two Shakes is not easily discovered in the Singer. * " 3B=|t rtesta g i its The second is the Shake Minor. or full Tone Shake. Let the Master. that the Ingenuity of Professors hath found so many Ways. notwithstanding it possesses in its Motion the superior Sound. If this Shake is not distinguished in Instruments. appears no other than an Auxiliary. flat key {i. The the mezzo-trillo. one ^^^ — is not always excluded . this Shake being more difficult to be beat than the other. who submit to ? In my Time their . the first. distinctly mark'd. easy.* t3 " In all the place them. ! Puerilities into our Nation. the first.

is :&c.* then made This is beautiful. the slow Shake— and second Shake. according to the Nature of the composition. the redoubled Shake ^^ it is — i'ri'-f>ri'r^' m :t The eighth is the Trillo-Mordente. I know too well that but superficially. 8157 . Time or Taste But on final cadences. which is done by making the voice decline insensibly from comma comma. now on the Tone. please more than once. The sixth this. which is done by making the voice ascend imperceptibly. and ought rather to be forgot than learn'd. shaking from comma The comma without . first are most necessary.* The eighth. that at last unites with the * " The sixth. who * despises it is guilty of more than Ignorance. rarely fails of using it after the Appoggiatura and he Divisions. requires to be prepared. ever since true Taste has prevailed.* for it Name. in is I' ffr Ar r r first '" r*r ri- fr-f^^f is ^ ^ . The seventh is the redoubled Shake. The Shake. who does not study being only an effected think.'^ * " The fifth. ought not therefore to lose the Name good Singer Waving. and the modern Abuses. equally abhors the ancient dry Stuff.but dies. and adding a Airs than in the Pathetick. and not itself. which is a pleasing grace in singing. That Singer has a great Advantage. ^ A " 12..127 soon as heard. taught rather by Nature than by Art. Of all these Shakes. These two Shakes. and require most the Application of the customary to sing without Shakes . of those who study " 15. who from time to time mixes it in Passages of He wJio understands his Profession. so intermixed. shaking in such manner that the Descent be not distinguished. it is always necessary. whose quality also denoted by its of a my opinion.* * " little Brilliant. above its Note. the rising The fifth is the descending S^afe. If few Notes. The fourth to is the rising Shake. Shake with a Beat — rrrrrrrr^ "14. it cannot displease even envy it * "The seventh. A nice Ear to " 10. ought not to be imitated. the two Master. This is produced with more velocity than the others.. I He. though. which learned by mixing a few Notes between the Major Minor Shake. &c. are sung with Force.discovering the Rise. the short Shake — " 9. perfect in this rare quality.* Shake— * " fourth. excellent voice. or. to be beautiful. which Interposition suffices to make several Shakes of one. For this Reason this Shake pleases more in brisk and lively The third. the descending Shake— i "11. when those be gently formed on the high Notes of an use of too often. now on the Semitone will not permit it. or the Shake with a Beat. " 13. are no more in vogue. on some occasions. and is no sooner born . but the Example. the Trillo-Mordente . and is . the slow Shake. or gradual accelerando. it cannot.

to " 41. of a good Taste and few. is a lesson reserv'd for those who have Practice. . beside those on Cadences. be it ever so fine. but hkewise on Crotchets where in Process of Time he may learn the Close Shake. the Beat. will at least gratify your Attention with Variety. Our Author has unobserv'd. in the Pathetick. is the Manner in which all Airs divided into three parts are to be sung. in a Whirlwind. provided he makes a Restitution with Ingenuity. That . the worst That which is produced by a Tone and third is disagreeable : the Slow tiresome and that in the Throat is and that which is out of . except on particular Occasions. it was left to the Trumpets. they expect that to this Purity some artful Graces be added. not only on MinimS or long Notes. which ought to be inviolable. p. (Ch. or too near one another but very bad to begin with them. Every Air has (at least) three Cadences. is an honourable Theft in one that sings better than others.* * " Compose. Taste. he will find that the most celebrated Singers never make a parade of their Talent in a few Songs well knowing that if Singers expose to the Public all they have in their Shops. and the Orchestre yawns. (Ch. but not ascending. the Things worthy of consideration. 5. that are all three final. 128). which is too frequently done. for if he observes. and how much it is neglected and In this Place speaking of stealing the Time. they are near becoming bankrupts. Shakes. as now the Divisions do hut when the Art grew refined. The Stealing of Time. and the Forming them with quickness in the Midst of the Volubility of Graces and Divisions. to be guided by the Bass. Harpsichord. 8157 . " 18. The using so often Beats. I do not advise a Student to imitate several of the Moderns in their Manner of singing . The Student.Productions. If OF CADENCES " 5. and therefore have Need of this Help. Generally speaking. " 17. and other Instruments. one that abounds in Invention. the Throat is set a going. and then let him make use of them with judgement. Without varying the Airs the knowledge of the Singers could never be discovered but from the Nature and QuaUty it will be easily discerned in two of the greatest Singers which is the best. plain. The Defects of the Shake are many. OF AIRS " 4. vii. Experience and Taste must teach it. the Strictness of it. or the Performance on a single Instrument in the Pathetick and Tender. A mechanical Method of going on with the Bass will easily distinguish the merit of the . and very improperly.* * " Shakes are generally proper from preceding Notes descending. " 9." . The Necessity of the Shake obliges the Master to keep the Scholar applied to it upon all the Vowels. in repeating the Air." " 18. when the Bass goes an exactly regular Pace. and where they are improper and forbid. deserves much more esteem.heard. and not sacrificed to their beloved Passages and Divisions. in that of the second the Dose in encreased. and pure in the second. not of the Variations. that the Composition may remain simple. is no great Master.. and. whose Sounds discontinue.128 " i6. like a Weathercock . than a better who is barren of it for this last pleases the connoisseurs but for once. and is destitute of the best Taste and greatest Knowledge. he that does not vary it Among . but after that returns to its Exactness. the first to be taken Notice of. that the Ability of the Singer is greater. " 19. for the sake of Expression. That Shake which is too often. cannot undertake this important Task. . Whosoever does not know how to steal the Time in Singing. it regards particularly the Vocal. viii. But the teaching where the Shake is convenient. it is from their Neglect of keeping Time. " 7. and on all the Notes he possesses. 91). accustom himself to repeat them always differently. though a moderate Singer. Let a Scholar provide himself with a Variety of Graces and EmbelUshments. p. The long holding-out Shake triumph'd formerly. knows not how Accompany himself. for. the Study of the Singers of the present Times consists in terminating the Cadence of the first Part with an overflowing of Passages and Divisions at Pleasure. After the free Use of the Shake let the Master observe if the Scholar has the same Facility in disusing it . Never too many. . and Knowledge. Tune is hideous. among the Ancients piqued themselves in varying every Night their Songs in the Operas. therefore. whereas the other. nor to often mentioned Time the Regard to it. for the better. " "6. which is beat with an uneven Motion disgusts . if he does not surprise by the Rareness of his. other manner. The most celebrated only the Pathetich but also the Allegro.4 m. and the Orchestre grows tired but on the last Cadence. if I mistake not. that like the quivering of a goat its makes one laugh is . by which the judicious may hear. for he would not be the first that could not leave off at Pleasure. and the Orchestre waits . or to those Singers that waited for the Eruption of an E Viva ! or Bravo ! from the Populace. the other Part retards or anticipates in a singular manner. In the first Part they require nothing but the simplest Ornaments. Let a Student. cannot please." " 42.. and Prepares is owing to Lessons on the Lute. who is not well grounded. .

1680-1762. .... 8157 . 1711-1773. 1749. 1692-1770.) GIUSEPPE TARTINI . printed on the same sheet with the Table of Graces. dated 1739. ." A Treatise of Good Taste is in the Art of Musick. George II". (The Privilege.FRANCESCO GEMINIANI " . . JEAN JOSEPH CASSANEA DE MONDONVILLE .. . .


A Beat (^) From . 8th. The Superior Apogiatura is supposed to express Love. quoted in Hawkins's History. Geminiani. It consists of fourteen - style. A turri'd Shake (y). a great vidlin player. it proper for quick Movements to pass immediately to the ensuing Note plain The Shake is and it may be made upon any Note. i m (Fourth. 7th. The turn'd Shake being made quick and long is fit to express gaiety but if you make it Short.t in His : items " I recommend "Treatise of good Taste. 13th. observing after (Second. ( 1 A superior Apogiatura (j^). Piano (P). .) Of the Superior Apogiatura. f r r rr rrrrfrf-r-fif ^f-f Bach's "Trillo und mordent. 904 of Novello's reprint.). sixteen years" before Leopold Mozart's " Violinschule. and towards the End to force the Bow a little. If it be made short. ).— 13^ — — — XIX. observing to swell the Sound by Degrees. 4th. An inferior Apogiatura (j*). &c. giving it more than half the Length or Time of the Note it belongs to. It should be made pretty long. it will lose much of the aforesaid qualities but will always have a pleasing effect.) the Nature of each Element in particular Of the Plain Shake. A plain Shake 2nd. can only be made when the Melody rises the Interval of a second or third. See (6) and {d) below— The it * \ He " published his " Art of Playing the Viohn in 1740 . S. Holding the Note (). Diminish- Anticipation ( J*). Staccato ing the Sound (\). p. 8. 5th." 9. .')7 . observing to make a Beat as on the following Note." the following explanation we may compreTiend (First./) . V. 6th. 3rd. Pleasure." offers an the Study and Practice of the following Ornaments of Expression. it may then express some of more tender Passions ^l f This is J.* and a master of elaborate table of graces. (tr). nth. 12th. Forte (. Separation (j*). Swelling the Sound (>). except that it is much more confin'd.1." (Third. A close Shake (^). 9th. Affection.) Of the TMrn'd Shake. and it may be added to any Note you will . roth. namely : " ist. and continue the Length of the Note plain and soft. Witness his version of CoreUi's Solo Sonata in A (No. 14th. Op.) Of the Inferior Apogiatura^ Inferior Apogiatura has the same qualities with the preceding.

) V Of the Separation. j^ ^ ^^ M ^ F In modern notation these graces are as follows p - e. w . it will have a greater Effect.— 132 (Fifth. and then 8157 it will not be amiss to add a . i Oi Anticipation.) Sound. when second or third as also when it descends a second. careful to take Breath in a Place and for this Reason Singers should be This expresses Rest. they produce great Beauty and Variety Melody. When it is made with a Beat or a Shake. i w They ^^m (Twelfth.«.) Of Piano and Forte.) Of the Staccato. these two Ornaments are designed to produce the same Effects that an Orator does by raising and falling his Voice ^ i IE f—0- Pia. ") (Ninth and Tenth. are akin to J.) It is — — — — Of Holding a Note. taking Breath. S . w ^^i£ : . in the These two Elements may be used after each other. -4- (Sixth. . necessary to use this often suffering the pure for were we to make Beats and Shakes continually without sometimes Note to be heard.. and swelling the Sound. g / (Eleventh." The the Note Separation rises a is only designed to give a Variety to the Melody. the Melody would be too much diversify'd . or changing a Word where it may not interrupt the Sense— s - EE Of Swelling and Falling the (Seventh and Eighth. Bach's " Nachschlag. S. without altering its Intention.) Anticipation was invented with a View to vary the Melody. and takes place most properly . They are both extremely necessary to express the intention of the Melody . especially if you observe to make use of it when the Melody rises or descends the Interval of a Second '(") - -T - . and as all good Musick should be composed in Imitation of a Discourse. they are proper for any Expression or Measure (». and employ'd alternately.

Lamentation. in use. still (This the vibrato of the old lutenists and singers. 104). &c. is ^m^^M"^^ —shake cut short Couperin's " Tremblement aspires " —ending with an abrupt rest (see ante. and .— — — 133 — Beat. &c. when it is long continued. and often abused. (Thirteenth. the engraver has repeated the example here indicated by the letter . (Fourteenth. &c. drawing the Bow nearer to the Bridge. and ending it very strong Affliction. proper to express several Passions. and continued long. and softer. Fear. 4' By this Tenderness is tK A- (c) ^ r-^- (d) -^ 1" r-- $ In modern Notation («) ^ ir II we should express the " Separation " by a short rest {d) . for instance (a)- I W This p. when it agreeable and is for this Reason it made on Short should be made use is only contributes to make them Sound more of as often as possible. and to swell the Note.) Of the Close Shake. prolonged mordent. it expresses Mirth. In the original. is the reverse of (6). it may denote Fear. Dignity. for example. Swelling the Sound by Degrees. By making it short and swelling the Note gently. you must press the Finger strongly upon the String of the Instrument.) Oiihe Beat. Satisfaction. But making Notes. it may express Majesty. If it be play'd less strong and shorter. it expresses' Fury.) The following Examples shew how several of the Elements may be perform'd on one crotchet * Observe that at (») the position of the signs — and ^ [b).e.. it it shorter. Resolution. This cannot possibly be described by Notes as in former Examples. lower. it may express Affection and Pleasure This is the French " battement " i. it may then denote Horror. as. is This Grief. Anger.. To perform it. But if you play it quite soft. by mistake. and swell the Note. and then express'd in) make (6) the Apogiatura to the following Note. &c. &c. and move the Wrist in and out slowly and equally. if it be perform'd with Stiength.

" MoNDONViLL^. in his " Pieces de clavecin en Sonates avec accompagnement de 3"" {circa 1737). euvre and in the clavecin part by: ^. ^ . violin player. indicates shakes in the Violin part by: x Violon. a French 8157 . ^ r~r r tr &c. m >t: ^ -r JC-L-T f- r Shakes start with the main note.134 -t- G-iusEPPE Tartini (1692-1770). ^ •J- " Trillo del diavolo " (Violin Sonata in tr. G minor). with the remark " Les Agr^mens du Violon doivent 6tre exprimgs come ceux du Clavecin. tr.

CHARLES DIEUPART " Suittes de Clavecin. 8167 ." . . No date. Amsterdam. Circa 1^90-1740. and London.





Estienne Roger."

Suittes de Clavecin," now extremely rare, was engraved at Amsterdam "chez Forty-eight pages lafge octavo, clef for the right hand, F clef on the third line, sometimes C clef on or third Ime for the left. Dedication to Lady Sandwich in French and without date.

original edition of Dieupart's "



The Suites are followed by the " Explication des Marques," " Rules for Graces," French and EngUsh names side by The publication, apparently intended for English subscribers,* is complete for the Harpsichord as it stands—the

words on the title-page, " Mises en concert pour un Violon et Flute avec une Basse de Viole signify an arrangement— j.«., additional instruments at pleasure.-)J.

un Archilut," merely

Lessons for the Harpsichord or Spinnett, plac'd on five bass clef on fourth line, comprising— Suite L in A, overture omitted, otherwise complete; Gavot, Paspie, and Jigg from Suite IL in D; Gavot and Minuet from Suite in B minor; Gavot and Minuet from Suite IV. in E minor. There is no table of graces. In the extracts from the first Suite in A the signs correspond with those of the original edition; some are missing—from p. 7 to lo |^ stands for short shakes, with or without closing notes; appoggiaturi
lines in

Walsh published a ye EngUsh Cliff,"

partial reprint, also without date, f Select







-v signifies a

Contents of Dieupart's Suites



—A major. — D major. -B minor. IV. — E minor. V. — F major. VI. — F minor.

Ouverture, AUemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gavotte, Menuet, Gigue. Same order. Passepied instead of Minuet.



Menuet en rondeau.

An autograph copy by J. S. Bach, of the entire Suite No. VI. in evidence that Bach knew and valued the other Suites.
Gigue from Dieupart's
J. S.




preserved at Berlin, and there



Prelude, for instance, to Bach's Suite Anglaise, No. first suite, also in A.


in A, proves to be a transformation

and expansion of the

Bach, bars

3 to 11.









* Dieupart was a fashionable teacher in London, circa 1700-1712.


died about 1740.



No. 258, December

35, 171 1,

and No.



18, 1712,

contains letters referring to concerts Dieupart

was holding


York Buildings.


these Suites played there



^^j= ^ ^


DiEUPART, bars


to 14










S^ H
Bach seems
Observe the





have got at his version of the subject by a sort of contraction of Dieupart's third and



exposition of the subject

hold of his theme.

procedure by which Bach in the third and fourth bars of the above quotationexpands the fifth bar he joins Dieupart's seventh bar | and so reaches. the dominant, without losing In the second part Dieupart's feeble attempt at an inversion prompts Bach's true inversion

—how in the



Then,.afler the madiilation to
to the close.


minar, bars ten and eleven of Dieupart's pieECj,


Coinpare aJso the middle of the ouverture to Dieupart's Suite in E minor with the Prelude to Bach's Suite Anglaise in G minor, or the middle of the ouverture to the B minor Suite with- the Prelude to Bach's Suite Anglaise in F. The reminisGences in both cases are fiar from being so palpably evident as- the above, but there can be no doubt that Bach took many a hintTromDieupart. There is an unmistakable flavour of Bach in Die,upart's Allemandes, Courantes, and Gigues, and the slow portions of Dieupart's Ouvertures shadow forth similar movements of Bach's thus the ouverture to the Partita in B minor, for a harpsichord with two keyboards, the companion piece to thei Ltalian Concerto'. Cla-wier-uebusjg. 11. is simply. Dieupart


trMisfigurealandi glorified.

" Dieupart's " ExplicatioJi des MTarques

— " Rules for ©races."






a beat.

Double cadence, a shake turn.




a shake beat.




m:^ ss

fore fall up.

Port de voix,




i ^



Port de voix et pince,
fore fall beat.




—^— r^r ^ r-^-t

^^Eci (^)-


i ^





^ r

ha i^



'v^U -^







Ss^fei ^


example under " Double cadence "

contains an engraver's over b instead of

mistake— the "

i.e., turn and shake with a close, (a shake turned) explication " will appear correct if we place the sign for the turn


iE 5
last three examples show how appoggiaturi are to be played together with the accompaniment. grace resembling that under " Port de voix et pinc6 " is often employed by J. S. Bach, who indicates it thus







or :>



i T^^^?'=frmr-it^E^HM'
Compare the third bar of Bach's Prelude above and his so-called Goldberg Variations, VII. This grace was not understood and therefore suppressed in the edition Peters and that of the Bach Gesellschaft.



. . 1712-1778. JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU . 1681-1722. 8157 . ." (1739). " Der Vollkommepe Capellmeister.JOHANN MATTHESON . " Dictionnaire de Musique " (1767).



Mattheson's "

Der Vollkommene Capellmeister."










rr--i* r


i ^=^







Tirate picole or ^




















" Diet, de musique, 1767," contains a list of " Agremens du Chant frangois," representJ. Rousseau's ing the practice of amateur singers in France. It is subjoined merely for the sake of completeness, and

may be compared

with the examples from L'Affilard, Chapter XI. ante.




i s













Port de voix.





Port de voix jet6.




"Essai d'une methode pour apprendre ajouerde




" Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote traversiere


. .

la Flute traversiere




accompanied by 24 pages

of musical illustrations,


issued at Berlin, 1752.


Port de voix). some respects have followed.* Quantz's teaching only inasmuch as it differs from that of C. Bach. sides with some of the older and contemporary solo players and singers. i ^ fll57 ^ ^ Written. Fr. siich as start with the time of the main note)Written thus f--p- i& ^t Lf ^ t- Played thus — ^ r r I* Written. E. E. and is rather inclined to make much of them. Ph. E. Ph. Played. Played. Vorschlag (Ital. Written. We are here concerned with Quanta's chapters on divisions and With regard to the latter. appoggiaturi.^ M s App'oggiatura . details however—Quantz common skips appoggiaturi. '^f ^ K Nor with m Played thus Not to be confused with ^r i s 4. Played. such as start Writtenthus: Playedjhus: t ' ) T -f I H . therefore. . whose taste he is supposed to have controlled and — graces proper. " i : m m may ::^= ^ ^ =H» 2. as at example 3 below. He is careful to distinguish them from the It will. QuANTZ appears may in a trifle retrospective flute-master and musical favourite of and sentimental an attitude not unbecoming perhaps to the King Frederic II. Bach's dislike of passing. Other Vorschlage ^ i^ * C. Bach. Being essentially a melodist he does not share C. Ph. 1757. "Port de voix passagers". C.. g (|> !-• I W 3. rry-r- i rv^- ^ ^^^^^m Written.. it is enough to say that his explanations cover much the same ground as those in the book of his better known associate in the great king's private band. Bach acted as " accompanist to the king " from 1740 to the outbreak of the seven -years' war. calling to connect one "they serve them passing appoggiaturi. Played. " Anschlagende Vorschlage " (appoggiaturi. suffice to refer to In a few details —legitimate. E. Written thus ^^=^ 1 ^ Played'.. c r^rai^ * ir • * rr iiii r before ^^^ the time of main note)- " Durehgehende Vorschlage" (passing appoggiaturi. ^ Ph. and he adds that main note with another and may be introduced when the melody descends in be taken short or long " of thirds.: ^ 147 : : : — XXII." I. Written.

. consisting' of tr two notes tr^ Written. j U f*^^-j^^^ Ei. 1 i 8. I^^Sh "— note " —" "Triller: it the shake should' begin with an appoggiatura either from above or below the main also has a close.. S ^ i»^ Passing notes descending. Passing notes ascending. ^ Written.«.M S 221 # # ^^ ^M^ e1 g S ^. =. fca. Anschlag... ^ Jfr A ^ chain of shakes. Played.148 Battemens "—«. tr fr tr tr_ tr_ Jr ^ ^''. short and long mordents- i 6. ^ 3r /' ^ N i^ ? (^sic) =?= :s± ir ^/f :^:t ^ . Subject.^ Written ^^TJg^ f 8157 Played :^ ^!i:ift . g „ . ^ IZ2I J #=#ii%3^^Eg. ^ if—''^=d 7. d£ J:^ p Played.

^ f ' i 'f^0 ISI£Z>I^ i. Bach. Flautists who care to play i8th century compositions for their instrument will find Quantz's examples of graces and divisions excellent. 6. to XIX. -J ^ ^ tr s Continuo. At N. 20." Ch." example 8 above. S.B. Bach's Sonata for flute and cembalo in E major (Ed. In this place.* example 3 above. r iE ^=* ^ May be played. 202. mentions as the king's "Thrilling Adagios. ^^ ^^ N. . chap. p.). m m f ^-^ \ i s U UI^ and a contain the above-mentioned " passing appoggiatura" which belongs to the time These divisions represent the sort of thing Dr. S. See the fine first movement of J. and 25 of J." Great play. and he might have added the French manner of singing. Peters. XI. ^^ ^=31 N. m ^ W E^& f f f 1 ^.B. represent the same sort of thing. XIII. however. bars i of the preceding main note. we must be content with a few bars Written Adagio.: 149 Commenting on the passing. as 175a is rather late for divisions.. FlautoSoh. ^os*. 8157 . and plates IX. Quantz states that such graces pertain to the French manner of playing the flute. Burney heard Frederic the which Carlyle. See ante. Quanta's " passing notes ascending. • Compare bars a. No. Bach's Aria mit 30 Veraenderungen.B. Flaitto Soh. VI. in his rhetorical manner. and has written such an adagio for a Berlin amateur. 18. appoggiaturi. Nachschlage. by the way. 12. illustrations to Quantz devotes an entire chapter and no less than eleven out of twenty-four pages of his engraved an attempt at explaining " the Italian manner " (his own) of playing divisions " in good taste.


Berlin.. — re-written and augmented 8157 . " Principes du Clavecin. WILH..— FR. Berlin. " Die Kunst das Clavier zu spielen". French version. 1718-1795.. 1756." engraved examples. 1750. MARPURG .


" Bebung.153 XXIII." . WILH.) Vivement. m ^ ^ ^ ?^ -I W s — m - m e±^ ! (^ JUr- iiTi'-r r\^. FR.. Le Balancement. Signe. German. "T-JI Ital. "Tremolo " .r—Hi^^~n^'^=fT7'\\' H^w^=^F=f~N . MARPURG. (Written. i5=:Si simple. Effect.) Le Pqrt de voix {sic) W (Played.

' ^ =P2= ." " Le battement commence par 4' la note essentielk.'^^- ^-^ ^^^^^^tc^^^ (sic) ^^^^ga^^iiii CV) JX*) Double.(:p= ^ ^ 4- i y5-j ^ r^^ril r^Tl ^Tll 8157 »~ ^g^'^^^ b^ ^ -rwfwr^ ^ . (sic) ^^3^=--^ ^ ^ :^^ ^m ^> rj ^^^f^^^ m =i- i W S ^ a^=^ p^gg* feE^BbS ^t? ^3^ iS Le Flatte (the Slide).:^^i^ m . (Ital. (sic) (sic) t 1 .6 si Ss ^^ m Wl^ ^ r.154 L' Aspiration.=M^ P^^Sip .i ^ ^^ i w^ i r^ ^ ii -I >^ r ^ =^ 1 w — (sic) (sic'\ ^^ \ ir-^ ^=n t t^ -y-r ' i Lrm ^ ff (sic) he Port de voix double. " mordente 4- m ^ ^ g jiiinrc:i i autrefois " martellement.. fee ^. p (or) ^^j^^^^^gr^g ^ ") JTTTna ^ L« Pince.^^ ^F^ 1.

" -v (or -v) ^ #AW (or X-) i y=. Sign used by Violinists and Flautists. r—^J J \>Jt^ J 5 l^.'jj J? SEE* ' A 3 i fl Pi»ce reverse (AUemaad. Le Tremblement (Ital. " Schneller." " Pralltriller ^ -j- A ^^ii^^ Find 7* *N"- j^ lent. . i ^^p A*0(or) A) ^ tr ' J 'PJ- J "). ^ =F=&t S J I -J— J^(feV ^j»ce.i. " Trillo Le battement commence par la note acciientelle.*w (or irjj-J ^^ ^O Le tremblement double. I r " £L^ t>..I 155 S Port ie li Ta ^ 1 - ^ fO«'.

) ^^^-^^ ^F ^ -. ^ Avec an port de voix.i=i6 he Tremblement appuye ou prepare.7 i^i^y c ^ P coule en montant.»»V) (or) C»»»0 ^(or)<>v^(or)_^- (or) " '^ r i i . ± ^^=t- £ Le tremblement . Avec un tremblement. — ^-^^ (or) O^ ± (or)0^~ (or) . ^ $ '*"'" (^ ig s ^ ^=F ^\ ^ a S iiJ ^ S (avec (or) i un groppo.-0 (or) -N^ {pr)^ . m r n ~' I I 1 -^S I I Avec un double.) iirrJ^-^ r--^ ^ -TZJ- le moyca 1 — tnr^^^±-r^. A«0 . I ¥ £r^r r£^ 8157 ^^ ^^^ 1 !! iri !!!! a2± 4- .0 A«0 /O L'Arpegement.(-^ A± ^=^=F F3 J^=^=f^ -i ^w ' Avec un pinc6 StoufK (con acciaccatura). ^'K) m t. i s •w -^ -+- ^ -1-r (arpegement figur6 par d'un coule.

II /P 1 hH i r 1' II r-tt-T 1 1 J P=F ^^ffii^^i^ ^ — — (or) 1 1 1 1 H-i J 1 ' ' ' ' 1 1 . ^ ^^ =-1 :^ dem Mordente. H ^ Vorschlag mit n r dem 1 1 Doppelschlag.157 From the German edition of 1750 i i^ 1 I* I i s i£ S i^ ^ s^3 (or) i Groppo. (Port de voix piiic6) J^ ^^ ^S F=^tfril£££ (or) ^— Vorschlag mit . Doppeltriller (der getrillerte Doppelschlag).


quotations for the most part are from the Society's edition.. 48 Preludes and Fugues.. Ausgabe der Bach Gesellschaft vierzehnter Jahrgang Bach Society is cited as Bach Ges.. SEBASTIAN The professes to give the text as BACH . Dag Wohltemperirte Clavier. Part or Part II. XIV. without addition or omission. are referred to as I. Bach 1685-1750.. which Thus.. Bach wrote it. Vol.JOH. with specification of the number and the key. —fourteenth yearly issue of the — The Prel. and Fugues. .


whether indicated by signs or by tiny notes. . The duration of appoggiaturi depends upon the speed of a movement.half the value of the main note. S. — — — On keyed instruments. i. All ornaments. or to avoid an abnormal Augmented intervals cannot form part of an ornament. both instrumental and Bach has expressed by signs. traditionally they are required at the end of an air or an some pretension. when not specially indicated. This traditional rule is by Bach only in cases where the shake starts ex abrupto. where the preceding note is —prolonged shakes of the part in which the shake occurs would be blurred. one or more degrees higher than the note bearing the shake. a chromatic turn in a diminished third such as E flat. before notes divisible by two. or at a final somewhat. 2. as J. ornaments and the notes or chords supporting them in the same hand must be struck together if a chord is played arpeggio the ornament forms part of the arpeggio. interval e. after a pause. D.g. They do when the main note has been touched upon just before the shake. and ornaments comprised in a diminished interval. which latter 4. Shakes upon a note with a dot somewhat sh'orter than it is written.. In view of the examples already quoted from the works of vocal. The speed and the number of The closing notes of a at the player's shake. generally start with the upper accessory. at a pause. Vorschlage (appoggiaturi) are far more frequently short than long. may be added or omitted as instrumental piece of the player chooses. take about. Bach's precursors and contemporaries. Long appoggiaturi. without emphasis and without closing notes. 1. cadence. organ. which are 5. D are inadmissible unless fully written out by the composer. comparatively rare in Bach. stop at or near the dot —a short note following the dot is usually taken of the Shakes and mordents upon a prolonged note. hafpsichord. before notes divisible by three. are subject to the beat —they must be treated as essential to the melodic progress of the part in which they occur. Ornaments belong to the time of the main note. Bach's ornaments are diatonic Chromatic inflexions alien to the scale are permitted only in case of modulation. two-thirds. or where the melodic outline For example. the writer ventures to state a few precepts for the execution of such ornaments. repercussions of shakes and prolonged mordents is discretion. they are to be sung or played with the notes of the scale. when such note is tied on to another and shorter note same pitch..e. . pianoforte. All prolonged appoggiaturi have the stress and the main note following a long appoggiatura 8167 is meant to be taken rather softly. are ad libitum as regards speed and duration.— i6i XXIV. 3. upon the harmonic basis. Shakes so particularly set aside more than short ones. and rendered so as to agree with the domihant pulsations of the time. C sharp. and the prevailing rhythms. stop before the latter. it is customary to retard Ornaments occurring in recitatives.

details as to the. .B. 1720. S.... see Bach Ges. partly in that of his son. sign— •*» .. Vol. F.. Trillo und Mordant. . THE SIGNS FOR THEM... Cadence. which should begin with a perpendicular line. -«'.» how ff£ certain manieren (>*v may be played neatly.. &c..... Mordant.. . angefangen in Cothen den 22 Januar A°.. —The last sign.. . IX. Bach (his eldest son.. which always has the perpendicular stroke thus : ^. 0*f. begun at Cothen.... . a long mordent.. Schneller — short . long N. „ „ ow ^v Mordent.. .. . The latter occurs only in . thus Uw. S. ... appoggiatura from below or from above. .. Idem Doppelt-cadence und Mordant. The terms " Cadence.. partly in the handwriting of Preface J. 14.. showing .." Little Clavierbook for W.. t/i.* " Explication of various signs.3 EngUsh translation. with t. turn. -^... MS. t**v> rarely or -f. III. ... I. . B.. .. .." C\*v (>mJ»' ^ wi»/ E Trillo. * For to Vol.. copies... Accent = Vorschlag.: 1 62 It Bach's own table of ornaments. . II.. N. here follows. set.. BACH'S ORNAMENTS AND . „ 4^ — Sometimes stroke on the right... p. .. Praller." may be translated as follows Cadence = Doppelschlag. . .. . Mordent. This aspect of the signs for shakes must not be confounded with the sign for in the middle.contents of this MS. thus shakes.. . . Doppelt-cadence = turned shake... have their closing notes indicated by means of a perpendicuIaT :— -^i (\«V. and Spitta.. with Triller. . Accent. c^w .. pp. — 8157 . with or without a prefix. prefix prefix from above from below . Doppelt-cadence. 660-6... seems to contain all that he thought essential and good for practice but it is by no means exhaustive... 50. is wrongly given in Preface...... which he wrote out for his infant son Friedemann. Triller.. p. .. Sometimes Prall-Triller... III. sign —**v or ... thus : 4*v.. long J. or on the left..B.).... Doppelt-cadence.. . Complete List of Triller. short . . the edition of the Bach Ges.. . . '. ... " Clavier-Buchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach.

. Vols... C. . or a»>**w. orO-^-. for the slide... have frequently. and by the vibration of short shakes is Bach himself. no distinct sign —very DOUBLE Combination of appoggiatura and mordent Combination of appoggiatura and trillo • SIGNS.. — (^/»w. °^ ^^^1*' in These signs for appoggiaturi in the edition Peters. III. 8157 .. ... A sort of double appoggiatura. since . .. order of notes required.. shadow forth the thing intended .... by (preliminaries as with shakes) .. .. and saves old days much time and trouble to the copyist no mean advantage when engraved music was rare and paper expensive. of in is — ^ Nachschlag ... is the only anomaly— for. .sign ... Groppo (Gruppo).. . been replaced by tiny notes has sometimes been reproduced uncertain value a source of much confusion and misappreheiision.. Bach's precursors in this respect.. as used by Bach. sign — 'w placed . are perfectly it expressive. . . or else expressed by : means of a tiny note resembling an ordinary appoggiatura.'^. thus —• J".. . graphically. therefore. and far from consistently... short ... vs.. sign—? and the reverse r AccTACcATU«A .. and XV. . Anschlag . . Bach has . .. also Vols. leaves in the the melodic outlines intact... ... . admirably '>*. Hans Bischoff).. .. rTTTT^:.. Bebung .. .. by by a downward stroke ^ >fv for c*w o*v. . .. . Ph. the arpeggio.. unfortunately.. o/ife?- a note.. The double sign Bischoff's edition and correctly throughout in Bach Ges. of the edition of the Bach Ges.. . but this is a mere guess. always written out -^ Arpeggio .. The entire system.. as the case may be. . and the slow tremolo. sign— /v»^ (rarely-—)..... sign rare.. signign— ^ ^^ sign (.. Combination of arpeggio and acciaccatura It is sign — 1«-*' worthy of note that graphically nearly all the signs employed by the French masters.— ^ — 1 63 . .. .. ... —^The word only .. . .... ........... or t»*v shakes with preliminaries from above or below. DoppELSCHLAG ScHLEiFER . XXXVI. thus : —J . The it sign the turn... E...... The upper or lower curved stroke supposed to represent the legato of the Vorschlag. .. /J.. (}^ . and {^^^ Combination of Doppelschlag and (The Prall-triller .... .. the acciaccatura.. sign— {^ latter is of doubtful authenticity. is consistent enough and eminently practical..... and XXXVIII.... from above or below. . short from below.. sign — co and 2 . and. . .. edition Steingraber (Dr. : thus. ^ jT or ">—^* . VoRSCHLAG.... .. seems to indicate the reverse But the remaining signs or -^ -. shakes with the /ow«r accessory (mordents)'are distinguished appoggiaturi from above and below... rendered by of long shakes by mv. .. '"^^ . from above.. it as " Prallender Doppelschlag. ...") . Doppelschlag.. ... .

tr : Played. Shakes beginning with the upper accessory are marked aw. where they are not so Fugue A Written min. bars 51 and 53 Played. Prel. The repercussions may vary from upwards . with closing notes. Part I. thus— ^K^r nr Bach was the ' r r i r ^- ^^^ full. av. Accordingly the writer plays the first bars of the two Gavottes in the Suite anglaise..—* 164 — DETAILS CONCERNING THESE ORNAMENTS. — ^ 1* J 1* -^ /K =i:fc^ -j -1* M. No. The accessory note which ought to start a shake may be omitted when on a keyed instrument the proper execution of a persistent shake together with a melody in the same hand would be difficult or impossible. t.fM0 FfPf^fmf . and Fugues. The closing notes are frequently written out may be added or not as the player chooses. 28 t written they Shakes. their number is entirely at the player's discretion Shakes should always be started with the accessory when the main note has just been struck Written. . \k — :&c. first to write this out in : Compare 30 Veraenderungen ueber eine Arie the so-called Goldberg variations. D minor.. Shakes.

. -V When the shake starts after a note staccato Fugue bar 2 Played. Bach Ges. ay-^r-j b. In passages ascending diatonically notes.— i65 This is — —— the "Trillo und Mordent " of Bach's own table. part i.»P This case comes under the rule " melodic outlines must not be blurred " shake were started wkh the accessory. 13. Menuet ^^ The thus : j.. When the repetition of a note is thematic. XIII.. in D. but he ought to begin Shakes descending chromatically do not require closing notes. part i. the interval of the seventh in the Written. Iff SE^^^SS^Se (or) I I Jtr Jtr ^ fe H-^-^-4 U ^^ ^-^--^Jl^ may play a lesser An executant who finds this difficult each shake with the upper accessory.) ' J--^ VI. : When -ft ggfeft 3f the shake starts ex abrupto. before end of Vivace r im It g^ JL'L. number of repercussions. (Repercussions ad libitum. C min. =SSi: -if' ^^^ m ^=^ &i& S7j73 —or after a %Sr* rest. as the player chooses. part F sharp maj..=^ affix just — c*^ and o^. 19. Compare Partita IV. . notes.. part ii. for instance. theme of Fugue XV. c. which explained as indicating the closing notes occurs in combination with both prefixes.. Shakes ascending in chromatic succession may or may not be taken with closing Organ sonata II. —as they would be if the d. i. When the melody skips. Played.. and the shake thus forms part of some characteristic interval . Prel. 12... bars 7. bar ii. See Sonata in G for Viola da Gamba Shakes begin with the main note a. bars 25 and 26 ^ ^=^ 5 8167 . Vol. and as... ir Fugue XIII. leggiero.. and Cembalo. facilitate the —or in skips upwards or downwards — shakes require the closing connection of the main notes with one another. IX.

Part II.— 2»:t Shakes This is J-. the This case agaifi IV. and the dot in such cases frequently stands for a short restPlayed. a good instance main note.. bar 8.»^ Played.' r^r ^ ^ ^^ n ^^m i^ ^i— -* . to ^m ^ little show how the melodic progression may necessitate starting ^T=f in shake upon a dotted note followed by a semiquaver rest and two closing notes.) Fugue Shakes upon tied notes have no closing notes. the case of a Here the shake on F sharp stops a before the rest.. following the dot often loses a Written. and do not require closing I. B minor. % ^ notes. Clavier-uebung II. IE Corrente. when no closing notes are intended. then the shake had better not begin with the accessory.-* ^^ II II f. m^ -3 ' ^ ^ ' F^=r ^3 ^^^ M ^„ (or legato." movement of the bass bar 33- ^^^t ^ tr mm PE be quoted here " Whenever an appoggiatura from aljove would be out of place.. (or Av) little of its tr value. — [66 When ii. bars 12. bars 21." Shakes upon dotted notes. the shake on the by the way. Compare ibefore a rest the case in Partita occupy only part of the value of the main note. ^ Partita I.. E to D. Allemande. Fugue comes under the head: "melodic or harmonic outlines should not be blurred.) 3-^=^^ ' 4" n J: 'I \y 8 —^ u hi (j«asj. part would be weakened if the shake were begun with the accessory. stop at or near the dot the short note f. . 8157 .— e. appears The Ouverture to the Partita. Franz Kroll's hint to teachers may : . 27 ^^S And this is. but stop on or near the note ending the ir in G. ^ ^-ri^ ____ tie. 23 Written.

Sarabande. and Allegro. Largo.) fE^ 22— -r:^ ^ f JJVJ^J q Partita V. &c. minor. dlT'S/g of closing notes only Shakes which occur in melodic phrases descending diatonically admit note following the shake demands a certain amount of emphasis when the m It ^f "3^J in cases : ^ J J : violin be absurd to insert closing notes cembalo Sonata in B min.. 0»v Jr ^m ^1=^ Fugue v. Gigue. bar (C*w) i jTdjrm y ^ Partita. ^ B T g rit. I. 8157 . y t #4^-^:^ Sonata for violin p M f i fTf F ^p- slur should be clearly expressed. ^ ^3 Sb.. part i. wouH such as that of the subject of the Allegro in the tr it& iBt ^-0- i^ The p-~r "> ^ Slurred shakes.- f^^^^ % ^ F ^^ e ±=t 2^ : G»v &c.akes with a prefix from above. Ouverture.. bars 2. part ii. Partita Wdtten.— 167 Shakes with a prefix — — — from below. iS ^ fc^E ii^^^=^^ =§^ Cembalo.. et segue— P Violin.. and cembalo V.. 4. ^^^^^^yr^^rfrfrrrr i^ — close of Andante— Played. bars 3 and 4 before the end ^^-:^ Played =^= ^-^- ff Or- p Italian Concerto Written. 5.. i^ that the prefix of this sign ?^^ is * It may be here meant for a short appoggiatura preceding the shake. bar 19 (Or a greater number of repercussions. bar 8. min.

end of a section or of a movement as Praeludium. bars i.. Vol. (V»VV Played.. penultimate bar.. of shakes generally depends on the context. G min.. u^: : E Short shakes are sometimes understood (*v) —they were played For instance : at the a matter of course... Prel. Bach tr Ges. bar 13.. and at the player's 48 Prel.) {0. bar 44 : (6. such cases occur in the Prel. At least five f-ju- i first End of Fugue XL. See also Prel.. bars 12 and part of the 48 Preludes Prel. 7. part i.. 26.— — XXV.. part ii.) ii. min. XVI. ^ tr ^m G maj.. J^J V l±L J= <q?8 JJJJJj^idJ-r-^ ^ B flat it s. bar 18— • y"SlLl. Prel. IX.) Fugue XIII. bar tr i («•) (6. XXII.. Prel. part tr ia.. E maj..... is The rhythmical arrangement discretion. 1 — — i68 Organ Choral.. bar 14. as Bach often has it. bars 69-70 The table) thus sign for the shake occurs combined with that for the appoggiatura (the French accent of Bach's l^^Hv. XIX.)_ (c.. and Fugues. part i. whether indicated or not..) 8157 . Fugue only. latter. and Fugues. XIV. and Fugues : Fugue I. XIII. or. Partita I. part i. and 11tr I S I'ugue XV.. 3. p. bar 4— Written. part i. Shakes upon a long note which is tied on to a shorter note of the same pitch stop before the without stress and without closing notes.. 18.

Inventio 15 Written. and p. 283. TRANSIENT SHAKE.. i a.— — 169 Pr. for the B. who above three cases and expresses his preference for the solution under . editor of the 48 Preludes and Fugues. g . Vol. A slow shake fully written out occurs in Invention IX. p.) The cites the writer agrees with the late Franz Kroll. B. bars la. XV. Vol. Also Organ Prel. PRALLTRILLER..... Ges. : Played. Toccata III. IV. and 14 Organ Preludes and Fugues: D.B.* bars 3 and 7 (^ W l^ IS s ^ ^^ N. SCHNELLER... part ii. and Fugue III.. in E minor. — bar 55— (6... c.. b. in also in bars 11 and 19 : Shakes of thirds (tremolo). II. 13. Ges. Ges. The ornaments and 16 and the . . (Concertata). XV. B. in E. 88.. ^ m^ ^ 'pi- *• j i 3 ^ 8157 j~-i b^ d ' S-^ ^ w^ at bars 15 In quick tempo ZT^ ^-j m In slow tempo T |» This plaintive piece is absurdly marked " con spirito " in the edition Peters. penultimate bar ought to have put the editors on the right tack.

or as at b. Schneller fully written out.. (AUegroJ) A f^ -tT^Q^I W The bais 10 sign -«- % !J' ^ W^ : S No. Fugue XX.) atit in the "T^ same hand as at bar 4. Allemande..^. A min. Written. i ^ i ^ 'f=^ j^Jg^ -r— ^g^~^ ^? J Played. -»* begins with the accessory. Suite angl. bars 3 and 4 before the end. and Fugues. i. Gigue:— Written. : Partita IV. Partita III. ^ » m: a shake ?^. Prl. 8157 . with the stress player. When the main note has Written. i.. Partita VI. (ante. Played. in Suite angl. VVIllLCll. III.. p=r?i Allemande.) Written. 44 G minor. at his discretion.. i.. A min. part . must be played together with the other parts.—Aria Played. D min. may thus place the stiEss. D. A maj. I* r r f"^ Partita III. also the Allemande. p. the Courante.t*¥ N. I. (Andante. 25. zz.. 59). 5. Burlesca: is sometimes used to indicate a short shake — (Suite franc. ** accompanied by another partj or parts..3 — 170 This graoe derives from the Liite on the initial note. . bar 17. No. when the main note is ^^ Mjz: J It also indicates followed by the regular closing notes as in the Gigue.. 19. Suite angl. i^ 5 If Written.B. 7 and 8 :— ^ Comp. and iz. bars and similar cases. The on which instrument its effect is as at a. ^J. just been heard ..

misinterpretation of "tremblemens. the following bar from Kleine Praeludien. Vol. whether long or main note has in each instance already been struck. aw. the shakes in the example." Bach where Bach has himself supplied the equivalents : Ges. t or th. p. though undoubtedly correct. Ph. I.) M i J^ Andante un poco.. pp. is absurd . IX. should begin with the The above interpretation. Bach's directions. bar 3 ^^^g ^ &c. for instance. the same thing stands thus m Compare also the Sonata in ^ E flat for flute y J ^'jjt and cembalo — allegro moderate. bar 30. ('. 114. bar 2 and so forth. "A mere Vorschlag may be occasionally substituted for a Schneller or Pralltriller. ^ not with (t) Uf«= ES F. 1 f ^^ ends with Cf . the edition of the Bach Ges. 93.—— — — — " The French abbreviations for " tremblemens. as the Anyway. r=i: i^^N S3 V-t a : ihid." which vitiates Partita Written. David's edition (Peters) of tlie violin and clavier sonatas. On a harpsichord or pianoforte with a heavy touch there is no help for it. accessory. of Bach's autographs^ have sometimes been roughly rendered by the modern sign for a shake tf. Ph.. 92. 172. E. pp. i In the older version. But the " tremblement here intended is not a true shake— it is simply a little Pralltriller or Schneller. Compare the Organ Choral " Nun komm' der Heiden Heiland. Here. short. beginning with the main note and without closing notes. XXV^ p. and the origin of this blunder probably Hes the whole movement as David presents it. The engraver of the first edition (1726-30) failed to distinguish between the two signs. No. B flat. Bach {^ost). 5^ H ^^^3E^m According to C. thus : (Violin. the repercussions of "tremblemens" must be reduced. 19 and 20. moreover. and the Bach Ges. in F. bar 5.. Vol. may be simplified in practice. David's phrasing of the theme. has •^ instead of the ordinary sign for the shake." says "C. as in many other cases contained in the Partitas. 6- e^ Should be played thus : 8157 . the first section of the in the phrase | | D ." -»v or -v. E. Praeludium Cig= &c..

Played. i— Written. ^ ^in brackets. Pralltriller. bar Andante. in G. J ^ first Another good instance occurs bar 10 ^ Though transient shake. No. E. ^ (»-) S^ -^F \oi) f - Organ Sonata < * This III.^ li (played) d » s is Mfrcifr .- Andante. 1^. bar 4. thus : s= stands for the Schneller. 2nd Clav.——— — 172 The puzzling ambiguity in the use of av the opening bars of the Sonata for organ (or and t for shake.i:r"^^r rrll^r"fr .. in Eb. original signs Played..^ it - also J. Bach. Afidante. XII. bar a may K Suppose the tempo to be moderato. part i. and the second for a regular shake. £ it * I ^? t =S^^ may be played thus demand the In the case of tempo moderato. j^^—fySaa-^^^T] in Prel. 6. ^ ^^ Ped. Schneller. Sarabande. 11. Partita V. cembalo with pedals). in D. bars 2. . or the signs are identical there can be no doubt that the Pralltriller tied to the preceding main note : Partita IV. Bach's the Pralltriller of C. 8157 and the Schneller (^osf). be rendered thus may be illustrated by Suppose the tempo to be allegro. Ph. Compare .. S. 2nd Clav. the rhythmical arrangement of the ornament would seem to traditional licence in the interpretation of the dot 1st Clav. who tries hard to distinguish between AUemande. I.^ s Compare bar 8. 15.

^ ^^^^^UJ^^A:^^-^^ tfr^^ N. ^ Played. IS s ^^ Played. m=^ i ^#: SI Written. Partita II.- ^ Fugue I. feE^ (or) ^ — r Italienisches Concert. AUemande.. Andante. bars 4. p. B.. ffip -P--5 ^^ nicht denn von nun an wirst T»n»T*- % i. _^__ The reverse form. bars 9 and 10. AUemande.. I. however. derives =i : from the Lute — where it sounds thus L^f 'the stress being on the first note. Partita IV. Ges. & f-ff^M^^a^ Suite franc. -p Cantata 88.. This is Couperin's " tremblement a shake cut short. Sarabande ^ part ii. Un poco allegro. Partita III. Vol. Kleine Praeludien..- #^^=Tlh The mordent.=J 8157 i zu ^ ^^^ f M art T . and Fugues. ?=F^ t^ i^ aspirfi. XX. part i. feg^:^ ^ Similarly. Basso. IV. Fugue VIII.. short. laid like the Schneller.— — — — — 173 —— N Organ sonata IV. Mordent — THE MORDENT. 170 I* et segue — Menschen — pfiirch -^ ^ du 1: te dich ^ Furch-te dich nicht... '^f 'i*" ' is equally legitimate and occurs as often in the works of Bach and his contemporaries.. Prl. Mordent fitted into the time of the bar." C min. Menuet Written. 12.B. &c. r lUxJ Diatonic mordents fully written out. No. bar 21 JJ^^5=J.

. r ! r J r V Organ toccata II. Aiagw. _r Allegro.e. T^ E min. Kleine Praeludien VI..^Cj r/JJii^lUJ ?= ^ Inventio VII. 8157 . have been A perfect record of Bach's own . j^ <|/»^^^^ Mordent prolonged. Ges.F. Written. 267. D. Bar 13.. many such fully written out.f:^ttt\ n=^^ m ^c-. bar 69— Sonata. Allegro. — — : C min.. No.. cembalo solo. 17.too lavish with their indications of accidentals. E major.^ W r.ff(* t fet^ ^ — E minor =^^ ^-Hfe fai. gp ^iH-. B. Played. which contains may here be remarked. bars 15. gs} /T\ i''^' iff. ^^j i j i . diatonic with reference to the context. practice as regards the use of mordents. Written. Vol. and 18. Organ sonata VI. 16.— 174 Organ sonata II.o: ^ * Misinterpreted in Tausig's P.. violin and cembalo... comparatively rare. will be found in his didactic work the " Inventionen " compare Inventio VI. . Lento. it ^ r 1 k Pi. min. p. in G... y A parallel "a^'g^^T^ H« 1 ^i case isfound in the diatonic mordent in the theme of the Organ fugue in ^^r.. (g. transcription. ^ Played. Recent editors. prolonged mordents upon dotted notes should stop on the dot. VI. D min. As with shakes. Mordent tied to the preceding note. XV. S^ is —The prolongation ^. Played.

crotchets. ^rV-J ^... See the fragment.^1 bdt "^ ^'^- '^^-^- -^"^^ J^L^^-^. Vol. Part Com. :— Written. . signify a slight dwelling on the . * r^Mt/ Inventio III. or semiquavers * One of Bach's for the little hooks of the latest works—he did not finish the Fugue.|i D maj. even in the " Clavieruebungt'' engraved for and corrected by Bach himself. closing note. 5 The little grace note at * * may be taken as.. In a loose and lax sort of way.. Played. of a semitone were I. occurs in the Organ Fantasia. later editors have subs'tituted tiny quavers. a Nachschlag. j^— : Played. Double hooks convey little . ^i- ^ m 3m ^m Av t &c.binatiQn of appoggiatura and mordent -^ 4"Written. perhaps... to represent the legato between grace note and main note it more than single the one hook is believed may. VORSCHLAGE) : APPOGGIATURA. Long mordents Prel. A min. Bach Ges.. — placed above a note ^m these signs signify a diatonic Vorschlag from above .. 209. m C minor.* rather short appoggiatura.— — — — 175 Partita I. ^^ VORSCHLAG VORSCHLAG SHORT (pl.. bar 3ji. placed below a note a diatonic Vorschlag from below. Considerable confusion a^d ambiguity exists as to the notation of Vorschlage in all printed editions. to the trill. Vol. XXXVIII. together with a mordent. .. known as "Battemens" —they occur written out Prel. grace note. bar a Written. Sarabande. and Fugue. thus ^ m A Ges. p. . Bach XXXVIII.

They occur in such as the Sarabande. according to the practice of C-. sources.. and the vocal alto and tenor plain notes obviously the appoggiaturi must be short to chime with the shakes begun with the upper accessory. pertain to the time of the main note and receive the i Abundant proof that appoggiaturi when expressed by hooks or by little notes are generally short can Take a case from the Cantata'" Wie schon leucht uns here the oboi da. He has not always done pieces of a peculiar and expressive type — but the exceptions are few and far between. Johannes Passion. be adduced from the scores of Bach's cantatas.V. Bach's usage small hooks stood for short appoggiaturi.. Violins. as of other graces. and that in J. p. that the vast majority of tiny notes in the printed text are substitutes for small hooks. fall back upon the fact that the notation of Vorschlage by means of hooks is the prevailing one in the autographs and other MSS.. for flute. We must. Recently. To make matters worse.j^S &c. Bach wants a true long Vorschlag he generally takes the trouble to incorporate so. as though each little grace note had been inserted by J.e. therefore..caccia and the violins are in unison der Morgenstern " (Bach Ges. and cembalo (both quoted below) where he adopts Couperin's notation of the Port de voix coulee. I. or rather misinterpreted. E. the Prelude to the Organ fugue in min. the slow movement of the Concerto in A min.—— 176 autographs and other MS. m sharp maj. S. Frequently both the hooks and their supposed equivalents have been suppressed. p.""bar Plgiyed. Bach simply explains his own subtle practice. Vol. Bach to express the actual duration of the appoggiatura intended. It has been overlooked that in the matter of Vorschlage. ^m ^" * Q. 8157 . " Ach mein Sinn. it and fit it into the bar. Ph. tiny notes such as : have been interpreted.ess. S. XIV. C. i i s Prel. Partita V. again. ^ i 11 =fc When B J. bar 3) with the alto and tenor of the chorus the oboes have appoggiaturi from above. and with the plain notes. violin. in G. S. best played as something like semiquavers or semiquaver triplets i. 100. Ph. or of anybody else. '1 i s The 1 original notation of the appoggiaturi in the C allegro is- -rrrT^ : they are. therefore. the violins' shakes. . and never poses as the interpreter of his father. Prel. Bach. — Vorschlage. .. and Fugues Part II. E. 8..* and where the prevailing sentiment and rather slow time readily suggest that plaintive dwelling on certain slurred notes (coul6es) which is characteristic of the long appoggiaturi in contemporary French music. indicated by a single hook. thus — Short Vorschlag Written. ^ — str. the hooks appear side by side with tiny notes. Arie. whether short or long.. ante.

approximately thus .:^' im s or quasi-flautato --9=^ atirf -^1 P-. Prel.. .. A min. Vol. Compare also the Sarabande. in Bach Ges. — w Bach part ^^^m sa- =1: Ges. part ii. Written. p. gen sa - gen i* Ibid.... 24. to.177 : — Double hooks are reproduced Sarabande. 79.. 4 and 5. Vol. ricv Strictly written out in time the Vorschlage would appear thus : &c. XXXVL. Vorschlage written out as semiquavers. p. v. . p.— : —— .. B maj. bar 3. XXIII. pp. bars 33. the ordinary Vorschlag is written out as at A in the autograph Autograph score. lo. I^PB Tenore & Basso. Vol. bar 6— Si ^ mei - 5 t-^ El - ne See le 8157 . 25 execution .. ibid. VII.

Vorhalte . and Vorhalt = suspension." bars 8 and B. and he often chooses to produce them. should precede a dissonance ere the dissonant note be admissible music a a vocalist's rule in the first instance and a good rule all round for vocal nothing to prevent an instrumentalist*" from producing any number ot dissonances. fe -J-H f^^J^—H ^i^ ^t=^. &c. Vorhalt. The terms Hence a good Vorschlag = appoggiatura. Bach's " Versuch. being the same note in pitch and in the same part. Examples showing Long Vorschlage incorporated. D min. Short Vorschlage written out and incorporated — r"'i c I r r"^ if9. i V -^..g. Theoretically. a suspension.. XII.. feci " Vater unser im Himmelreich. p Long. capella.. — . e. ^ ^that is to say... " fore-beats. D min. III. L. p. ^U See . no one thought of defining the terms. but there is . Vol. E. penultimate bar *. Notes which are distinctly long Vorschlage = unprepafcd dissonances.. " fore-holds. deal of confusion Ph. Notes which come under the head of Vorhalt = prepared dissonance = suspension.." literally." * and consequent mistakes and executants. — Unfortunately. in C. ^ later editors Lir'^^=i --%w^ f ^ — ol '^4-^ VoRSCHLAG. 217. rs * r ^ post. ought to be prepared a consonance. T-^ ch." and prepared dissonances. Thus unprepared dissonances came to be called Vorschlage literally. . i.. part ii. Menuet Violin Partita II. sarabande. I. Prel. were interchangeSble in Bach's time. bar 4. f Part 8157 II. — 178 The clash with the bass disappears in practice when it is understood that the semiquavers in the voice parts are to be taken as Hght appoggiaturi. li .— — . Ges. ^ m^ ^ i * * ^M w^ ^ Suite franc.

Concerto for tanto e dolce... (long.. a -^^-^ N.fcy^c A min. I^'i' lII r fcL ^ ' ' i^^^^^^~?T 199— similarly. ^ H* Organ Prel. 38.. bars 34. for iiute and cembalo.. f: «:*. 8137 . ^i ^^ J ^^ ^^ i ^ ^ Played.N= m J-==>-H^ or because it sounds like the long Vorschlag Bach wants. bars 9 and 10 (long) . Vol. Bach Ges.« g ^g&.. ^"^ — — Prel. p. Prel. and Fugues. 33. 248.— — 179 — ' P Long and gamba short Vorschlage side by side.(fo»^. and Fugue XIV. 39. and yet avoids the ugly consecutive fourths with the bass which ensue when the appoggiatura is taken strictly according to rule. ^ N." Viola da (short. XVII. Adagio. XV. " Es ist voUbrapht. Vol. Molto adagio.B. ^ Aria. B -min. i and cembalo. part ii. Ges..) Written. ma non bars and 2 (shoH.) Johannes Passion.) ^ E flat. violin. Written. E flat- Written.^.)^_^ Writteii. Played r 5 r s :^^fr^ ^£ The b ^ : IT 1 iiSS ^— T ^ g^^^S ^^ iMr-r s S^ ±3= writer prefers this to the customary versions ri— S—*—*— JFrr^ :. pj^^^j^ r — -f- |=#H'"' Sonata II. B. Tlayed. flute.B. VIIL.

" (or) ^ I -p-^-p'' g^ i\ ^ trille ^ . Ges. -wj j^ i j^jg^. ^^^ C min.. -f=^=i^. Suite franc.. and Fugues. Prel.. (edit. C sharp min.r^ji. 3. I w^ Pla:yed. IV. Pl ayed _ m Vr!'irr Organ Choral " Komm. Prel. ^JiUjB-JTJ-^^Jaccording to rule. y^i^- ^r=^ trillo. ^q^j-^^»j . B.— — i8o — : Similarly. ^~^ti... heiliger Geist. Part 11. 3. 86. may be rendered thus ' J'^^ZJZ : LLIlSj which seems better than or Combination of the sign bars 9 and 11Written. Bischcff)- . " A.. 153..h mein Sinn. Vol. . ^^ G. (Lvw) (l**v) (or any greater number of repercussions). . Prel." Another sign for the same thing is i. bar 19. Aria. Double.. Vol.^^.. Schjieller. the long appoggiatura in the Prelude A maj.^ i^M^^^^^ri^^^i^ftr^ri See also the Menuet. The signs u^ may be thus interpreted («)i4e Though ^ jj.j 1^ a | ^sg 8157 r -c:. II. Johannes Passion. XXV^ p. bars. Double sign 5— ^ i -** Sarabande. shows that the two bars are Suite Combination of appoggiatura and A min. p.^ XXV^ ^ of the older version. XXXVI. B.. bar 29 ' the French appuye Bach's " accent und Compare Written.. the signs signify- strictly ai (*)^ But a comparison with the signs meant to be played as at {a). part i. and Fugues.Ges. for appoggiatura and shake Effect... Written. p." B. Vol.

_ Chromatic Fantasia. " The sign ( in bars 4 and 6 has hitherto been a puzzle.. The proper reading is therefore ^^g=^ . III. ante. 185. Combination of Appoggiatura and arpeggio.ft" i ^ ^ ^ &c. Appoggiatura and turn -^—'£- (Doppelschlag). quoted Menuet. as well as D'Anglebert. Suite franc.. in D. end 8 of arpeggio and Played. p. Q^ p. II.^ •Jr>f=s= ^ -p-. ^ &c. bars 49. p. before recitative Written.-. W=^ I E s ^ ^s ^^ m^F— short and long. IrnTir Dieupart. may be played thus g=i=fe ^3 ^ 3 r i ^^ ^ ^:*^ i^ =^ ^^ ='^ 8 (^ 1 J^'J'iPC'^ i*-'-?^ ^^^ i ^ 1Z/f1u! ^ ^ gga The second part of this Sarabande begins thus in Bach's printed edition of 173 1 j'f f r r fff|t f I ^'tP^ ^v "^ i^^ P &c. 177 Bischoff). uses the sign ( or > to See the Tables of D'Anglebert and of indicate a mordent of a semitone as well as an appoggiatura. (edit. 8157 . bar 4. Execution- Compare Dieupart's table. and Dieupart. :t=t ztt rfary. i Arpeggio. it appears. Combination of appoggiatura and mordent. But Bach. 175 . 50. S 3E^ /T\ 9' ^^ '->j- :^ I ^^ ^^ i3E J^g^ >^P The Vorschlage. in the Sarabande. quoted .: — ^ — i8i — above.^^. ^^T=f^ 3 m Lento. was familiar with D'Anglebert's Pieces and Dieupart's Suites. . C min. Partita V. the Inventio. See the Sarabande in also E flat. ^osi!. ante. No.

.. E maj ^m Aria mit 30 Veraenderungen. Organ Choral " Allein Gott # Written. ^""s^" in der Hoh' sei Ehr. that is to misunderstand and it." B. B . B. for there is something rather — weak about respect for C.— . where fe * for the latter writer's remarks. tt XXV^ p. but so placed as to link between notes descending in thirds. Vol. see Part 8157 II. ^^'^ iS Compare Cantata '-^0=^ ^ XX. Quantz. 122— tt # ft Played.. but h& has it in some important pieces and students of his works cannot ignore it.± ^ Sung or played. or in follow one main note and precede another. Bach merely touches upon the Nachschlag as a grace a la mode and expresses disapproval rightly.'s estimate can be no excuse for the errors of editors. Nachschlage). p. B. A 4. who choose to leave the Nachschlag out of count altogether or to amend. misintetpref it. Ph. similar to the hook of a Vorschlag. ^^-^y""- Flute soTiata. Afterbeat (Plural. Ph. E. E. Ges. The example under B is usually written as at (Couperin's way). . Ges. — i8a Nachschlag—literally. constantly in old French chansons and and is sufficientiy explained. and Leopold Mozart. II ^ r au This sort of thing occurs by Walther. {sic) 80 m That the first ^^ Ich : tirlr bin ver "f - ^ nem is gniigt mit mei Gliicke this is simply a case of appoggiaturi treated as bar stands thus ^ S Nachschlage proved by the violin part. 84. Still. C. Vol.* J. S. thus forming a seconds ^^ Written. Marpurg. A grace expressed by means of a little hook.. " Goldberg variations. perhaps. ±1 j» ^ gf C pieces _de clavecin. post." bar 2 Written. Adagio. Bach does not make much use of it.

Peters. Ges.- ^ ^E here Oboi d'amore <«1^ E^ (sic) &c.. Herr ^^ ^r ist 'f .^r^e in the Aria ^ ^ Nachschlage consisting of two notes written out by Bach "— 3-ott in der Hoh' sei Ehr : Cantata. In the Cantata " Halt im Gedachtniss Jesu Christ. Ges.— : — IS3 — Suite in A. Aria " mein Jesu ist erstanden. bars 6 and 7^ ^m _'T~> Played. shows ordinary appoggiaturi. IX. though the text as there given." B." is a passage. Prel. in G.. thus the would be '&espressivo... 0^^^--r^'^^r=^=t^^^. and in the Edit..^ fijj ^ j^ da gamba and cembalo. B. No. 48. * f f * ^^ ge treu g er I I Hirt Prel. No. Vol. and mordent and Nachschlag are thus indicated maniera Italiano. 85._. part ii. Courante. for viola ^^r^=^ I. Execution thus WSonata Written. and Fugues. bars i and 3 wntten. 67. i^i /ariata alia Combinations of Nachschlag and trillo. . close of andante glrf Also allegro moderato. for violin and cembalo.MJ=^ The ffect writer surmises that the : little curve is meant for a Nachschlag to the preceding note FJf. bars 22 and 23. A flat.. tiny notes and others expressed by the customary little curve (v„-) & Violino. i ^ ^E ± i3 ^ Played. No. . £2_ ! I I I I ! P 3 Written. ^B & i'-Q) 8157 £=^i=^ {Q) . Played. probably contain Nachschlage. on the Choral " Allein i^3 i^ ± ^ )er . the notation of which seems to shadow forth some delicate distinction between ippoggiaturi expressed. XVII. ..

II. part i. Var. Indicated above a note b. Prel.. Between two notes Over a dot ^ CSS ^ffl?^ir^T3iii in ir c>» r wrri . bar 12 Duetto I.— —— i84 — — . This ornament are written out in full. Vol. Suite angl.. CV) 3 When some other rhythmical solution is r r r intended rrTri out ff_r !• Bach writes it ^as in the " Agremens'de la Sarabande "—Suite ang. B.. Prel. written out ^ go rrs ^ s :^ p.'r/T- 1^ &c.. ) —L Sarabande. bar 13 Pralltriller. bar 3 ^ j. stops on the dot. s A Doppelschlag upon a note of some weight should be played as quick as a Fugues. in F. and V ^p P^8157 ^^ ^T- . I S also Suite ang. ^ ^ Bach begins with the upper accessory it 30 Var. bar 11 t Compare Written. m ^ Ibid.. 269. bar 19. I. — — — DOPPELSCHLAG— TURN a. i r^^ is . A min. : svs and g c. IV. 5. like the shake. ueber eine Arie.. rTr^^i^'\r J. always diatonic exceptions.^ iJ. III. Prel..— ^T\ -^ The Doppelschlag. Ges.. d& S rare. C sharp min.

. N.B N.'f(»JfS. S5 Pralltriller ^ =?: i doubtful authenticity... Fugue XV.. G. soft lute-like effect of SCHLEIFER. and Fugues. ^^ * ..». C sharp maj. XXIV. ^^ T^^^~^r 't^ ». ^^'^ ^ta^'^ crcja-Vr'rV'r"^^ " JJ^i^Jfl r ^ ir f^ bar 2:^ .- A Chromatic Doppelschlag occurs in Prel...— i»5 — — A Doppelschlag incorporated occurs in : Prl.. Partita. VII. III. i ^ ^^ « Observe the B min. THE SLIDE.. part i. bar 4— Played. appears in 6 Kleine Praeludien. the whole of rather I. part ii. preceded by an appoggiatura... bar 9 A Diatonic Doppelschlag is contained in the subject of Fugue N. B min. part i.B. E flat.B. A Doppelschlag incorporated and rhythmically arranged occurs in Prel. No.1 £lr-A j:i bar 6: 4^4 -n f=g?T^ 8157 . bar 53— N. the slides in the examples indicated by the sign Gavotte II. '**^.. part i.B. The Slide derives from the Lute. i A combination of Doppelschlag and Written.

. B minor Partita. Prl.. : Matthaus Passion.. p.. begins with a Schleifer iJi- d.. Tromba.. N. Ges. and Fugues. gi{„. Vol. Bach Ges.. for viola da gamba and cembalo. 194 and 195. s^ G &c. are found in the Sonata II. 50 and 51.^ f^r^#i^JJg^^ Many examples Organ sonata I. EJ. Seht ! ± Aria. also in Cantata* 92.. ±=^ reisst. ^ m i =^=^ liM^ S^j^i^U^i^ 8157 ^ ^ ^^ * This device has been extensively adopted in Wagner's " Gotterdammerung. Organ sonata VI. fully written out as well as indicated by the usual sign E flat Adagio.B. Aria " Erbarme dich "— ^±ii^J^=:*.. or thus. Aria — — Sg.M4£f^ The theme of Prel..j. part Fugue XVI.'(['. ^S II. im^ Tenor.. pp. a=t seht ! t2=^ wie bricht. or something between the two... Partita VI. Lento. Execution thus ^. part i. — K : — Slide written out in small notes Violin Solo. &c. -v-. pp. i- lit*: ^^P =F^ =tN: Cantata " Lobet Gott. XXII.. glaubt doch die ser Gna - de. c. -f^-P- min. Vol. Ges... ^^^^M f " A min.schen. Augmented Schleifer are found written out in the Gigue of the B. E min. Written out and incorporated. in D. IX. Prel. Tempo di Gavotta. -jd ^^ wie wie fallt." 206. 2um Jordan kam.. penultimate bar- either thus. cSi^^I^^lPl D min. p." B. 1 I.r III. ^m Men .s^) M^ Cantata " Christ unser Herr 1:& -S-* m Bach Ges. $ ii. XXII. and Fugues. Vol.— — i86 b." . Organ sonata Vivace. ^£.

F min.. Chord to be broken downwards. F sharp min. 241. 334) consult C. Written out : No sign.... C rr\ sharp major. Part I. upwards occurs written out in Kleine Praludien. : 4th bar before the end (A) f'^^r^r^^. and in the ten bars marked " Fantasia arpeggio " before the Fugue in A minor. Goldberg variations. bars 14 and 21 —as at N. Ges. p. XXXVI. Toccata. Vol. David in his edition of the violin and clavier As to the proper way to treat chords which Bach directs to be broken up and down arpeggio (Fantasia Chromatica. p. 25.B. B.. rare. Such things have been sonatas (Edition Peters).B. III. Ges. No. ^^g i r ^^¥^/rs ^r\ :?5 S V Arpeggio downwards and.. Sarabande. Chord to be broken upwards. and Billow's. transposed D flat in that edition. Vol.. Vol. BischofPs. Ph. (B) Anschlag. and Naumann's editions of the Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue.— i87 — — Anschlag. ^^ (A) Schleifer. N. B. Edit. ^os<. Peters (Fr. Also Mendelssohn's letters. Kroll) shows the latter form at the close of into Fugue III. p. correctly indicated by F.. 3 ^r Couperin's signs for this ife IIe ^ffe:«=|: L' is gg e^ The pattern for an out of the ^ Vi^ wauld appear thus t^ way arpeggio for the violin given in Cantata 86.. Var. 230. bar 6- Akpeggio.. : J 8157 . E. XX. Briefe II. Bach's directions. Bach Ges.

. 8157 in Grove's Diet.. Arpeggio and acciaccatura 6.— i88 — — : — When an appoggiatura it is applied to an arpeggio chord. A maj.. ornament has been suppressed in the Bach Gesellschaft's Bach the Partitas and Suites. frequently. Suite ang. indicated by signs. e. Partita VI. Execution. AcciACCATURA (German Quetschung). It is given in Bischoff' s edition and correctly explained there. instances has written out both the arpeggio simple and the arpeggio with an acciaccatura a. &c. slightly broken to avoid the jerking effect which is apt to occur when several keys on a. an arpeggio with an acciaccatura the demisemiquaver G. bars I and ** and | Written. f=^^^ * Franklin Taylor. perhaps.. A min. No. the roughest form of acciaccatura.. b. under Arpeggio. ^m Ihis. i . worth while to note that chords on the harpsichord were. on the pianoforte. I. Scherzo. the dissonant quaver G sharp against A. Partita III. whether be long or short— W M -t- 1 lS It is. such as Domenico Scarlatti affects.. bar 5 before the end Presto. : A veritable scrunch. Toccata. and occasions a delay of the particular note to which its place as one of the notes of the belongs equal to the time required for its performance. i.. Sarabande. it takes it arpeggio.g. quilled instrument are struck simultaneously... thus c.g. bars a and go : — The sign ("'"*') for this obsolete edition of in several k± ^ 3 ^^^ Here the first ^m —the -p -If bar is an arpeggio simple second ^ is is ^ -i--j m e.

whenever the bass has a long sustained note.. Suite angl. " Am Abend aber " Continuo — Cembalo — Cantata. p. Vol. No. p." B. Partita VI.. 257... B. A maj. &c. Flauto traverse. G min. the key may be struck again as soon as the sound begins to flag. A XXXVI. Ges. 42. Suite angl. 237. and the like. according to the speed of the movement. X. bar 30- ^S^=r ¥ Suite angl. 72 7-rra (»3 /> Bebung written out for the clavier. III. g. care being taken that the repercussions do not contradict the beat. Vol. III..... Recit. from Friedemann Bach's Clavierbuchlein— Bach Ges. describes a probably as follows : — Bach's friend Walther " Groppo ascendente and a "Groppo descendente" " This diminution (division) (compare Diruta's Groppi.. thus :— Allegro. -cz: piano. Bebung. In square time repercussion may thus take place in the beginning or the middle of a bar. Bourr6e. m bar 22. Ges. and the effect of the example may thus be may therefore consist of closing notes to the 8157 .. i^ESt W^ On a keyed instrument. ante. I. Walther adds : is often employed on the penultimate of a cadence so as to The Groppo intended by Bach form a close to the trillo.. A synonym current in Bach's time was " circulo-mezzo. tr {sic) is indicated in Cantata 99.. where the sign *^ min.." shake.. This applies to long drone on G in the popular Gavotte (Musette). p._ : — iSg — Sarabande. Written. G minor. 1732. also the little Prelude in p. S^^#r^rf£ ^^ in his Lexicon. ^^p The explanation " is Groppo. 5).. Gavotte I. XXII. has been reproduced without comment.. Compare Vol." The Groppo " Was Gott thut das ist wohlgethan. E min Similarly at bars 4 and la. Groppo.

and the single dot in was employed to. Prel. Or. in stile francese. D minor. Andante con moto. and Fugues. F sharp maj. less to express prolongation all a somewhat less strict contemporaries often take absurdity will be avoided if this fact way than we the dot to mean is are now accustomed Bach. Similar changes were II... Part I. Sinfonia V." BACH'S USE OF THE DOT." engraver. Handel.. Part Written. which Bach himself prepared for -the T ^f f f for the customary but inexact for the f ff^ • Compare the Contrapunctus 6. and Fugues.. he has taken the trouble to insert now at Eerlin. Fugue in D major. Gigue Written. Played. made engraved edition of the Ouverture and Partita in B minor (Clavier-uebung Accordingly. In the autograph of "Die Kunst der Fuge. their a prolongation either more or Many an borne in mind. Prel. ^f^^^ ^^^^M^M Played. written thus ought to be played thus :^ &c. if the Groppo is to do all the work of the t'l .).: — I go — . Played. bar 9Written. In Bach's time double dots were not in use. it may be thus- The gradation from forte to piano in the autograph score can also be taken to mean a shake beginning quick and gradually slackening. but not quite- The bass . In all such cases triplets would be wrong. II.. bar 3 ^ m^'r^j^ J. Gruppetto is a modern Italian term for the turn a survival probably of the old " Groppo — descendente. Suite franc I. itlE ^ ^s ^ ^iE 8157 d 4) ^ ^ v=j=r=^ almost. and than one half. which would thus require a regulated closing Groppo to lead into the sequence.. Prel.

if there is sufficient time. "The dot ought always to be held a practice at and before his own time. -F — ^- r Similar passages in J. and the dot occurs after the second note. and the note with the dot is taken more delicately the two notes are invariably The note with the dot is to be properly sustained. v s- ^-lS-^\ \\ ^^ ^ 8157 "Played. its tone again — increased. f ~ Bach must be taken cum hand to play grano. especially semiquavers and demisemiquavers. . when a compromise bars 2 and 6 is desirable to enable one two parts. and in alia breve time. QuantzWritten.. S. Thus Allemande. ™im^«-« J I I j~ Played. Written. "Anleitung zur Singkunst. j - " . . . Also J. Here the first connected (legato). and the m " Written. r^::^ Played. E. to be taken as short as possible." p. Bach : ^^^3-J^l c:^r i^f Written. one of Bach's pupils.J. &. Very often the prevailing rhythm determines the value Written. in his translation of Tosi. 133. and.* of the dot. Pla yed.. note has the stress. " Short notes * Agricola. especially in the Partita III. Played. are invariably taken very short n —the notes preceding the dots being held so much the longer „ °' d. the first-note note with the dot prolonged is — _ . thus Written. little longer. la J J J J J J r J. thus W^=^ ' &c. Compare C.— — — igi — Leopold Mozart's taken at a little less rule.> f even quavers. - . .. states this as follows:— which follow dots." represents the common Therefore the short note following a dot should in most cases be than its true value. Ph. . |* J * 'J^ and vice versa. f -a d ^jM:3^^^^^^ " If the short note begins. Adagio. f)' tor T .

quoted above it stands in square time. Here. let the dot after the shaked note be read as a long dot. I.rough and ready attempts to express them. C. " Riihmet Gott«s Giit' ^ Riih-met ^ IS^ Got r^ tes i It Gut' und Treu . Bach Ges. for instance. preponderance lies in the direction of triplets or of dotted crotchets. XVI. in — ^ . ! j The reverse case ^ ^ found in the Fugue in -Pr- G minor. B. quavers. 34 rest. it incumbent on the player to render such passages without loss of rhythmical deiiniteness and consistency. to avoid stiffness and angularity in the Vorschlage. . Suite franc.. " An Wasserfliissen Babylons. XIII. As C. rather than of strict mechanical accuracy. XXXVI. they must be made to chime with the quaver Square time. Vol... Bach has it. m^^^&^^tg^ — but is are written. Ph. Partita VI. Part II. Bach. Aria. and so forth. the Gigue in D min.* The occasionally variable and inconstant value of the dot once understood." The dot is also sometimes made to do duty for a short Trauung's Cantata. but with a slight leaning towards triple time. thus 3E ^ ^ ^^ tr T i und Treu. E." bar 3. . many an apparent in the difficulty as to the rhythmical arrangement of ornaments will disappear. Vol. like Czerny's caricature of the Prelude in D maj. Whether it is the always a matter of give and take. and throughout the Fugue. p. and the closing notes shortened to demisemiquavers. Such subtleties can hardly be indicated on paper." ante.. z 1J.. of Prl.. our double dot. may thus on occasion be read as compound triple time.. but there is rather a leaning towards or the Gigue in E min. of balance and delicate adjustment between the parts. For example : Organ chorale.. G min. . with its curious time signature (t)=f again there is square time. " This sort of thing requires a degree of freedom which excludes all that is slavish and mechanical. and Fugues.... 50. p. Here. consistent ^^ time. and Fugues. tehd to do more harm than good.. Part II. 57-62— -^-^ ^ ^^ iij'uj i -r*-- w 3J.. and in other similar cases by no means rare in triplets. the dot should be taken at tather less than true value its ^^ • Compare Couperin's directions to " 8137 La Laborieuse. or semiquavers. is \ 4 must be taken to mean pp. ." Take.. and. the semiquavers following dots can hardly be taken so short as they In the left hand part of the above quotation. Ges.— — 192 : Prel. 48 Prl.

8157 . Yet the question of speed is far from being in so bad a plight as it would seem. in his interesting prefaces to Vols. . Presto which we can easily apply by analogy. Q = TnodeTato i — ^ — ^i and ([. XXXI. Grave. and the tradition among German organists as to the style and average speed of the figurated Chorale persists (c) we know the nature and construction of the instruments. . Ges." adds Professor Spitta. 293. Adagio. are we not in possession of many facts more or less worth notice as bearing on the question.. — ^. Musicalisches Opfer. so as to chime with the text effort. without any wrench or sense of // the amaments throughout can be rendered truly and without curtailment... C min. and in their cumulative effect sufficient to determine it ? Apart from Bach's own occasional indications Largo. there some likelihood that certain movements of his may be misinterpreted. Allegro. C. parts with autograph corrections written out at the same period and for the same performance. In the writer's opinion a temptation to go wrong may lie in our taking too prove the right one in the which appeared in 1754: " Bach took the Tempi of his very lively manner " . is and everything that comes under the head of style." XXII. In Bach's autographs and the C alternate without rhyme or reason. Vol. and the like. Bach (t. (^. Andante. " must have been particularly the case with regard to the clavier pieces in accordance with literally the words contained " in the obituary notice to the Partitas in B minor and D maj. " which. = allegro. IV. their nature and number. may show copies of his C when the autograph parts. even the capabilities for conveying sound of the very (d) for us. * Compare the Ouvertures . are signs and guides not easily mistaken or absence of ornaments. adopted or dispensed with at pleasure. We may regret that in so many cases has left mere notes but are not the true determinants of style in a piece of music intrinsic rather than external ? Are they not. or Q and (^ and vice versd. III. it is more than probable that the pace adopted for a movement will end. Ges. Bach Ges. the suggestion as to speed to be derived from the presence in which they occur. the words places in which he played or conducted of an air or a chorus. or MS. Bach so very sparing in his directions concerning pace. as he himself would have said. Vol. and for a la breve time.— 193 TIME SIGNATURES AND TEMPO.. XXII. the biographer par compositions sehr lebhaft. Bach — — .We therefore. is still well known (6) Chorales are still sung in the old Protestant •way. considered in relation to the notes or groups of notes to which they are to be sung. contrario motu. and not the limits of a singer's breath. arrived at the conclusion that Bach regarded the perpendicular Thus stroke through the semi-circle which. deprived of is an important distinction marking various degrees of speed and stress. B. long before were C..— the AUemande. and the two signatures cannot it represent a lesser or a greater degree of speed as though greater or lesser were number of accents in a bar as though. are often significant and well worth consideration.* The was the late Dr. some such facts are: (a) The pace of popular old French and German tunes. the rhythms of which constitute the framework of so many of his subjects. show (|J. " Goldberg Variations.. To the rather lax use of the dot as a sign of prolongation must be added Bach's ambiguous use of the signature for disciples common and (^ time... An autograph score MS. the compass and capabilities of the executants and voices Bach had at his disposal. f. (e) last. canon 4.' in a excellence.. Partita II. Ges. seems to imply. flourish to be distinctive character of the sign for square time halved. and XXIII. Rust. as a mere calligraphic and (|j. . expression. proves illusory in the majority of cases. And as or a are. mainly contained in the music itself rather than in any words or signs accompanying the record of the music on paper ? Moreover. The same anomaly exists in the few works printed ^during Bach's lifetime. quite as much as for Bach's contemporaries. the difference between C which Bach's notation safely be taken to ([.. In one case only Bach Vol. III. Per augmentationem. B. expressly writes " alia breve " in connection with (j». all of which were revised by him and some actually engraved under his supervision. the position least. p. phrasing.

as in other matters. foreshadows the pianoforte. Ten to one. To test an average musician's instinct in favour of increased speed. The capabilities of the taodern pianoforte are but a poor excuse for such anomalous proceedings. or of the contemporary organs. is instinctive. Suite ang. violinists are tempted by the perfect elasticity of Tourte's bow to play the movements marked Presto in Bach's works for violin the nature of the harpsichord and the clavichord. Double I..— — — 194 — It may have been so. to return to his method black key i. let any one who can read and play instrumental music fluently at sight take up some early piece. or Gibbons'. i Inventio X. bars 27 and 38 2 4 and the occasional passing of a short finger under a long one. Similarly. G min. and where accordingly he may have increased the pace. E. as the simple aie?- * The . or a harpsichord piece of Byrd's. Courante II. even of ^ery complex music. Dieupart. bar 10 Suite angl. to Courante IL. Players of Bach's clavier and organ works may find it worth while. Bach had good reasons for preferring the latter. play it straight off. Double I. ^ S € ~3 G maj.... 3. A maj. FINGERING. the average educated mind now moves faster than it did some few generations ago that the constant hearing and practice of elaborate musical works has had an effect on the intellectual faculties of man." or some of the tunes and divisions for the Lute in the very interesting transcriptions of cinquecento Lute music by Chilesotti. whereas the clavichord. &c. III.. Couperin.. that the tendency towards increased speed in the performance of music. perhaps the right one. I.. Ph. 1 3 s » rii/c^cj/^s .. matter of speed and apart from expression. justly perhaps. in a faint way. and. where he uses fewer ornaments than some of his Yet anyone models. ^- TV - 12 X^F3- ^ 1 and similarly in the third bar before the end. is the occasional crossing of a long finger over a short one when a step between a white and a concerned. It may be said. even in the With regard to speed the harpsichord must be taken as akin to the organ.. who has handled a harpsichord cannot but be convinced that the extremely rapid pace at which nowadays pianists of repute. second part. that we realise complicated successions of sound at a swifter rate than our great grandfathers. he will discover that he has started it too fast— and he will be all the more surprised to find that a slower pace. though not to so great an extent.."* of the solo at a racing speed such as with the old bow would have resulted in a woeful scratch and scramble. I. choose to play certain quick movements of Bach would have been intolerable if not impossible on instruments worked by a mechanism such as that of Bach's harpsichords. i 2 ii learned Biographer forgets that the imresponsive touch of the harpsichord could not be so easily manipulated and sensitive touch of the clavichord. in one particular. C. and 19 ^fe Suite ang. disregarding any editorial hints as to tempo. say one of Sweelinck's Fantasias or Toccatas for the organ. bar 13. from the " Parthenia.e. . Gigue. will at first feel strange and that he will have to try again and again ere he can strike the mean and satisfy his instinct for true time. especially with regard to some dance measures in Bach's Suites and Partitas. before he has got to the middle. and so forth. Bull's. bars i.. and even some organjsts. that in music.

F. In an analogous way with flats were expressed in syllables. SweeUnck. Played." . XXV. = F sharp. F. w u K*ii w _ r""T'Cj ^ ^^ I CV) J ^ '^^ -^^E J* ^S {s^c. : lomenclature ? A clue to a true answer appears to lie in the fact that." calls the degrees of the A flat scale " B. C.2. Gis " those of the B flat :»a:rnassum. sharp major. 8157 in the Appendix to Bellerman's " Der Contrapunt. Ges. C. in his translation out of Latin into German of Fux' " Gradus ad " Gis. BACH'S ORNAMENTS COMPLETELY WRITTEN OUT. Mizler. etter indicated a and cembalists used the so-called German Tahlature* thus. Bach's friend. F. Gir. jerman lutenists." B. G. where D flat major with its five flats would be muchi sharp minor. B. Hoh' ^ sei in der Ehr. G. i m. B.. Adagio. ^ 122— . = C sharp. the dominant would appear as B flatnajor. Dl7. I":*. = G sharp. Gis . "Allein Gott Written. if written with flats." &c. Adagio. organists. r r (or tr) * Compare the fac-simile of " Fantasia " in C. as late as the seventeenth a was a direct way of lotes 36 ndicating the particular (black) key to be touched upon the organ or cembalo. Fis. Dis. again with a view to a direct indication of the (black) key to touched —thus. ^-r^ &c. Cis.cale How did they come by this curious practice and inconsistent Bach writes seven sharps for six C lasier to read. sharps for D : . A. . G. Cis . C.^95 SHARPS USED IN PREFERENCE TO FLATS. J. S. Eb was flat. P. where the modulation to the dominant A sharp major' jrings about ten or more sharps— whereas. Jt. «#: iU ^ . m ^^tF j J s^ r ^-^ m3^ E^es ftc=|Ei CO ^ J- &c. p. And it was therefore a matter of xadition rather than an anomaly when Bach and his sons spoke of a Prelude and Fugue " Aus dem Dis" — neaning E FURTHER EXAMPLES OF Organ Choral. Dis. and A this hook attached . D. Ab. — called Dis. Vol. by J.

p. Organ Choral. &c. 19. "O Lamm -ft* ^rwrr^^^ Gottes unschuldig (••^) " (-) T 8157 . " Das touching piece (Adagio.) alte Jahr yergangen ist. Ibid : Last two bars Writteu.j as Nachschlage is correct if treated in the usual way as appoggiaturi.. The melody of this may (tr) be played as follows (original signs in brackets) ''^) ^^^^^-^r^^ ay^rr^r^^ C^) j"bjj-j^ Organ Choral. Ges. if proof were required. the following cacojihany would result— : . : XXV^.— — — Ibid : bar 12 before the end a capital proof. Vol." B. that the above interpretation of the "accents " in bar i.

. F min. B. ^^ . the and shakes stopping on the dot — m f Aria. Bach Ges. 244.. 1 q e^..^ ^^|P'T> b£ s^:^ ^^-^ ^r-r-r-g>g =ti+ ^«i^ ^ Adagio. B. however. use of the dot . Played.^ A bars I and 3. Vol. No.— 197 Inventio IX. ct 1 11 rrr i ii i \ \ \ \=^ r^^^ -f- :f- D B •' min. Vol. I. Written. (or a greater number of re-percussio ns.. proves this interpretation of the ornaments to be.. Adagio. itr#rt.r b---r^^. Played. glance at the variantes. bars 15 and 16. 3-42.. tr . for cembalo and strings. illustrating the appoggiatura from belovif and above. III. pp.. '^r v+^^ =F S ^ ^3^L . bar 13 segue- P H i^ 4 1 Solo. p. Vol. Ges. Violin.f ^^f..!•.-F^irH^ m^ T3tZ3l -t^ ^^^ fWfe^^JLLlU^U^r^I^^^g - r-- S157 . Cantata 109. XXIIL.) tr ^)7iriri^-w^i Concerto. XVII.. fa- ' I i^^d^+^-fir-t^... correct seem to contain Nachschlage. Moderato. . 291-297 {ibid).^ ^££&Zt F^ m &'\I\f\ !g^ Played. Ges. pp.

the solution will he- . bar la. is the shake might be begun with the main note accepted.." B.— — Inventio III. Played. Ges. p. (Praeludium pro organo pleno) . Vol. If C min. ^^ I^n Hfh Jj Written. a Diatonic mordents and Schneller. ^=^ * i^ ^^ui^r i ir^^J rr ^ I f'^^— ^ -p =)- !^ ^^M>-7|r-R s^ m :J r 1 D =^ ::e=F ^ -p-^ f ^ '1^ (* :-r Fughetta super : " Wir glauben all' an einen Gott.. (Cm'). ai6 ^ Itc. . or. III.. p... if the notation of the Bach Ges.. q[-r 3:4: ^ i-tJ -^y^St^r^ J. iJ^'^-aiC^r^p^^'^ 8157 . ugly be avoided- i^^ else. fifths will the shake starts with the accessory note anticipated. III..

5. where Couperin shows he ^aken as a Nachschlae. Peters the notation looks simpler with its tied demisemiquavers instead of dots for a shake with the prefix from below and the closing notes.. slur in bars i and 3 of this Aria. 100.) . . £^ m Fewer <repercussions in the shakes will serve equally well — perhaps better. (Slow. for cembalo with pedals Ornaments as written. {Andante. .. diatonic mordents and turned shake can be approximately expressed thus .— 199 — sign c^^ there stands In the Edit. Goldberg variations. .J=J= ^ *-»hy- ^ ^^ ^ I I Ornaments as played r^ fe-^i^ ^=^ jj I . the The . 9. ^#*:st WF^ ^ ?= eE r i^fefe^ ^ ^ -^ —mS- ^ s ^ ^ J^g^ r r For the t.^ ^^P^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ tK^'J. and similar slurs in the Aria in G. Aria variata alia maniera Italiana.- • j. bars thai.) ii-d^ d *-j ^ \t^ ^ PF . anic. it is to see Couperin's " Accent " ^=d=:p±f|^S 8157 p. ^ ^T^ Wfl^^^^^^g^ &c.

tf r fr^f-^ j^ I H?c: ^>p 3^S g^^t^E^^^ !> . The writer adopts Bischoff's text as the result comparison of the MS.^ iSs molto espressivo ^^f" BTf-f-' ^s 1 1 jL #=^Jstg:? S J ^ ^ ^^ s^ p^r^£crr ^ ^ 8157 c i-rTf^'^ra^ . — —— p..' 5^s i^'-j'--n^^^^ ^ «H8C . Part II. careful ^gg^^d'-^Txg^jq^Jiaifei^ of C sharp min. /»IV les Airs galants " -circa 1700— 1750 . yet characteristic of " Gesell. -r 1 ' . XXXVI.. Vol.. Bach /IV. and Fugues..— 200 Ernst Naumann's edition (Bach Ges.' most part of doubtful authenticity. and plays the first 16 bars thus ±& i5^ES m Andantino. for the viz. and other sources. Prl.. 203) (1890) shows a number of other ornaments^.M/jqr _ ^ CV»v r'T' n prrtr »^^ Prelude.

also Kroll's text as given in the edition of the B. probably because some of the variations appear to be impossible on the pianoforte." p. however. III. et seq. for Aria m:t 30 Veraenderungen. ^^ :*t (--Htj. The mechanical difficulties are. Here and there some ornaments may perhaps Be dispensed with. a summary of J.player and composer for the has been rather neglected by students. Bach's achievements as a clavier. XIV. any. of special fingering and the occasional substitution of one hand for the other.. By the aid. Vol.201 *J*.. and the piece should take its place as one of the principal landmarks in the literature of clavier music.) ^ ^ H^tf^ r r ^ Llj- i *^ ^ ^=t *^ ii-^ ' ^ 'xjgjn ^^ s iE J^^^:* SS: J^si * i>- ^ ^ -^J_ *-«K^Ui-W J. r r- -gg-^ P^ ZE ^ Compare yfG a!: MU of the fr^MzF ^ and if &c. now and then. must be made to correspond in the different sections. 8157 . S. not insuperable. Ges. This great piece. Ges. cembalo with two manuals: B.. in the Peters edition. but omission. 263. the writer has clavier. the " Goldberg Variations.

and of the original edition.g. I. in Grove's Dictionary." by Dr. &c. and good hints f A proof copy with Bach's autograph corrections and a copy as printed are in the Brit.. which must be treated Aria written thus s ( -^^^^^^L^ the C/*w I^ main beats. in one of Anna Magdalena Bach's clavier books. quoted ante. The reproduction of the signs. with a profusion of — manner of contemporary French ctansons and German Lieder." Part IV. 1725. and the edition Peters. both in the edition of the Bach Ges. The correct ornameiit-s and a few The present text of the Aria is that of the Sarabande. Or Air. but he seems to have been puzzled by printer's errors e. Rheinberger.. Vol. in his transcription for two pianofortes. confusion of -fw and /*•>'. for fingering in Bischoff' s edition.* suggestions to facilitate the execution are given below. Fewer re percusiions may ^ and be taken the prolonged shakes. or like the embellishments in the slow movements of Quantz. is inaccurate. " Clavier-uebung.. omits them nearly all. 374J2).: : — 102 succeeded in playing the entire piece without the loss of a note. after the "galant" ornaments. upon which the proof copy in the British Museum throws some light. Hubert H. (Nurnberg. Parry. give iit Played thus Andante grazioso.) <yr s '^jva ^^ ms^ F"^^^ ^1 m ^ =^ :?== ^ mm^^ -^-^ W &s a J i L/ ^ * An exhaustive analysis will be found in the article " Variations. 8157 Mus . fac-simile in Bitter. Strict time as regards take in details.t The Aria is written in a style exceptional with Bach that of an air i la mode. C. Bischoff has consulted the original edition and compared manuscripts.

Nk^:. S^ ^ [» ): fl s^ 15 'p^=^^ J J^|p.J j: ^ 'jty ^ .) J^ g ^^ J- -^^* 1 f.^ -J- . -^ -^-^ I I (*v) ^& J^A ^ .f ?j . .A 203 (or as at bar 3.-j .SI 8157 .rJ -i^.i^^ij:^ ^ =r =^ :C J' — •1 /iii/J'^-i^ =f= > ^ p" -mi "If C*w ^ ^ u>gjjjj J ^ .. ^^^^ • -p-^-l (or as at bar 11.) kh ^.

^ ^ -* S. II.^ ^ ?^t^^^^TT^^[ B-= ^ f P^ JL ^ -^ izS: ^ ^ ^m 5 s^ EiS.. . ^^ of the original edition J.. p. *^^& ^ VAR..<[w. thus i te f=^ 8157 m .jv. /-v /7\ J fT?yT7 ^J3j =i-fT-?^ 35 ^^ The long mordents to the right). (-i^v) 1^^ r ?= Vi* ^ which is the sign for are misrepresented in B. III.e. . Ges. shake with closing notes . 365. . Short mordents as the editions Peters and Bischoff have them are probably intended. to distinguish consistently between long mordents and short . Vol.— — 204 n f 25 (*is f i ^^=r" s^ -^- rr l ffrP'rS — 1^^ ^3=. Bach's " trillo und mordent" i. as A*y (horizontal stroke but the original fails S.m Jlg73-iJ^=^ "T jjw IE i j_Ji£ZX«J *=t*i g . C *JJ J S^ V ^ ''^T] /JTls i =f" -1 -^ sj— j*-^ti_ 4=t s i:j^ i^ i ^ : ^ai^^ ^^ =^=1= -^ 1^^ I -?n .

V.205 VAR. ir ^ li^t J 1 1 1 ^^^ F . Bach's " trillo und mordent ^^' ^^' ^^' ^^' "— Bar.sJf). J. Bischoff rectifies the matter in a note. 17. and B. Ges. '^^^ ^*^"^ '^^ ^""^ '**^ ^^^ blurred in the original and are again misrepresented as mordents in th editions me A-y Peters. §ischoff. Bar ii contains a shake with closing notes {. s. (C*»f) Penultimate bar facilitated.

Bach's Ouverture may be played as follows (original signs in brackets. _ (•»f' * (^^-i (Ow^ . Bach has composed several Ouverture and Partita. Suite (Partita) for flute and strings also in B minor four " Ouvertures" for orchestra. &c. All vorschlage short XIII. Bar 8. and 3 before the end a»v S is signifies a shake. ^^^-^ -^ .e. . a^— i. t—h Ij^rrrffr^ u{o):^/f m it. by the way. but the players were considered at built upon simple progressions in the bass. in B minor. pralltriller throughout. and they did so. XXXI. II. The French Ouverture generally opens with a stately movement in square time Divisions were written out in plain notes. B. — also short mordents and correct. are the first true clavierauszuge. A piece. specimen of the French ouverture as LuUy has . Ges. Signs rather doubtful in the original. "trillo und mordent" Pg^j^jj^ V4R. second part. Peters appears to be in the right or it might be. Bach Ges. Vol. S. — discretion) Grave.. liberty to introduce further ornaments. XIV. The signs for mordents and pralltriller in the Bach Ges. Edit. ouvertures in " Pieces de Clavecin. i r 3.. — — :ou — — VAR. bar 3- and the same in bar 2 of the second part. Clavier-uebung. and of which J. therefore. will appear plain in outline. . yet curiously complex Compare D'Anglebert's transcriptions of Lully's in detail if anything like a complete version on paper is attempted. edition are doubtful." 1689 which transcriptions. Bars 4 XII. the irepercussions of shakes at the player's : " Ouverture " this is a VAR XVIa. and the reverse sign -^w a mcrdent — ' ' r\' '*^ * I ^"""^ ^ r i I 5=^ r ' "^ I: VAR..

207 (Gv^)_ i^)^ (A^.UTM-^ 8157 . ^^fwfg (Uw) (v:) ^.J>JyJJJ.

VAR. Alia breve. ^^P^-^f-=^ VAR. XVII. la. VAR. Bar 6— VAR. 12. Ges. lo. XXII. bars ii and i2- * Or if the B. Bars 9.— — — 208 VAR. Bars 4.. sign (&*) be accepted 8157 1 . according to Bischoff. mordents- Bars II. thus But these passages can be played without much Sixth bar before end difficulty as they stand in the original. XX. XVI6. may be facilitated. XXI. transient shakes. &c.

XXIV. XXIII. not (-v). Jf Time = —tbe dots after quavers in the | time to be taken almost as double dots. when the passage descends the ornament must be reversed i. Shakes in bars 17 and ig to stop op the gth quaver f. 2.— — — 209 VAR. XXVI. should be ignored i. VAR. /W (not) **y. et seq. Bar 3. Bischoff reproduces the original ^*v.-^ — • At a quick pace. Schneller I (/»v). bars i. but recommends short mordents (-^jv). short mordents are best- In the second part. 3. VAR.. Appoggiaturi rather short. XXV. 4. Peters has short mordents. At a moderate pace there is no reason why the original signs as given in the Bach Ges. Edit. Mordents (-»|^). however. Bar 16.e. Bar 9. Schneller in place of mordents. not ('»*f)..e. thus- 8157 . \ f f f (-Uv) Mordents in bar 24 iV^) VAR.

|*v) stands for J. 8. 20. 15. 16 f f f f . r r r r f^ P=F^=U *' * ^'^ -^ 24 END OF PART I. those in bars 23 and 24 ^^ i: &c. Bars 9 and 10 rm^ : the sign ^ (not . Bach's " trillo und mordent " (triller with the closing notes) y r r ^ r Bars 22. 23. 8157 . The turns in bars 7. S. ai. — as in Var. 14. XXVII.— 2IO VAR.

.). SONGS OF THE FOREST. — — — — H. Cloth Gilt. — SONGS Tonic Sol-fa TWENTY-FOUR DUETS and Cont. (Sop. TWENTY-FOUR DUETS and Cont. IRISH MELODIES. Duets . ..... FOSTER. 2/6 cond Set 2/6 E.. TWO-PART SONGS TWO-PART SONGS. THIRTY-FIVE VOCAL DUETS (German and English Words) . FRANZ ABT.. 2/6 DUETS (Sop. SIX TWO-PART SONGS. EIGHTEEN TWO-PART SONGS 2/6 4/6 BATTISON HAYNES..VOCAL DUETS. (Sop.^^. and Cont. and Cont. . . THIRTEEN i. 2/6 2/6 . H... For Solo Voices (or Female Chorus) 2/6 Threepence each.. B. C.) 0/8 — — 4/0 Book 2 .. Six Two-part Songs Singly.) ...... 1/0 — — — SIX DUETS E. FORD. SIX SCHUMANN... MOORE.. "^t 2/0 TWO-PART 1/0 Book i ^/6 (Sop. EWER AND CO.. SIX TWO-PART SONGS 2/6 CARL REINECKE.) 2/6 DANNREUTHER.. 2/6 — THIRTEEN SONGS TWO-PART Folio 2/6 STERNDALE BENNETT. 1/0 CHARLES WOOD. — TWELVE CANONS Two(for MYLES SIX TWO-PART Singly. and Cant. LONDON & NEW YORK: NOVELLO.. RUBINSTEIN. THIRTEEN TWO-PART 1/0 — — — SONGS (German and English) 2/0 COWEN. SIX DUETS (Sop. NINE SACRED DUETS 2/6 — OLIVER KING.. MENDELSSOHN. Se. . . — — Solo Voices) — Threepence each. FOUR SACRED DUETS F. (Sop. and Cont.) SMART. ... Paper Cover.. part Female Chorus or Two 1/6 SIX TWO-PART SONGS 1/0 1/0 ANTHEMS .. 2/6 — — JOHN KINROSS.) SIX TWO-PART SONGS . FIVE TWO-PART SONGS 2/6 SIX SIX GIRO PINSUTI.

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. Transcribed by B...—" Elijah. =^16.— Forest Pieces (Op. Op. . SIEGFRIED JACOBY. 10... Tours.. the Violin.." Nine Transby B. (Transcribed) . Pieces (Barcarola and Villanella). 3.. *i... Saltarello No... Benedictus (from the above) „ Arranged for „ Orchestra. . W. Twelve .. 3. Four Marches. 2 6 BERTHOLD TOURS.. . 21... ARCANGELO CORELLL Six Trios. or Pianoforte...... Cornelius March.— Ten With Accompaniment ... GURLITT. Benedictus No. . Melodies (expressly written to be used in connection with the Author's . . GOUNOD.—Four Violoncello . by A.. VARIOUS COMPOSERS. 3 2 2 2 6 6 *i4. 18.. Twelve ARCANGELO CORELLI.. . 2 2 »i2. 4. War March of the Priests No. . DoLMETSCH.. DoLMETSCH. Marks of Expression. CH." Transcriptions by B.. Arrange- . EWER AND CO. 2 2 6 SIEGFRIED JACOBY. 11...— Fourteen Pieces 2 2 . Pieces for Pianoforte Accom.. 3 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 20.. Tours ARNOLD DOLMETSCH. Tours *4. ..... *6. VARIOUS COMPOSERS. JOACHIM RAFF. . 2 2 2 6 6 6 22. — Six Morceaux de Salon .. 8. For Two Violins Twelve CORELLI... — 6 27. Tours *S. d.. for Violin with Pianoforte Accompaniment . Bowing... 18 o Zingaresca (from the above) . Tema con Variazioni ... Accompaniment by A.Hungarian Dances.. 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 H.. i. Funeral . .— Six With . 23. . — s. Golden Legend... NOVELLO'S VIOLIN & PIANOFORTE ALBUMS... Edited and the Pianoforte 2 6 *3- MENDELSSOHN. .. Berceuse No. No. No. DoLMETSCH The by 6 . . F. . s.. J. DAVID..—Eight Pieces I. KATE RALPH. d. 29. net ment for Violin and Pianoforte net 6 Orchestral Parts . Pianoforte Accompaniment A.. i o 19. . OLIVER KING.. VARIOUS COMPOSERS. „ „ JOSEPH NE§VERA.. d.. POZNANSKL—Ten DE B^RIOT. B.. . Edited II. Tours 2 2 — 6 25.— Six Pieces . — Six "The *24. ARTHUR SULLIVAN. Edited 3 MULLER.... Easy Pieces . 2 6 * These Albums may also he had arranged for s. Ten . Six Sonatas. Zingaresca No... .. 9) ETHEL M. 2 Sonatas.. Morceaux de Salon..— " Mors et Vita. and Fingering by Arnold Dolmetsch 30. IPPOLITO RAGGHIANTI.. Wedding March No. March *2. *9.. 32... H. ROSALIND Pieces F... 4.. Book I. and Pianoforte *A. 5 2 2 — Suite for Violin Solo. Fourteen by A... * 1 5. 28. HENRY PURCELL. 6.. Melodies. 47. For Two Violins and Violoncello.— Eight The Pieces .. In Two Two Books.. ..... Gavotte No. .— Seven Pieces Pieces 31. or as Quartets.— Six Characteristic Pieces. 2. C. 5.— Five Pieces VIEUXTEMPS.. *i3- In Books. with Violoncello and Pianoforte. 3 6 o Pibroch. C.. BATTISON Sketches HAYNES.. 2... No.— Twelve Pieces . HANDEL.. . DolMETSCH . No.. net 3 Romance (from the above) .." Ten . Pieces.. ARCANGELO Sonatas. I.—Twelve Pieces . ELLICOTT. Op. Eight (Arranged) Pianoforte Accompaniment. 26. s." Nine Transcriptions by B... SIEGFRIED National Book JACOBY. — " Redemption. 2..— Six Pieces for Violin.. net 6 o 5 3 C. Full Score Orchestral Parts 47. A. i...—Thirty Violin Primer) . MENDELSSOHN. 7. . ..— Thirteen Pieces . HAAKMAN. . Two paniment. ^Twelve Characteristic Pieces . With Pianoforte Accompaniment Highland Ballad... Pieces. „ 20 4 o LONDON & NEW YORK: NOVELLO.. No.... ERNST... 26 3 17. — Twelve GOUNOD.. d .. Transcriptions by B. MACKENZIE.. Nine . . . . BOYCE. Violin. MACKENZIE— coMfi?iMe«?. criptions . Pieces for Pianoforte . for Violin with Pianoiforte Accompaniment.

. Op. cloth C major. paper cover. 37.. major. in Eb major F minor o 5 3 2 3 o o o 6 o 6 D o o o o 35. . 2. 4. 21. 345- F major. Op. 36. 109 Ab major. 10. Op. 3 6 4 C G 6 3 O O C O Eb itiajor. i (Quasi Eb A O o o o o o o o o o o o ig. Fantasia) C|! minor. D major.. PRICE ONE GUINEA. i. 26 Ep major. Op. handsomely bound in cloth. E|7 major. 27. In One Volume. 81A E minor. 11. No. 5s. ftiajor. 49. 32. in One Volume. Op. 79 26. 33. Op. A major . Octavo Edition. Or Singly:— No. Op. i G major. 7 C minor. A C minor. major. PRICE EIGHTEEN SHILLINGS. 31. loi Bb major. 14. 30. D major C G F major major major 2 I 2 The Separate Sonatas sold at Half-price.. Op. G major. Op. 2 Bb major... 7s.. gilt edges. 910. Op. No. gilt. C major C major . 27. 2. 12.. 54 minor. 49. No. No. Op. js. C F F major.. Op.. Op. 3 o E major.. Op. 22. No. gilt edges. 31.. d. No. 24.. 6. No. No. 2. 2.. 2. . Op. 10. Op. Op.) EDITED AND FINGERED BV AGNES ZIMMERMANN. No. in cloth. 31. 2 P major. Op. Op. handsomely bound . No.. no C minor. cloth gilt. Op. i No. 2 (Quasi Fantasia) majoi.. . 9. 57 23. Or Singly:— No. 18. 53 major. 7. D major. F 2. B 7 major Ep major 6. 2 No. 16. Octavo Edition. Op.2. 3 5. Op. 15.. Folio size. Op.) EDITED AND FINGERED BY AGNES ZIMMERMANN. Op. MOZART'S SONATAS (NEW AND COMPLETE EDITION. 14. io6(HammercIavier) 3 5 5 S o o o o 10 5 5 14. 90 A major. A minor. Op. D minor.. Op. 31. i.. 13 (Path6tjque) E major. 28 G major. G major. 7. 20. i F major. Folio size.. II.. No. Op. 27. 34. 6d. 3 C minor. paper cover. G major. No.. 38. 8. 3. Op. 17. 13. 3s. 10. d.... No. I. Op. 29. Op. Op. G minor. 78 25. 28. 10. 8. 22 ? major. No 1. Ff major..BEETHOVEN'S SONATAS (NEW AND COMPLETE EDITION. Op. .