HISTORY OF THE MIRABAL SISTERS

Patria Mercedes Mirabal (February 27, 1924 – November 25, 1960), Bélgica Adela "Dedé" Mirabal-Reyes (March 1, 1925 – present), María Argentina Minerva Mirabal (March 12, 1926 – November 25, 1960) and Antonia María Teresa Mirabal (October 15, 1936 – November 25, 1960) were citizens of the Dominican Republic who fervently opposed the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo. Dedé Mirabal was not assassinated and has lived to tell the stories of the death of her sisters. As of 2010, Dedé lives in Salcedo, Dominican Republic in the house where the sisters were born. She works to preserve her sisters' memory through the Museo Hermanas Mirabal which is also located in Salcedo and was home to the women for the final ten months of their lives. She published a book, Vivas en su Jardín, released on August 25, 2009. The Mirabal women grew up in an upper class, well-cultured environment. Their father was a farmer. All became married family women. Influenced by her uncle, Minerva became more involved in the anti-Trujillo movement. She studied law and became a lawyer, but because she declined Trujillo's romantic advances, he ordered that while she would be issued a degree she was not to receive her practitioner's license. Her sisters followed suit, and they eventually formed a group of opponents to the Trujillo regime, known as the Movement of the Fourteenth of June. Within that group, they were known as "The Butterflies" (Las Mariposas in Spanish) because that was the underground name that Minerva was given. Two of the sisters, María Argentina Minerva Mirabal and Antonia María Teresa Mirabal, were incarcerated and tortured on several occasions. Three of the sisters' husbands were incarcerated at La Victoria Penitentiary in Santo Domingo. Despite these setbacks, they persisted in fighting to end Trujillo's leadership. After the sisters' numerous imprisonments, Trujillo was blamed for their murders, but this is now being questioned but for Trujillo´s family. During an interview after Trujillo's assassination, General Pupo Roman claimed to have personal knowledge that they were killed by two men, Victor Alicinio and Pena Rivera, who were Trujillo’s own right hand men. Ciriaco de la Rosa, Ramon Emilio Rojas, Alfonso Cruz Vlaeria and Emilio Estrada Malleta were all members of his secret police force There is a question as to whether the Secret Police acted under a direct order or on their own initiative. Never Trujillo let a direct shadow of his hands in all the crime´s of his dictator ship. Mr. Virgilio Pina Chevalier (Don Cucho), Trujillo´s family and intimate collaborator, says on page 151 of his book "La era de Trujillo. Narraciones de Don Cucho." (2008) that Trujillo refers Mirabal´s fact as an event so far of him. "But we know orders of this nature could not come from any authority lower than the national empire. That was no other one than the same Trujillo and much less to take place without his assent." In June 1962, began the trial against the accused and accomplices in the murder of the Mirabal sisters and their driver Rufino de la Cruz. In the dock were seated the perpetrators of the crime Quad, Ciriaco de la Rosa Valerio Alfonso Cruz, Emilio Estrada Malleta, Ramon Emilio Lora and Nestor Rojas Antonio Perez. As accomplices were tried Sandito Almonte, Candido Torres Tejada (absent in the trial), Chief Operations Military Intelligence Service in the Central station in Ciudad Trujillo, Victor Peña Alicinio Rivera, head of operations in the Cibao SIM, Silvio Antonio GomezSantana, Viterbo Alvarez (Pechito), Pedro Pena and David Ortiz Olivero. Judge Dr. Osvaldo B. Soto, presiding over the special court. The prosecutor was Attorney James Dr. Rafael Benitez, while the civil party was represented by Dr. Hector Sanchez

International Human Rights Day. a fictionalized account of the lives of the Mirabal sisters. separated all the victims to witness the execution of each. the real-life surviving sister. Dominican-American author Julia Álvarez published her novel In the Time of the Butterflies. Edward James Olmos as Trujillo. but could not. they had to give a reliable report to their superiors. I do not want to cheat justice or the people. That is the truth of the case. because otherwise we would have paid them all. Complied with the order on the spot and took one of them. the long braids (Maria Theresa). Actress Michelle Rodriguez acted in the film adaptation of the true story of the sisters called Trópico de Sangre. Chilean filmmaker Cecilia Domeyko produced Code Name: Butterflies. Francisco Martinez Carvajal. Vasquez Fernandez. drove to the chosen site where Rojas ordered him to take sticks and Lora will take one of the girls. The novel was adapted into the 2001 movie In the Time of the Butterflies. The sisters are mentioned in The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao (2007) by Dominican-American novelist Junot Díaz. Cruz Alfonso Valerio chose the highest (Minerva). The sisters are mentioned in Mario Vargas Llosa's The Feast of the Goat. but never actually met. These statements were contradicted soon after the discovery that the crime actually occurred in the grounds of the house in The Summit. starring Salma Hayek as Minerva.Morcelo. Antonio Guzman and Miguel A. 1999. I ordered everyone to be interned in a cane field beside the road. Ciriaco de la Rosa revealed during the trial following the murder the following: After apresarlas. In 1994. I ordered Perez Terrero to stay on the road to see if a vehicle approaching or someone who could hear the case. participated in the development of the film. I tried to avert disaster. a documentary that tells the real-life story of the Mirabal sisters. as Rivera Peña wanted to see the bodies with their own eyes before ordering throw off the cliff. and after the help of military groups were provided with passports Trujillo and removed from the Dominican Republic. and singer Marc Anthony in a supporting role. The end of the 16 Days is December 10. the United Nations General Assembly designated November 25 (the anniversary of the murder of the Mirabal sisters) as the annual date for the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women in commemoration of the sisters. The defense lawyer of the accused was the public defender Hector Baron Goico. On December 17. . It contains interviews with Dedé Mirabal and other Dominican members of the Mirabal family. Ramon Pina Acevedo. The court convicted the main accused to the maximum sentence of 30 years. The story is fictionalized in the children's book How the Butterflies Grew Their Wings by Jacob Kushner. They are also printed on the front of the 200 dominican pesos bill. I chose the shorter and chubby (Motherland) and Malleta. the driver. Rufino de la Cruz. Rodriguez plays Minerva Mirabal and also co-produced the film. This day also marks the beginning of the 16 days of Activism against Gender Violence. Dedé Mirabal. except that Ciriaco de la Rosa was an unusual sentenced to only 20 years for allegedly collaborating with the clarification of the crime.

of which seven were in his body. Your spiritual children. which was most remembered: It . but not killed. at the request of their families. interest in ending Trujillo was due to the repression of his government could bring a revolution to the Dominican Republic. claiming that the weapons were delivered by him to a Dominican. we will look to your grave as a symbol and not omit upright means to prevent the extinction of the flame that you lit on the altars of the Republic and in the soul of all Dominicans. issued by Stocker family and people you trust. his driver Zachary Cross received several hits. because the alleged lack of an explicit authorization of the CIA for delivery. . located on a site on the south side of Independence Avenue.Dear Boss. but the executioners left him for dead. citing his moral conviction. The CIA supplied weapons had been hidden by the U. veterans of the campaigns that have delivered for over 30 years. near Home Maximo Gomez Avenue. Some analysts mention that the U.Assassination of Trujillo On Tuesday May 30. after having hidden in your house for about three months. Kitts in the 1950's. Currently Trujillo's remains found in a cemetery in the small community of El Pardo. cemetery which is well below the characteristics of the other cemeteries in Madrid. similar to the Cuban revolution. Antonio de la Maza. Roberto Pastoriza. There was talk of moving the remains of Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. personal risk and your family. where his body was buried. since demolished. Tio Luis Amiama. 1961. Amado Garcia Guerrero. and a tomb that probably does not resemble in nothing to that built by the dictator in his native St. killing him.. Some said that such weapons never reached the hands of the organizers of the assassination of the dictator. this version was denied by the sole survivor of the execution. contacted by the CIA under the code name of "Hector" and living in the Dominican Republic since 1942. inside a small closet in his study at his private residence. After this. The weapons were hidden for more than two months. fundamental consequence of total rejection of the Cuban people's dictatorial government President Fulgencio Batista.S. at 9:45 pm. confirmed his account of truth . Most people strongly opposed this idea. the car he was traveling in Trujillo was shot in an ambush plotted by Modesto Diaz. 25 minutes from Madrid in Spain.S. In 2009 there was much controversy in the Dominican Republic in the 48 th anniversary of his death." but were captured. However. Stocker refused the pay of the CIA for their efforts. Trujillo was buried in Paris in the Père-Lachaise Cemetery. held on 2 June of that year was that of a statesman with a long procession from the National Palace to the town of San Cristobal. Thousands of people from all walks of life filed past the coffin containing the remains of Trujillo. The then President Joaquin Balaguer gave the eulogy. so Ramfis Trujillo had to take the body of his father's country. This view was contradicted by testimony orally. Juan Tomas Diaz. at km 9 on the road from Santo Domingo to San Cristobal. Pedro Livio Cedeno and Huascar Tejeda. the people voted for the Trujillo family to come out of the country. Simon Thomas Stocker. The time is ripe for swear on the relics dear to defend his memory and we will be faithful to their slogans maintaining unity. goodbye. General Imbert Barrera. His funeral.. Manuel Caceres Michel ("Tunti"). Received more than 60 bullet holes of various sizes. specifically with national heroes. Antonio Imbert Barrera. The family tried to flee with the body of Trujillo on his boat "Angelita. Salvador EstrellaSadhala.

On November 18. Jose Rene Roman Fernandez("Pupo") who served as secretary of the armed forces of the dictatorship. Ramfis was the favorite son of Trujillo and from the beginningextremely spoiled to the point k was appointed general of thenational army barely four years old. looking for the perpetrators. On June 2. where they were shot by order of Ramfis Trujillo. international pressure. . Soon after. as it was found that this was linked to the assassination of Trujillo. LuisSalvador Estrella Sadhala. Modesto Diaz Quezada. 1961 SIM agents stormed the home of LieutenantAmado Garcia Guerrero where he was killed by several gunshotsfrom machine guns. The Military Intelligence Service (MIS) and all state security services carried out extensive raids in all sectors of the city. who was in Paris. In fact theCiando dies trujillo was in paris and return immediately but had neither the will nor the cunning necessary to lace up his father. On June 10. rented a plane and returned to SantoDomingo in the early hours of Wednesday 31 May. Although distinguishable in sports like polo and motor racing was not a serious student and even came to be expelled from WestPoint Military Academy for his poor performance and misconductthat I preferred the worldly life and training compos classrooms. Ramfis and his family left the country.was arrested and tortured Gen. Rafael RobertoPastoriza were captured Neret. excesses were maybe this whatshaped his character. Pedro Livio Cedeno Herrera. Juan Tomas Diaz and Antonio de la Maza.Several hours after the death of Rafael Trujillo. On June 4 of that year were killed two othersinvolved. had a very close circle of friendsand trusted secrets to anyone outside this circle. I fail to have neither the character nor the strength of his father andeven became general joint force land sea and air (the air force was their darling) showed no intention to continue the reign of his father and that seemed like most of the life of extravagance and pleasureabroad to take responsibility for continued tyranny. his son RamfisTrujillo. placingimmediately in front of the situation and becoming the country's strongman. He was a bit quiet and talkative. HuascarTejeda Antonio Pimentel and Manuel Caceres Luis Michel ("Tunti"). although Joaquin Balaguer was formally in charge of thepresidency.They were taken to the "Hacienda Maria" in San Cristobal.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful