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Movie Marketing: The Current Trend.

Does Movie Marketing contribute to the success of the movie or its just a current trend?

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ABSTRACT

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SR.NO 1 PARTICULARS THE CURRENT INDIAN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY SCENARIO PAGE NO

MARKETING OF MOVIES

MARKETING MIX & MOVIES

STAGES IN MOVIE MAKING

MOVIES FINANCING

METHODS OF MARKETING A MOVIE

MARKETING STRATEGIES OF HOLLYWOOD IN INDIA

PROMOTION STRATEGY OF VARIOUS MOVIES

PRODUCT PLACEMENT IN MOVIES

CINEMA IN INDIA IS LIKE BRUSHING YOUR TEETH IN THE MORNING. YOU CAN'T ESCAPE IT-SHAHRUKH KHAN

MARKETING OF A MOVIE IS AS CRITICAL AS THAT OF A BRAND-SANDEEP BHARGAVA,


CEO, STUDIO 18

TREAT MOVIES AS BRANDS-RONNIE SCREWWALA, UTV MOVIES MOVIE MARKETING IS MORE THAN BUZZ . JUST LIKE A CHARACTER IS MORE THAN DIALOG!

NEGLECT MARKETING AND A GOOD FILM MAY LOSE OUT.

1) THE CURRENT INDIAN FILM INDUSTRY SCENARIO

1.1 Introduction

The film industry is estimated at Rs 96 billion in 2007, up from Rs 85 billion in 2006. In the last four years 2004-07 the industry has grown 17% on an overall basis. It is projected to grow by 13% over the next five years, reaching to Rs 176 billion in 2012, nearly double its present size. The domestic box office segment is expected to grow at 11% cumulatively over the next five years to reach estimated Rs 123 billion in 2012 from the present size of Rs 72 billion. Increase in the average ticket prices will be the primary contributor to this growth. Currently, 3.25 billion tickets were sold in India in 2007. The overseas collections are estimated to grow cumulatively at 19% over the next five years to reach Rs 20 billion in 2012 from a current size of Rs 8.5 billion in 2007. This would be mainly due to increased marketing and selling efforts internationally, distribution muscle and growing popularity of Indian content abroad.

"Films" has been one of the integral components of the Indian entertainment industry contributing nearly 27% of the total revenues of the entertainment industry. Besides, films also contribute to other components of the entertainment industry like music, television and live entertainment.

The Indian film industry is one of the most complex and fragmented national film industries in the world comprising of a number of regional film industries like Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and others. The Hindi film industry is the most popular among them. Though India produces the largest number of films in the world (Approximately 1000 per year), it accounts for only 1% of the global film industry revenues. In spite of being over 90 years old, the Indian film industry was accorded the status of industry only in 2000.

Over the years, the Indian film industry has been highly unorganized as film financing was dependant on private and individual financing at extremely high interest rates. Only recently, the industry has got access to organized finance. With vertical integration taking place between producers, distributors, exhibitors, broadcasters and music companys corporatization is now taking shape in the Indian film industry. Corporatization will bring about transparency, accountability and consolidation which will help to improve the overall profitability of the Indian film industry as well as reduce piracy and leakages which presently account for 14% of the Indian film industry's revenues.

1.2 Components of the Indian film industry

The Indian film industry comprises of a cluster of regional film industries, like Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali, etc. This makes it one of the most complex and fragmented national film industries in the world. These regional language films compete with each other in certain market segments and enjoy a virtual monopoly in certain others. The most popular among them is the Hindi film industry located in Mumbai, popularly referred to as Bollywood.

a) Bollywood

Out of the 200 Hindi films made in India each year, around 150 are made in Bollywood. These Bollywood films are released throughout India on both big and small screen formats, with several of them being screened overseas as well. Though there have been instances of regional films, enjoying a national release or even an overseas release, virtually all films having a national audience, are made in Bollywood. It accounts for over 40 percent of the total revenues of the overall Indian film industry, which is currently estimated at INR 59 billion. It is estimated that only INR 50 billion finds its way to the industry reserves, with the balance INR 9 billion being cornered by pirates.

b) Regional Films

The major regional film industries are Tamil and Telugu, which together earn around INR 15 billion, followed by Malayalam, Bengali and Punjabi. With increased viewer exposure to a plethora of entertainment options on satellite television, the number of regional films produced annually has fallen from around 800, three years ago, to around 650 currently.

c) English Films

Big budget Hollywood films are beginning to make a mark, with their dubbed versions making inroads into the semi-urban and rural markets. On a cumulative basis, box office collections of foreign films grew in both revenues and number of releases, from INR 1 .5 billion from 60 films in 2007 to INR 1 .8 billion for 72 films in 2008.-update?

1.3 Multiplex Trend

Over the last few years, multiplexes have emerged as a trend in urban India. "Multiplexes" are essentially cinemas with 3 or more screens. They provide a quality viewing experience and are generally located around shopping malls to increase footfalls in these malls. Each screen in a multiplex has small seating capacities in the range of 150-300 seats as compared to single screen cinemas which have capacities in the range of 800-1,200 seats. With around 11500 active screens, India is under screened. China, which produces far lesser films than India has 65,000 screens while the US has 36,000. Indias screen density stands low at 12 screens per million populations. There is a need of at least 20,000 screens as against the current 11500. This gives multiplex operators enough room to grow as the traditional single-screen theatres do not have the financial wherewithal nor do they enjoy tax incentives.

However the number of multiplexes has shown considerable growth from 340 in 2005 to 850 in 2009 and is expected to go above 1000 by 2011. Five years ago, Iqbal or even Page 3 for that matter, would have found it very difficult to get released. Such 'off beat' movies were shunned by distributors and theatre owners because they did not attract the 'front row' crowds. Not any more. A multiplex revolution in urban India has changed it all for Bollywood. Says Ajay Bijli, who runs the PVR chain of multiplex cinemas: "The multiplex has completely redefined the business of distribution and allowed a variety of movies to taste success".

Another big advantage for multiplex cinemas is their proximity to shopping malls. Most multiplex cinemas globally have been located in shopping malls that already attract urban consumers. Many shoppers and window shoppers routinely visit shopping malls, and end up watching a movie in the multiplex.

1.4 Corporatization

The Indian film industry is biting the bait of corporatization and attempting to professionalise itself- Ravimohan, Crisil

The Film Industry on the whole has always worked like small scale industries in the unorganized sector. For over five decades of its existence, the industry did not produce any Corporate Entity worth its name.

Amitabh Bachchan who promoted Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Limited (ABCL) took the lead towards Corporatization of film industry in India. Though still an unlisted company with shareholders and whatever its fate may be, ABCL set the example for others in film industry, that things can be done in a little more organized way.

In 2000-01, film making business was given the much awaited industry status. It gradually moved towards adopting the best practices from other industry counterparts. Many corporates entered the industry and started making movies as products and started treating them as projects. They bought increased level of professionalism and transparency in the business of film making. Some of the players even integrated both forwardly and backwardly and diversified to generate new revenue streams for movies. Corporatization laid emphasis on costs, revenues, profits and pricing and this changed the entire process of film making.

Scores of film producers, financers, distributors and associates, have now converted their businesses into Companies under law. Some have already raised capital from the public and are now listed at major stock exchanges, while several others propose to do the same.Besides Zee Telefilms, some others who have successfully corporatized includes Jitendra promoted Balaji Telefilms, SriAdhikari Brothers, RPGs Saregama, Pritish Nandy Communications and Subhash Ghais Mukta Arts.

It was only after 2004 that the film industry woke up, the corporate spotted an opportunity in this business and the rules of the game changed. Contracts came in to the picture. Stars began reporting on locations in time not because some underworld don was arm-twisting them, but because it was written into their contracts. Films started to have completion bond certificates with the guarantees and financiers because of which films started getting completed on time and went on floor timely. Thus, gradually in a matter of only a few years, filmmaking in India has changed rapidly and even started to move in the Hollywood style of film making.

1.5 Changing financing options

The journey from an Unorganised Sector to a Corporate Industry status has changed many paradigms for the Hindi Film Industry.The financing options have gone under favourable change. According to a Yes Bank report, over 38 per cent Hindi films in 2004 were financed through non-traditional sources (debt, IPO, private and individual equity, companies, TV broadcasters) compared to only 10 per cent two years before that. As much as Rs 256 crore (Rs 2.56 billion) was disbursed through these sources to the film industry in that year. From the Industrial Development Bank of India and Exim Bank to Yes Bank, they're all queuing up to lend money to the entertainment sector.30 Exim Bank, for instance, offers loans at 8-10 per cent interest provided the film has export potential. IDBI's credit line for films is available for 10-15 per cent, to be paid before the film is released. Yes Bank had sanctioned a Rs 5 crore (Rs 50 million) loan to Pritish Nandy Communications

Some production companies have used the buoyant IPO route to fund films. One such company is PNC (Pritish Nandy Communications) which raised Rs 38 crore (Rs 380 million) from its IPO of which Rs 23 crore (Rs 230 million) was used to finance films across various genres. The company is now raising $12 million through convertible debenture, and the cash will be used to de-risk its movie-making portfolio. The money would help them increase the number of films they make each year from three to at least eight. Corporate houses that are jumping into the entertainment fray are also showing their financial muscle. Aditya Birla's Applause Entertainment is able to borrow money from group companies at rates lower than even banks. Adlabs had earmarked a revolving fund of Rs 60 crore (Rs 600 million) to finance films. The company is tying up directors in long-term contracts to make films for the company.

1.6 Changing Movie Making Business & Recent Trends in Hindi Film Industry

No longer the release of movies (whether big or small budget) on Fridays sends jitters through the film producers and they are presumably less worried than before. Thanks to the changing practices and economics of film making, production houses have been able to reduce their dependence on the box office. Today, movie studios like Yash Raj Films can afford to detach itself from the fortunes of its film because chances are whatever the fate of the film at the box office; it'll end up making money anyway. For instance a movie like Tashan which bombed at the box office was actually a profitable venture for Yash Raj movies. Made on a budget of Rs 30 crore, additional Rs 7 crore was pumped in for publicity and making prints. The film managed a decent opening due to the extensive publicity and star appeal and collected Rs 27 crore from domestic and around Rs 5 crore from overseas territories totaling 32 crore from the Box office itself. Now add to it satellite rights, music, Home video rights and other rights, you have a money spinner in your hands. And the phrase "bombed at the BO" became redundant because, whether they ran or not, chances are that everything from Kismat Konnection to the ill-fated Karzzz, made at least enough money to recover their investments.

Animation films have not been the forte of the Indian film producers thus far, recent successes of some films have encouraged producers and distributors to view the genre differently. Also, the coming in of international animation films on VCD and DVD and also its increasing broadcast on Cartoon Network and other animation channels, have made players more hopeful. According to P Jayakumar, CEO, Toonz Animation India, the global entertainment industry is worth $70 billion and animation is worth $37 billion, but in India the pie is very small. Nevertheless, it is a burgeoning industry, he reckoned.

Averred Jayakumar, We feel that at least 65-70 per cent of the airtime on kids channels should be dedicated to the desi content and for which regulations need to put in place. These and similar other initiatives will considerably boost the growth of the Indian animation industry. Hanuman did meet with reasonable success in the last year. The success of the movie boosted the potential for the marketing of films in the genre of animation

1.7 Recession and its impact on Movies

Bollywood is feeling the heat of the global economic meltdown. Till recently whopping budgets, big productions and skyrocketing star prices were the norm. But now top producers and senior film executives feel that the Hindi film industry was living on excess and the ongoing financial crisis highlights the need to control spending.

Producer Pritish Nandy maintains that these tough times will initiate smart sizing. "Spiralling star fees and astronomical movie budgets are hurting the industry. This will come down. The financial crisis could also bring back good sense, respect for the craft of filmmaking and restore focus on creative issues in Bollywood," says Pritish Nandy,PN

The film costs were flying through the roof. In Drona, the special effects and the cost of creating the entire paraphernalia of the villain Ritz alone reached a reportedly whopping Rs 22 crore. This included hiring a castle in Prague that served as the villain's den and re-creating its interiors in Mumbai's Film City.

The current liquidity crunch resulted in bursting the bubble of overbidding for big projects, normally sold for double the returns. Even a middle budget film, Kidnap, was reportedly bought for a huge Rs 36 crore by Indian Films Company.

In order to deal with the recession stars need to be paid what they are worth, but if successive projects turn unviable then their prices have to be reviewed. The fees of top stars and the cost of the film budget cannot be more than the business potential of a movie in terms of theatrical collections and sale of rights. Internationally the talent cost is about 15-20% of the movie's budget. In India, it is between 40-60% for some movies," says Rajesh Sawhney, president, Reliance Big Entertainment.

The industry hopes that the current economic situation will force the producers and stars to work together and correct this anomaly of film budgets as it needs to look at extraordinary cost consciousness because the consumer does not have enough money to throw around. They need quality and will successfully reject films which are not qualitative.

2. STAGES IN MOVIE MAKING

This overview is required to understand the exact motivation behind the promotion and publicity of a movie.

In general the movie making business can be summarized as follows:

The scriptwriter or director or a producer comes up with a concept. The producer tells the scriptwriter to create a script based on this concept. The producer then officially hires his core team of director, scriptwriter, music director, lyricist, editor, cinematographer and choreographers. The cast for the film is decided based on the requirement of the script. This process is called casting. Location hunting is done for shooting the film. The director gives an estimated budget and schedule to the producer for the film shooting. The producer arranges finances from financers based on this budget. The film is shot. The completed film is processed in studios and the film is finally ready for release.

At this stage the publicity and promotion phase of the movie begins for the producer. The main aim of the producer is to sell his movie at a high price to a distributor. India is a vast country and the market has conventionally been divided in 9 territories by the distributors. A distributor from each territory buys the rights to distribute the film to the theatre owners in his territories. To get a high price from the distributors, the producers publicize the film in order to pull crowds to the theatres. The distributors buy the movie at a price suitable for their territory. The distributors estimate how the film could work in their territory based on the pre-release promotion of the film and the past record of the people associated with the film (For example, the banner, the director and actors). If the music of the film has done well in the market, the producer definitely gets a higher price from the distributors.

Before the release, the producers share some information of the movie to the distributors through trade guides. The trade guides give the distributors an idea about what the theme of the movie is, how the movie is being promoted, does the theme suit their territory, what theatres in their territory would be ready to screen this movie etc. The distributors compare different trade guides and decide which movie they want to buy. The distributors then release the movie prints to theatres. The distributors and theatre owners get money through the ticket sales. Producers also get a percentage share from the ticket sales.

Concept & Script


Core Team, Casting & Location Hunting Budget Estimation & Pre/Post Production Publicity,Promotion & Marketing Distribution

Stages in Film Making

3. MARKETING OF MOVIES

3.1 Introduction

Cinema is a product as well as a medium. It is a great medium of entertainment. Therefore, cinema the product becomes relatively easier to promote.

Bollywood produces about a thousand films a year, is ranked as the second largest movie industry in the world and forms a very major part of the Indian film industry that FICCI projects as a Rs 10,000-crore industry in a few years time. The Indian film industry has been going through a sea change in its attitude. Multiplexes are fast dotting up the metros and are slowly realizing the potential of even the smaller areas. Today, there are far more avenues to make money out of a movie than just its box office earnings. DVD releases, music launch, merchandise, overseas distribution rights etc all form a part of the earnings. This has been a slow process which has taken off only recently.

For a long time, producers had been inconsequential in the marketing of films to consumers, which often resulted in many good films failing to do well. But with the entry of satellite TV and foreign films into the domestic Indian entertainment market, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the Bollywood films to earn the numbers it used to. Also, with the industry's international profile getting a boost, a number of Bollywood production companies have started taking marketing of their seriously.

At its core, a movie is just a concept and its marketing is akin to being a prototype of the concept. The movie promos and publicity try to form an 'image or perceived quality' of the movie in the minds of the consumer. It tries to convey to the consumer, what sort of quality and attributes the movie will have. Here, it competes with prototypes of other movies in the customer's mind space and in the process hopes to sell the product in the future by extracting a 'promise to buy'. The function of marketing is not that of simply 'launching' the film, although the launch plan is very crucial. A well developed research, marketing and feedback system can be beneficial to a film throughout the entire process from generation of ideas to post release period of the movie.

Movies are the cultural index of the society which reflect the neo-emerging trends. A movie no longer conveys the message to the audience unless it is presented in an innovative fashion. Movies to move the audience have to be marketed competently with effective promotion, proper distribution channels, state-of-the-art facilities and so on. The channels of communication are explored to launch the film in the most effective manner.

Movies Marketing has become very sophisticated. The earlier approach, the noisy marketing that bombarded audiences with television and print ads, is pass. Today movie marketing consists of promos, public appearances of the starcast,

interviews,teasers,merchandise,marketing through mobile, internet etc

3.2 Importance of marketing

Ghajini, because of its marketing, had the biggest opening weekend that Bollywood has ever seen
-Sandeep Bhargava, CEO, Studio 18

Movies should evolve as brands to provide multiple revenue opportunities- Ronnie Screwwala,UTV CEO

For a longer shelf place in today's times, marketing is very essential. The marketing and publicity campaigns are only tools to reach out to the masses Otherwise audiences won't go to the theatres and the movie could be thrown out in the first week itself. Marketing is your movie's character development Filmmaker Mahesh Bhatt is of the opinion that movie marketing, though it had always been there, has become more aggressive now . "Marketing has always been there in Bollywood. It has been the lifeblood of the industry. Now there is a different approach. Now it has got more aggressive," says Mahesh Bhatt. There are other reasons too, that define this change of approach which are as follows: Movies have become extremely perishable. With week after week of films for the exhibitor to

choose from, the ability to draw in the crowds in the first weekend has become a crucial determinant of a

films fate. The big money involved, target groups & multiplex boom Movies have become a luxury item and so the same marketing treatment given to a shampoo or detergent is being given to films these days. Any product, is it a film, play or TV show it requires good marketing if its commercial expectations are to be met. The challenge is to survive in this competitive race. In the older days, the public had only a few alternatives for entertainment and film producers could always get away without spending much on marketing. But now, the new generation's needs and interests should be treated carefully Earlier there were only two streams - parallel and the mainstream cinema. But now there are all kinds of films including regional and hollywood films giving audience a wide choice to choose. Thus its very important to attract the audience through proper marketing techniques. If the film is not projected in the correct perspective, the target audience won't notice it. Good Films like Yuva, Amir and Johnny Gaddar didnt do well at the box office due to lack of proper marketing initiatives. Few years back, theatres used to bring in 95 per cent of the revenue and now it is 80 per cent. Three years down the line, it is going to be just 50 per cent. So it is very important to treat movies as brands. Professional marketing can strengthen promotion and distribution of the movie . Profits grow better with smart strategy. So does the credibility of the production house.

3.3 Recent Movie Marketing Intiatives Movie production houses like Yash Raj,Red Chillies, UTV Motion Pictures etc are now looking at novel marketing techniques to get audiences to the theatres. From big-ticket contests to online promotions, there're a slew of marketing initiatives on the table. According to Shikha Kapur, Marketing head, UTV Motion Pictures, "Everyone is now fighting for the same attention and try to break the same red light." With movie audiences spoilt for choice and in the era of slowdown, slick and sleek marketing is vital to capture mindshare and thus various movie market initiatives took place in recent times.
Some movies are going the reality show route, some are doing public appearances on various media vehicles & brand associations

MOVIES Love Aaj Kal

PRODUCTION HOUSE Eros Entertainment & Illuminati Films

MARKETING INTIATIVES Tie-ups with ICC T20 World Cup, Cafe Coffee Day and Shoppers Stop

New York

Yash Raj Films

Katrina Kaif is expected to write an online diary chronicling her experiences during the shooting of the movie.

Agyaat Fashion Dev D Khuda ke Liye Luck by Chance

UTV Motion Pictures Madhur Bhandarkar Films UTV Motion Pictures Percept Picture Company Big Pictures

Agyaat Short horror clip contest, Make your own trailer contest Fashion Show at Lakme Fashion Week & Vogue Photo Shoot Mumbais Als tattoo parlour & Lustline 20 Consumer Screenings Guest Appearances on Oye! Its Friday & SaReGaMaPa

3.4 Marketing Mix & Movies

a) Product For a movie to be selected by the audience on the basis of the content, it needs to be clearly identifiable in its marketing genre, stars, story, special effects, style all need to be presented aptly. A movie product is the intellectual property that can be ported to a variety of deliverables: theatrical exhibit, non-theatrical exhibit, video tapes, DVDs, CDs of the soundtrack, collectible editions, television and cable broadcast, Internet-served etc. Then there is merchandising such as clothing, toys, games, posters. Another product dimension is that of franchise rights, endorsements, product placements and a host of offshoots that are bought and sold, leased and rented. The movie business is one of the most complexes in the communications industry because of its creativity, its diversity and its continual explosions of technological delivery options.

b) Price

At first glance, pricing in the movie industry seems very standardized. At any multiplex is cinema hall, a movie ticket costs the same for all movie. But if we look into the broader definition of the movie product just defined, then the prices fluctuate widely.

A distribution contract can be structured in many ways that result in very different returns for the producer, the key creative talent, and even the distributor. Elements that are negotiated include:

Theatrical release schedules

Territories and market segments Revenue splits, percentages and order of payment Promotion budgets (P&A)

Apart from these pre consumer stage pricing differences, we see a wide range of pricing structures such as theatrical tickets, group 4wall rentals, title rentals, title sales, special releases, subscription services, festivals, downloads, delayed broadcasts, pay-per-view, licenses, bundled deals, cable channels and now we have movies and games on cell phones, on iPods -- on electronic billboards.

Scriptwriters sell to producers. Producers sell to investors and distributors. Distributors sell to exhibitors and chain stores and Internet dealers. Retail stores sell to communities (groups) and individuals and families. Families "sell" to friends and more family. Even word of mouth has a price.

Pricing has become a global issue. The release of a DVD has always been timed to protect the theatrical revenue model. But with piracy at record levels globally, a variety of pricing -- and timing -- strategies are being tested, like pricing the DVDs very cheaply.

c) Place

With the ever-inventive entrepreneurial energy in the entertainment world, people find venues for entertainment sales not only through traditional theatres and broadcast, but on street corners, in homes, over the Internet, over phones (caller tunes), through clubs etc. Options for delivery of the movie product are exploding: movies, games, music, news, and educational content. Distribution takes place through theatres, rental stores, sell-through stores, catalogues, non-theatrical groups, the Internet, even cell phones and the latest new media gadget.

c) Promotion

Promotion is a powerful marketing tool, not only during the premier of a new product, but throughout its lifecycle. Producers create the end-product for the consumer, but they seldom market that product directly to the consumer. They market their story to investors and distributors. Distributors market to exhibitors, retailers and sub-distributors. The theatre exhibitors, retailers, store clerks, and Internet strategists market to the end consumers. And then, to top off this complex stew, some consumers even market to other consumers their family, friends and co-workers.

Product

Price

Movie

Marketing

Place

Promotion

MARKETING MIX OF MOVIES

3.5 Movie Marketing Budget

Marketing spends can account for almost half of the cost of production of a small movie-Shikha Kapoor,UTV

Marketing Budget is an important aspect of the total production budget of a movie. It generally includes the expenditure on TV Spends, Print Ads,Outdoor ,Theatrical Trailors,Publicity,Online,Radio,etc. While a producer ideally would invest 10 to 15 per cent of the total production budget on marketing and promotions, there are occasions when it is stretched to 20 to 25 per cent. In 2008, it is estimated that the entertainment industry has spent around Rs 1.5 billion on film and music promotions.

Example: Hum Tum Hum Tum produced by Yash Raj Films is a classic example of a film that had highly innovative marketing-publicity campaigns with adequate marketing budget. The film, specifically targeted at and marketed among the youth, is an acknowledged box office hit. Yash Raj Films tied up with organisations ranging from Times of India to Lays Chips to promote the film.Hum Tum and invested 10 to 12 per cent of its total production budget on marketing and publicity. The movie got free publicity worth 30 to 35 per cent of its budget because of the free-of-cost deals like Saif's appearance in Sony's soap Jassi Jaisi Koi Nahin and the numerous MTV appearances of its cast-members.

According to Hungama movie marketing head Siddhartha Ray, 16 per cent of a Hollywood film's total budget is devoted to digital media marketing.

Producers are increasing the marketing budgets as marketing cuts the losses of a bad movie and increase the profit of a good one. The budget depends on strategy. For instance, 13B was a small-budget film having high marketing budget as it had good potential. Movie Marketing Budget Allocation

TV Spends TV Spots Total Print Ads Print Ads Listing Ads Trade Magazine Ads Total Outdoor Mumbai Rest of India Total Theatrical Trailers Printing + Raw stock Total Publicity & Miscellaneous 30x40 - English Designs 30x40 - 2 Hindi Designs 6 Sheeter Standees Spl. Lobby vinyls PRESS KITS Theatre Flex - 20'x10'

Budget sanctioned 22,500,000 22,500,000 0 7,500,000 0 7,500,000 3,000,000 1,000,000 4,000,000

1,500,000

Dispatch Beta Transfers & additional betas Miscellenous-Publicity, tickets, screening Street Postering Total Radio Ground Events (includes Multicity Multiplex visits) Online Merchandise Transfer & Storage Devices Digibetas, DVDS, Transfer Cost Grand Total

7,000,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 500,000 500,000 47,000,000

4.METHODS OF MARKETING A MOVIE

4.1 Publicity The publicity of a movie takes place at two levels:

At producer level. At distributor level.

At producer level the publicity of movies is done at a large scale with a national or international scenario in consideration. The budgets at this level are very big and the media used are teaser on TV channels and cinema halls, radio, national magazines etc. The star cast of the movie is also associated with publicity at this level. This publicity is aimed at all the target audience in the country for creating a buzz about the movie.

At distributor level the publicity is mainly for making the target audience aware about the theatres where the movie is playing and the timings of the movies. Also, this publicity tries to reach the audience who may not have access to cable TV or radio. But the scope of this is publicity is limited to the distributors territory. The budgets allocated for such publicity are comprehensive but smaller than the budgets at producer level. The media used at this level are posters, hoardings, local newspapers etc.

Gayab's promotional campaign, which launched on TV, is just another example of the way marketing and publicity campaigns of Bollywood films have come of age. No more can a film producer afford to leave out any media option to get serious returns from his project anyway. The buzzword today is 'innovation' among boll woods publicity and marketing strategists. Earlier, less than 10 per cent of the total budget was kept aside for promos. Today, its shot up to 20-25 per cent

4.2 Media Gone are those days when plastering a few posters on the walls and hand-painted Billboard signs were the only means available for a films publicity; Actors barely promoted their films, film-makers never ventured in-front of the camera and our main stream media couldnt care less. Todays Bollywood presents a very different scenario. With over 1000 films releasing in a given year, all of them fighting for a common goal i.e. the box-office success, the multiplex domination it has become a necessity for those involved, to do whatever it takes to enforce that must-watch feeling among the masses in order to win this very competitive rat-race. And yes, the Indian media plays a vital role in this process.

Superstar Shah Rukh Khan is a fine example of the above. His perfectly knitted marketing tactics, be it non-stop television promotions, tying up with news-channels and popular online sites, birthday celebrations with the Indian media, the 6-pack tag line, cricket matches and last but certainly not the least, the OSO clothes line in short, King Khan took the job of film-marketing to a whole new level. And as a result, despite a weak storyline and very mediocre performances; Om Shanti Om ended up being a super duper box-office success.

The mainstream advertising for movies, targeted at the end users is done via TV. Trailers, songs, star appearances on TV shows, interviews, "making of", reviews and movie news, all forms a part of the promotion strategies adopted by film makers.

Movie trailers form the conventional part of advertising movies via television. Over the years trailers have been transformed into teasers, that give little info about the movie while buzz amongst the audience about the movie.

Songs have long been used to generate interest in the movie. The recent years have seen use of a special category of songs called "item songs", songs which are shot and included in the movie especially for the purpose of advertising the movie and pulling in crowds. Nowadays, these item songs are shown on TV in full length just for advertisement purpose. They have no relation whatsoever with the movie's storyline. Then there is "special appearances" made by the actors, actresses and even the people behind the scenes producers and directors on various TV shows, like talk shows, reality shows etc. This provides for a free publicity channel for the film makers.

The "making of" a saga which is couple of hours long shown on the TV gives an insight into what went into the production of the movie. It helps generate interest in the movie by giving away parts of the story and some scenes, making the viewers salivate to know about more.

Factors influencing media strategy

"A film with a strong concept is easier to market." Mahesh Bhatt,Film Maker Marketing should be complementary to the film's content. The strategy is decided looking at the type of movie/genre. The marketing strategies vary from project to project. Marketing depends on the budget of the movie and its target audience. Low-profile marketing was done for Maqbool because the movie had a target audience who would like to judge the movie only after seeing it. The film was appreciated by that target group and automatically its collections picked up because of word-of-mouth publicity, The good marketing campaign the movie among its the target audience ensures success of the movie.

4.3Radio

According to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India., there were approximately 132 lakh listeners of FM radio in the major metropolitan cities across India. Tie-ups with radio channels for marketing films are becoming increasingly common. Common promotional activities include on-air contests, interviews with film stars and music composers, shelling out complementary movie tickets, an option to meet the stars in person, music and movie premiere coverage, etc.

Taking the case of the tie-up between Big 92.7 FM with Yashraj Films as its exclusive on air partner for the film Jhoom Baraabar Jhoom.

The station featured interviews of Preity Zinta, Lara Dutta, Bobby Deol, and music directors ShankarEhsaan-Loy during the music premiere. Listeners could win a chance to be part of an exclusive music video 'Jhoom Baby Jhoom' featuring common people dancing to the title track, in addition to getting an opportunity to interact with the stars of the film.

Prior to the launch of the movie, Big 92.7 FM provided special content around dancing, featuring dance experts from Bollywood, including the film's ace choreographer Vaibhavi Merchant giving dancing tips to listeners. Also, listeners got the chance to hear each of the stars of the film all day from 9 am - 7 pm. Listeners will also got the opportunity to win prizes like free music CDs and movie tickets of the film by participating in the 'couples contest' wherein each partner is asked questions about the other to gauge on how well they 'Jhoom together'.

4.4Mobile phones

Win couple tickets to Ghajini. Also get a chance to get your hair cut by Aamir Khan himself. For participating, call *****. Charges Rs * per min Thats exactly what the message read. And anyone who owns a cell phone can make no pretenses at bewilderment. Messages like these are not new to any of us. However, what might vary is our reaction to such messages. While some may jump with delight and make that call immediately, others will promptly punch the delete button without even bothering to read the whole message. And this is the reaction that a whole lot of players are busy observing, analyzing, and trying to optimize upon. This is all about about mobile marketing, and more specifically marketing movies through mobile. Two notable factors for the growing trend of mobile marketing: India is an absolute entertainment crazy nation It is also a mobile-savvy nation all set to traverse miles in that regard.

Mobile movie marketing isnt a new concept in our country. However, its only a couple of years since it has gained momentum and has risen to become one of the primary mediums for film promotion. It all started around seven years back when Reliance first used the mobile medium to promote the movie Armaan.

India is the fastest growing market in the mobile world. The dramatic evolution of communications technology, from download speeds and battery life to compact form factors, screen sizes and resolution, as well as memory enhancements, means mobile devices are now capable of delivering a compelling, high quality and uniquely personal viewing experience. Not surprisingly, ringtones, wallpapers and caller tunes are very popular nowadays. However, for mobile movie marketing there is life beyond these services. Consumers

want SMS short reviews as well as schedule of theatres on the mobile. Television channels send out SMS alerts half an hour before a movie is going to be aired. A substantial segment of the population is favourable to games related to films. Film Related Mobile Downloades
Video Ring Back Tones Wall Papers Caller Tunes Ring Tones 0% 10% 20% 30%

More importantly, a large population prefers to read a films review before seeing it. So television movie channels and film distributors need to place reviews in WAP portals that are frequently accessed. Contests and dynamic updates available on cellular networks generate repeat look ups. This way, a buzz about the theme of the movie marketed is ensured.

The tactics used in promoting movies like Veer Zaara and Swades through R World consisted of automated calls from Veer Zaara stars Shahrukh Khan and Preity Zinta to consumers' mobile phones, followed by SMS contests, which were a huge

Source: CII-AT Kearney Report, 2007

success.

A study by TheRazor; UK has found that mobile marketing campaigns are three times more effective than direct marketing in eliciting response. Better devices and more bandwidth among other things will move the mobile from being a luxury item to being ubiquitous.

Film promoters and marketers are not only taking mobile rather seriously, but are also going innovative in the mob-zone. Dhoom2 was almost completely marketed on mobile. From smashing Hrithik wallpapers to capitalizing on Aishwaryas new look, it left no stone unturned. In fact Reliance calls it one of the biggest successes of the mobile marketing space. Then there are the extremely out-of-the-box ideas that been converted into out-of-the-mobile marketing practices. Reliance Communications, for

example, now has campaigns through mobile, and based on certain contests gives winners the opportunity to interact with the film stars in their Web worlds through the use of videoconferencing facilities.

4.5 Internet

Over 38.5 million Indians have Internet access, and although broadband penetration is in its early stages, over 1.5 million homes already have high-speed access. There are also an estimated 20 million Indians living abroad who are interested in keeping up with the latest Bollywood productions. With the burgeoning growth on Indias online population, Bollywood movie marketers are ramping up their online marketing efforts For bollywood, there is a lucrative overseas market and then there is the urban market too. For these segments, web is the best medium through which to be informed about a movie. Indian film marketers have noted that young, tech-oriented professionals with disposable income are highly likely to use the web to discover movies to see in theaters.

According to Rajnish R., Head - Digital Marketing Revenue and Strategic Business, MSN India: "People who use the Internet are twice likely to go watch movies in multiplexes (than those who do not). Indians abroad go online to read movie reviews before they book a ticket or buy the DVD. So, the adoption of online media is attractive to new-age producers, who themselves are Net-savvy." Individual film sites are also become more common, and traffic has been booming Hungama a top online promotions company for Bollywood, noted that some of their larger sites attract up to 12 million page views a month. Online interactive contests are also becoming popular, and are now sporting major corporate sponsors.

The Indian film industry sold more than 3.8 billion tickets in 2005, grossing over $1.14 billion dollars, according to a recent article By comparison, Hollywood grossed nearly $9 billion dollars during the same calendar year.

Internet & Broadband Subscribers in india


45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
2004 2006 2008 2010

The internet is increasingly emerging as a profitable medium to create hype and promote new film. There are approximately 30-40 million internet users in India today. Internet as a medium to promote a film is a viable option as it offers a wide platform of activities like reviews, trailers, bulletin boards, email, and blog

Broadband Internet

for marketing movies which in turn creates a buzz about the film. Industry experts believe that the cost effectiveness of the online medium is one of the reasons for its popularity. An online campaign only costs only one-tenth of the amount a producer will spend advertising the film in the print medium.

Source: CII-AT Kearney Report, 2007

A recent survey conducted by the Internet & Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) says that close to 90% internet users surf the net for movie related information and 42% of the surfers use the net for this purpose more than once a week. The survey also found that 54% of the net users watched at least one movie per month Among the first studios to have started off promoting films on the Net was Yashraj Films. Their Mujhse Dosti Karoge went on to win the prestigious ABBY Gold award for its Internet marketing initiative in 2004. To promote Kabhi Alvida Na Kahna, the entire song Wheres the party tonight was featured on MSNs desktop TV. MSN also designed a theme pack on Messenger based on the films characters. RDBs characters wrote interactive blogs; Anthony Kaun Hai ran an online contest with winners meeting the stars. Lage Raho Munnabhais promotion on MSN India consisted of video clips from the film aired on desktop TV airs, and a web link to the

official movie website with storyline, information on cast, crew, music, photos and screensavers, trailers, contests and interactive features. Online promotions also enable filmmakers to tap the overseas market. NRIs are also passionate about movies and like to download wallpapers, ring tones and take part in celebrity chats.

4.6 Teasers

In the world of entertainment branding and promotion, where promos and trailers create viewer perceptions, teasers play a very vital role when it comes to films and their marketing. A teaser is all about illusion and aura. It is about creating that glimpse of mystery about the film just before its theatrical release that will eventually attract more audiences to the theatre with a motive to demystify the perception created.

A teaser for a film is essentially created to drive in the maximum number of viewers to the theatre in the first week of the films release. This is because post week one, the fate of the film at the box office completely depends upon its content. Thus, by using effective teasers, producers seek to drive in maximum viewers for the film during the first week and generate maximum revenue. Creating a teaser for any film involves huge financial risk. Hence, creating it effectively becomes a must. An effective teaser needs to create a lot of anticipation. It needs to mock, annoy and arouse. Ideas need to be spinned off differently and effectively. A well knitted teaser should not steal any scene from the movie; however it has to get the core idea right. The teaser of the low-budget American horror film The Blair Witch Project, released in 1999 showed an absolute black screen powered by a strong voice over. The voice over was filled with intense fear that generated post the completion of a summer project. The teaser of 13B was also quite impressive as it created curiosity among the audience.

The teaser does not speak anything about the film. It only throws a punch of fear at the audience, thus encapsulating the core idea of the film - fear. This is what an effective teaser is all about. It creates a mystery about the film thereby calling the viewers to watch the film and demystify the mystical. As aptly summed up by Frame creative director Anita Olan, Teasers are always the best way to engage the curious viewer; and to tempt, engage, and create anticipation amongst the viewers, one need to build effective teasers. Also remember, its always ok to mislead. In fact deceive the viewer first, only to leave him with a surprise at the end.

4.7 Co-branding

Co-branding is an arrangement that associates a single product or service with more than one brand name, or otherwise associates a product with someone other than the principal producer. The typical co-branding agreement involves two or more companies acting in cooperation to associate any of various logos, colour schemes, or brand identifiers to a specific product that is contractually designated for this purpose. The object for this is to combine the strength of two brands, in order to increase the premium consumers are willing to pay, make the product or service more resistant to copying by private label manufacturers, or to combine the different perceived properties associated with these brands with a single product.

Points to make note of while co branding with respect to movies

a) Matching the target

Co-branding movies and products succeeds when the movie and the brand target the same audience. In case of movies like Krrish, children form the major audience. This means that brands targeted at children should be used to reap maximum benefit. Also, it is mutually beneficial. Pidilite Industries Acron brand of Rangeela colours has brought out special packs based on the film. Commercials on cartoon channels are inspiring juvenile viewers to celebrate the magic of Krrish with Rangeela colours. The cobranded colours are also being made available at the multiplexes where the film is being screened.

b) Intelligent co-branding

Using brands to promote movies can be more effective when the branding is in tune with the film. In the case of Krrish, no doubt the aura of the Superhero can be expected to rub off on the brand. However, the co-branding will work better when it is designed intelligently so that it seems natural for the brand to be associated with the film. An important variable in cobranding is the fit between the movie and the brand.

For example, HLL chose to associate its Lifebuoy soap brand with Krrish HLL chose Lifebuoy over the other brands since the brand is all about protection, and Krrishs character is all about protecting the world from enemies.

4.8 Merchandising

Merchandizing as a concept is a recent phenomenon in Indian film Industry. The reasons are more than the fact that merchandise is an established revenue stream; it not just serves as link between fans and brands but also provides a great publicity base and a recall factor for the movies. Merchandising is a proven winner with a huge potential to be explored and filmmakers are all set to take a plunge in it.

Be it the super hero Krrish, the common men turned heroes in Rang de Basanti, the romantic pair in Fanaah or the animated god Hanuman; they can be spotted on T-shirts, on your kids toys, around youngsters necks, even in your refrigerators and many more such places not marked for them earlier

The Future Group paid Rs 10 crore to Sony to launch a special range of Saawariya merchandise in over 300 stores across 42 cities in the country

Riding on the popularity of the films, makers in India are going the George Lucas (Star War maker) way whose merchandise till date has reportedly touched $20 billion in estimated revenue. The figures in India havent skyrocketed to such heights but with the way things are shaping up, merchandising is fast making headway.

Merchandising Initiatives of Movie The makers of Krrish tied up with Pantaloon Retail India Limited for manufacturing and marketing of Krrish merchandise. For Rang de Basanti the makers joined hands with Coke for exclusive limited edition coke bottles, which had the images of the stars on it. They also came up with a limited collection of Spirit of RDB T-shirts with Provogue. For Fanaah Yash Raj Films had three different products, including a pendant sported by Aamir Khan in the film. While Adlab films struck a deal with Mattel toys for the Superman toys apart from T-shirts, key chains and bags for Superman Returns. Ranvir Kapoor's towels and the limited edition Saawariya phones were sold like hot cakes in India after the release of Saawariya. This is of course because of the merchandising deals done with Pantaloons Retail stores across India. Om Shanti Om who had various merchandizing deals with Nokia and Shoppers Stop. Love Story 2050, which came up with a whole lot of movie merchandize and toys.

4.9 Music as a promotion tool

One of the most popular Indian music forms is the Filmi music. Hindi film industry, popularly known as Bollywood, along with Indian regional film industries, produces thousands of films a year, most of which are musicals and feature elaborate song and dance numbers.

Earlier music was a part of the films and was mostly used only when the song gelled with the flow of the movies; but these days music is used as a vital tool for promotion of movies. Movie soundtracks are released as tapes and CDs much before the movie is released. Earlier, radio was the main media of Film music but with the coming of satellite TV and FM radio the scenario has completely changed. An elaborate music release function is held for even low budget movies as it is an important way of garnering attention. Any music release function is usually covered by the press and a few television channels.

There are a lot of movies which have been box office successes despite a bad story line; music being their saviour. Movies like Aashiq Banaya Aapne,Gangster,Woh Lamhe, Jhoom barabar Jhoom, China gate, Bas Ek Pal Anwar,Dum,Aks are classic examples of such movies. Variations in this include multi star caste songs , item numbers etc. with a peppy or racy beats which also attract viewers. There is also a new trend where old hit songs are being re-mixed and used in movies to attract audience.Thus, music is used as an important promotional strategy for films these days.

Many movies use item songs in their films as a marketing tool that is used as a trailer or a teaser to advertise the movie on television music channels. Sometimes reputable female and male actors make a special appearance to an item number to improve the film`s marketability. Item numbers of this type are generally less exposing and have more of a pop flavor.

Examples of Item Songs: Ek Main Aur Ek Tu-Bluff Master Kajra Re- Bunty Aur Bubbly Om Shanti Om Shanti Om-Om Shanti Om Beedi Jaliye Le-Omkara

4.10 Controversy as a promotonal strategy We have been solely dealing with the visible promotional tactics producers adopt. But there are many other invisible factors too, which can significantly turn the tide in favor of a film or spoil the party. These days, pre-release controversies are routine things. One can never say if these are cooked-up scandals or mere coincidences. Filmmakers and producers definitely play their roles intentionally or unintentionally when it comes to incorporating hot item numbers and smooch scenes. Then we get to see lot of hype generated around star relationships and some weird hairdos and funny costumes used. Ultimately the media, which can't resist an opportunity when it comes to making hoopla around petty things, get the film enormous free publicity. "Controversies can create awareness, but there is no guarantee," says Mahesh Bhatt Case: Girlfriend & Ek Chotti Si Love Story Girlfriend, a film based on lesbian relationship, made its entry in the box office on 11 June 2008. The film had been making waves during the pre-release days for obvious reasons. It opened to 40 per cent collections. Post-release too Girlfriend continued its rounds in the media. Be it the protests by political parties or the subject being vigorously discussed all over the media, the buzz was 'ensured'. The Rs 20 million film finished its first week with an improved 50 per cent collection. Film writer and industry analyst Taran Adarsh (editor Indiafm), "The post-release controversy and the hype generated seem to have helped the first week's performance of Girlfriend remarkably, looking at its first week collections."

Actress Manisha Koirala had taken filmmaker Shashilal Nair to court alleging the derogative use of her body double in the movie Ek Chhoti Si Love Story. Then a political organisation blocked the screening of the movie in metros. If trade-buzz is to be believed, filmmaker Shashilal Nair's 2002 release Ek Chhotisi Love Story reaped huge profits because of the controversy. But according to Shashilal Nair People went to watch the movie in the first few days expecting adult stuff. But the movie didn't have anything of that sort and the negative word-of-mouth killed the movie,"

4.11 FILM FESTIVALS The International Film Festivals are a huge platform for Indian Movies to market themselves abroad. Earlier Indian films were used as embellishments but now attitudes have changed perceptibly.

"Indian movies have generated interest worldwide, including at film festival circuits, in recent years. The international market is like a jungle and producers and filmmakers have to know what kind of products sell and how to market their movies " says filmmaker Aditya Bhattacharya.

Filmmakers, distributors and producers have woke up to the untapped potential and now send their films to festivals across the globe. Indian producers and distributors are also taking tips from the experts behind successfully marketed films like "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon," "My Big Fat Greek Wedding," "East is East," "Bend It Like Beckham" and "Monsoon Wedding" to boost their offerings. There are over 300 film festivals held across the world every year. A film producer has to know which ones to tap to maximize returns.

With the advent of National & International Film Festivals a new category of festival films is slowly coming up and developing in the Hindi Film Industry. Screening of these films at festivals provide them the much needed exposure, something which many "art films" were deprived of in the past due to audiences' inclination towards masala movies.

Some of the films from this category include 15th Park Avenue,13th Floor & Quest, Water, The Last Monk &Hope And A Little Sugar Not only Art Films or Festival Films but the Commercial films are also screened at International Festivals. For e.g. Rang De Basanti,Shwaas,Paheli,13B, Chake De etc are screened at Shanghai Film Festival,Tokyo Film Festival,Cannes Film Festival,37th International Film Festival ,etc

Recent Inititaives

The Indian government has also stepped in by hosting a festival of Indian cinema in Shanghai to cater to the increased demand for Indian films in China.

The Pakistan Film Exhibitors Association has urged President Pervez Musharraf to allow the screening of Indian films in the country.

The increased interest in India in Italy prompted the Indo-Italian Chamber to announce "Namaste India", a festival in Rome which showcased the latest trends in Indian cineme andBollywood hits .

Schedule of International Film Festivals for 2009


Festival Palm Springs International Film Festival International Film Festival of India Rotterdam International Film Festival Berlin International Film Festival Kara Film Festival Miami International Film Festival San Francisco International Asian American Film Festival Cleveland International Film Festival Hong Kong International Film Festival Cannes Film Festival Location California, US India Rotterdam, Netherlands Berlin, Germany Karachi, Pakistan Florida, US California, US Ohio, US Hong Kong Cannes, France

4.12 Emotions & Sentiments

The message a marketing campaign wants to convey to the audience vary based on the type of film and the target audience. The style in which these messages are delivered also varies. However the style has to be attention grabbing and interesting enough for the target audience to think about the message or remember the message. Generally the messages are about the strengths of the movie. For example the lead actors, director, banner or the subject of the movie, music can be considered as strengths of a movie.

However, sometimes messages that arouse sentiments in the audience are also used. Lagaan and Gadar are good examples of successfully using the audience sentiments to their advantage.

Lagaan

The theme of the movie was a tightly guarded secret. Posters and teasers gave no hint of what the movie was about. The movie music was promoted. The music was very successful. This generated an enormous amount of curiosity for the movie among the audience. The movie was released all over the country at the same time. This generated a big initial week collection. However since the length of the movie was 4hrs, only 3 shows per day could be screened. This resulted in some losses. After the first weekend the marketing strategy was changed and the cricket match in the film came into focus. India is a cricket crazy country. How can Indians ignore an India vs. England match set in the British raj era?

Gadar

This is a good example of how the public sentiment can affect the fortunes of a movie. The advertisements aroused public sentiments by highlighting Sunny Deols rhetoric on Pakistan and showcasing partition riots in graphic detail. This movie of the masses used the lay mans sentiments of patriotism to its advantage. The Music of the movie was an added advantage. Both Lagaan and Gadar enjoyed great success after the first week because of the good quality of the movies. Mouth to mouth publicity played a major part in the success of these movies. It is said that people in villages travelled in trucks and tractors to the cities to watch Lagaan and especially Gadar. We can safely conclude from these examples that if a movie successfully appeals to public emotion, then it is sure to generate a good mouth to mouth publicity.

5. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF HOLLYWOOD IN INDIA

With increasing literacy levels, the demand for international fare among the English-educated Indians is growing. Post-globalization, the well-heeled urban Indians, especially growing mid- and high-income segments, is rediscovering the magic of cinema in the plush multiplexes. And for them, Tom Cruise, Steven Spielberg and Julia Roberts are as good as Shahrukh Khan, Karan Johar, and Rani Mukherjee. Indian audiences watch Hollywood films for what they cannot get in Bollywood films. Indian films center on family and romantic themes and seldom do they offer bigticket action or jaw-dropping visuals. Hollywood offers the latter, which is why films offering that style of entertainment do well. Hollywood profits in India are growing at 35 percent a year, and the US film industry is becoming more aggressive. The era of Bollywood v/s Hollywood has ended. It's now an era of coexistence, courtesy multiplexes which have added capacities.

6.1 Hollywood's Major Initiatives in India:

Simultaneous release of blockbuster films and India release within 3-4 weeks for other major films, vis a vis the time difference between US and India release, which was as long as 6 months to a year, about 4 years back. Dubbed versions supported by localised consumer-centric campaigns take playability of Hollywood films beyond metros, thereby adding to ticket sales. These dubbed versions contribute almost 50 per cent of the company's revenue. Spider-Man 3 was dubbed into Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Bhojpuri. The massive global release meant that poor villagers in central India were able to queue up the same day as audiences in Los Angeles to see the film, dubbed into a local dialect.

Increase of almost 100 percent in the marketing and publicity budgets for all Hollywood films by the major studios. Hollywood is promoting its big-ticket films like any other big Bollywood release. Premieres are being held here. There are tieups with corporates and there is even merchandising at a small level. Promotions of Hollywood films are being adapted to suit the local taste and flavor. There were paintings of the action figure on Mumbai trains to promote Spiderman 2. Media penetration and internet usage has created greater awareness for Hollywood films in India, right from the time they are promoted in the U.S., which increases once the film opens there. U.S. Reviews and Box office figures are flashed across Indian media and the buzz continues with the Indian media giving space to these films till their release in India. Because of the multiplexes, Hollywood studios could release a good number of their films in the country.

6.2 Case: Promotion of Spiderman2

Promotion of Spiderman 2 created a benchmark for Hollywood Movies.To promote Spiderman Sony BMG especially created a jingle for the movie sung by the famous Pakistani band "Strings". Sony's Indian television arm, Sony Entertainment Television (SET), was tied in to promote the film through their high visibility programs such as Jassi Jaisi Koi Nahi /Yeh Meri Life Hai. Another Sony TV outfit, SET MAX, specially created a program called "Spotlight," hosted by Mandira Bedi, their brand ambassador and a celebrity in India.

On both SET and SET MAX, the Spiderman was shown swinging in and out as and when the channels IDs appeared. AXN also had a Spiderman bug (the image of Spiderman) on their logo on a 24x7 basis. Sony Ericsson launched their first branded phones in India (Spiderman 2 mobile phones). These phones were promoted through a tie-in with the film. Sony Electronics also played a part. Their first major film promotion in India was through their hi-end retail stores "Sony World". Sony Pictures Home Entertainment promoted the film through their DVD and VCD sales for Spiderman (the first part).

6. MARKETING PLAN OF MOVIES

The marketing of the movie is about highlighting appealing aspects of the movie to the audience. The marketing plan is prepared accordingly by the Marketing Department of the Production House or The Agency to whom the marketing is outsourced by the production house .The Marketing Plan depends upon the objective,target audience and the marketing budget

It generally consists of: Plan for usage of various media like TV,Radio,Internet,Mobile etc to promote the movies. Indoor & Outdoor Publicity Camapigns. Corporate Advertisments Brand Associations Product Placements Merchandise Over Seas Distribution DVD/CD Rights Music Rights International Marketing Plan

CASE STUDIES 1) 13 B

a) TELEVSION & MEDIA

DANCING QUEEN, COLORS Madhavan appeared as celeb guest on show Interaction with anchor about the film Theatrical trailer plays on show 40 Promo Spots featuring Madhavan on Colours one week to telecast CID, SONY Madhavan appears on show and interacts with ACP while speaking of his film 13 B 50 Promo Spots across Sony Network One 30 sec spot for 13 B promo during commercial break. COMEDY ,CIRCUS SONY Integration with Madhavan & Neetu as celeb guests 50 Integrated promo spots Theatrical trailer plays on episode,interaction with anchor & Madhavan on the film

SHH KOI HAI,STAR ONE Madhavan appeared on the show,spoke of film theme,etc 70 Integrated promo spots with Madhavan speaking about 13 B Fear

MTV Madhavan & Neetu interviewed for 13B on: Fantastic 5,Wassup,G Talk,Style Check,Pets & Indulgences,Star Scraps,Ticker promotion for 13 B

ZOOM The Zoom Review show with Omar Qureshi Planet Bollywood Zoom Big Nite 13 B premier show Favourite songs with Neetu & Madhavan Tickers on 13 B triviaB

B) OUTDOOR Campaign Planned for Mumbai,Delhi,Bangalore & Hyderabad 13 B and Damas co branded hoardings across prime locations in Mumbai 13 B wrapped BEST buses across Mumbai Trailer playing across BEST buses Central Depot Cafe Coffee Day,Delhi BPCL outlets in Delhi Prominent visibility at Mumbai Airport LCD screens & digital signage

2) GHAJINI Aamir Khan's Ghazini is slowly becoming a casestudy in how to create a buzz around a movie and it is said that 30% or 15 crore of the 50 crore cost of the movie has been spent on promotion and the buzz is clearly visible.The campaigns tap numerous fresh ideas including life-size statues, ushers at multiplexes sporting Ghajini hairstyles, a special 3-D PC game and mobile handset company Samsung releasing Ghajini edition mobile phones of L700 and M200 models. Here are the key facets of the Ghajini movie marketing campaign. Aamir Ghajini Haircut Radio Mirchi, one of the leading radio channels, actually invited SMSes and phone calls from people to get a haircut from the actor himself and he went ahead and gave the cut at a leading saloon in New Delhi. Aamir Ghajini Mannequins His marketing team has tied up with some leading sculptors who are creating replicas of Khans Ghajini look, with his eight-pack abs, and installing them at various multiplexes in the country. Viral Marketing

Check out www.findghajini.com In this viral application, the user plays the role of Sanjay Singhania (character played by Aamir Khan) and tries to find Ghajini through the clues provided. After the user finds a clue, he/ she is given a hint about where one might find the next one. After one finds all the clues, the user needs to dial a phone number on which one can hear Aamir Khan talking to them.

Official Website www.rememberghajini.com is the official website for the movie which features usual videos and images and maintains the suspense by not featuring the synopsis

Co-Branding Tata Sky ,Van Heusen and Samsung spend close to 140 mn in marketing related to Ghajini with samsung launching phones , Tata Sky roping in Asin and Van Heusen launching a Ghajini range of formals .Infact after Batman, Ghajini is the first film to release a handset as part of the films content.

7 .UNETHICAL MOVIE MARKETING PRACTICES

Unethical practices exists in every business and movie business is not an exception to it. Unethical movie marketing means attracting the audience towards the theatres and develop curiosity among them through wrong marketing techniniques

Poster Politics Posters and other publicity get people to the theatre and then people can judge the film for themselves Film hoardings & Poster are a reflection of the producers mindset In case of poster politics the audience is misled by spotlighting saleable stars on the posters. The case of posters misleading movie-goers is not exclusive to one or two films. A number of recent movies have resorted to similar tactics. Examples Hello A king-sized photo of Salman Khan dominated the posters of Hello while the images of other prominent actors were squeezed in. Those who went to theatres judging the film by its poster were in for disappointment. Instead of catching Salamn the viewers could spot the superstar on big screen for precisely 10 minutes while the rest of the cast entertained them two-and-a-half hours. Khuda Ke Liya The imagery of hoardings is not a recent phenomenon. Khuda Kay Liye highlighted the blown-up countenance of Naseerudin Shah for a favourable opening even though he appeared only at the fag end of the movie.

Heroes In Heroes, Salman Khan and Sunny Deol almost jumping out of the poster, followed by Preity Zinta, Bobby Deol, Mithun Chakraborty and Dino Morea.

Prominancy of Stars

Hoardings are designed on the basis of an actors popularity at box office Post Jaane Tu Ya Jaane Na, Imran Khan was all over the posters of his next, Kidnap. Focus on Kareena Kapoor in the posters of Golmaal Returns, which has an ensemble cast, including Amrita Arora, Anjana Sukhani & Celina Jaitley

Manipulation of Publicity Not just box-office performance but being the actor-cum-producer of a movie too helps manipulate publicity. Kamaal Khan of Deshdrohi has done exactly that. Staring at you from various bus stops, flyovers and railway stations, he wishes to declare his makeover as a hero by simply asking the publicity designer to show his face as the biggest. Paid Previews/Premiers Telecasting of paid previews on various channels favoring the movie and glamorous premiers to attract the audience to the theatre is one of important unethical movie marketing technique. . Its a new phenomenon. Producers count on these paid previews & premiers in order to recover their cost of the movie. Sometimes a flop movie is publicized as hit on channels, hoardings & TV shows. Chandni Chowk to China & Luck By Chance ran a paid preview before its release.

8. PRODUCT PLACEMENT IN MOVIES

Placing captures the essence of a new kind of selfhood. The idea is that the era of Branding is passed. Now is the dawn of Placing. a) Meaning Product placement is a form of advertisement, where branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, the story line of television shows, or news programs. The product placement is often not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured. In-film product placement can cost anywhere between Rs 5 lakh and Rs 50 lakh, depending upon the level and length of integration of the brand in the movie, production banner and actor endorsement.The big money being floated by corporate houses in Bollywood has given great impetus to movie marketing, giving it a more professional and authentic look. This has also triggered high volume business of product placement and brand associations. There can be synergies between brands and films. The successful integration of product placement within the film's storyline has along history - the first example being the yellow Rajdhoot bike used in Raj Kapoors Bobby. Hollywood also leveraged brands such as BMW (Bond movies), Jaguar, Ford, Ray Ban (Tom Cruise in Risky Business and Mission Impossible), Starbucks coffee, AOL Right now, companies are willing to pay higher amounts for marketing their brands in films, but it depends on the budget of the film. Big-budget films with big stars can expect more. The size of this advertising is expected to grow nearly 100 per cent in the next two to five years as more and more companies get attracted to this kind of advertising. Tanishq Placement in Jodha Akbar

b) Advantages of Product Placement: . An in-film placement is a hugely lucrative business and has a number of advantages 1. It gives brands a good return on investment (ROI). Moreover, the brand gets celebrity endorsement at zero cost. 2. In-film placement gets brands a better recall value, provided the communication is aligned well with the theme. 3. Products - brands actually - make a movie more realistic. It is that much more easier to bond with the stranded actors 4. The best way to deliver the message is to catch the viewer off-guard when his rational defense is down. Appealing to viewers emotions is better than appealing to their rational thought. The rational gate examines the advantages, benefits and features, and seeks value for money; the emotional gate is all about trust, love, identification and belief. Films operate at the emotional level. Placing a product in a film is catching the viewer at an emotional level when he can connect with the brand. 5) In film product placement is on the rise in times of slowdown as advertisers look for more cost effective medium

c) How Product Placement Works After the movie is released, brands take out the footage in which the brand is integrated in the movie and make a new commercial out of it these co-branded (brand-movie promotion) commercials are run around the time of release on behalf of the production house. Advertising spots bought by production houses are of entertainment nature and the entertainment rates are three to five times cheaper than commercial rates. A pure brand commercial (made and run independently by the brand) would have cost four times more than this.

d) History of Product Placements Till about the 1970s most people believed that the product placement was unethical, but the realities of advertising and movie making has spurred Hollywood, and now Bollywood into product placemement

Examples In An Evening in Paris, Sharmila Tagore was seen sipping delicately from a 200 ml bottle of Coke, struggling to make sure the logo was visible. Mafatlal hoarding in the middle of a song in Maine Pyar Kiya In Garware brand association in Dev Anand flick Awwal Number Entire song sequence in Prem Diwane starring Madhuri Dixit was shot inside Benzer stores in Mumbai 20 percent of the Taal production budget just from Coca-Cola. Mc Donalds in Kaho Na Pyaar Hain Castrol engine oil in film Chalte Chalte In Baghban Hema Malini prepared tata tea while Bachchan drove a ford and worked in the icici bank

e) Effectivesness of Product Placement

In the recently placed ad for, the makers of the engine have reported tangibly increased sales of the oil after the film's release. The product seems to have connected on an emotional level with truck fleet drivers and owners.

Ray Ban also benefited by its association with film Men in Black.

Research shows that 98% of the total audience remembers at least one brand name after the movie. So Brand recall is definitely there. There were a whole host of branded toys featured in Toy Story. One such toy company Slinky, which had folded, was back in business and sold $27 million after the movie release. Sales of Red Stripe beer increased by 53%, after Tom Cruise was seen slugging it in The Firm. Industry sources estimate that BMW made $240 million in advance sales alone, purely due to the Golden eye placement. Reese's Pieces the Hersheys candy featured in ET - saw a phenomenal sales growth of 66%.

But the same cannot be said for every product. Primarily because it hasnt been researched well to date. Unless marketing majors analyze the sales figures purely attributable to product placement, there's no saying if this works. However it is also true that ads have to be carefully placed in a film and one bad placement can do more damage than 10 good placements. Artistic integrity is crucial for successful brand placements But a brand that does not match a movies theme may do more bad than good. For instance, an otherwise suave marketer Shahrukh Khan roped in brands Tupperware and Century Ply for Billus co-branded promotions, both of which had no direct connection with the film. The method of incorporating products depends on the film's storyline and the star cast.Placement of the mouth freshner Pass Pass in the movie Yaadein was an example of wrong product placement as it was not able to co relate with the story nor the starcast in the movie

RECENT PRODUCT PLACEMENT INITIATIVES.

Release year 2006 No. 1 2 3 4 5 Movie Don Rang De Basanti Taxi No 9 2 11 Krish Kabhi Alvida Na Kehna Lage Raho Munnabhai Dhoom:2 Corporate Product branding Tag Heuer watches, Motorola, Garnier, Citibank, Oakley sunglasses and Louis Philippe outfits RDB Coca-Cola bottle, Airtel, LG, Berger and Provogue Yamaha Motors, The Bombay Dyeing. Lifebuoy, Singapore tourism board, Sony, John Players, bounvita, Tide, Hero Honda, boroplus, HP power, Acron Rangeela, Hansplast, Lays Compaq

6 7 8

Worldspace, IOCL, Go Air, MSN, Good Day, Kurkure, Bright Outdoor and Reliance Communications. Coke, Pennzoil, Pepe, Sony, Disney channel, Sugar Free, Mc-Donald's, Speed, Suzuki Zeus Allen Solly clothing, Durian furniture

Release year 2007 No. 1 2 3 4 5 Movie Guru Namastey London Heyy Babyy Welcome Life in a metro Product branding Hero cycles Spykar, Bharat Matrimony Tata indicom Ponds Shaadi.com, lenovo

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Chak De India Om shanty om

Reebok, Mcdonalds, Puma, Bisleri, Ultra tech cement, fairever Maybelline, Nokia, shoppers stop

Release year 2008 No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No. 1 2 Movie Jodhaa Akbar Dostana Fashion Product branding Tanishq

Verve, Pantloons, Canon, makemytrip.com Sunsilk, Kimaya and Lenovo, Lina Mogre gym branding, Reebok, Vogue Magazine, Cellucom & LG Electronics Race Provogue Rab Ne Bana Hyundai Santro, Century Plywood Di Jodi Singh is Godrej Renew King Golmaal Puma returns Jaane Tu Ya Coke, Innova Jaane Na Rock On Goodrej Ghajini Titan, Tata Indicom, Van Heusen, Samsung Mobile, Tata Sky Movie Delhi 6 Chandi Chownk to China Product branding Motorola Thums Up, Lays, Jet Airways

If the movie business suddenly looks attractive, industry experts say it's because the banks haven't lost money on any projects yet. In fact, they get their money back even before a film is released because distributors pay upfront, pick big banners to minimize risk, and have a stable collateral in the negatives. Producers say the upside is mind-boggling.