:

ARABIC PROVERBS:
THE MANNERS

AND CUSTOMS

MODEEN EGYPTIANS,
ILLUSTRATED

FROM THEIR PROVERBIAL SAYINGS

CURRENT AT

CAIRO;

TEANSLATED AND EXPLAINED
BY THE LATE

JOHN LEWIS BUECKHARDT.

SECOND

EDITION.

LONDON
BERNARD QUARITCH,
15,

PICCADILLY.

MDCCCLXXT

GIORGIO

X LIBR

LONDON

:

UIBRISON AND SONS, PKINTEBS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTT, ST. martin's lane.

TRANSLATOE'S PREFACE.

Many
{sJ\

of the proverbial sayings translated in this

volume, were collected by Sheref ed chjn Ihn Asacl,

^\

^J\^\

I—j^) a native of Cairo,

who

lived, it

is said,

early in the last century, but never acquired
literary

a very high

reputation.

The

translator

found those Proverbs written upon
in the

nme

or ten leaves

common-place book of a sheikh,
;

mth whom

he was acquainted in this city
explanation
or

but they wanted

commentary.

omitted a considerable number,

Of those he has many being altothem
before the

gether uninteresting, and others so grossly indehcate
that he could, not venture to lay

pubhc, although
excelled in wit.

it

must be acknowledged that they
Several sayings which appear to

have been popular in the time of Ibn Asad, are no
longer current
;

and these the translator has marked
he has augmented by

with an asterisk.

The
quoted

original

collection

some hundreds, committed to paper as he heard them
in general society or in the bdzar.

Where

the sense of a Proverb did not seem quite clear, he

IV

TRANSLATORS TREFACE.
it,

has explained

or at least noticed tlie
to
it,

meaning

commonly assigned
of language

as well as any peculiarity
differs

wherever the provincial idiom

from the learned Arabic.
assisted

In this labour he was

by many

intelligent

Arabs of

Cairo.

The

natives, in general, are so fond of figurative language

and of witty
low
life,

allusions

and comparisons taken from

that these sayings are constantly quoted on
occasion,

every

common

and express the tendency or

moral of an event much better than could be done

by a long or flowery speech.
are rhythmical,

Many
is

of these sayings

and sometimes the rhymes are ex;

tremely happy
translation,
possible,
sacrificed

but the drollery

lost in a plain
literal

which has been rendered as
in

as

and
to

which the true sense has never been

elegance.

They are written

in

the

vulgar dialect of Cairo, such as every inhabitant

understands and every one uses, except perhaps a

few who
classes.

affect to despise the

language of the lower
genuine specimen of

These Proverbs

offer a

the Arabic at present spoken in the Egyptian capital,

and the same, or very nearly the same, as that used
in the

towns of the Delta.
useful, as

These sayings are
us

they serve to show
things,

how

the Arabs judge of
it

men and

and

in

this respect

must be acknowledged that many
sagacity.

are

dictated by

wisdom and

Several Scrijotural

sayings and

maxims

of ancient sages will be found
;

here

naturalized

among Arabs

as

well

as

some

TRANSLATORS PREFACE.

V

Proverbs which have generally been supposed of

European

origin.

Meidani has collected many sayings that were
current
liant

among the
of

ancient Arabs at the most brilsocial

period
;

their

state

and

of

their

language

but the present collection

offers to
;

our
it

view a different nation and different manners
also exhibits in

some places an adulterated

dialect,
little

and alludes

to vices

which were probably but

known among
means
so

the forefathers of the Egyptians.
is

It

proves, however, that the language

not by any

corrupted

as

various
principles

travellers

have

imagined, and that the
honour,
of friendship

of virtue

and

and true

charity,

of inde-

pendence and generosity, are perfectly well known
to the

modern inhabitants of Egypt, although very

few among them take the trouble of regulating their
conduct accordingly.

The number of nine hundred and ninety-nine
Proverbs might easily have been augmented by one,

but the translator refrains from completing the thousand, adopting here a notion prevalent

among Arabs,
by the

that even

numbers are unlucky, and that any thing
is

perfect in its quantity
evil eye.

particularly affected

He

does not pretend to possess such a

thorough knowledge of the learned Arabic as would

have enabled him

to indicate

every instance of dis-

crepancy between the language of these popular
sayings

and

that

used

by

the

ancient

Arabian

accompHshed traveller has suflSciently explained his in his original collection. 2hth of March. or loss of leaves. NOTE OF THE EDITOR. vulgar idiom of inhabitants familiar to him . which amount in some instances to whole decades of Proverbs the most considerable deficiency occurring where (in the middle . and knowing how few specimens of that idiom have hitherto been published. not by any accidental injury. VI NOTE OF THE EDITOR. and that his explanations will be regarded as the hasty work of a traveller subject to numerous inconveniences. The numerical series interrupted in various parts of the manuscript. but by chasms. 1817. and not criticised as the elaborate treatise of a learned Arabic scholar or grammarian.. in some have been deceived by erroneous or defective information. he flatters himself with the hope that this collection may interest and gratify the Orientalist. mutilation. It motives for withholding from publication several Proverbs which had found a place that the seems necessary not Editor should account as why this volume does contain even so many Burckhardt evidently intended to publish (nine hundred is and ninety-nine). That To Burckhardt's short Preface a few lines must here be added. His long residence at Cairo rendered the o its writers. cases. and who may. surrounded by position perfect. all the means of making his com- CAIRO.

NOTE OF THE EDITOR.
of a page) immediately after No. 516 follows No. 577.

VU
These

omissions

may

not

unreasonably be sui^posecl to have arisen
;

from the
1

writez''s

mistake of one figure for another
7,

in fact the

of

No. 516 so much resembles a
its

(being nearly joined to
part,) that it

the 5 by a stroke of the pen at
easily deceive the eye.

upper

might
for

Some allowance must

also be
to

made

the effect of

those inconvenient circumstances

which our

ingenious traveller has above alluded.
stances of
collected
diflBculty,

Under whatever circum-

danger, or inconvenience, he

may have
manners,
while his
to

and explained these Proverbs, his work
original information

offers a variety

of

curious and

respecting

the
;

customs, and opinions of an extraordinary people
philological remarks
all

must prove highly useful and interesting
of

who

are desirous

understanding-, with

critical

accuracy,

the modern Arabic dialect used at Cairo.

In the composition of this work, as of his volumes already
published, he adopted the language of our country, and generally

with

sufficient correctness

;

it

has been, however,

in

some

places,

necessary to substitute an EngUsh for a foreign idiom, Burckhardt's

meaning beiug on
j

all

occasions most scrupulously pre-

served

even where

his translation of certain

terms or phrases

(which the Arabic scholar will soon discover) appeared more
literal

than decent,

it

has been endeavoured by circumlocution to

express the sense without offending delicacy.

These and the
under
preceding

omission of a few Proverbs (found to agree most exactly both in

words

and

signification

with others
liberties

given

numbers) constitute the only

which have been assumed

by the

Editor.

WILLIAM OUSELEY.
London,

May

21st, 1830.

r

Erratum .—Proverb No.

138.

lor ci;U read

c^^U

AEABIC PEOVERBS

MODERN

EGYPTIANS,

i_asi

No.

1.

^

thousand raps at the door, hut no salute or
invitation

from

ivithin.

This

is

said of a person's fruitless endeavours to

become intimate with another.

2.

(Let them strike or slap) a thousand nechs, hut not

mine.

Among
(liji)

the Arabs
ears.

it is

usual to strike the neck

and not the

A

blow on the neck

is

con-

2
sidered a
face.

ARABIC PROVERBS.

much
is

greater affront than a slap on the
neck, but a blow struck

Not only the
" I struck

the neck,

expressed in the

Egyptian dialect

upon by Ui.

him a blow on his neck," (Uj <tu^) is exactly equivalent in its meaning to the English phrase, " I boxed his ears."
3.

Thus

A

thousand cranes in the air are not worth one

sparrow in

the fist.

The crane
perly signifies

^^

is

a bird

common

in the Delta,

particularly about the

Lake of Menzaleh. i_J^ prothe "hand," or "palm of the hand ;"
generally used for the "
fist."

but in Egypt

is

4.

If

the

moon

he ivith thee, thou needest not to care

about the stars.

5.

If a worthless felloiv he with
else

thee,

do not

let

him

go, or

one luorse will come

to thee.

The general meaning is, that we should bear present ills rather than, by endeavouring to remove
them,
expose ourselves to greater.
This saying

ARABIC PROVERBS.
is

3

often

quoted with respect to servants, whose

dishonesty and insolence are subjects of universal

complaint throughout Egypt.

The word
The word

i-_->-^.^.

in

common
let it

acceptation signifies ''to leave a thing, to

go out of one's hands."

u*^ is

used

in

Egypt

to express a low, disorderly, unprincipled

character

—a
JU-

base, worthless fellow.

6.
i-uJ^l

^_j^,

^)}

luuiil

^_JSJij

>A^\

u::^!^ Ijl

If

the turbans complaiyi

of a slight ivind, what must

he the state

of the

mner

draivei^s f

This proverb

is

quoted when the citizens of Cairo

murmur

at oppression, the peasants having

much
aLJ],

greater reason for being discontented.

'L^\ flatus,

^JLi\

in the

Egyptian

dialect

used

for

^ —
i^l
\^\

plural of (jwU, drawers

worn
7.

under the great trowsers.

^\j^\

J^

JLj\

^\j ^^j

^

If my husband

consent, ivhy should the

kadhys

inter-

ference be necessary.

This means in general that

when two

parties

who

have contended agree to be reconciled, the arbitration
of a third person
is

not requisite.

But the saying
which

more

particularly alludes to divorces,

m

many
in the

cases are determined

by the kadhy.

Egyptian

dialect,

signifies

—the

J^

meddling, officious

interference of a third person.

4

AEABIC PROVERBS.
8.

jjiob

iJ-«A)

Jk/i^kwl

L::.-^-^

\j\

If thou forgettest

to

say "Praise he
ivilt

to

God"
f

in ivhat

other ivords
Tills
is

thou 'pray

addressed to persons

who

neglect the

principal object or part of their business,

and execute
J^^^ means

only that which
the expression

is

the least important.

<dl

^^a^S,

which commences the Fateha,
in

or first chapter of the Koran,
in every prayer.
iJlj\j

and should be recited the Egyptian dialect for
this after the
^jLA)

(^

t^V-

The Egyptians always put
it

verb in interrogations, as
Syrians invariably place

^^J^ ^whilst the before, and say ^^J^ lAi^'*

9.

If thy neighbour

dislike thee,

change the gate of thy

house.

The intimacy with neighbours is much greater in the East than in Europe and the repose of a family often depends upon the harmony subsisting between it and those who occupy the adjoining house.
;

10.

If thy neighhour shaves (somebody), do thou soak head of the person whom he shaves).

(the

Always endeavour

to act agreeably to the wishes

ARABIC PROVERBS.
of thy neighbour.
Jjo to wet,

5
to

meaning here

wet

the head with a lather of soap before the application
of a razor.
11.

If God proposes

the destruction of
to

an

ant, he allows

wings

grow upon

her.

The sudden elevation of persons to stations above their means or capacities, may often cause their ruin.
12.

^
If thou
seest

I

Xi\ j^s. jf.\

>-:^;\;

\^\

a one-eyed person pass
stone.

hy,

turn up a

The people of Cairo turn up a stone or break a water-jar behind the back of any person whom they
dislike, just

on his leaving them, hoping thereby to
;

prevent his return

this is a

kind of incantation.

The term one-eyed here expresses a person disagreeThe Arabs regard a one-eyed able on any account. man as of bad omen ((*»-ij), and nobody wishes to meet him.
13.
l^Irsr

If thou

seest

^^ u3j^ JyA'* W*" '---V.J a tcall mclining, run from under
'"^^

it.

Fly from him whose power
dangers threaten.

is

tottering, or

whom
is

In the Egyptian dialect

Lj.*-

used for k>U-.

6

ARABIC PROVERBS.
14.
^\^4'\

^^.

^ ^\

^*j-\

JP\ ^/^
it

'^\

If

the dishes increase in

number,

becomes hiown

that they are from the houses

of neighbours.

In the East, neighbours frequently supply the

wants of their
feasts.

friend's kitchen

on occasion of family

This saying implies that

when a person makes
it is

too expensive an entertainment,

evident that he

has borrowed from others.

means not only

"

^^ (in the plural J\)\) a colour," but, among the Egyptians,

a dish of dressed victuals.
15.

i.^}\

L::-^yi

L:j\y^\

CL)j:^ \j\

If

the sailors

become

too

numerous, the ship

sinks.

cL>jj^

instead of Luy^.

The lu

is

seldom pro-

nounced in Egypt.
16.

If a serpent

love thee, luear

him as a necMace.

If dangerous people

court their friendship

show affection towards thee, by the most polite attention.
17.

j\,*j>~

,^As>-

J-4^ J^snJl
ijut

j^^

\>^\

If thy camel break down,

on an ass-load.

Suit thy business to thy circumstances.

ARABIC PROVERBS.
18.
^Lsn.--«j

7

^Ji\^

Sj^jmL*

aS'jJl

^

j^z\ J^Ull J (j!^'^ ^ji^^

^^

\J\

If the winding-sheet he ragged, and the corpse-washer one-eyed, and the hier broken, and the hurialgrou7id a saltish soil, then truly the deceased must belong to the inhabitants of hell.
If everything in a person's business goes wrong,

he must be totally ruined at
stand or frame on which the

last.

<i^j

is

properly a

coffin rests before it is

removed

to the grave.
19.

If mendicity should unfortunately

be thy

lot,

knock at

the large gates only.

Ask

assistance from those only
thee.
20.

who have the

power of helping

If an onion causes his loud rejoicings, what then we say to sugar f
Said of people
objects.

shall

who bestow admiration upon triffing

21.

C>1^\,«

J^jJ^ JU2»- l^^^i^ iJl

If they

call thee reaper,

whet thy scythe.

Endeavour, even by mere appearances, to con-

ruh off at thy nearest friend's. t_iy^ ^jj\j\\ c-yl ^Ji d. or the fragments from your ^ . 22. J. When the angels present themselves. and not strangers. A affair. Let your own kmdred. a fissure in the wall.ARABIC PROVERBS.^\ ^ji^^ t_>Jj3 it ^ J^ ^^^ If there be grease on thy hand. If ivater is ijvesentfor ablution. vince people that thou deservest the reputation that thou enjoy est. the use of sand is discontinued.^w> J^t> ^^^^ it ^^-r^ ^'^^ If the ivind blows. lucky person fortunate in the most trifhng jylij plural of jJ^. 25. Affluence renders unnecessary what is practised during poverty. is enters at every crevice. 23. ^^<>J1 is the abhition with sand which the Turkish law prescribes when water cannot be procured.^. j_jiL^\ the devils abscond. 24. share in your superfluities.

able. they took their . be. —a selfish principle very general in the water children According to Moslim tradition. expert. then upon their heads . De amatorlbus c_.-"' water. rose higher. . when the deluge came and the rebel sons of in their arms Noah felt approach their ankles. or swearing at a person. they placed them upon their shoulders. place thy son under thy feet. table. but at when the flood reached to their own mouths. even at the expense of thy nearest kindred or friends the Levant. en- deavouring to keep their own heads above the 28. calling opprobrious names. hnoio that he loves him.::^^ c-iCJu^ J«-1 ^li_jL U\ U- \3\ If the water come like a deluge. not yed. clever. they put the children under their feet.ARABIC PROVERBS. as ought to 26. Save thyself. 9 sA is used at Cairo for It Jo —and pronounced there eed.uj Is commonly used at Cairo for reviling. <^s:b ^\ JLc-\ <UauJ ajulj \3\ If thou seest Mm reproaching and dlcltur. steal j\^\. little when the water last. 27/"- c-CU-j ^. The thief who understands his husiness does not from his own quarter (of the town). swearing at him.

If nothing else will avail. The ultimate remedy is a cautery. The nuptials are the nuptials of our father. This saying alludes to a crowd of fellows who have make room as- sembled at a nuptial entertainment. asleep. but at the end affrays often happen. yet the peo2)le fight with us.10 ABABIC PROVERBS. who generally commit depredations at that time. jDrofligates coming from the houses of pubhc women. is This sajdng addressed to persons exulting in final issue. iU]! ^j JJ^\ ^1 At the close of the night the cries are heard. but beat displace the bridegroom's children. night to warn them of the The may have passed tranquilly. violent measures must be at last adopted. good fortune. . when they suppose the inhabitants to be 30. 29. or by robbers. occasioned either by drunkards. Those who have the strongest claim find themselves dispossessed of the advantage by others. 31. to and for themselves.

for j^ri-b — ^the J being gene- rally pronounced as 34." you do so we shall cup (or . t—C«^s:\^s:U «ilUi scarify) you. hut the Lord takes {sums up his reckoniiig) mule (load) by mule Jci^b (load). *' better to be scarified with an axe than to owe or be indebted to others for anything. also^to make mere It ^ scarifications on the forehead or legs —a common ^Jl practice in the Levant. The whims of pregnant women are treated with indulgence in the East as well as in Europe. from a^lLl for -UIs-^L might likewise mean a thing.ARABIC PROVERBS. Among the Bedouins. hut the nurse ate it.OJ Jjo tX^lj Ujj J i__a^ u_2^ <^^V. This proverb resembles in sense tbat immediately preceding. and so understood would signify. Rather be scarified ivith an axe than require favours others." Lol^^ means cupping. 32. 33. ij. J. in Egypt used J. 11 The pregnant woman longed for it.^^^^^ The miller takes (steals) handful by handful. a "if father threatening liis son. says. or (as hereafter remarked).

The cai^tain {of the ship) loves thee.12 ARABIC PROVERBS. (Yes) —/ like my mother-in-law." Here is to be understood is name 37/' Play ivith a slave. 36. and I like also that she should make a {disgusting) smell under my nose {crepitum reddendo). and her commonly used as a term expressing "disagreeable kindred. He who is favoured by government may do any thing with impunity. 35. he will show to thee his hinder parts. luipe thy hand on the sail. Low people become insolent famHiarity. obstinate fellow. who per- longing for what offends others. This refers to a sists in it is silly. ^ if you admit them to is equivalent to jA) — or rather to . In the East generally supposed that a mother-in-law cannot long be on good terms with the son-in-law.

39. de force " t«JjLlj properly expresses those " tours by a rope dancer in wheeling round whole body with the head forwards. i]l\ 13 Jljj ^Lli l^^lA\ <U-^ jJ t. This refers to those who judge the world merely by their own sensations. " / ivish you good night. and still ogles the women. . signifies any small piece of wood. He fancied that night had arrived. his 40. &c.'' said he. at ^^J^ L^^. straw. He ^yj^\ is blind.::-^^ jji\ u4 splinter entered the sound eye of a one-eyed person. behind which the women sit. and suppose that every one must feel as they do. 38. yet whirls about. o^ ci^^^.'" He practised is hump-backed. il^ in the Egyptian dialect.ARABIC PROVERBS. is commonly used Cairo to describe the glances which a man passing in the street directs towards the shutters.

_^ V^jJ ijl. ^d used m Egypt for i_?j^. if 'i>J\^\ intentions of inferior officers are of the spirit of government be unmerciful. 'ixJ^ L^ u?J i'jJ^_j!l ^Jy• ^jS:A 'iS\d^\ CjIss- ^\ If the midivife happen to have more commiseration is {for the child) than the mother. Custom reconciles us to bad living. ii-jo- may likewise be translated " affection.-"- /^ w ^0 if Aee / speak. A man conversing with his own wife. unable to comprehend a slight hint. and who overheard the conversation but she did not understand him. hut truly thou art an ass.14 ARABIC PROVERBS. he in a rage used the words above quoted. 41. This is said of dull persons. the midwife.^'^ IAjc-. ^Ji^ half- ." 43. my {fair) neighbour . 42. he sups on it. and of . was desirous of giving a hint to his neighbour's wife. whom he was the gallant. a corrupt The humane little avail.!^^ C::^ikljJ3 U {Jmj\ Whatever the halfhlind wife cooJcs for her husband. that feeling.

sore-eyed. The burial is attended by crowds of people. ^\ used in Egypt for ^^JJU . and often prefixed to verbs but stiU more commonly . instead of saying lahoo. the deceased is a dog. 45.. blind. many '^J^\ significations it here means " to take out. obtain information. hlindness to thy eyes^' t—5^^ ^ lA^ •) The L-j of ^<^ is according to the Egyptian dialect. in Syria than in Egypt. it The Egyptians pronounce aj as if were written ^ loo. funeral L^[s>~ . What is in the cauldron is taken out with the hitchen spoon. the proper mode must be ^Ik> has adopted." i. The lazy person has no legs.e. — Alluding to great honours bestowed on persons not worthy of them. " 15 (The Egyptians frequently use the imprecation. 46. : own people to brmg to a conclusion also. Every and to its affair requires its own it peculiar treatment. .ARABIC PROVERBS." is the great kitchen ladle or wooden spoon. signifies a burial or when it is " hot attended by multitudes.

16 ARABIC PROVEUBS. old clipped silver or copper coin. a mirror . ^^-alLo is the likewise false coin. most likely to thrive are those which cry from the very egg. The Egyptians more generally Diivdny is use Jxj or uJyj to express false money. In the Egyptian h\^ used for l\^. . This is likewise expressed by the saying The words ^ji and are synonymous. : " show thyself in it be frank with the peoj3le). 47. To gain. The fine pullet The pullets shotvs its excellence from the egg. Play ivith false coin until thou gettest a diwdny. 48.-"'^ L^jy The world is ^jj\ h\r^ W"^^ thyself in it..e. and it will let thee see its image " (i. begin humbly..e. (SJj^::^ 49. the same as pdrd. people will be frank with thee). show and it will reflect thy image. We may also translate thus (i. This meaning would be more clearly expressed by the words dialect ^*uA3 is l-^Ij^'j (—CJu 1$jjj^.

until the complement of passengers be 53. h^\s jy is Tooba. tie a turban. signifies them "to like turbans about their heads. 48) means that a person gives for indications of his future virtues from early youth. The hasty and the tardy meet at the ferry. hut do not forget thy engagements.< a ferry-boat. hut the deeds belong to Emshyr. 50. The wait a long time on the banks of the Nile. ribbands of straw from which baskets are made. full. Tie a turhan of straiv round thy head. ^ is much used among the Egyptians 51. This (like No. Play the fool as much as thou wilt. : Extremes often meet ferries hss.ARABIC PROVERBS. Idiots fasten c^"^. "the This alludes to the cold of tiie common saying. T'ooha hears the name. d:^]j. but observe Ljju«1 thy promises and engagements." which in Egypt applied to any .. 17 From the aszer (or afternoon) it cqypears ivhether the night will be clear." 52.

although it has not the character of being so.-'^ jiL "the labour of a woman in child- Work (ivere it only) for a single grain. and reckon up the profits cLs- of him who does nothing. in executing them. c o ^ From the mother s efforts in labour. 54. the month next after Tooba. circumstances ^^jA must favour us veil." 55." often means "a Thus it is said. " Parturiunt montes. here . cut her veil in tvjo. bed. ive expected the birth of a male child. nascitur ridiculus mus. lo- ^ ^ " not even the smallest trifle. Tooba is considerable degree of cold." he replied. " The object is now tofnd the chance of meeting her. the Coptic : month comprehending the greater part of January but the coldest month in Egypt. trifle." Sons are much more desired than daughters throughout the East.lb ARABIC PROVERBS. is Emshyr." 56. If thou find her. a woman's JL« is generally of black silk or cotton. It is not sufficient to form projects.

put for Jjlill Jli'." together what separated or as here. The needy husband connives earnings of his unfaithful at the dishonourable The term ^{jj Cuckolds and (cuckold) is no longer used at Cairo. which is the common expression of among the Egyptians. above all.jJl often signifies nothing more than "if. / best knoiv the sun of his my oivn country. and heard on every Equivalent to f^jx^ are the words ^\^'i occasion. The Zalahye is {a dish) forbidden to the dogs.ARABIC PROVERBS.." ijjtii "in my J literally. 19 ij^j In the Egyptian dialect means turn. afiairs." The needy is the brother of the cuckold. " the gathering . Every one knows best interested in them. sugar not much in fashion of late at Cairo./uLll The expression J ^U i>'. 59. J^'uiJl for once. own and those 58. procurers are generally comprised under the same wife. if!" 57. and .j^o ." is "now." J. appellation insult ^jj^ . and . butter. " to cause or find a meeting.^ ^Jij The higher classes only can enjoy certain pleasures. are round cakes made of flour.

rather than at home. This alludes to the lighted. "he has not as much as would pay for the oil. The beetle markable for its by the present Egyptians as reugliness. least two To express that a man is reduced to abject poverty. oil with which lamps are and which costs each family at paras every night." 61. The beetle is a beauty in the eyes of its mother. On (luJLAri-) the is infatuation cited of parents.-«4^ in the sense of "handsome. Endeavour signify to gain in lose in brilliant concerns. They use ." ^^xc U 62. Work. Gain ivpoyi dirt rather than loss upon mush. . 60. though thy gain be merely the sit {idle) oil.20 ARABIC PROVERBS." but the term i?^L^ more fre- quently employed. low pursuits rather than L^Jl is used in Egypt to is "loss. the Egyptians say.

girls. and obtruded their company at every private feast. 64. i^^^." " to transport. general to importunate and in- truding (called visitors. On the consequences of bad company.ii') who were established as a regular corporation at Cairo." " to lead. to depart from the house. signifying "to carry." The fly knows the face of the milk-'seller. 65. to the fool tvith a kick {are taught understand). in constant use among the Egyptians. 21 //* ^Ae house he relieved from {the 2)^^esence of) Sayd^ no other This relates iii ivill come from afar. The wise ivith a wink.ARABIC PROVERBS. 63. Follow the owl. This proverb chiefly refers to the dancing . unless they were induced by a present to all who gave entertainments. Sayd was one of in former times tliose j)arasites J-. and became a plague They have their chief or sheikh. she will lead thee to a ruined place.

" 69. ABABIC PROVERBS. and the talking {therein). pay attention particularly to those whom they soon discover to be the most inclined towards them. a person who understands tji^^Lku the precepts of but never acts according to them. In the Egyptian for cUAio^^ "to practise foul deeds." or " embroil. On religion. ^-^^. 70. To us belong the house. or exclusively. dialect. This expresses that that it is we are here sole masters." " to intrigue. The Sultan is reviled in his absence {only). hut still practises evil. The devil does not destroy his (oivn) house. 68.22 wlio.^^^ our own affair for . The devil knows his Lord. * when they are brought for the amusement of company.

ARABIC PROVERBS. Mingle thy soi^roiv with Zebijbe. Those nearest to wealth are often prevented from it . and honey. 73. classes is is Drown your griefs in pleasures. a^i commonly used Egypt an unchaste female or prostitute. excessively intoxicating. In Hedjaz this flower of hemp mixed with raisins (called Zehyb) and tobacco. and smoked in the Persian j^ipe from which mixture . 71/"' 23 The public ivoman ivho is liberal {of her favours) j does not wish for a p>vocuress. . enjoying the great enjoy the least. 4-^j is a preparation from the flower of hemp. the name of Zebybe has probably been derived. A bad in thorough scoundrel wants no inducement to IS\^3 actions. the meat of the nuptial leaving the members of the family to long even for the broth. for a procuress. 72. It is used among the lower* and peasants. In this proall verb it is supposed that the guests devour feast."' 'j~i^J Jj^^ll (J^y'^'l J^-^i The people concerned in ' the nuptials long for the broth. opium.

The word j^i*^ sense means of a child. ^J^»^\ is often used to express any small bird.^l\ jSi ^^^ . icliile the sjwrtsman sets his net. ^i::^> used in Egypt for The little bird picks its breast. thou wilt find something worth a On white fruitless or childish exertions. if This expresses that a person be once unlucky. which serve as playthings for children. if*-*-^* ''^*'^«^ lAH? ^'-*^ .-'- 'i£.^Ul) much ^j[^ to express in a thoughtless state of security or happy is (Jlf stands for J^-ci " he does . (T/ie misfortune) falls either the upon the camel. is to be . 74." and an . The birds in performing that operation upon themselves always appear In Egypt it is said of a person that he leisure. . or upon camel-driver. '^y Light a candle search for a ichole iceek shell. lz^_^ are small shells brought from the Red Sea. he is unfortunate in every whether with respect to his family or his business. thing. 75. to pick the in the original vermin off the head or body pleased.24 ARABIC PROVERBS. or upon the owner of the camel. properly a sparrow. and as counters in the ^^^ilj' game of mangal.

Such cases are of — as men in the haste of anger often divorce their wives by the simple expression E . cohabits with her for one night. said he." s- To live single rather than have 7sr' ill-natured companions. " to turn the ends of the net-strings in the sportsman's hand. pi'operly sig- nifying " to fry a piece of meat is in the pan . my feast-day. as meat turned with a spoon in the frying-pan.ARABIC PROVERBS. auxiliary verb in constant use. oblige. Many lovers or gallants cause less shame to a woman than one Mostahel." here means. They stood in need of the is Jew (to assist them) — this day. According to the Moslim law a person who has once divorced his wife cannot re-marry her. until she has been married to some other man who becomes . next morning after again possess her as frequent occurrence and divorces her the which the first husband may his wife. her legitimate husband. Addressed to persons unwilhng to serve or A thousand lovers rather than one Mostahel.) 25 Jji-v.

" "to care for" u-^SIj attentive to :" thus it is said. ^o " take 82.-" The smallest stock of pi^ovisions supports back) to his home. as here. Aj] ti ^. Cii^\ (the traveller is often employed. whom he chooses from the ughest .Lv U-i^ J^" u^} cities does heaven care for the of the dogs? On the indifference of government to the comJIjo plaints of the lower classes. monk eats iq^ in one night.lii^ ^^ ^ 4 ^^^^^ ^^if-^^ ^\ What the ant collects in the course the of a ivhole year. and is generally most disgusting to the wife. — "be care. A temporary husband of this kind is called Mostahel.26 eJouiJi? ARABIC PROVERBS. that can be found in the streets but who must engage effectually to consummate the nuptials. for one's home or country. 80. ^m What l. In order to regam rate) his wife a man hires (at no inconsiderable some peasant. JJl for ^JJl 81. . —which cannot be retracted.

27 A secret jyi confided to him may he regarded as if it were [published) in the house of the police officers. 86. in 84. everJ private transaction becomes is the chief officer of police. 83. He devised the most artful and ignominious methods of slowly tormenting him. This proverb exclusively applied to those who from stinginess keep their own people in such a state of hunger that they become faint. He gave This ^tij is him the sheep's ear {for his share). used in Egypt for ^ Jl 85. relates to unjust or unequal divisions. ^\j^\ iLs^p-b J^^ to !i\x^\ He gave him the vinegar drink upon the tvings of flies. He let him is see the stars in day-time.ARABIC PROVERBS. . whose house known. and every object seems black to their eyes.

Of a person who gives such an answer as does not relate to the question asked. 7%e captain (of the ship) means one ivay." ^jj but stands ^\ or Thus it is said t::. 87. When the monhey reigns. equal to about fifteen bushels." -. {J^\j^\ in Eg3rpt . " meaning. Do not trouble thyself about the business of it. of " account. 88.jm'i c-jLo- is not used for here in its usual sense. tvanis no one to set him The lazy only require spurs. others. dance before him. else thou wilt repent ^'^j\ the Egyptian corn-measure. be not present when measured out . 90. The clever and active valet right. (else) thy beard will be dusted. the sailor another.28 AEABIC PROVERBS.." 89. i/' ^Ae erc?e6 {of corn) does not belong it is to thee. and thou wilt be ivearied with the removing of it.^^- uJLjb " I meant to go there.^.

91. On people. smell. and generally his confidant. The Egyptians use the word jUf< to express a man who is lazy hunself and The Mogonly occupied in the affairs of others. J\^\\ for J\3/\ 93. A clever spinster spins ivith distaff). signifies the valet 29 de chambre." the 21^ consequences is of intimacy with bad used in Egypt for ''stink" or ''bad . small means. He who introduces himself hetiveen the onion and the peel. does 7iot go forth ivithout its strong smell. an ass's foot (as her Of those who do much with 92. The walls have ears." In Egypt ^Ui grebyns give this name to denotes one who is both active and clever in his business. is clothes and keys. " spurs.ARABIC PROVERBS. the who keeps his master's chief among his servants.

94. is very finely told m the 97. at Cairo. The history of Joseph Koran. on the slightest prospect of gain. Feed the mouth.^ O ^J A lama. These two sayings relate to Ashab and Moseyancient Arabs (the latter a false prophet) . On family broils. (Even) the entrails in the belly quarrel together. one «_jIJ1 signifies at Cairo who abandons his old friends for new. This very common He sells his friend more easily than the brethren of Joseph sold him. m. 95. Give presents to great people and they will be ashamed not saying is to look upon you with kindness. the eye ivill he bashful. ^.30 ARABIC PROVERBS. greater liar than Moseylama. {He is) more greedy than Ashab. 96.

''here is Moseylama and that — Ashab!' 99.-"- What does the ivolfcare if the sheep-fold be destroyed f ^Ikj the same as c_-. 101. Folloio the liar to the gate of his house. so that (to I helieved it to he true. Gay or expensive fashions {adopted consist in the Tikhe hut) concealed and the Tdk.— ARABIC PROVERBS. thy abode) and turned back.i —a woLf. fine These personages are noticed in the following verses : Thou gavest me thy 23ledge In my greedy hopes Iivent If in society thou will say.ye. c-jIj c_>U used in Egypt for J1 100. remarkable for the vices here imputed to • 31 them. Said of hypocrites or timid persons who declaim . is People and I should meet.. To ascertain whether he has spoken truth.

In the Egyptian dialect 'ij>^\ means " high gaiety." "jollity. men who is in this respect are like the Here to be understood." " fashion. and ^ stands for ^'A ^ ." " heartiness. Both the Tikhe and the Tdkye are sent among the first tokens of affection by a lady to her lover. El Tdkye a white cambric bonnet or cap. onion ! as every hite draws tears f Said of onion. that is worn close to the head under the red bonnet or Tai'hosh. frequently embroidered. but secretly indulge in tliem. with which the trowsers of men and women signifies are closely tied about the loins.32 ARABIC PROVERBS. against gay fashions. often embroidered." " liberality. station wish or who fear to make themselves too conspicuous by an open display of gay fashions. El TikJce is a sasli of silk or muslin. What can I think of thy good qualities. The TikTce affords subject for many jokes in gay conversation. being applied also to low people. while it remains hidden under the garments. who and among their own acquaintances Those who do not to be smart and dashing. console themselves by having these two hidden articles of costly materials and expensive workmanship." The words j^^^^ and ijjjkxc are very in common their affect . 102.

106. Purchase the slave either when he is quite young and raw. On disappomted expectations. ij^^-^ gypsum. . Beware of the pains that must be taken with a half-bred man. Sing. [the Koran). 103. If the verb ^jiu stand by ]yb itself. it is often to be understood as ^\^\\ 104. if I shall submit to pain and ridicule Sjr^ the woman continue virtuous. iPf) the slave (take) either thejirst or the last. and both thy occupations will resemble each other.ARABIC PROVERBS. ij:>- (3J. We bought him {the jackass) to turn the plaster (of Paris) mill. " as becomes a woman. ^ on i_s*^ '^j^ u::--ccJ5 U Tfthou shoiddest prove a virtuous ivoman. 33 They saw a drunhard reading they said. free-born virtuous. but he proved Jit only for the corn mill. hang a jar my ear. so that he may be educated as you please or when he is full grown and all his good or bad qualities can be discovered. or F ." 105.

in general. and. (-_aL> in the Egyptian dialect. than a common corn Almost every mill is respectcible house at Cairo has own worked by a jackass. A This is name without a body said as [or reality). the idle who enjoy every . but whose characters answer to their names. for this idle Sybarite. Lending is rimious is {to lenders and : borrowers). unfortunate person. 107. Work thou. ^^^/^^ one who sits at ease reclining upon his cushions luxury. " to advance or lend money. to turn the mill. of persons .us- who little bear honourable ^iiu. ..j-. There a similar proverb Lending nurses enmity.— 34 plaster of Paris.3-0 names. — Such s^s^\ — dillj^ —^JU — &c. It requires much greater strength heavy gypsum which mill." 109. its — ARABIC PROVERBS. 108.

Thou art hut the luasherman {of the dead).ARABIC PROVERBS. yet thou wilt insure {him) Paradise. ive do not regret We court the friendship of those indifference. for ^jc^ ^^ is here . 110. If the rose come. 35 The mother of the coward does not grieve {for him). \. 113.::^^j£. whom we after- wards leave with This proverb alludes to the Eastern custom of having feasts and collations in gardens during the season of roses. 111. She has no cause to grieve exposes himself to danger. tve eat and drink near it. for one who never cU:s^a!1 '^i^-Aj ^\ If the harlot repent. if it depart. she becomes is a procuress. it. On the airs of patronage or protection assumed or authority by those who possess not any influence whatever. : Similar to this proverb the following — 112.

signifies here " virtuous. the ow in low having the sound of oiu in the English word owl. . 116. 104)." as above (in No. j>. The father house) — is is a lover {of is some one not in his own jealous the mother — the daughter at home puzzled how to act." or " honourable. It is better that our neighbours should be halfblind. 115. God grant us not any neighbour luith tivo eyes." An honourable man is honomxible. He ivho steals the asses. 114. is Of this proverb the pronuncia: tion at Cairo as follows El horr horr Wa low messoo edclorr. even though mishaps shoidd befall him.— 36 t ARABIC PROVERBS. what does he care about selling each of them even for one derhem f 117.

make One of them on his way to the scaffold. and re- proached him for his cunning ]sju*^ i-::-J1 . with a blow. To have patience ivith a friend rather than ever. 120. :" " thou art the inconsiderate person this proverb." jJj in the The people of Upper Egypt use the word sapae sense —thus. ^^\ cl^j^j \j\ — this is probably a corruption of the verb j3j or jSj. ^^^\ lost ^ "I have foolishly or inconsiderately such a thing. and the owner .-"- The tongue is the neclcs enemy. iSl^j^\ which words gave origin to There ^^:^\sji is a common phrase at Cairo." 37 The inconsiderate is the first to lose {or nearest to loss).ARABIC PROVERBS. the robbers were detected in the bazar. but these being was forced to give them a hundred pieces of coin all base money. Some robbers attacked a house. 118. but the man repHed. 119. where they went to purchases. the neck of him Bad language is retorted upon who uses it. lose him for In the dialect of Cairo many terms are used in . passed by the house of the person robbed.

121. is j-^s^'-H here put for j:s^J^ all throughout The term jsr expresses Egypt the Nile or J-Jl jsr The ^ . L_-^a-U i the sense of " friend. :s^\ are the boatmen who pull the rope. but comes at last to the mill." of friends denotes the or l_.38 ARABIC PROVERBS.11 has. Said of a lucky or highly fortunate person. j^lx. ^M Throw him <L2 jJ • j-i^. Every one business.^j&i own JA^^ Here to be understood —The word 'ij\ jA^I is the rope by which boats are dragged along the shore of the Nile against the stream. Hall i^sT ^ j^S)^ ^/Wil^ The com passes from hand to hand. r^r^^ ivill ^rri}^ into the river and he rise with a Jish in his mouth. his d.^s. he will at last be his into the hands of 123.Jv-^. 122.-s^ — and the superlative J^. or peasants hired for that purpose. To haul the rope is incumbent upon the boatmen.>:s^^ first class —then is follows ^-. is and should know. enemy. ij^sn. (^. However he may turn caught or fall or shift.

and play or joke ivith tJioic wilt lose by him. because they mostly belong to ancient . i 'ijJb a single but in common conversation the is frequently added without any particular meaning.r conscience) and sleep (ivithout fear) in the desert. is singular —thus lyu a single cow. Jocularity with a debtor often causes the loss of the money due. Said of boasters — this man wishes others to believe that the dates which. he purchased were the produce of his own trees.ARABIC PROVERBS. 124 * Advance or lend him hion (money). i 39 not only marks often added to nouns (as in K^J) the feminine gender. but shows precisely that the noun bird . 126. Improve or correct thy intentions (preserve a clea. . 125. and has noiu his 2:>alm-trees in the village. He bought for one derhem some dates. In Egypt it is generally considered by the peasants as an honoiu' to possess date trees.

: Of similar meaning the proverb - Let him wJio owns one herdt of the mare. He falls more frequently {or inore easily) than flies fall into honey. here used as the comparative of «_jj an form often employed by the Egyptians. 127. and cannot is easily be purchased." The father says ^-^. or the friend to his companion. Fine horses and valuable mares are shared among different proprietors. ^^^ is or j^\\ j1^-j the distinguishing colour of wicked persons on the (Moslim) it Day of Judgment. let to his son. blacken my face" — "do not " do not thy behaviour prove a cause of shame to me. ^^^-^ Debts are a constant shame. each of whom possesses a certain into number animal is of the twenty-four kerdts which the supposed to be divided.-^' Debts cause both cheeks to become black. In common j^^ discourse means " shame." 128. It irregular ^^\ is is equivalent in meaning to c^jj jJ^\ . mount her.— 40 families ARABIC PROVERBS.

" Gazelles and This refers to conceited persons. in the country of the 130. "Dost Lord may transform or metamorphose thee replied he.ARABIC PROVERBS. 41 The one-eyed person is a beauty blind. the well-conditioned houses." 131. (" V (" Indeed. Whither can the sun retire from the bleachers"^ This alludes to persons who cannot elude the pursuit of their importunate cHents. " signifies both " populous and " in a good state of repair or cultivation. is " a bleacher. They 7net a inonkey making ivater in thou not fearj' said they. 129. G . that they may spread out their cloth or yarn. ." 'iyi\j^\ CJ>^-J1 ^J=^ "^W^*^^ "^^ The foreign hand destroys j^\s.") / should fear that p>unishment) if he ivere to change me into a Gazelle.Lai in the dialect of Egypt. " that the a mosque." 132. The bleachers are constantly watching for the sun.

according to Eastern nations. . but not of what he expends in charity i.-" l%e Z>ac/ neighbour sees only what enters not ivhat goes out [from it).«-^„ <dll ^^ Here is to be understood' ^\ lJ'ustU 133. and the phlegmatic (^^b). 134.42 ARABIC PROVERBS. your . monkies. keeps an account of what his neighbour . the choleric (t_?jUt>). thee is to which is a common expression frequently added. represent the extremes of beauty and ugliness.jj^ j\ ujCk\. uXsa-u^^ i^\ "May God metamorphose of insult .e. the the melancholy (^/^b^-:). He gains. Arabian physiologists divide the human character into four natural classes bilious (c/j^/t-tf). Custom is ctjifth nature.. " may he !" !" change thee into a dog or a hog ji. (the house). he is bluid to your good qualities and only notices defects.

A miserable Bedouin thi'own aivay. he put his legs in motio?i excite the [to animal that he 7'ode). its j-jy^ is not used by the Egyptians in "ulcerated. " found a date Whither shall {that had been) he." said {" to eat it in safety ?") Trifles become treasures to the poor. <W-=^j '"t/*" <—^j ^'<= '^'V After he had mounted. he begins to oppress and tyrannize. he affected to he a Sherif Success renders a 137. I go. 136." .ARABIC PROVERBS." but generally to pitiable. When a man is once firmly established in power." Hteral meaning express ''miserable.'" After he had attained to Isldm. 43 Ul^ ^_^ 135.-" man bold. They also use ^j' for^ "a dry date.

an impostor." The word <x-«)/^ is likewise ijL^ ^." " scandal. giving a good external appearance. *—^J^ Egypt abounds with are well who known to be vile impostors.^ Ijfc^il) Lc i^xj After they had ravished her. jLc in the Egyptian active thief.'- She sold " is the lamp and bought a curtain [to hide her doings in the bed chamber). the hypocrisy of prudes. she called out to the watchmen. signifies a Hving saint or half-mad man. On sJlc. 138." Thus (J^^ " they make a public scandal of me. a clever country and villages between Cairo and the Mediterranean Sea. means the open dialect. in the usual acceptation of the word. in the plural —watchmen stationed in different quarters of the town. ILfSjb plained." . ^. " That.44 ARABIC PROVERBS. 'ijixi] c-'l^ 'ijJL. fellows of this description.w^sr. 140. a scandal under ajine appearance."finely exused in the same sense. 139.jjLc. The village saint J^l^j is a clever impostor." said one.

ARABIC PROVERBS.
141.
^<Ci^.«
a4/7;e?^ /ie

45

*.C^£

'^^.j^^

J^

^^'^

J

J^^

^*

^V
sofa, he

^ac? eaten
''

and

ivas reclining

on the

said,

thy bread has a smell of mastick."
it

When
parage
it.

he had fully enjoyed
\^'\

he began to

dis-

"

he reclined," as people after dinner,

upon sofa-cushions, when coffee is presented to them. j^Ju-x in the Egyptian dialect signifies " bread."
142.

Our tovm
This
is

is hut small, ive all hioiv

each other.

said

when an acquaintance meditates some

fraud or deception.

143.

Instead of v:alking upon kabkdbs, take the rags off
thy heels.

Provide for the necessaries of
enjoy the luxuries.
Jj^ — Kabkabs
baths,

life

before you

JUj

in the Egyptian dialect for

are stilts or

wooden

slippers, four or

five inches high,

upon which the women walk

in the

and the

ladies of genteel rank in their houses.

These latter have their kabkabs ornamented with
various sorts of silver tassels, and inlaid with mother
of pearl,
i.'^^^
is

used by the Egyptians

for " a

rag

;"

also for " a vile slut."

"

46

ARABIC PROVERBS.
144.

She has cm offensive

breath, yet presses

forward

to

get

a

kiss.

On

the ill-founded pretensions of people.

145.'"

{That

is)

a had exchange,

{like giving)

a j^aivn for a

bishop.

A

saying derived from the
146.

game

of chess.

Betiueen

Hdnd and Band
its

our beards were

lost.

This proverb owes

origm to a story resembling

one which La Fontaine has related.

Hana and Bana
plucked out
left

were the wives of an elderly
without any.

man— one

his grey hairs, the other his black,

and so

him

In Egypt there are other terms, like
thus
''

Hana and
almost
{l:l>jJ

Bana, used merely because they sound
:

alike

he went

to

Khirt

Birt

"

cl^j^),

which means that he travelled upon a
;

foolish
(ut!'*

errand
iJir^)'

or

" he

went

to

Hersh Mersh
in a state of

ii^ipljing that

he did not succeed in his

business, or else that he
mortification or disgrace,

was placed

which might be expressed
he was sent to Coventry."
significatioYi

by

the English saying, "

(Other words without any Hteral

used

ARABIC PROVERBS.
in this

47
It

manner, will occur hereafter.)

may

here

be remarked that

many

facetious stories long current

in Europe, are of Arabian origin.
147.

(Like) the lamentation of

Adam

on his departure or

separatio

1

1

from Paradise.

This

is

said of unavailing grief, chiefly of lamen-

tation for the deceased.
148.

She went

to

sleep hungry, {although) her

husband

is

a

haher.

Those nearest to plenty sometimes experience
want.

^^.^

in

Egypt used
149.

for ^^^U-

In a town

ivhere thou knoivest nohody,

do ivhatever

thou

nicest.

Most people are ashamed only of those by whom Here is to be understood jJj they are known.

150.

A

house

from which

thou eatest, do not
destruction.

pray for

its

;

48

ARABIC PROVERBS.
151.

A

ivell

from which

thou drinhest, throw not a stone
into
it.

152.

Roast them only, do not

hum

them.

Too violent measures cause us
profits,
^-.^^rs^ signifies

to lose the

expected

the roasting of coffee-beans

in small iron pans, according to the Eastern

custom
is
it

these pans are called

I^zaj^^^

Syrian or Egyptian dialect
"only," "at
do," &c.
;

The word ^^ and much used
;

of the

means

all

events," "nothing more," "this will
it

at other times

is

merely a superfluous
to

particle, or

an expletive without meaning, annexed

some phrase.
153.

Selling

and

buying,

and nothing

tijjon the hoai^d.
little

Equivalent to the saying, "great cry and
wool."

&^

or iiJJ?

is

a round board on which the the streets expose their

pedlars

who walk about
sale.

goods for

154.

(Like)

a hawk over a scare-crow

(i.e.,

flying about

it).

To designate a person of meddling

disposition,

ARABIC PROVERBS.

49

who never remains a moment quiet. ticular sort of scare-crow^ made of

jUi

is

a par-

thin pieces of

wood, and used in the gardens about Cairo.

'bil

^j^

155.

He
if

left off

sinning, hut never ashed forgiveness.

Said in allusion to those

who think
for

it sufficient

they discontinue their bad actions, but never

make

atonement or sohcit pardon
already committed.
156.

those they have

A

harlot repented for one night.
offbcer," she

" Is there no police

exclaimed,

''

to

take

up or lay hold of

harlots

V
;

Those who have been sinners themselves are often
the least indulgent towards others

and on the

slightest repentance they claim the privilege of rigid
virtue.

<u^

(phu-al c-jU^*) the

term used at Cairo

to

express a harlot

or

public

woman,

^j

is

an

exclamation.

He

is

^\^\ the chief police officer at Cairo. also entitled exclusively " El Aga."

H

an ash-grey falcon of the smaller species. The tyrant continues a tyrant Ll^x^ to his last breath. {my dear. k»iiJl ^Iki ^Ji\ t_?J 1^ yiO' in this Come.) luithout any (more) this pelisse.50 AH ABIC TROVERP. is would render the operation of circumcision extremely Kalyt among the vulgar a nickname frequently applied. 157. 158. iJjrJ ^^ In the EgyjDtian dialect signifies "complaint. sit down ujwn Said in ridicule of the means employed by a husband for t^-jj& to coax his wife into good humour. . quarrelling. Come.S. The falcon dies and his eye is {still) ttpon the seizure {of his prey). 159. a person suffering from certain tumours which affect sometimes even children at Cairo ." "quarrel. is A kJj is proverb ironically expressing that this not the proper time or place for a business in question." another may sit upon it is To spread a pelisse that a mark of great respect and attention. and which tedious and troublesome. let us circumcise the Icalijt crowd.

" 161. is The verb constantly employed to express the carrying off plunder by soldiers from peasants and shop- keepers. 162. and tear est out his teeth. i—C. 160." but one his foot sore from walking. the action of seizing or carrying off prey. . Violent passions easily subside. rival.>- Syria.ARABIC PROVERBS. who has the sole of 163. and criest "Jhe. 51 i—dksnJl common throughout Egypt and i^_fii2. on the morrow it ivill he ashes.*^^^ prois On perly the greediness of bad women. It may he afljve . ijl^ means not only "bare-footed. Thou hissest thy lover." :" means "a for " but in Egypt generally used a lover it signifies also at Cairo a partner at the chess or backgauunuii board. Thou kindlest the flame. Thou tahest from the sore-footed his sandal. Thou ruinest the man completely.

52 ARABIC PROVERBS. honest fool. because they assert that the Christians have interpolated them yet they acknowledge that David was inspired by heaven when he composed and sung them. On " poor the artful system of t:. 165. They behaved like poor honest people until they ivere firmly established. Nobody thinks. The Psalms are seldom read by Moslims. . . however.^ J^b '' a poor. have talents and cunning condescend to be honest so that honesty is rather depreciated. Thou doest what nobody else does. humble. and perhaps for a reason similar to the former because here no one is ever blamed for cheating or deceiving others. Thou readest the Psalms to the inhabitants of the tomhs. " . or found only among poor fools. but for allowing himself to be cheated. 164.nCw<5 Eastern governors." but also probably arising from the circumstance Eastern countries poor people only are honest." \yLjx^ from the word " or ^' which means not only honest a sense that in It ." . of reading or reciting to the dead. Few who . sometimes implies likewise a reproach of stupidity thus {j\L.

." i.e.) this time it has come ujjon us.. have the ivorst of it. the subjects are most to be pitied. ^_y in the Egyptian rivals When two dialect means "for it is once. we shall be gainers.:-^xj. ij j. ARABIC PROVERBS. ." said the ships.< (^j ^Ji^^ (to He lays round eggs and asks for young turkeys 2) 1 'oceed fi'om them) On is oval." .3 "for once has fallen upon us li-. Lj^ c." used in Egypt for 168." ^z^^^ {i. The ivind hloivs as the sailors do not wish.U the misfortune. On untoward " to run . The turkey egg is while the pigeon egg (here meant) nearly round.e. 166." "this time. unreasonable expectations." contend for the government. Wind and " sea combat ive shall — "this time. oyr' it implies also any other kind of rapid motion." circumstances in general. I' . There or " also a saying u:-^^ iJJ "for once or the goodhap.. 167.:j& 53 >^~}^A L_--ik)' J j^s.

{is hidden). best enjoy We what is our own property. in the Egyptian dialect does not merely <. 170." Sj^ u^j^^< (^V* \^ ^\ 171." "kindness. the emblem b of a stupid clown. thou a phrase often heard in the bazars." " business. Under this {fine) apparel a he-goat is. but what belongs to the general "good disposition." ''who likes to be — It is said of a person ^j^ c-^s^U serviceable to others. A goat. . 169." "zeal.54 ARABIC PROVERBS. is fj^'J lt-^^ " be silent. The crown of a good disposition 'ij^-a is humility. A horroived cloaJc does not keep one ivarm. signify in what is manly." he-goat (ij^'-') among Arabs." who is honestly zealous in his ^ U) " a cold egotist.

hand at ivhatever place he Poverty is sometimes an advantage. We in whom we employ a muzzle must necessarily trust to those any business. can work considerable mischief. closely tied to the cattle. comes from of ropes. 172. mouths of oxen. This was a precept of the Jewish law. as A. Three {jpersons) if they unite against a toivn will ruin it.\j^^ is J^ . camels. f^'*^. *^. for there are not in Egypt any 173. and other their grazing prevent m fields of strangers in passing along the road inclosures. to made the . His gown full of holes he thrusts out his likes.y. "rf^ cT* Jj^^ '^.y for ^. if t^. iv'^Ui 4.-y it insures freedom of action. weU The smallest number of evil-disposed persons.-i^jJi\ oJkl U Jli jJJj ^oi^j ti *jU ^<1p>- ^j£^ i^cLc ^jL^J A serpent \ipon a dung-cake ivas sivimming in a diriij . united. 175.vXKABTC PROVERBS. 174. 55 The ox that ploughs is not to he muzzled. See Deute- ronomy XXV.

" a term they use more frequently than " Bedou and all other Arabians.''^ The oppression of Turhs. they distinguish Fellah. . for ^i-Ai) Jl or l\s>^ tJ-^c^ The dried cakes of cattle-dung are called used as fuel in the East. and ^5jJ this filthy spectator'' the serpent). (indeed. by the appellation of Hadhary or which with them are terms of reproach or contempt. A common term is for " serpent ^K^^L^ great serpent called eel. in the Mammelouk call their times. the justice of By the term Arabs are here meant the Bedouins. The Bedouins \' themselves often nation exclusively " Arab.) " nothing suits this stinking jyond better than this ship of dirt {i. pond. most grievously op- pressed the open country of Egypt. who are not of Arab tribes.a 56 ARABIC PROVERBS. who.al^ ^j^ 176. — Egypt is and this name " in 'Ls^ — is like- wise given to the j»-»s..e. Some one said. rather than Arabs.

rather (or is better) than the justice of the mouse." are the gentlest epithets applied to her. reflection. oppressive behaviour." The fool has his answer on the edge ^f his tongue.^' 57 The tyranny of the cat. "wily. ^^^ here means "a 1 . that I have known instances of from their homes by families being actually driven the numbers and rapaciousness of the mice and rats. fall upon him. that spared neither victuals nor furniture.'U "in- "ready to 179. certainly a great nuisance in Egypt.Ll '>-^}j ^\^ ^£-^\ ^-^^--^iPr I came to an imprecation against him. The comes fool answers without whatever fool. 177. rapacious. nifies j^ sig- "unjust." 178. Mice are where the open country (as well as every town) abounds with them to such a degree. and found the wall inclininfj over him: It is unnecessary to revile a person who is already crushed by universal opprobrium." first into his mind. clining over him. violent.ARABIC PROVEEBS. insidious. aJu: JjU utter k-. The mouse bears a much worse character East than in the in the West ." a^U J.

not merely "vile or bad. cijl^l means likewise '*to leave him alone. signifying " neither speak to him nor meddle with A:^ u:^X^l him. is the {best) answer to the stupid. Silence Au£. .J^-^^ With a similar meaning " a (second) receipt for what has already been fluous actions. 180. The heart of the fool is in his mouth. because companions did the same. On ridiculous pretensions. all liis did what was superfluous." or equally super- 182. He He came to the impious to blaspheme. 183. the Arabs say J-^U. settled." 181." "leave him alone" is a common expression. then stretched out its leg {to be shod)." The following verse is quoted on the same subject The tongue of the wise is in his heart. l^L>-j X*^Aia!l to 'JLJs^ l-iLH J-^ ^^^^^^ V^the beetle Theu came shoe the horses of the Fashd .: 58 ARABIC PROVERBS. The lamb came to teach its father hoiv to feed.

185/"- A This is ivell is not to he filled ivith deiv. l__5. This is said when one great dignitary dies and another immediately takes his place. 184. said 186. coming than going" he said. to . the places where the camels repose on the evening station are distinguished from the siuToundrng country. and caravans usually halt at the same spots. One came count the waves of the sea he erred (in " There are {at all events) more the reckoning). Friendship ceases is when a 187. On paltry expedients to conceal ignorance or . In travelling.-J 59 U-^^ cloiim f^?"* cJ"^^ The camel crouches on the place of another camel.ARABIC PROVERBS. company he uncovered his amused in head and frightto he ened me. person's real character known. to a when trifling presents are offered powerful person who is known to be greedy. / came his to the scahhy-headed {^person) .

Is said when a person in affluence pleads poverty. The poor can only weep others. The expression cuWi^l and then it ^ ^\ clA^\^ some the likewise often used to console a person for disap23ointment. Thy neighbour is thy teacher. he hr —ke —nd. \j>. is lost. iv his The stupid clown disappoints those who require services. 191. 190. {Like) the hanger of the louse upon the head of the scabby. They came to milk the goat .used in Egypt for yU189. The ej^'orts of the poor are. We learn from our companions. his tears." Egyptian 188. is ARABIC PROVERBS. .60 negligence. means " one opportunity CL-jl-^^s^in but another will present dialect for ci-^V. for the misfortunes of . but are not able to alleviate them this is a frequent apology for withholding assistance.^s^ itself.

'' (Like) the burial of a stranger. called dely or delaty. that of the servant can be of httle avail. In Egypt ^^'-^ implies a horse soldier. afflicted. 192. j^^W U- Grief came converse with grief. in opposition to a foot soldier or lj/-^^^ —The Egyptians use ^-1 as the common j^^J^ is the term for "to send. If the patronage of the master cannot serve. . The afflicted cannot console the 193. he {then) sent the soldiers cap {to intercede for him). stood as J^r^l li]j} ^ is to be under- ^ 194. no one goes before and no one behind him.''' ^j^jD '^-^^ (J-- \^ ^JCr*- The {intercession of the) soldier loas not accepted."" CL?J^::<: 61 Ji\ to SU£. A paradise Said of a beautiful in which hogs feed. This is said of a person who retires ii\jj from office without the regret of any one.ARABIC PROVERBS. 195." high woollen or fur cap worn by the horsemen. woman whose husband is ugly.

Thou art more ignorant even than thou art impious. Rather take from the fool. and the camel driver has his projects. 197. <-i) J is here to be understood as 199." The wordyl^ is a very common term of insult among the Moslim Egyptians themselves.62 ABABIC PBOVEBBS." 198. The interests of the governor . 196. than give to the wise. "thy ignorance is stronger than thy impiety. and the governed are never alike. Verbatim : '' impious. and means. ^-^^-^^ u^^^ Sit down wlieu thou art taken by the hojid and when .'"- jd-jj ^Ji'"^ ^ J'^' } '— ^^ '^y. v^^hen ajDplied by one of them to another. The camel has his projects. Ignorance that supports ivhich me is better than ivisdoni I must support.

201. to the expression t—>ouj offered hereafter. Is thy mother-in-law quarrelsome daughter. st)-aiv Said in derision of a ridiculous spark." which is *^ are the mats made of dry reeds in packed the charcoal sent to Cairo from the country about Thebes. tie.^^ some remarks shall be 'Un u_j^ 200." ^tx) " to and " to wear a turban. The mother and daughter will leave thy house together.ARABIC PROVERBS. [In truth) my lover is a Jine fellow. ? Divorce her Cut up the evil by the root. With respect j. and he wears a turban. . 63 and not ivhen they lay hold of thy leg and drag thee (away). thou receivest presents . Visit only where thou art welcome.

she purchased. 203.^^--c for S1^. this latter means the " hair " but Ijdii those hairs which in the East usual to shave off or remove by a depilatory. Of the same import. Aggrieved because she had no eyes.64 ARABIC PROVERBS. Said of one who consoles himself for the aili^ want of a whip enjoyments by mere phantasms. is made their of date-leaves. Of the same diately preceding. she twisted her hair into a whip. signification as the proverb imme- 204. Afflicted. a looking-glass for two derhems. 202. it is it . with which the peasants drive oxen in ploughing or drawing at the water. mills it is likewise called ^:>~j —The word 'ijtJii must not be confounded with ^^ or "hair. she bought a broomstick and some oil. ^. although the slovenly peasant. because she has no coivs .-^'' Afflicted at having no house." although I have so translated of the head.women often allow them to grow for months.c .

" which comes ivith) from stuff:' (one that (surely) had The wretch who with refuses to assist others affectation orrimace and o by a service that would reflect honour on himself. " worthless." or like a prude or coquette. We is have not taken proper precautions against the most dangerous enemy. whence it its name. It is reputed extremely venomous. see one. which said to have forty-four feet. ' 65 In our account we reckoned scorpion." said they.ARABIC PROVERBS. ^\js^ any one approach too " not only signifies unlawful " or " for- bidden. will never do any good. The derives I " erha. hut the " erha lua the serpent and the erbayn" was not 'in our reckoning. " ." but in common speech. never happened to 206. iva erhayn " is a small spider-like insect." K . if near. They milked a monkey manner. 205. ^^iiO in the Egyptian dialect means " to draw back sulkily. she drew hack face is in a surly The milk.

Ai^ irU- "1 became angry with him. importance. influence. In this sense God is styled -ly and when Arabs pray ^V^ for deliverance from misfor- tunes they always address him by this name. Loose me from pillar to pillar . and then means " hope .— Q6 ARABIC PROVERBS. and say V." i. relief.::. in the Egyptian dialect signifies "anger. to become angry with another he whom he is inferior in strength. that the unfortunate grasp at the most trifling circumstance in hopes of relief. Anger without power If a person {is) a blow ready. other meanings j implies deliver- ance. Loose my chains from one pillar. return of good luck. said a prisoner." is " official power. —The expression ^y !' <Li is often used in like manner the best to console a person." or wealth. and fasten to another. an opening to happier circumstances." It is said. perhaps in so doing I eflect may my release. ajl^^ may expect to receive a blow.A^>ssr as well as "stupidity. perchance it may them cause liberation. Among This signifies.^. 207. patronage derived ^jU> equivalent to Ijlj from rank " a blow on the neck/' 208.

always in great haste. He put him into the basket of Meloukhye . 210. a favourite vegetable among the likewise Egyptians. The Meloulchye is is corchorus olitorius.1 l^ '^*rlj*' Afflicted because she stable had no house. . In term is applied to a small dirty place Ljjj a public stable wherein where poor persons hve. Bddenjdn. 'Lxj imitate the great. Similar stables are found in every quarter of the town. is Signifying that a thing -. the egg-plant. he came out of the basket of Bddenjdn. Q7 A storm in the shoiJ of a glass-dealer. 211. livery of the hole (in which she On means a the ridiculous attempts of poor people to or to appear rich.^ )iJ 1. 209. quite out of place. and the cows kept therein furnish Cairo with milk during the inundation.ARABIC PROVERBS. ^. much esteemed by them." for Lju derision this more particularly foramen ani. cows are kept in the town at that season when the open country is inundated.U-j a dealer in glass-ware. she made a lived). Said of one who is continually running about and seen almost at the same time in different parts of the town. " hole.jj ^$^*t**^ ^=:l.

Sireet of tongue (but) of far dista^it beneficence. 213. reputed of evil omen to the owner usually walls up the gate. JjJatfl (or Jjda-j^) the origin of " stabulum..68 ARABIC PROVERBS. Set two men of equal powers against each other. sense of i^. no doubt of its crumbs {coming forth). Said of a hypocrite. and side." thus ^j-^ u_C^ l::->-w." a stable. i2<^6 a /oa/' against a loaf. Said of persons whose cowardice has disappointed our expectations. 212. 214.^^^-^ is often employed in the "thinking. 21." . generally said on averting the danger of If a house is the evil eye.5. Remove This is the gate of thy stable to another side. opens one at another by which he hopes is avert the baneful consequences of the evil eye of his enemies. (^*^^). their true character will appear from that experiment. We thought that there were men in the desert.^ "I thought thou lovedst me.

limping. : cu^ here is to be understood ej. life. [f^ words which would have been used if her husband had divorced her and she had left the house is^^\ . her right hand tremhling. Your talking is fine. i-i-Jt*a!\ 69 L5^ 4^^*^^ (*^ [Like] the government of the strong over the weak. is often used (JL?Jcs. 216.^ Crook-backed. Applied to unjust oppressions in private 217.ARABIC PROVERBS.^^ ^\ i"-^ 218. hut our house fine is far distant. far In spite of all your reasoning I ci^'^r*/il^ am from complying with your in is desire. Denoting a misery. who labours under a tremor produced by extreme Egyptian . her house flourished {or continued well peopled). A virtuous woman had patience {ivith her husband). means one. means here "to be peopled/' or to continue inhabited by all its inmates in opposition to ci^jci. ^Ili woman in the afflicted with every kind of dialect.^j Egypt synonymously with used instead of *K::j as the verb 219.

because Instead of ^j^^ it ought to be <J. for JxU . No. a will slight accession of strength Ji-ii' decide the question in favour of one.'-aj feminine but the Egyptians very often con. for a remark on — It means. — found the genders. 220. be possibly s^'^ . understood here as It i^^j^\ may. 202. A very single grain makes the balance heavier.." or The word t-." "may he be unlucky whenever he approaches 222.." or " the French disease.^ c. Where two parties of equal power contend. j^'J in the Egyptian dialect iyt-i See above. and the Lord Addressed to a hypocritical enemy who assures us of his friendship. May An *jO' her envier stumble over her hair. imprecation against the enemy or jealous for rival of a woman. is " I love thee.-* ^'^. her. however.osa]l " the ulcer of the Frank. - ^ 3fay the ulcer {of the Franks) love hate thee. lJLs^\ ^Jsrj^\ \j\ and says. Jo is ARABIC PROVERBS.70 debility." 221. thee.^^ here put for t_.

ARABIC PROVERBS. 71 She is with child. On affluence of riches. prudently exposing himself to Ixl^ is the arundo . and nurses a child. Most likely to suffer from the calamity yet imit. 225. and has four (children) before her. 223. 224. any are them should break. those who carry them responsible to their principals. on account of the manufacturers. The [bi'oken) pots are put to the account of the retailer. The dream of the cat is all about the mice. [Like) dry reeds and {still) keeps company ivith the fire. Great people make the poor pay that befall them.yuSX\ who of The name of j^j^^^ is given to those J^^\ carry the earthenware upon their heads about If the streets. 226." to be understood here fji. j\^s for the mishaps " pots in the It is Egyptian dialect and jars of earth.

literal is the true though not the here for the meaning. J^>- *'to reach. j^U^j is the Egyptian The lower classes frequently pronounce the ^ like ^ Thus they say j^s. ivere it even a monkey. 227. to fulfil one's purpose." . Love is blind.o for 'ij^x^ for ^£ lx)j\ -i^Uj — — for ^ i.-^*>-j —likewise c:-n^c for t::^-t> but the same people pronounce the strongly in other words when it is placed at the beginning or • end of them.-'- Thy beloved is the object that thou lovest. ARABIC PROVERBS. to satiate. taken whole of the intestines. to hit. that grows particularly in Upper Egypt : in districts which are not regularly inundated the poor people use pronunciation of it as fuel.— 72 epigeios.::-^^ is^-^j for l::. to arrive at. '\^\ ^j^ 228. l::^<^j\ and aj {jj^^sr also i'r-as^. The Such Li\^ is best food is that ivhich fills the belly.

L . Baker and (at the same time) Mohteseb.ARABIC PROVERBS. 229. her sister had half-a-dozen ones in her and did not know how to supply them with food. will cause is him to lose sight of his officer Mohteseb the public who super- intends the legal price and weight of the provisions sold in the bazar. 73 They wooed her.-'' Take thy luck from the lap of thy sister. His interest duty. and she resisted ." because understood 230. poor woman complained that she had not any little children. means. they left her. and she then fell in love. the same as ci-^jtUaj' j^LiJ "to fall in love. in the *JiJ among it is Egyptian dialect. cations. On the whims of those who capriciously oppose several signifi- the wishes of others. The person is therefore advised to take warning from her and not to form rash wishes. 231. A lap.

Bather to be busy were labour of little profit. 233. A of vinegar seller does not like (another) vinegar seller. name J^Ls:. Acquire leariiing and information {even if they come) from the mouths of cows. 235. 234. turnips. the snout of ?i hog. Do not refuse from a bad debtor whatsoever he . 2hhe from the (bad) debtor ivere it but a stone.74 ARABIC PROVERBS. badenjans (egg-plants) preserved in date vinegar are favourites with the Egyptians.S^ given to the sellers of pickles cucumbers. it even in dirty work or than to be indolent though in possession of luxuries. 232." is At Cairo the . onions. The dirt of labour rather than the saffron of indolence. and generally applied to any ugly mouth. On the "jalousie de metier. Never object derive useful to any source from which you may a^^j^ is knowledge.

" " much ado about shop." sai'c? " a^ the carrier^ the carried. ARABIC PROVERBS. The saying but not " fuss about trifles. "look at the carrier and the carried. it is In receiving a small part of a often said. crafts.. where is strangers halt and merchandise deposited.<. small ware and other toys sold usually in if the same shop. considerable debt. A single bristle of the hog is hetter tJmn all his (the bad debtor s) beard. The riding abridged saying.ji--. 75 may pay on account. Jcc implements used in the different implies." is often quoted on seeing a mean looking man upon a wretched Rosinante.. 236. !" " Zoo^. i^jyi. and The the hotel a31^^1 j\j are public khans at Cairo.. nothing.." A man keeps toys in his any useful or necessary im- plements. Toys without instruments. ^ iee^^e i^^ow a broomstick was entering the privy one. 237. . J_j-4csn4^ J-elLl Jaj\ JU j-ljtx^l <il>-b aLojiU J-i ^l.

through whose interference or medium. Do no good —thou shalt not find evil. 242 Leave the entangled yam to be untwisted by the effeminate or pusillanimous. ^ i.e. he left sit upon the bare floor. J-.. this J. whom The expression ^Lc \y^ stands for ^^ Jo ^J^ \y^ or ^jJl jj^ "upon whose hand they gained. 241. 240. ruined her completely.. 239. disordered ..76 ARABIC PROVERBS. 238. He He her to left her upon the black ground. On ingratitude. intricate. Those are {esteemed) the best people through one gains. The best generosity is that luhich is quick.'J^1 sense is likewise expressed by L^U The word . the poorest article of household furniture. In taking away her mat.:kall intei-woven." J.

sling who come luggage. their back. in the 77 signifies " effemi- Egyptian diaject for JjU nate. as it is said. Take his understanding a7id put thy hack). Those are the best onches ivhich are spent in their proper place. it into the basket (at Said in derision of a person^s understanding.-" Of empty stomach. " side. Literally. to facilitate 244." for ^sJi This saying means that the business must be suited to the capacity or character of a man. affecting the A among hungry beggar. a common or. practice in Egypt the higher classes to chew incense in order . 243. and the puny or weak-hearted must be employed in women's work." " unable to make exertion. yet he chews incense." which are directed towards the proper . ^y^y* is a small basket which the poor Nubians. to try their fortunes at Cairo. yet It is manners of great people.ARABIC PROVERBS." i^jJ " weak-heart eel. and carry in it their food upon and miserable 245. to sweeten the breath digestion.

"*rsxJl This refers to the " a hole has Jj>~ common Jj>in the friendship. the fetters will he loosened from thy foot. . With saying." &c. He is the chosen of the ^jeople who rejoices in the welfare of others. and thou wilt be free. 249. (^k With ipj^." or " friends have been disunited. Expel avidity from thy heart. . To he humble when we want (the help of others) is manliness. deeply impressed on the minds of ci-*U-lLl " affairs. Be contented. This maxim is "wants. 246. d/^^^ is gentleness the fracture repaired." " demands from others. 2A7." J been bored 248.78 ARABIC PROVERBS." " business. politeness and softness a reconciliation can be effected in quarrels." people in the East.

or "wine. The man had married an old woman. not take it more probably betray thee in this instance than the drunkard. 'ss>~\ is often used for ^^j " he married." "sober.ARABIC PROVERBS. view teaches us to judge of a person's and whether he be a fit object for a nearer acquaintance. character. Of one who deserves his misfortunes. Such is generally thought in the East. and might therefore have expected from the first not to be very happy with her. take the letter hy its address. Take {the wine) from the drunkard and do from the soher. Every governor of a province is a phy- .refers 'y^:>. Take the hook by its title .:>. where a Lavaterian system of physiognomy first The prevails. or. **^>- Leave him alone ivith his grief- — he has taken one as old as his mother." ^>-l^ "one who is awake. <Cc' 79 jSi i"jo-u jo-i ^''^. 250." ." 252. The U of Ui." jJcf " similar to anything in quantity or quality in the often employed same sense as Ji^ 251." "in to will The sober possession of his senses.

54. . On the effects of slander. A him which is prepossessing face has more Europe . Take it for nothing." c:jJ\ u^j! U J k-k^ J U^-Jl J ^ Jul it Take a piece of mud. is ^jLh for ^h the common Egypt for " gratis." On the great luck of some to (^-Jj" is whom more is offered than they can accept. and chiefly from the expression of the eyes and the state is of the eyebrows and nose that an opinion 2. hair. in which the peasants carry their corn to market.and fancies that he can ascertain in the looks or mien of those brouerht before the gnilty party. if do not stick it will leave a mark. strike it against the wall. by which water taken out of the large jars that stand in the vesti- bule of each house in Egypt. influence in the East than in but the rules it is of physiognomy are never strictly analysed. j^ is is a small earthen or tin jug. formed.80 ARABIC PROVERBS. .53. {''No. His bread is kneaded and his tvater is in the jug. siognomist. 2.") he said. a sack of black or white and black striped goat expression in 255. " mij sack is [to not large enough contain it).

" means that on a future occasion I will assist thee more powerfully than thou assistest me at assist thee. Take the thief before he take thee. Be kind "take to me now. *' is said of the ignorant \y>. i_f J^ •^^^ is equivalent to c^Jl> jci." " miserable. atnong the date- This learning." " useless. I will take thee hy the foot to-morrow." full gallop." Jo-l> The beggars at ^dS! Cairo constantly say ^J\\ Juj the charitable and generous. 3o-Ij ^1 " May The expression " I will take thee by the foot. 258." is often used to express a ^jJ^ thing as bad as dirt." difficult " to ride at full To gallop among date-trees is of course on account of the numerous turnings. 81' A had rider —yet he gallops about trees. M . 257. I will hereafter return the favour two-fold. Take me by the hand to-day.ABABIC PEO VERBS. 256." God present." " God assists ^<^. my hand/' or "assist me. who affect to display- " du-t." " to set off the horse in speed.

The house of troyed. *-.82 ARABIC PROVERBS. 259." " I do not want it. Take the merest trifle from the vile the and abuse him (at same time)." iJJc>J\ is here in the same sense as ^^y:^\ J^^:^ 260. tl the unjust oppressor is {or it must he) des- lugh should happen in distant timss. is The miser deserves no better treatment. But this is not the usual signification of the word in Egypt.Ul properly ^JJ^ J-jki!^ "the miser. where it commonly means " not to be in want e:-^-.iii-il Thus a very frequent expression is of. He exposes himself {to danger) who regards his own counsel or opinion as sufficient." " I can dispense with it." signifies " to reproach a person with his bad quahties." here put for or c--oUlt ^J JU^ '—'/>- 261. .

A house with its gate —and the monk cannot find a it. This is teeth that will applied to a person who cannot rid himself of a disagreeable companion or confidant. crumb of bread in On the stinginess of a person in easy circum- . '' again." 264. The word j^ pronounced '^baka/' is constantly employed as an adverb." " then. 265. Egypt has never been governed by national rulers. sometimes quite superfluously and without any meaning at other times it signifies " now. Since the time of the Pharaohs j^i jb or hy^\ j\^ 263. Something has entered into his bach never come out again." " never. 83 The riches of Egypt are for the foreigners therein. but constantly by j^s^ jb is said in the same sense as foreigners. 262.ARABIC PROVERBS. The tears of the adultress are ever ready." .

" ^«j_ ^*j "to " to is stumble/' " to make a and therefore upon." implies that it for a well-conditioned dwelling. nor to he ridden. and that the pasha had sent for them to remind him of his youthful pursuits. false step. " A house with its gate.84 stances. their stomachs are empty. is <-_>j often pronounced t_-jj a *'bear. i_^irsx> comes from ^--^^^ a horse led in parade before a great man in public processions. 267. Said of a useless clown. Their hoilers are high . hibit bears in A large party of those Turks came in 1814 from Romelia to Cau-o with half-a-dozen bears." likewise "to find. Costly furniture in a house.) every man was a bear." The gates which town are interior quarters of the called ^^y (Like) a hear that is neither to he milked. On the spreading of this report the bears and their masters were immediately banished from the country." sin. is ARABIC PROVERBS. nor to he led in parade. The people then said.^' Turks from Anadolia sometimes exshows at Cairo. that in Mohammed to Aly's country (he is a native of the sea a dancing master coast of Romelia." or "light ^j\^i often used synonymously with it l->Ij — at other times inclose the means a "by-gate. but no provisions nor .

" even if thou wert the poison of death. " " Who is there ?" A wench for nothing" Enter" he said. avoid <ti£ j^ " take another road that you meet it." What is given gratis is always acceptable . refuses a present. its true meaning It is a term heard may be found much moi^ frequently in public than Europeans would suppose. from the lowest to the highest. . get still more of it . subject the following proverb also is On cited : What is for nothing. There was a knock at " the door. what it. money.-^-. with respect at least to language.ARABIC PROVERBS. and this according to that rule no one in the East." b ^ for '* Ijjb ^ is is the may not common interroIn Syria they 1*\& ^ji> gation at Cairo for who 1 there T say b ^-o and likewise JJ& a. who geneirally entertain very false notions concerning the modesty and decency of the Easterns. is for money.0 85 "a boiler/' or "large pan/' 268. cu^-jJ is the plural of LJ.:^^ instead of /' ^ ^ is not properly " a wench in the dictionaries.

Egyptian dialect ^^^^^ks^ often implies. ilibl i ilLi ^ it. jLl ^b it TAe 6oaj werzi in search of its lid until met with On and at musk. as here." . a person's eagerly watching an opportunity last finding it." and principally lot of food. balm.86 ARABIC PROVERBS. are sold. is Egyptian dialect is the same as said of i-JiJ to be spoiled. 270^ Leave {or do not think on) luhat is spoiled. <__>IL U " what fell to thy is good things. hut eat the good things (^\j in the *' {that are before thee). said when something by one of its disagreeable happens ill-natured in a family caused members. the same as and then means "until. 269. in the &c. of ivory or bone wherein perfumes. The worms of This is the vinegar are of the vinegar itself." The sense of this proverb expressed in the following ancient verses : 271. ^^\ II is a small box made civet..

" is hke. The remedy against (bad) times with them. J ic:^ jT^^ ^j^ 5 ijt^j^ 4_5pi&J i. in the East. wand " it : children play with tjjl*^' " it is equal. 272.::-J^lj Thou hast eaten (or enjoyed) thy age for forty-four . Bf Money It heals all wounds. is to have patience In their nervous language the ancient Arabs aj\j "Las." if it In the Egypt say. dSjSuc cij^-***J' ^\'^\ The animal is worth (no more than) a whip. holding together Hke a harlequin's it. said. is sweet halm. pronounced as " written \y^^ — thus they what is Ijw (j^\ what is worth ?" " price of it V 274." and more it is usually " it is worth. Such is the general opinion 273." LyLo a scourge or whip still made of date-branches cut into thin sHps.ARABIC PROVERBS. is As much is as to say "it worth nothing.

* They mentioned Misr to Kahera. <i-i Enjoy the present moment. They mentioned Misr (or Fostdt. present half-ruined quarter formerly belonging to .88 years . southward of the present Cairo. the first-built Moslim city. (That is) thy ivorld wherein thou Jindest thyself. ^}\^\ t-Jr=- 276. ivait then when it preys upon thee with its hack teeth. is ^jJl sometimes limited to the space of forty- four years. on the Bdh el Look is a small and at north of Fostdt.) to Kahera. on which Bdh Look rose with its loeeds. 275. for <Us <z^i\ <^:^A U stands <Ui U JUs-1 or ^ is <::^\ U ^_^\ The cannot relate to LjJ which of the feminine gender. the town erected by the Fatemites. ARABIC PROVERBS. In ridicule of those el who push themselves forwards to attract notice while nobody pays them attention. or the computed age of man.

il ^ Vj/i mentioned the Prophet the people tvept. foi' fine affair . ujL^i.^ is a flat \-^ according to . That is a patty. C_5^ls-:1 ^ iUlil ^.^. J 15 TJiey " Jij} \yf^] Jli \jL . meat patty sold in the the Egyptian pronunciation meat and spices with stuffed. but not one in which we can par- ticipate.^ " the hashed which patties and other dishes are ^ of ^lij=-l is the common appendage to The nouns and verbs in the Egyptian dialect. but 89 now ." ^rsT 4. of which it formed one of the worst quarters or rather suburbs. Pull This is this dish out of thy not made for you.-. 279. [tliey said. " -what he said " (rather than weep). included within the environs of is Southern Cairo it in many places quite deserted . 2V7. there- but sHght pretensions for standing up when (or Fostd-t) Misr was mentioned.ARABIC PROVERBS." N . ^} in the Egyptian dialect " a dish of cooked victuals." cried one. to Fostat. A bazar.) hut we are not {Jit to he) its stuffing. Hear. 4_c. 278. it had. and abounds with grass and weeds fore.^\ t-ilo teeth.

" . 280. Tliat is (like) the master's wo7*k for his son. That is a plaster like {the plaster) of a horse doctor. or upon which are It is usually covered with vines or creeping plants. 283. is likewise veterinary surgeon. It is of a very low price. 282. Said of a coarse remedy applied to some jlL-j " the horse-smith. as sheds in gardens. t«_5ls or uJC-j "a blow on the neck." who. That is a thing cheaper than a blow. " to keep off. evil. In praise of nice and well-executed work. <__>jj On half-measures. U for jjb. at Cairo. is a lattice-work used balconies.90 AEABIC PROVERBS. made 1 of the ^jd^ or dry canes of the durra. to stop or hinder. That is a lattice-work that does not keep off wind." 281. Ju**.

-'" A fly is nothing .ARABIC PROVERBS." dog's tail never stands straight." Of the same 287. The most agreeable." "he has uJ^Ju" disgusted me. Said of boundless avidity or greediness. removal from the office ivhich is despised. to become loathsome. any reference to 286. in the Egyptian dialect is often used for cuirass." "a 285. 91 That is a hunger that hi^eahs a cuirass. disgust/' *' insignificant person may prove dis- ij:-tUj in the Egyptian dialect " to excite aj^ is l::-Jj^. yet it creates loathsomeness. 284. i*::-^. When we have departed from our station we .* A whole life. Said of incorrigible habits. laughs at pride of government. sense the term The." jj "a coat of mail." without life-time." ^^-Jo " to break. is ^ " during his often used for sA "never.

" 288." So are called ia Egypt those persons whom their masters. Lectve off ambiguous talking. it. A young man her pretty . despised. patrons. impudent. should it even be true. 289. : 290. On a person appearing well at first. followed a woman in the street thinking . or friends employ in fighting their quarrels or in disputing for them with their insolent behaviour and impudent language people of this kind are easily found at Cairo. ^ " puffed up pride.-''^ Debased aujLu is he ivho has no impudent defender.92 ARABIC PROVERBS." J}*11 This here personified together with which the removal from office. miserable. Ji is the is '' dis- mean. or power. The followmg verse expresses the same sense : " insolent. rank. but proving a worthless object on nearer view. begin to see what was ridiculous in dained. Thy mouth put me in mind of the jackass at home {or of my family).

and we find . I believe is in the Egyptian dialect seldom ought here to be y^ 292. ^ it monkey tribe. 93 when she her veil. the baboons remained. The extravagant those fool throws away his money upon it. led him to a remote corner and hfted up he discovered her ugliness. TJie people ivent away . 293. and exclaimed in those words.ARABIC PROVERBS. Dogs are left to be provided for by fools. who it is little deserve is jjj here means "the In this so in the it lot. Drunkenness departed and reflection came. conjugated . is (j/jLwJ a species of the a baboon. 291." sense often employed." or "whatever assigned by destiny.

she was more than hisfatlier. To this sentence we might here suppose prefixed ^\ Joo>In Syria the term jj^ is often used to express " merchandise. Said of persons deserving their good luck. 295. 296. He went to make his ablutions in a pond and was drowned. Koran. but instead of total ruin. a^A ^ ii^\ L::->3l^ <u^ dill ^rwj j^^'ofligafe God bless his mother . A rose fell to the lot of little a monkey. J^^ from J^y (see Dictionary). Beviling language.94 ARABIC PROVERBS. The meaning of <d51 ^j is literally ** God have . it met with 297. He expected some advantage." which in Egypt is called ilcUij 294. the people returned from On tardiness. I saw thee go on the pilgrimage at the same time that it.

fruits and vegetables from 300." 95 but in vulgar use the phrase corresponds rather with the English " God bless him !" 298. He luent away from me together with the fat of the kidneys. in which the servants bring the market.^ cT* '^J A This is throw without a thrower. we want no profit L-iilii^ a basket made of date-leaves. 299. said in excuse of a loose word inadver- tently dropped and giving offence to another person. Pay what thou owest us from it. 301. Give Its back our basket .ARABIC PROVERBS. Do not trouble thyself about futurity. Li^b jr. \^ \^ jjj to the The provision for to-morrow belongs morrow. only. mercy . ive do not wish for any grapes {therein). Used to express that the person left me and took away even the smallest trifle of what was due to .

cook it. ." 304.96 ARABIC PROVERBS.t^ (**v God The bless him who pays visits.Jiss^ a most unreasonable length. him so that he has no further demands on me. An answer to one who excuses himself on preIn the vulgar Egyptian tence of the bad state of his larder for not being able to entertain a guest. dialect ^^ is the imperative instead of ^j 303.. and chiefly those paid by women to each other. and even the men are usually prolonged to ^. lie ivent to woo {her for a friend) and married her himself On an agent taking possession of the profits . ^^ ^^ <dll . is by a private person some the bystanders often take away the kidneys. (and) the most sour thou hast. or killed least the fat that incloses them. Egyptian plural of L^ " kidney. *' " to lighten. sometimes last a whole visits of day ." cause to be less heavy. and short visits. visits in the East." 302. as When a sheep of at due to the public il^ is from him who slaughters the sheep.. c-pj."^ 4 }\\ ^ Jl." and here " to shorten. the Go.

"^* The head in the heavens^ the hinder parts in water. His head turned towards the Kehly.ARABIC PROVERBS. On the hypocrisy of devotees. 308. Riding {though) upon a beetle. who seem attentive to their religious duties while they are occupied in base worldly affairs. 306. sor. that he ^»jj\ 97 his principal. Persons of high rank in Egypt hold walking in great horror . On pride assumed by low people. his hinder parts among ruins. and after they have passed the years . leather than ivalking u2>on carpets. was employed to earn Egyptian dialect for for in the ^jjy SOS.''"' Blessed he the man tvho knows from doing his power and abstains evil to others.

{ivho hut the had been) contending agreed kadhy refused his consent. 310. {to Said when the from an interested motive.98 ARABIC PROVERBS. a carpet it is more usually called in Egypt. are rarely seen on beyond the is thresholds of their of <Lju1? " own :" houses. Said of frivolous nonsensical actions and of measures that cannot have any effect. endeavours to prolong the quarrel. . arbitrator. 312. The two parties it). {Like) wind in a cage. foot of childhood. Sometimes love has been implanted hy one glance alone. 309. ^j^'oi^ the plural * jLsa-. ^^^ a cage made of loosely interwoven palm-leaves.'" {The fire of) more than one ivar has been enkindled by a single ivord.

but proves ruinous before in the the conclusion of signifies the -. A narrow lane. We seemed must sometimes abandon a business wbich profitable at it. and the ass (upon which one rides) is kicking. 315. On the misfortunes of a man married to two quarrelsome and garrulous women. and spits it out before his thirst be quenched. 313." or "it may is sometimes happen ''perhaps. 99 Perhaps the drinker of water is nearly choked by it. Said of those who cause additional difficulties in . gurgling noise made in the throat by spitting out water that nearly chokes one In the same dialect \^.-^ Egyptian dialect. The husband of tiuo parrots {is like) a neck betiveen tivo sticks (that strike it)." "perhaps. signifies . first." the more common meaning uij^ '-*> 314.ARABIC PROVERBS.

(See Proverb No. Zayt and Mayt^ are words without any Hteral meaning. instead of carrying us u^j}. Zayt and Mayt. 316. is the common term expressing the kicking of beasts. 319.* 27ie husband of the harlot is a base ivretch by his own testimony.100 ARABIC PROVERBS. My husband ivas not jealous. and jumpiiig over This is the ivall.) . On the blindness of cuckolds. through an it. 146. My husband tells lies to me. Intricate business. X do according to what I learn. 318. said of a man fond of company and noisy. to [although) my lover came search for me ivith a candle. and I tell lies to the neighbours. expressing merely the noise of a busy crowd.

323. Oil-cakes are a favourite dish with the lower classes in Egypt. was spoiled because the person entrusted with the management of it yielded to the affair The impulse of his own passion or interest. He Said addition. especially of the lower classes. *-::-vj). when j^^ good or bad fortune receives an the small drum or tambourine which is held in one hand and beaten with the other. Said when a person marries his own near relation. this {proceeded) from the OSS driver's desire (to see a lady). Ijcjj Our oil is [mixed] ivith our [own) flour. 321. X o ^ >» The ass slipped {and fell) . 101 Thejifer of Ms {own) camp does not rejoice. liJLJj (J. is added singing either to the drum. 320.ARABIC PROVERBS. the oil used is lamp-oil (jU- 322. The talents of a person are less admired at home than abroad. and the constant companion of the women. A lady rode . in their gay moments.

Applied to those giving an answer not suited to the question. slide.102 ARABIC PROVERBS. ." " to slip. upon an fall. fall. *£ the father's brother. is the mother's brother . upon a plan much resembhng that of the propylaea of the ancient temples. which the driver caused to stumble and fair one. ^-.Jl t—*r»- 324. J the keys of the pigeon-house to the cat." he replied. J L>. 325. ass. which the open country are built in the shape of small towers. that he might obtain a sight of the ji>-j\ used in the Egyptian dialect for jJj or J^s^j stumble./. &c. is in Egypt ill the name given to the pigeon- houses. " My uncle's name is Shayh. / asked him about his father. They entrusted -.

it reputation and outward appearance promise . poor. "If God to ijlease^' said. One hour for thy heart. 326. and {moreover) in She was miserable enough.^-. thin. 328.ARABIC PROVEKBS.''' 103 They have they called thee Rddjeh. Divide thy time between heavenly and worldly concerns." and "one's own due. childbed. ^^^J ^ is — said mstead of ^-i ^^ j a common expression to denote a person or thing of utter insignificance. (^IjbJ^ is the state of a woman for ." (j:^\\ equal the not only "truth." but also "just." 327. " (iiow) ice shall come the just {measure) J' Thy much. miserable. A lean little thing of a lady. and one hour for thy Lord. and still became more miserable (by the labours of childbed). (_jw used in the Egyptian dialect for l::. Rddjeh is frequently used as a man's name ako in the Egyptian dialect signifies " to increase it is the weight of the lighter scale until other.

329. ij^J^ i:^^ liiJI ^\s. during time the MosHm law regards her as impure. the imperative of the verb LL u^y^. He is proceeding to the pilgrimage by a day's journey.-'' to vent his rage. Vo ^ijtx:^ l_X-j A hloiv that is 2>rofitable does not hurt the neck. 331. " erect . Govern \y^^^ is the rabble by opposing them. in . The market of debauch *jli' is always open. On a passionate man ready 332. Said of the hasty." 330. The substantive is LjL-. which means the government or administration of the executive power." if said of the market.-"' Arms ready and good sense absent.— 104 ARABIC PROVERBS. which forty days after the birth of her child. it means "open. 333.

enticed him by soft words. opposition to that of the judicial dialect ^--L-: 105 ^jL\\ body or *^ In the Egyptian and means " to talk gently to a person. it." The has also another sense. A tyrannical sultan is better than constant broils {or anarcliy). S\s>- /»l-:J ^-^^1 9^ Tlie hearing of music is a poignant pain.ARABIC PROVERBS. meaning the pain of any . " I have talked gently with him. who are re. l^l^jj!) The person listens {to music). spends money {on the songst7^ess) then comes reflection." " to coax or wheedle him." a«::^L--> means then. 334. grooms in Egypt are gently. This is said in ridicule of misers. 335. that low people can only be governed by acting in direct opposition to their inclinations. he grieves (»Ly and dies. called {j^^^ (singular ^/^L>) because they treat (or ought to treat) the horse The proverb means. a Persian word. he rejoices in . proached for their contempt of music and songs is in proof of which the following saying attributed to them : L-JNia^i f-i^^.

or distemper in the brain.-"' Prostrate thyself before the ivicked monkey in his time {of i'>oiver). Inquiries become {or lead to) separation. that even the Bedouin travellers heard in every place on their way. it is naturalized in Egypt among the phy- and signifies a violent pain. Said of a piece of news so publicly known.106 disease sicians. 336. it. 338. 339.'"' The sultdn teaches. . 337. ARABIC PROVERBS. Too much inquisitiveness affairs or curiosity about the of another may cause a disagreement and separation. The riders have carried it with them {on their journey). . and reported is it v_^ a party of Bedouins mounted on horses or camels. and is not to he taught.

340. It is usual among people draught. We is have nothing coohed . coal. game one must pro- ceed with secrecy and (_^j--tUI I—*/=»" 341. To be successful in taking caution. 342. the action in question. jA^ the usual term for lighted aL^ is employed also in the same sense. 107 The cat that is (always) crying catches nothing. ivhence came this fiery coalf On unforeseen and undeserved mishaps. We have eaten nothing tvhy should tee drink f We have not done anything to render necessary . so that being thirsty tjL^\ ^ they is may the more enjoy the put here for Jl^} or ^c5^ as the pre- positions J^ and Jl are in general used mdiscrimi- .ARABIC PROVERBS. in the East to drink only after eating.

hut I have not strength for war. to say that a person frequents those people only whose characters agree with his own. Thus." 344. They lorepared me . which sounds better in Arabic than in my translation. . This saying. from j^Ij " to make ready/^ " to pack ujd and prepare for travelling. jjjj^ c^^' . Said of those who become insolent and over- bearing in consequence of praise. or for what dost thou beat me ?" 343. is frequently quoted. . Notwithstanding every assistance the person unfit for his business. they girded me . ARABIC TRO VERBS. It resembles the thing that is attracted toivards it. The construction is ^JJl ^_^l'i 345.^^jji. is i.108 nately. 4 ^%rL kill \j^i^ They i^raised the cat she (then tvent and) dirted in the meal-box. ^\ ^^ ^j^ "why.

" is here understood the monthly pay or gain. Of a month Do that does not belong to thee. 350. but not the trainhig of him. his society (then) became agreeable.^ or " month. 349. 109 Thejj took it off from the beard and put it into the moustaches. The buying of a slave . do not count the days. The change did not better the condition. 347. commonly used in . cljUU. His beard became grey . 348. The Eastern task it is peoj)le know well how difficult a to educate a slave and break his stubborn temper. not score up the profits of others which can never become thine own. <0'ls:u« ci-'^«^ cl:\s>\J^ ^^ luIjs^^ A beggar filed his sack from another beggar. By ^. 346.ARABIC PROVERBS. a corruption of jUui.

Greyheaded and 353. 354. like a muzzle. 355. for Egypt "a beggar. S\Jii\ L::--Jli. loosely tied to the mouth over the half of the head. .110 ARABIC TRO VERBS. 351. and the mouth and head are in the bag during the time of feeding.-" A thing that does not satiate. is to agree with 352. creates hunger." It is 'ilkx^ is the bag out of which horses and asses get their evening allowance of barley or beans. ITie {first) condition of friendshij^ each other.'"' vicious. may cause universal disaster.1 Ajl.^-ij The rejoicing of the envious rends the heart. ijiL^ ^f^ ij\jj^ A single sparJc Trifles can burn the ivhole quarter.j jLuS.

who thinks that him aDcl give way to t-jCclixj and ^^l::^ his desires or caprices." — ^^ lJCc^ SijT^ ^'thy chddren.^ and ^l:x^ are and the Arabians say used by the Moggrebins for '"' make room . angry person in haste. are expressions commonly used in Egypt for thine " and " mine. is the account a vulgar Llk- . and then made presents to each other (of the remaining meat). uJobs- and ^Ji^ From the singular c^b a plural is thus formed in the vulgar dialect. This is appHed to the generosity evinced by pashas and other great men towards 358. part of it spoiled. Part {of it) ivas hurnt." <X£^ l^^\ "his books. For money frivolously spent. ^fj and we hear Jr^\ "my horses. for I am On an every one must haste. each other.ARABIC PROVERBS. The dogs became satiated." 357. that I may put down 171 mine. and part eaten by the cats. such given to him who had possessed it." In the same manner u-^^^l:.-"- Ill Take away thine. 356.

The term Lb is used by the gardeners .112 plural of lajj ARABIC PROVERBS. who." . The operation itself is styled "the circumcision of sycamore figs. about Cairo. for experience is shown that an increase of sweetness air to enter the conse- quence of allowing the by that operation into the heart of the fruit. out them a piece. —^^Ub from ^ "to play the spark or gallant. 360. with a pointed iron." U^s^W ^^^ 359. yet he ])lays the part of a spark. not larger than a pea this is done has to render the fruit more sweet. Said to expose an insidious adviser whose object was that he might have the broth for himself J jxsr 1 in the Egyptian J^l dialect for jy. gay i^j^i the diminutive of ^i^-. so as to tear . while yet on the tree and before they are of ripe. A little old man.'"' Take off thy liand from the broth lest it should he burnt. Figs that have not been pricked never acquire a good flavour and are called Lb or spoiled. are accustomed to prick the figs of the sycamore.--.^ ^ (^^ In similar cases the is often dropt in conversation.

tired on the road. "after many difficulties. know not how. Take off thy father from thy brother. brother." he said. we became very us." 363. This soldiers. " Welcome. This expression." or "to make thus in talking of few words.AHABIC PROVERBS. Urine alighted upon dirt. thu-st we had brother' to fight — take we came upon off and hunger." or " at last :" a journey they say. 362. which has no real sense in has received. a kind of meaning in It implies the familiar language of conversation. I itself. 361. do not order it to he cut doion. . is to ridicule the dirty rascally Turkish salute each other in who when they meet or friend !" the Turkish manner with the expression (^^^Jy ^*v* " Welcome. ^^. my frieiid. "we ' travelled.iL^ L^ thy father from thy L-jci — until at last arrived. 113 A tree that affords thee shade." or "in short.

364. Evil is of old date." This is an expression much used. which is without wit. saying. engrossed my thoughts instead of the and the corn instead of liberality.114 ARABIC PROVERBS. I jUI ^j^ 366. TJie barley poetry. i^y:Li) d3^\ Cl^L? The Old has become a poetess. ajyJ! professions for which called they are not is more commonly that species of small owl wliich the Syrians a^*^ denominate . <U£ i^jiiA-i " it engaged my leisure or attention and prevented me from adverting to the other. Of d3u^ 1*1 those who undertake qualified. This had things quite different in my head. puns in the Arabic text. 365.

^Jlju Thus \zX^ signifies one who breaks through a an operation wall that he may steal in the house. practised with incredible dexterity by the thieves of Upper Egypt. (See No. his fast We or to sometimes find persons of good repute who character upon some trifling occasion. j\J^ the plural of 'ij\j:.) is the plural of . A hole. l-j\ju one who bores a more particularly with the intention of stealing. over the Moslims break When the their fast on .j**Aj 368.^t^'i'J the sacks. and then broke with an onion. 367. forfeit their obtain is Ramadhdn some small advantage. He fasted for a whole year. 115 The asses have met with . ^. Misfortunes return..-\v ^ In the southern parts of Syria the h\J:. 369. thief turned saint. a corn bag it is shorter but wider than the carried by camels . 254. He vjho made a hole in the corn sacks has become a preacher.ARABIC PROVERBS. is a corn measure.

and is shameful to use so would be mean a thino. which thus becomes a very opprobrious expression. suit each On other." ^ly^ is the diminutive of 372." "it is of use to me. eats in secret. than . 370.as an onion.lie ARABIC PROVERBS. the morning of the great feast (y^:) with some dainty morsels from their kitchens. it term jkij of the appHed to the as also to the illegal breaking of . during the course month of Eamadhdn and it is thus said of a person ^l?li or "he is breakfasting. The o legal breaking of the fast.'" The little Ayshe ivcll suited Abd el Kerym. and not to the druggist. Kather be poor but healthy like a peasant. in the Egyptian dialect means " it or suits me. <Ll-£ The morning salutation to the bean-seller. The little amonr/ {certain) people arc great amori<j other people. It is thought meritorious on that occasion to eat after the first a few dates." when he ^ji." or "proper J for me. fits the meeting of two persons who -^^. it example of Mohammed. 371.

117 The word -L* is here put for . the According seen on it is good or bad luck of first the day is influenced by the object coming out of the door in the morning. 374." to popular belief in the East.^ good. fast of the lower classes but it requires the stomach of a peasant to digest butter or lamp-oil. The goat met the water and ivetted his whiskers.LsrU:^ "the first meeting or saluting on going out in the morning. 375. them they The druggists — mixed with are at the same are time the common physicians of the town. t_. J\^\ c^U \^^\\\ U Jli j\]^ d\^\J ^U A seller of dogs-meat became the son-in-laiv of a . 373. is the man who (called day sells coarse horse-beans when boiled fj. Who 2^oss€Sses little has thejirst right to it.^<x<) in the bazar they form the principal break." Thus said if a lucky object present itself at early hours. rich but require the apothecary's medicines. lia-Ltf J1*a]1 "our morning salute from is fortunate or early in the Jj .ARABIC PROVERBS. On a person immoderately enjoying the good luck that had happened to him.

sells the Ij^^ or stomach of a sheep. seldom falls to which. but purchased by poor people. together with tripes or entrails and other kinds of dogs-meat East. is used in the same sense. means "to glaze it.118 butcher. 377. ^}jua He prepared himself for the business. when used on the subject of iron over it it means :" " to pass a hot to restore its lustre if spoken of paper. however. Truth in friendship does not occur in the East I can at least conscientiously declare that neither in Syria nor in Egypt did any . 376. " (There. ARABIC PROVERBS. The image of friendship It is to be wished that the is truth. Egyptians would take this maxim as their guide. it is usual to abridge this proverb and only ^^jJI ^-t^'^ quote the latter phrase.)" they said. He has smoothed Ms cloak and cleaned his heard. " to cleanse the beard from dust . . in the is the lot of dogs." the word dialect _. person is \J^\ U- The all called vJ^--^^ who . house!' " the dirt has come to the gate of {its) Said of a connection formed between two low fellows . cloth." ij^s^ is the under vest of j^s in the Egyptian cloth as worn in the East.

In the Egyptian dialect ^iL^ l." the thing.**uiJ ^c^ cash ^J^ J^^ <SxiJ iMua A ready blow ivith is better than eighty thousand derhems of promised future payments." In the t first sense . or through fear. instance 119 difficult : of its appearing under circum- stances ever come within my observation but on called the contrary._--^2^U means "he or also " he who wants who possesses stands for the thing.L-. 378. 34. 380. then said." he the excuses offered by a miser." a a.ARABIC PROVERBS.-^^! —and js-U means then the same as <^^lLl c-JlL (See No.\ term not used at present in keeping accounts. numerous cases where those who themselves friends. betrayed each other on the slightest prospect of gain." " who d^lk>l asks it. in the Egyptian dialect equivalent to Jj^I or *xcj . "It stinks..''' ti.) 379. A Jew found On meat at a low price. or some other base motive. Who ivants a thing is blind (to its faults).. ijjo is equal to " eighty thousand derhems.L>-lLl -...

devotions. rather than the shorter passage by sea. who has been twice cheated in . " thou wilt many about the ship .performing their replied the friend. than the jprayers ofthejlshes." "No. 382.and in general any homage paid to better to hear. to The most fatiguing journey by land is preferable " Take thy passage the pleasantest sea voyage." by see said a fishes person to his friend. Two blows on the head cause pain.120 ARABIC PROVERBS. Said of a person the same manner. ^-f^^^ is the prayer ^\ (^U^i." &c. oU\ 381. sea." "I think it The Egyptians dislike sea voyages so much that most of them choose the tedious and fatiguing journey by land to Mekka. Rather {hear) the Jlatidencies of the camels. the divinity.

Said of those successes. he thoujht it to he true." \^^:^J> means "they laughed at Piim but some- times. On usually the credulity with which inferiors Usten to the joking promises of their superiors." <L. thus hasabooe/' 384. " they laughed ivith liim.>u*r>. who complain in the midst of their R . 121 Thei/ laughed ivith the water-carrier. 385. . treats them with as much politeness as those himself particularly invited. This alludes to a custom invited general in the East a man by any able person to an entertainment several of his may bring with him own friends without the desire or per. The guest of the hospitable treats hospitably.ARABIC PROVERBS. as here. whom he had He beat me and cried out . mission of the host who^ nevertheless. Or he evinced it learn s« hospitality from those who have respect- towards him." or "joked with him. ^^^-'^-^ the Egyptian pronunciation of havmg '' the last syllables very strongly accented. 383. ^^ . he got the start of nie and complained.

j' <—^ is the Egyptian imperative ''to entertain. he will steal thy clothes. The Bedouins of Egypt have the worst reputation amongst the townspeople and ingratitude. ol* L'^_. lover. Entertain the Bedouin. Fight ivith me. A hloiv from our lover is as {sweet as) the eating raisins. When it the Egyptian peasants fight with the weaker as to cause each other frequently happens that seizes his adversary in such a manner rlangerous or fatal results. 386. have adopted the vices of the latter. Observe some decency and moderation in thy enmity." 387. of Here the wit zebyb. ." "to treat as a guest. raisin. 388.122 ARABIC PROVERBS. . lies merely m the Arabic rhyme of with hahyh. reduced to a mongrel race between all Bedouins and peasants. On many free of them. hut do not lay hold of such a part as may he seriously injured.

they into thy place. and thou shalt not be disturbed. Said of smiles or laughter forced amidst poignant sufferings. 389. in stature as he is stupid 390. tall is lost in his length.-ej'^-e jy^^ V** ivill Put the things into their ^places. " make no innovations. the kadhy declared that he beat him merely with the hope that whoever was ." 392. poor When the man complained. <—NJciyt U_5n*^' ^. (Like) the laughter of the nut (when crached) hetween two stones. his due and right. the kadhy caused a person avowedly innocent to be bastinadoed. 123 His understanding Said of a person as in mind. ^J^^^ ^-^M C_?<'=^ Lj. that the guilty may confess. 391. put thee Give to every one shalt have thy due. What an a judicial maxim ! It is related that in intricate law suit.-t-^ '-t't^^ Strike the imiocent.ARABIC PEOVERBS. and thou This saying also means.

(Like) the laughter of serpents in the sack of burning chalk. This in purport serpents is similar to No." 'i^^ is unextinguished lime . and then pour water on of the the hisses serpents while they suffer the torture of burning. unslaked lime. the same name to is also given to a paste is made of this lime and mercury. the real culprit might be induced to confess out of compassion." 394. is a ''leather bag. . Blind men force grasp at the objects before them with peculiar and eagerness. al^^ in Egypt signifies that part of a bird's throat is wherein the food deposited before digestion. [He This is is) of nai'TOiv throat.124 ARABIC PROVERBS. which used in the bath as a depilatory S-^'^/r remove hairs from the body.-" ^^\ ^. 390. To torment of it the children put them into a sack . 395. \^\ {He) holds faster than the blind man. Said of one who never relaxes his hold.. are called by the children " the laughing of the serpents. said of a person who blabs every secret. 393.

Thy bird flew aivay. Applied to business of a is difficult nature.!^ ^ J. and another took it. dialect aALl signifies a blow not very . luck.*^! ^_ " until the camel shall enter into the needle's ear. J. In the Egyptian violent. 396.-'' {Like) a high cap.) j^\:>Jb (See No. 125 Narroiver than the ear of a needle." We (Ss>- find in the Koran LLk. Ll-^l j*.-- an expression meaning the " ear of a needle. it falls off at a single hloiv.ARABIC PROVERBS." M 397. This ^jil^J^ or is said of an effeminate cowardly person 194. Another has seized upon thy good opportunity that thou hast missed. or of the 398.

A thief contrived to make it a hole in a wall. The hole {which he made) opened into a granary. expecting to find a side . only spoils the surface to the depth of six or eight inches. Beat thy drum and blow thy pipe. it. however. ij^ij ( or corn that was of little -^'ij is the hole made in the wall. and then tvent running after On inconsistency of conduct. 401. 399. Said of the failure of a person's eager endeavours. this The Egyptians frequently is the time for mirth. but uncovered and which. especially among the peasants. now rejoice. 400.126 ARABIC PROVERBS. The drum and the pipe are quote this saying. is an open yard v/here the corn or straw belonging to government is is kept. He caused his hird to Jiy aivay. room full of valuable goods on the other but instead of he found a magazine of straw service to him. where the corn exposed to rain heaped up. of Egypt there such a yard. Thou hast obtained thy wishes. instruments much used. As far . In every town is .

Who seeks for luecdth ivithout [previous] wealth is like him ivho carries ivater in a sieve. It leads to perdition.ARABIC PROVE KBS." . ^-vL means ''avidity. repents.) 405. 403/"" iu\sj ^LM\ ^^ Obedience to tJic tongue [causes) repentance. Pasha. (Like) a physician curing is the people. there exists at present in 127 Egypt but one roofed magazine of corn : this was lately erected at Alexandria by Mohammed Aly 402. False ambition severs the neck. indigestion. (A verse. The food of the lion [causes) indigestion to the l^\jsr wolf surfeit. as I know. 406. Who leaves his tongue uncontrolled. while he himself distempered. 404.

" &c. Suspicious. Ti/rannical.^«i bad omen : it stands for The Egyptians say concerning a thing of bad "^^'^^ which L_^J? is omen ^^^*^^ '^^ to ^^^^ its possessor ^lIc a^ "his good for it. 408. for pecuniary gain. M\ -v^ 407." or L/"-?''' . it Ui is one who tliinks (^liu ill of others. remote from good ivoy^ks. because is understood *j^b i_5JJl 409. or fame.128 ARABIC PROVERBS. of bad omen. " to strike. cheating. or for power. Striking characteristics of a worthless person." " to cut off. treacherous." ja^^ in the Egyptian dialect. A^-uuH i_^ means is that his heel (and therefore of the whole person) j*j-i d. latter sense it whether in which means " ambition. The ill-treatment of brute creatures is unlawful.

men. and The ancient Arabs were extremely and even now the fear superstitious on this subject of a bad omen . This probably derived /»yu!l from the saying of Mohammed. evil and horses. the heart does not grieve." ^ yb U) With horses' respect to ^-'^-'^^ bad omens the Egyptians say ^_^V J heels. of misfortunes. .ARABIC PROVERBS. are most exposed is eye and bad omens. In proportion to the [length of) thy garment stretch out thy legs. transaction. heel in passing for 129 (u^y^ over it will be unlucky. ^ii LloJl ^^^ J J 'i\J. Be not an eye-witness 411.is universal. and the forelocks ." the house. j i-j^^ " thresholds. (When) the eye does not see.\ J j\jii\ c?l) ." meaning that to the houses. and pervades every . the woman. Accommodate thyself to the circumstances in .^^11 C_5> 410. " Let the bad omen reside only in three things the animal.

them. very while common among the Easterns of a low class on the contrary.130 ARABIC PROVERBS. il^Ull the woman who waslies the corpses of females previously to interment. lT^^ 3Iy enemy I is the S>J Jlc washer of my corpse. so that any part of it should appear. by living as poorly as is com- . tliou art placed. and perfume under Although he has not money wherewith hinder parts to pur- chase drawers. is am thrown upon the mercy of my enemy. The vanity of living beyond is . 413. yet he has the vanity to perfume his . Naked about his hinder parts. those of the higher classes endeavour to conceal their wealth patible with then. must show no part of Egyptian dialect body but the used si is often for jSi 412. in fact face. and affecting airs of greatness.rank. Before a superior the man who his sits cross-legged must enhe In the deavour to hide even his feet and toes. is reckoned highly indecent and unmannerly among respectable persons in Eastern society. which To stretcli out one's leg beyond the cloak. while even the rich are content to perfume their beards. one's station.

At the roasted meat "take. 415. and on such occasions the kalyt (see No. . to cover. 417. The peasants in crossing over hold up their loose skirts. 157." hut at " the vinegar my teeth ache. 416. take. rather tha7i the friendshi}') of the fool.ARABIC PROVERBS." wrap up. He vinegar uJl eagerly eats the roasted meat is but when offered he says.) becomes conspicuous. On certain occasions the bad qualities of a person must show themselves. " it "to to encircle. The enmity of the ivise. 131 Wise men do not quarrel ivith each other. 414." . At the ford over the river the Jcalyt becomes con- Sjncuous." Here it in means wrap up the pieces of roast meat is some where bread as practised at dinners in tlie East. aj>\^x< is a fording j)^^^® where the water is shallow. or makes my teeth ache.

if possible. ij^ja is that unpleasant sensation of the teeth when we see anything repugnant to our is nature or taste. wrapped up in it. At the narroiv passage there friend. wisdom withdraws. improper persons i—ajL^ is derived employed t-J^- in ridiculous from or (—c-xsr. Wisdom overpowered by hunger or dire necessity. every morsel taken from the dish accompanied to the mouth with a piece of bread or." "a difficult moment. summer . blind woman shaves an insane one. 419. The libdn shdmy ^U) is a white shining gum of a glutinous . they dip their bread 418.132 ARABIC PROVERBS. Vinegar made of dates used by the lower classes in into it. Jh-^^ "a narrow pass. Jyixll t—^JbjJ is (j^iaJ^ J*^^ When the is stomach concerned." the rubbing the skin of the face with the libdn shdmy as a depilatory to remove (^^l-l haii^s. is . is no brother and no In dangerous cases we must only think of saving ourselves. A On affairs." 420.

therefore ojjen it is thou art cheated in the business.feast.ARABIC PROVERBS. of fir.^ Li^b J JJJI ^i 4lij ^z^^ Jx To the good luck of my ivedding festivities the night was short. avail themselves of this (-J-jLs^ 421. for if is displayed before thee. said ironically to express that the wedding. quality. the hair to which sticks is The women of Cairo whose beauty obscured by hair on the skin. particu- from It Scio. is dipped into process all and rubbed over the it by which eradicated. . i_Jljj is the plural of ^: is " the procession in which the bride carried to the house of her spouse . ^Ul. used in a melted it the finger being face. 422. The whole thy eyes. now thy own fault. and at Cairo always on the night preceding the consummation of matrimony." the principal rejoicings of which take place during the night . To thy eye. is where it is produced from a species state. a 133 is kind of turpentine that imported into Egypt from the larly islands of the Archipelago. MercJmnt." and it also signifies " tlie whole wedding. and This is the female singers became penitents. did not succeed well and the saying is applied to any unfortunate circumstance that throws obstacles in the way of rejoicings.

. one disguised as a French soldier. or the sheikh of the young man. the other dressed up as a French woman. the whole quarter of the city in which I reside is illuminated on a similar occasion . When a girl is to be asked in matrimony. a friend or relation. 134 ARABIC PROVERBS.=^ price to be paid for is her (w::^:Ji as they call it.. soldier. pronounce Arabic according to their supposed native idioms. and at last obhges him to put on his hat instead of the turban. It is a real bargain. The mockwhose pockets are full of gold but the French soldier beats the Turk unmercifully whenever he meets him.) goes to the girl's father. ance (l::. (who has instructed him in reading the Koran. as well as the French pair. a circumstance which causes roars of laughter. play their tricks before a large assembly of Arabs. for the sulted. pubHc women those who were expected at of a loose description the wedding feast suddenly felt symptoms of repent- The female singers are mostly . affections are never con- and the amount of the j. two men.) the only matter taken into consideration.^Ij). and therefore did not attend. in front of the bridegroom's house . and makes a bargain girl's for her. lady's heart is won by the Turkish . I shall here give some account of them. provided the stations in life of both parties sufiiciently correspond but even in . a third Arab personifies a cowardly Turkish soldier making love to the lady he. last which night is called Alri-jJ^ a3J Wliile I am and writing this. As certain customs usual on a MosHm wedding ceremony at Cairo have not been mentioned by former travellers.

fortune. and an open table kept. they begin eight days before —the house is then fuU of company is every night. varies according to her rank. sum becomes the other half remains in the brideafroom's if hands. suspended from cords drawn across the street. bemg The day is for the marriage is then fixed. and reverts to his wife divorce her forfeits . or. to the nearest male relation. if he be dead. this father . But on the great night of the feast (that immediately preceding . It is usual to pay half of the money immediately the property of the in advance. first-rate Among the merchants the price . he should die or but if she herself sues for a divorce she her claim to the money. among . is from two huDdred to those of the second classes three hundred dollars class. the bridegroom himself not present. and a man of low extraction and profession who The price paid for the girl to her father. a^j) On the day of betrothing (Lkkill the girl's father gives a small entertainment in his house. or reputation for beauty. the is street wherein the bridegroom resides for six or seven days before the marriage decorated with flags and various-coloured lamps. if the parties are great and rich people.ARABIC PROVERBS. from sixty to eighty and the lower often pay no more than from three to five dollars. If any festivity to take place (a circumstance with classes which the poorer generally dispense). where none assemble but intimate friends. this respect the 135 Egyptians are not very scrupulous. Three days before the marriage ceremony the festivities usually begin . possesses wealth often marries into a high class.

) i. The former takes " I the other's hand. the nuptial night. and congratulate him.. in marriage. when two witnesses only are required.. "I have accepted " her. the adult virgin..136 ARABIC PROVERBS. ^»j^-<) aUI) groom replies. and after the recital of a short prayer addresses him in these words : give to thee my daughter N ^\ . . (which in Egypt is always on Monday or Thursday. nor even at the time of betrothing..^ ^. accord- The ing to the law of God and of his prophet." father asks. in marriage according to the law of (<uLc ^j-jj God and 'ijCj]\ of his prophet." ^ iJ^J <ulUS^ L^y : (_j. " Dost thou accept my daughter ?" (^:j (l$:dJ) e:-Xj!^) The answer (l^J i-jCS is.) the girl's father repairs to the bridegroom's house. to attest verbally the betrothing ." ^jW. Next morning when the nuptials are to take place (al^jJl A^)..<.J<:s>-^j AJi\) To which the other replies "I take thy daughter N „. God thee with her.. and the whole street is women are illuminated. . the adult virgin.:. the other days being considered of bad omen with regard to weddings. in order to conclude the marriage compact ( J^') after a plentiful dinner the mutual friends assemble in a circle." bless The father immediately adds. No document or marriage contract is written on this occasion. .) singmg and dancing hired to attend. and all present shake hands with the bridegroom. bridegroom sitting in the midst." ^J is The Fatha chapter of the Koran) then recited by the whole company. the girl's father and the .. accompanied by some of his friends. " I ('i^iW hope in God that '1-- And the brideshe may prove a (or first blessing.

a large canopy of red is held by four men. for six or eight hours. is 137 this While left ceremony house. When many in great people marry. firont of nuptial processions of an and conducted with much less pomp and splendour. and at their head was a masqued figure that is frequently seen parading in inferior order. the musicians go before all her.. generally with a Cashmere shawl silk or cotton stuff. legs. having all her own and accompanied by in her female relations. proceeds through the town in a manner faithfully represented a plate of Niebuhr s Travels. the bride was seated a carriage. harlequins. veiled. these processions are conscale. T . in then- own regular abodes : sixty or seventy of those waggons followed the carriage of the bride. and therefore those streets are carefully avoided into which the baths open. and the different trades and pro- fessions of the town appeared personified upon richly decorated open waggons drawn by horses in these waggons the tradesmen and artists had estabHshed their shops. arms. She parades through till the prmcipal streets *'' from morning evening. wliere this procession is accompanied with other ceremonies and it is usually takes place in the early part of the night. &c. and the payment of the money. this figure is a young man whose head. and sat working in the same manner as . Before them went rope-dancers. She is completely . taking place. reckoned a very bad omen to pass with the bride before a public bath. carried over her head . the bride. and entire body are patched over * In Syi'ia. ducted upon a more magnificent the court of I have seen nuptial processions of persons high in office at Mohammed Aly all .ARABIC PROVERBS.

and he displays it with all indecent gesticulation in staring multitude. Towards evening the bride arrives. some remnant of the worship paid by their forefathers to that god. so that no part of the skin can be perceived. a short way through the town. from which he issues. and running off with his fair prize carries stairs. two feet in length. that object He exhibits. his person appearing as if completely pow- dered over. her into the female's apartments up the where women is . of both families are assembled. after which he returns to his home. 138 ARABIC PROVERBS. and . half fainting from fatigue. This evening last past with much fewer festivities than the there are not any pubHc rejoicings in the relations streets. suddenly clasps her in his arms as if by all violence. with white cotton. the bazars before the and during the whole time of the this custom. procession. As soon as he enters the . The bridegroom now he parades in hi§ newest by the light of torches and to the sound of drums. before the gate of her spouse's dwelling. clothes. and covered with cotton.. accompanied by his friends he then goes to the Mosque. which constituted the distinguishing of the gardens attribute of the ancient this is of Boman god enormous proportion. and none but the and intimate in friends attend at supper. his turn leaves the house. in the natural position. whose temple at Karnak is the most considerable now existing in Egypt. recites the Aeshe. or last evening prayer. How which is not known in other places. began among the Egyptians. I am unable to ascertain but it seems not improbably .

this " the price for the uncovering of the face ^^ ^^s circumstances allow him. the mother It is He finds her in his bedchamber. or if . and none remain but the bride and bridegroom. : {^^y\ I—£A^ (J^)' he generally gives gold coins a piastre. however. loudly. he gives even a few paras something. but at parting strike him many times with fast as possible. her is removed by her attendants she then rises and kisses his hands. time her face is here that for the seen by the bridegroom. he is poor. usually sofa with two women by her first or aunt. and the old midwife of her family. these blows he endeavours to avoid by running in as He is indulged with a short repose is in his own apartment. At his entrance the veil that covers . given. and a message is then sent informing him that his bride ready to receive him. must be consent. although a trifling sum. On this occasion the bridegroom must convince him- self that no man has anticipated him in the possession . An invariable and indispen- sable custom now obliges the bridegroom to give to both the female attendants. in testimony of the veil having been removed with the gill's The two women then retire. During this first nuptial " tete a tete" many women assemble before the door. their hands upon liis back . money called and likewise to is put some money into the hands of his bride. singing. 139 house his friends leave him. striking drums. and his expectations are but too often disappointed. sitting upon the side." ARABIC PROVERBS. to prevent from being heard and shouting any conversation that might pass between the newly married couple.

(jw. the bride and '^idegroom retire to separate apartments next ^ . among whom the chemise bridegroom's house to the is exhibited only in the there women assembled and in many it. . 140 of the fair one. that I is sometimes so repugnant to manly must describe in a language better adapted than the English to a detail of similar proceedings. to the houses of their neighbours.er some travellers have related. But this practise is not adopted by the more respectable inhabitants. but he not permitted to approach her. and no longer On that night. and for seven days some female relations constantly remain with is the bride in the house of her husband.^ d'-j^ "^^^^ i_53a$' ^^ijub L« Before the bridegroom approaches is his bride it reckoned proper that he should ^^^ utter aloud these words of the Koran \ % i^\ j^ <-^^ Cairo J.) in triumph.U\ . immediately after the ^ conclusion of their first interview. whom also he must no longer allow (l^i^^J ^j^)- to boast of being a in maiden The mode it which he acquires that conviction feelings.. m(T¥ning they go to the bath after .i Among is the lower classes of Moslims at it customary that on the day after the handkerchief nuptials certain female relations of the bride should carry her innermost garment (not as h. ARABIC PROVERBS. instances the people of high rank con- demn even allow this exhibition as indecent.

(called J^j) often of greater value than the price which was paid for her those . articles continue her property. by that reported to exist at Constantinople . none of those ceremonies take place the nuptials are celebrated in a quiet manner by the family a virgin tivities. a Divorces are extremely common at Cairo . Polygamy is much less frequent than Europeans imagine. If a widow . and wax candles. &c. and with ornaments . which the Moslim law allows. is Even the marriage of sometimes not accompanied by any fesalone. those who can aiford to keep separate establishments. It is always expected that those who . The privilege of having four. by the richest class only. marries. Of one hundred married men in this city there certainly is not more than one who has two wives and not more than one in five hundred who has more than two. to her husband's house much furniture. bride must be made and her at the time of betrothing friends else the would consider themselves insulted. for this omission but an express stipulation . To estimate the condition of the Arab women at Cairo. upon large board covered with a fine handkerchief.ARABIC PROVERBS. are invited to nuptials should bring some presents sugar. is enjoyed . bedding. are the articles generally sent on such occasions to the bridegroom's house. I beheve there are few individuals who have not divorced one wife. coffee. kitchen utensils. 141 The bride furnishes herself with clothes for the she brings likewise marriage.

" is "belonging to. as will it foolish person to be patient is and not quite certain that circumstances change for the better. It is the business of the Mueddin to call to prayers. duty to perform. There are appropriate persons for the performance of every business. until the clover sprouts up. Live. 423. they are of less reserved manners. 424. would be very erroneous." 425. the deserts excepted reason. Exhorting a to despond. . in and the large Turkish towns." ^ \j^ "this *' this obligation devolves upon me. Females probably enjoy more freedom here at Cairo than in any other part of the Turkish empire. and more addicted to debauchery than the women of the neighbouring countries. Syria and Hedjaz. or from .''' The liar is short-lived {soon detected).142 ARABIC PROVERBS. and whether for that some accessory causes. J-c sometimes means "the business of. thou ass." my business or Thus it is said.

Let us alone.''' cels of goods. 428. 143 Teach me Ilow I can depart from you.liUi comes from the term dialect ." an imitative word expressing the gurgling sound which water produces in passing through tlie narrow opening of ." ^JlL:^ —which in the Egyptian " signifies " miserable baggage. 426." "worthless.ARABIC PROVEEBS.^Ai (See No. 427.-'' live with A miserahle disorderly slut tail's p^roudly and affects prudery. but serves to rhyme " par- with iJJ^ sense . cant term employed only in this it and without any real signification. thrown about.'- lT-"^' l5^^ ivho J^^ V Li^' Li'^^ J-^^ . "deal of rubbish and trumpery. . they said." aLi^L from the word ^jAi^ ijLJL." "disorderly. and begone.) In a wdder " means also " baggage in general. Live ivith him j^'i'ciys." a meaning a The word {Jls6 is phrase. the singer.." trumpery thus they say iJUu JLLz. 146 and No. is Said of a person fondly imagining that he to people dear who do not care about him. and thou prayest and thou singest. 319.

means " to ruin the family by divorcing the mother and obliging her to quit the house. Unmarried. not it. 431. quarrelso^ne. Lilc-j " to abstract one's self from society. and retaining no fHend.refer to l::. when poured from out." " to neglect one's friends. and also babij^^^^i bling. and ^\j>. . Said of one whose manners are repulsive. To keep the family in good condition.144 earthen jars ARABIC PROVERBS." "to behave towards them with reserve and affected airs. The cat became blind yet still ivas hayikering after mice." 429. to destroy When the words 'ij\^ ijl^ house or family). the talking loud. From this is derived its figurative sense." ^-^:---i^\ ^J^ ^^ likewise used when the father of a family dies. 430." and h\j:>.^ means "to keep the family (a in a good state by letting the mother live with her husband and children .

and nicety. is a pap made of meal. and [now) he has the start of us at the gates. o . u . See No." The substantial mer- chants of Cairo frequently carry a small balance in their wide sleeves. water." mean " naked/' but "half-naked. still layiDg claim to the habits of the wealthy. 350. Miserable. to weigh the sequins and other gold coins which they receive in payment.ARABIC PROVERBS. much used among the negroes and also among the peasants. butter. A pap of the cookery of Om Aly. 433. 432. ^U m\ a woman's name as women . 434. To express a thing prepared with great care and Is^^^^s. are often called by the name of their favourite child.^ X We taught him begging. ^byx does not here properly ''in rags. 145 (Half) naked and a balance in his hand. The pupil excelling for dj\:S\J^ his master. usually the first-born son.

It originally signifies equivalent to " slut or wench. 435/'- The kettle reproached the kitchen siwon. thou hussey." " to give bad advice. always the literal signification." Of those who reprove others for faults of which ai^\ is a large they themselves are more guilty. thinkest of what merely ornamental. so is called the tattooing of the female peasants and those of the lower classes in general incisions . et in puellis exciduntur. but never forming any regular the red colour. wipe from thy face.146 ARABIC PROVERBS. syikJ\ is posed in separate figures." — labia pudendorum. " thou idle babbler. this is produced by temples. Instead of thy {fine) tattoo and off the dirt thij j^ctinti^ig. In the Egyptian dialect '' dirt in the eye. " sore")." (and likewise. Do what is right is and necessary before thou L^Lri. it is made either of Cinnabar." he said. dis- made along the forehead and lines. 'i)aj ness of the eye is an insulting expression. »—JjUu has not in Egypt wooden kitchen spoon." 436. but means "to talk idly." " to delude a person by shrewd words. with which the gay women paint of Henna or ^\^ means their hands and feet . " Thou hlackee. quae a Cahirinis etiam jy^j dicuntur. .

^^ "to him who . Applied to a gi-eedy glutton." viz..uiJ) effort made to conceal them. fruit. 437. . for sale it here put for ^j ^J 439..i <^r^ ^is e?/e upon the cuphoard. &c. Superior excellence or beauty will become known. are deposited.^ are often said indifferently it also means the body of the sun. shelf in a ^L is a board or room whereon cries eatables. . \2JcJ v-5' J >mAj1j| / f^JU.C^J^\ ^J^ The eye of the sun cannot he hidden. especially fruits ^jx-j and is sweetmeats. notwithstanding every . (J^j ^^ ^j1 ^ ^J^^^ <.«.. cries. or the solar rays. 438. : beginning with the following verses f^^ijoj J jj-*^ulJl (^-x L:i^l3 (Lo^Jkiil U>yac In the first line there are six different terms expressing wine. victuals. 147 The embrace at meeting is better than that at parting. 1^^ and ^^^^. his ear towards the crier (of things for sale in the street). This proverb is taken from a poem in praise of wine.j.— AEABIC PROVERBS.

which hangs upon the breast. 'iji^ is The ^^l:^::^' more commonly used in Egypt than To save expense the Egyptians frequently celebrate these two festivals at the same time. to attract particular notice. ^}^}^ ^^ body of troops in actual warfare .. the best verse of the poem. and by its side a circumcision {fectst). of the necklace" or {'iiS^\ ^^«-c) is the medallion. A term surplus or superabundance of rejoicings. This is a verbal play on the different meanings of j^ and j\c 441. when an oppor- tunity of doing so presents itself 442.^] 3 The jewel of the necklace.. the point in discourse. * iiX. the vanguard of the army. or gold coin. ^ ivedding. Borrow and lend out {what thou is the hast horroived).j^^ . *a^^^ or i^yi^f^ " an army or large thus. thai great shame." "the army agtiinst the '^^:. from the middle of a woman's necklace.148 ARABIC PROVERBS. The "eye precious stone. 440. the canopy of the throne.

a it liquid extracted be. usually found towards the end of those compositions called Kasyde. composed of the bravest soldiers. '^j^j^'- by pressure from whatever source the same as a " glass bottle.-lj^^ Jj^ is the " head or vanguard of the army. 149 Wahdby. May he suffer stoning. verbatim... to the May those torments he his which are the due of the adxdteresses." verse (L::-^-J) . "to him what drum on the day of festival. 443. c:-. May that come upon him lohich comes upon the drum on the feast-day. ci:-^ so is styled the wherein the poet has exerted his utmost powers the main verse of the poem." i3L4\ " the very point or h^ most material part of the question iJA-.L." *J^." i'jljl' 444.ARABIC PROVERBS. Much beating. ^jl-oc A may bad character and unseemly body." 445.^!! under discussion.is4^ Here is to be understood oUyi or those women whom the Koran condemns to be stoned (*^y)- . A dirty liquor in a wretched bottle.

133. (See No. The blind man does what see him. scarce." properly " above the roof or terrace of the house it is constantly used to express " upon the terrace. 447.^diJl he practises them. More rare tJmn Said of fly-brains. unacquainted with his foolish however openly of . is nasty upon the roof of the house. May that fire be his lot which is the lot The Sabbat men. any thing very ^j*j means ." 448. 446. but The nieaning j^ is .) 449. are doomed to hell by the Koran. or the Jews. Custom is the twin of the innate character. i-::-wJl t_>UsUpl 1^^ to &J^ of the Sabbat men. and thinks that the people do not Said of a blockhead who fancies that the world is tricks. All these imprecations are in common and frequent use.150 ARABIC PROVERBS.

ABABIC PROVERBS. Scarcer than the nose of the Said of a rare thing. . off. it is diflficult to take a lion by the nose. and annoy him extremely. More Said of a person is adhesive than a tick. but in the 151 common dialect of Egypt this name is given to a sort of vermin that stick to the beards of filthy peasants. whom one cannot shake . o^ a species of tike (or tick) these creatures attach themselves firmly to the body (especially to the belly) of a camel. called ^U--? and are also 450. because lion. 451. originally (as here) "a fly".

the hycenas then flayed." " J**^^ is ^JL\ ^^ ^f<i jJ In the Egyptian dialect J^_ one's . It is an excuse the texture of which is not truth's own work. Said of a false excuse. or ^J^y^ ^Ws a species of small weasel or . Ichneumon sings. ^jJ^\ (_J^ 455.152 signifies ARABIC PROVERBS. The lions ivithdreiv." A more common term is for weaving is and a weaver called j|jJ5 in Egypt. the The ferret dances and U^y:. A verse which : is frequently quoted conveys the same meaning And when the lion has cleared the field. jjwil \sjb The construction one's self.^iUuij often means " to do a thing by by or own jji labour/' equivalent to (_/«iJlj — -s^***j "to weave. the lock of hair that falls on the horse's forehead. 454.

Scarcity and had (corn) measuring. ferret 153 very common in Egypt is . 458." " to scrape.ARABIC PROVERBS." or " in short ." "therefore." Jli i-r'^ji A crow exclaimed " God truth " then" quoth one. ^j in the Egyptian dialect. A clear loss rather than a profit of distant 457." "altogether. is of a gentle disposition although not to be domesticated." sHghtly. and gambols. ^/-*. houses. sometimes meaning "there." " to recite a poem." " to it. or scratch . feeds upon meat. means *'to sing.ull play and the Ichneumon /»j that has a sharp shrill voice. ex2)ectation." 456.) Ji-jj dig it " to search upon the ground. 263." ^ is a kind of expletive often used in Egypt. " the dirt scraper has become a preacher. \^\^ \^\\ jJibO ^ Jli is the J^ ^\ . it comes into the full of rat. (See No." but at other times it has not any signification whatever and is quite superfluous. Bad times and bad men.

A hoy-servant of all ivorJc. (by) weeping. ivithout food or ivages. 460.154 ARABIC PROVERBS. Said in reference to the unwillingness of a person to reward those "sufficient/' i. i^ 'ij}^\ ijSs. 459. ." The is expression iz^ often heard. servants. &c.. said in ridicule of the parasites (J^) who for the run from one end of the town to the other sake of a good dinner." " to quarrel with. The dinner This is is in Upper Egypt — it is not far off. signifies <^)^ in the Egyptian dialect the daily allowance of victuals given to soldiers.e. u^^ ^^ "I am angry with him. labourers. lAs^ the work required in the in house. that of the virtuous woman 461. who have for all served him well. rather than constant friend- ^ ship ivith our enemy. Anger with our friend." 462. " to be angry with. J 1}J JusaJiH ^_xc The jealousy of the harlot (is evinced by) adultery. '^-:^^ is the common term Egypt for wages or monthly pay.

155 The jealousy of a wife is the key to her divorce. and the pockets of \sy. When collect the singing women perform all in Egypt they money from the persons . camphor and rose-water. present. ARABIC PROVERBS. the landlord or host as well as the guests to custom. them proclaims with a loud puts the sum which each person on the mentioning at the same time the donor's name this custom excites the vanity of those who form each the company. . from a kind of emulation in liberality wishing to have . said in excuse for our not paying a debt.j signifies the money given to the ^i>. one of and according voice plate. his own name mentioned fills as the most generous this heightens the interest and pleasure of the the singers. 464. My debtor is still more backward in payment than I am This is myself.. singers society. 465. is a mixture of by the company. Singing without ^remuneration is like a dead body without perfumes. 463. with which the face of a dead person is sprinkled before the body is placed in the coffin.

" being the " henehelt" stage of drunkenness." tipsy.156 as our ARABIC PROVERBS. This expression corresponds exactly to the German 467. jyJs^^* " a completely drunk. *jy^ in the Egyptian dialect means the debtor and also the j^\ which means creditor. what is his Give dinner to the drunken — hut not supper to the tipsy. He plunged a (deep) plunge. is here used in the same sense as^liL* in Egypt one who is backward in paying. 468. 466. or generally remiss in doing duty. burst is to forth. His anger Ever ready signifies nostrils. ^^^ properly but used constantly in Egypt in for 7iose. or uJjl —a term seldom heard there familiar conversation. own debtor does not pay us. The drunken." i^'yiJl ti ^js>'J or ^J\J^ " a person clouded or stupified first ^U " one man who is with wine. it is supposed. the evening . is on the edge of his nose. . will become sober in in- but the tipsy during supper will be all toxicated and continue so night. and came up with a piece of dung.

they eat it with but few drink the a distorted mouth woman with . She does a thing seldom done by she is others. although doing so than others. a low word for more pohtely expressed by c:^^. ^ mouse feared ciently luide . of .! The word 1::^ means a thick heavy iron ckib held by both hands. She has a distorted mouth and drinks Meloukhya.. that her hinder j)ci7't was not suffi- they then introduced an iron pestle.— ARABIC PROVERBS. Uii " with a distorted mouth." The pot-herb meloukhya less qualified for is boiled with meat till it forms a thick broth. 470. jj^ &c. 157 M\ 469. and used by the public coftee-roasters Ij— jj to pound the roasted beans in large mortars. On for • remedies that cause an evil worse than that yx* is which they are appHed. which the Egyptians are very fond a spoon or dip their bread into thick broth. and the it.

But this kassaba.158 ARABIC PROVERBS. The kassaba that composes it has 3 i-q-o metres. to has the least claim do so. upon the at the end 471. . because she will probably spill it. and is computed at the kassaba being an imaginary portion of the division which comprises 24 kerats. or rod. Afedddn may have a Jcassaha bestowed in A trifling great one. being scarcely able to drink mere fall is water without letting some the end of Uiti about. and used on many occasions.square kassabas or 20 kerats. this is the feddan most used at present. Fedddn of 300 kassabas or 18 kerats. AXusJb /•io ^\^ its favour. Fedddn of 333 J.'' or "el Djerhasy" is composed of 400 square rods or kassabas. which the surveyors now use in measuring out fields the sown every year. The Cairo. \ at and l-^^Lo according to the of s pronunciation of the lower is laid classes by which a strong accent of feminine nouns. of which the extent differs according to the various departments of the revenue : ^^Fedddn 24 kerats el Jcamel. according to the new has regulations of Mohammed Ali Pasha. . (who abolished the land taxes assessed upon villages. or . thing may be sacrificed in favour of a : It ^Uu2j would have been better Arabic thus \ss^ ^i The fedddn is an Egyptian land measure.

but he has.e. or so negligent. this rod. however. although the feddan for which they pay the tax still same number itself is of rods. and now takes throughout the I country the miri from each fed dan). is often changed. measured favours a deception of it Immemorial custom has decided that consist of twenty-four fists {Lixi\ ought to as meaning such are formed in seizing a stick with the hand and keeping the thumb erect upon it. districts at 159 large. found out that at present is (in 181 7) the kassaba used it only three-fourths of what was twelve years contains the ago under the Mamelouks. peasants. and it may be easily conceived that government does not choose the largest hands to fix the length of the rod.— ARABIC PROVERBS. to cheat the and every two or three years an inch is lopped oif from it. The poor fellah is little aware of this diminution at the moment. In 1816. that perhaps they seldom discover the cheat. shortened. say. The manner in which the kassaba this kind. i. The peasants are so stupid. the kassaba had about 6J Cairo pikes. thus J No exact measure has ever been determined. or .

field income of the cultivator is The following field it an account of the 1813-1814. A society of twenty.160 think it ARABIC PROVERBS.000. of little moment . numerous tricks and secret measures by which without government curtails the fellah's pittance incurring the blame of open tyrannical extortion. of for durra. but that the fields are in-igated in high-water time either by means of wheels. According to the latest data there are about 2.000 of dollars to t. who draw the water up from the river. besides. in and the produce of winter must be recollected that in the higher parts of Egypt the Nile never inundates the ground.000 of fedddn now under at actual cultivation in Egypt. which fourteen were destined and three . in Upper Egypt. As Egypt. .000 of feddan the rate of 3| it or 4 dollars annual tax per feddan. more than half of his income.he I believe. (as may be now computed.000. I it have mentioned the subject of taxation in may gratify the reader to lay before him an accurate statement of the proportion which the land tax bears to the in this country. (of which five-sixths are sown with grain). they respect it as a custom of their forefathers. Then 2. the kassaba by an inch. The shortening of probably makes an increase £20. It expenditure on a near Esne. little Pasha of Egypt a sum that forms.000 sterling per annum.000.six peasants had hired a piece of ground comprising seventeen feddans.000 to one of the This is in the receipts of the Fisciis of from £30. or of buckets worked by men.) gives a land revenue of at least 7.

The sheikh. it being the custom of poor of their fellahs. Those who could not themselves attend.. in cash. paras. For three months twenty of the associates were occupied in drawing up water from the river in buckets. or for the whole .) thus thirty-four piasters . for 161 water-melons . This labour was continued incessantly during the whole until the durra approached to maturity. his share of Piasters. were obliged to send in their stead labourers hired for the purpose. was fifteen then estimated in Esne at five paras for food.ARABIC PROVERBS. of which ten were reckoned as pay (viz. or durra making the labour of each man during the three months amount to the value of cakes. Besides these twenty men. its issue from the and one man superintended the whole of the labourers. . two were employed in keeping the channels clear of channels over the mud and weeds two .850 Y . who have not any landed property field. which they emptied into the small channels made day to convey the water into the field. was alone exempt from contributing actual work. or head man of the company. oil and lentils. own. and excited them to exertion. The daily labour of a fellah in drawing the is bucket (which of a field than the hardest more fatiguing nature work in Europe). to associate every year and hire a Expenses incurred in the Cultivation of Seventeen Fedddtis. others in partitioning the water at field .

them during two months. and from the multitude sparrows and other small birds. H mud for each fedddn. at one raftan per fedddn. 162 After the conclusion of those three months. deprive the fellah of the whole fruit of his labours. we may say 20 field 1 ^ Total Expense attending the labour inasters J ^ . when Jjjlij) the chisters of the durra (called then were nearly ripe. .. . . 3 2 Expenses of harvest. the durra harvest in February or March 90 For the construction facilitate the operation of of water-buckets and 4 the poles to which they are suspended. and which drawing them up . 2^ 1 Seed for three feddans of field Labour of throwing the durra seed Labour of planting the melon seed four days.— ARABIC PROVERBS. .. or all. of these sixty for The daily pay men is estimated at twelve paras. five or six persons were employed in watching the crop of durra as well as the melon field.. which often. Piasfers. for . until . or .. which is performed on the spot is when the produce of the field collected in a 3 large heap Hire of the ground paid by the society to the owner of the field. at fifteen paras per day . to guard them from of nightly robbers. 18 Expenses of treading out the grain and winnowing it.Uj) of 14 feddiins of durra. in spite of every precaution. makes 3^ mud for the melon whole. Seed (^. twelve persons . .

The daily share of each associate may be commaking for puted at from six to seven paras. 40 For about three months the associates cut every day weeds and grass from the durra and melon field. them they gave and part 'was own sheep and goats taken away from them forcibly every morning. the for canes of them being used fuel or . every evening part of the weeds and grass they sold at the market of Esne for feeding horses. sold m the market of Esne at from two to three paras each 280 associates for his Each of the from off own eating the field about sixty paras . for thatching.. which they divided among them . and asses to their in that town . were worth about four piasters or in the whole 104 . 832 The dry durra harvest fall which after the to the share of each individual.ARABIC PROVERBS. camels. the three months about fifteen piasters per head 390 associate Wlien the grain was divided every carried home four and-a-half tellys. Produce of Seventeen Fedddns. worth at that in all stalks. by the soldiers of the garrison. part of .. 163 Piasters. or thirty-two piasters for the share of each . The water-melons of the three feddans. cattle and of which the leaves are given to the as food in the summer months.. time thirty-two paras per mud. or forty mud soogy.

ARABIC PROVERBS. calamity equally distressing as heavy rain innumerable or low water. making in all Remained —piasters to the fellahs. instead 832 . we may say six . about three piasters per head piasters for each individual .— 164 . and expense of misfortunes. Total produce Total expense Clear produce 1802 993^ 808 J this year The taxes of were twenty-nine 493 piasters per each feddan of durra and melons. How. because a high wind and heavy rain in November had bent plant . the stalks of the otherwise the produce of the field might have 'of been 1000 piasters in durra. does not entirely government never makes the smallest allowance. taxes deducted 1 >- oloi „ . worms are in the ground. Piasters. which are usually sown together. which he could sell afterwards with a profit of . or in the whole field 156 Total Produce of the I piasters 1802 must here observe that the durra harvest had or broken been bad. Piasters. two or three years seldom elapse without some either flights of birds. ever. Each associate besides fattened at home with the dry durra leaves a couple of sheep. if circumstances that : cause a great diminution in the produce the crop for those fail. _ J . which adds considerably to the labour irrigation. the water haviug been very abundant this year.

the mud el shoone (or the granary mud). the produce of a . or 48 raftans. The durra is usually The corn produce at . The com measures of Upper Egypt are the erdeh and the tellys. Esne in middling years 25 from 1 in the better ground of the neighbouring plains of Thebes. The produce yielded 40 muds for each associate. the market mud 16 of the mud el shoone make 9 mud el soogy. and the mud el soogy (or souky). . which makes . 165 dedvicted) The income of a feddan (taxes therefore 18-g piasters. The produce of the corn field is better. The erdeh has 12 muds. At the same period. The seed of the 14 fedddns of durra was 3^ mud soogy. or 1040 for the whole. (if ever) As the durra fields are very seldom sown twice in Upper Egypt. and 40^ the taxes laid piasters . or 24 kadalis. 297 for each mud of seed. was Each of the piasters. although the seed produces much less.ARABIC PROVERBS. or by hiring himself out as a labourer. was 84 piasters per feddan the expenses may be upon calculated at 15 piasters. 1 reckoned at 300 for of seed. corn fields were then there remained a clear profit of 29 jDiasters. after had having worked associates for his share twelve during the whole winter season. because corn does not or incessant labour of require such long continued irrigation. the man had to support himself during the rest of the year either by joining some other society to sow summer seed. corn field near Esne. The tellys has 16 muds. Of the mud there are two kinds. it produces 35 for 1.

A month that prays. their at own they are not at liberty to sell pleasure. Of late all the peasants' cattle has likewise been taxed.IGG ARABIC PROVERBS. . hi the corners are is hidden treasures. is or not. The present system of government is to oblige the peasants to sow the whole ground belonging to their village." llj^ " hidden treasures. and I beHeve. The erdeb of durra was then worth at Esne 5f piasters 1 piaster 40 paras. then partitioned out amongst the it and they must pay the taxes from in the same proportion as from the good. Wealth \j\^\ sometimes found where least expected. 'ii^\j plural of "the corner of a building. = 472. The bad ground cultivators. a hand that kills. which they do not want for The grain families. 473. On hypocrites. whether elevated therefore. whether good or bad." a word of frequent use. 8 piasters 1 Spanish dollar = . and they are to pay the tithes from before it. and whether irrigable or not. a thing never known in Egypt. unknown in any other part of the Turkish dominions. but must let government have it at a fixed price.

475. are inflamed Young minds ^ytj by example. signifies "to swim. ^ ^ or in the common Egyptian is dialect. and sat down wider the ivater-spout. . 478." ^^ likewise used. cV M^ ^j The young ones of the duck are swimmers. much used in the Syrian dialect not so frequently in the Egyptian. Secret vexations plague him. 476. 474. 477. One ^ji single word only j^-lj is is sufficient for the wise.ARABIC PROVERBS. for asses i^jy the saddle used in Egypt. In his jachass-saddle sticks a needle. i3wu^ a long iron packing needle. 167 He jled from the rain.'"- In every head is some wisdom. instead of . but not frequently. used likewise in sewing the saddle.

" i. any other celebrated mosque or to reside there for some time. Those persons. j_jlsaj <U*sa} ^ _j Jljj . 481.lsn. ^vjlr in . lectures in especially foreigners. 479." in the Egyptian person .j to become neighbour either of Beitullah of Mekka. who attend called a mosque. " Yes^' and for a his had doings remains the resident at Mekka. {Standing) in the middle ivindow. " the pilgrimage. tvho sit he tickles in the the hinder parts of those ivindow. it "to tickle the hinder parts of a has also another sense.'" Poverty and anger do not agree. 480. indecency to He behaves with vulgarity and dJUL people above and below him. are for that reason ^lj»\^^ {^ji\ Thus at Cairo the neighbours of the Azhar |^^jls^«) are far famed.168 ARABIC PROVERBS. or or of the ." dialect. which is regarded as very meritorious. significations among many /Ox ^^^z^juj means " a window. The poor must have pliant tempers. Mosque of Medina. ujyper and insults {by offensive noises) those in the loiver window.*Ar^ j^^i Such a man performed quoth one.

z . and covered with kerchiefs (d^lrJ)." not often. Puff without reality. . Presents to people of high rank are often placed upon a board or plate. but 482. and will certainly give it utterance. the Nile came and we drowned. A person follows his inclination or natural pro- pensities.ARABIC PROVERBS. -^ Iv. fine embroidered towels or hand- 483. He has a voice in his head." it is sometimes used. 169 Egypt means ''anger. 484. and walk about loith grandees. the air of We rejoiced at {the rising of) ivere the Nile . 485. The saying is originally applied to a jackass that brays notwithstanding the severest beating.^ A napkin tvith {fine) ^^\y^ tdry borders and nothing under to ^ it. 480. for "folly. y^\ f^y^ ^y^. J ]y*j They are poMpers. Every day man inci^eases in neiv understanding.

. if not in their own. T^e wedding concluded .t-J\ ^ take . is When tageous disguise no longer necessary or advancharacter is the natural resumed. the reply thee!" is (^ ^^\ " May a it be to ^^ common off.e. said the ''Stand thou Mistrust any adjl ^_ is from the enemy. is furniture." "a rag. some off. the moth that feeds upon clothes. ^j^ l::^! ^1 JU fell alll ^ the hxW <d J'i c-g. the entertainments) and then every one put on his rags. " Com. used as an invitation to partake of food." expression implying with harshness "keep "stand off" 489. t—ali^ dress.J_j ^U A mouse from roof cat.'' refreshment. at least in fine clothes borrowed for the " a torn cloth.e. &e. books." she 7'eplied. {He LiJI\ is) of more corrupt doings than the moth. it offer of assistance To decline wholesome food &c. At weddings even the poorest people occasion. loith its broth {i. 4!B7." 488.170 Arabic proverbs.

493. {only) a key in J . and fell 492. himT is better ii2:)on than. 490. or village priest. ^^ is very common. Upo7i every misfortune another misfortune. addressed a malicious sorcerer. . ^^ He fled. 491. " ''He was God have mercy of or. however small. One misfortune after anather. in There is any which they may not be obtained from the fakyh.! ARABIC PROVERBS." Hejiedfroni death. The say in expression i^\js-~^ as they likewise Egypt uJoj^. Said disgrace upon slain.^^" into it. l^l The enchantments of the devil are his hand. plural of is 'i^ij ' a charm/' to " enchantment/' The saying The dealing village. him in derision <d]l cowardly soldiers. is in charms and incantations extremely not common throughout Egypt.

494._cjccwJ igi J i:^ JJi . merit. assigning e thereby the merit for that species of poetry to his predecessor Uamaddni. ^. should have lightened {choked it) my heart before repentance But The she weptflrst. I cried.. /Jw'aJI jJ-J i_Jji]^ i^s^yJut) . If before she herself loept. The merit belongs to the begmner. of Damascus. should even the successor do better. and inserted by Hariri the Introduction of his Makamat. 172 ARABIC PROVERBS. They have been ascribed to several poets. love for Sada h^iid caused my I tears to flow. belongs to the predecessor. celebrated into among the Arabs.:U. To the same purport ^jJa-^U is a phrase often used J^\ " the merit belongs to the predecessor. . who lived in the eighth century of the Christian era." This is taken from the subjoined beautiful verses. her tears excited mine. surnamed Bedya Zamdn. but were probably composed by Ibn Malek Ibn e'RaJcaa.

^ ^." applied both to the character and condition of a person. and in general behaves with as much indecency as <Ljs:i3 she can without quite exposing her character. In every town. rather than honest an indecent woman. or l^^^^ is a woman who frequently lifts np a corner of her veil so that people may catch a glimpse of her face or her fine else jewels. or one who stretches out her legs to display her ankle-rings. " jyj^^ " decently covered/' it is decent in circum- stances . ^ decent public ivoman. {h^ or in the plm^al of Egypt. individuals are found belonging to a tribe of prostitutes called Ghazye They are a race distinct from all Ghowdzy ^J^^)other pubHc women.ARABIC PROVERBS. and that they are of the true . and relate with pride that their origin is Arabian. There is a particular class of the latter in this country. 173 jliil -i^ 495. is a generic term applied in Egypt to nil sorts of bad and public women. may be said in almost every large village. respecting some notices it indeed whom may prove interesting.<.

and soon after be married to a young is man of her own tribe. but the Ghowazy father of his the first favours daughter to a stranger. not one of them knows. while the husband performs the . why they emigrated to Egypt. by wliich. are educated for the purpose of Their law is. blood. duties of a menial servant in the family he is the musician public. immediately after the nuptial ceremony. . they are less generally known than by that of Ghoivdzy. the viziers They boast that their origin is Barmehy (or Barmecide) of Haroun er' Basheed but in . receive the visits of any man also who presents himself. They usually marry among themselves. as soon as prostitution. making a bargain with the highest bidder. what manner any descent can be traced to them. Thus the husband sells never permitted to receive his bride in a state of virgin purity . at least the males never marry any girl but a Barmeky and few of the Barmeky females condescend to take a husband of any other triVje. All their females. she is marriageable. tliat a girl. derived from the celebrated family. without exception. however. must yield to the embraces of a stranger. generally in presence of the sheikh of the village. with persons who may be induced . all These women. in which the parties reside. Bedouin Among or themselves they assume the name of Barameke Barmehy {K^\^). and how they chose to adopt their vile profession. who plays v/hen his wife dances in and is consequently employed in seeking for to visit his wife. and the females of this tribe marry.174 ARABIC PROVERBS. or chief of the town.

nor traders. and protection. nor artists the dealing in asses. whom rank. or at least would be exposed to the sneers of the sisterhood. They have made a law among them. if it were known that she admitted her husband to familiarity or participation in the any (but enjoyment of the male follow her charms. either paying visits to the sisterhood established in neighbouring places. of which they rear an excellent breed. They is are as much despised as their females are distinguished and often honoured an unprofitable the whole male the birth of a male child considered by a Ghazye is as a great misfortune. attend- ing the country fairs. because he article —a mere incumbrance —and sex look up to the females for food.) that the Ghazy called) has but one wife. in large huts or tents. (so is am not certain. but not always. dancers and singers. Among them. I have reason to believe. and as such many travellers have seen and admired them. The Ghowazys have live in every town or considerable village a small quarter assigned to them. they regard as much inferior to themselves in They are generally. . besides the sale of their partners' charms. for a Ghazye would think herself disgraced. seldom in never associating with other public women. where they houses . never to refuse the embraces of any person. . clothes. it or the camps of the troops. whatever may be . Like true Bedouins they are constantly moving about. 17') whom he himself cohabits only by stealth . being the only branch of industry to which they apply themselves.. ARABIC PROVERBS. The men never any profession they are neither cultivators.

and many chains of sequins that hang about the head. the most fashionable visit Ghazye. beauty is famous throughout Egypt .176 his condition. whose prostitution they claim as their own property.embroidered silk gowns. In may be distinguished from the common Their Egvptians. therefore. and has become tired of her mode of life. especially of the Howara honour to carry Arabs settled in Upper Egypt. yet I have seen some that might have served as models of Phryne for a painter . who consider it an off so fair a prize. Ghazye has lost her husband. neck. however.) two or three dromedaries. Instances are not uncommon of a Ghazye marrying a village sheikh. glittering of any clown or with gold. considerable establishments. will admit the fellah for a sum not exceeding twopence. (the profits Some of them have accumulated keep great wealth and black Half-a-dozen of female slaves. are sometimes worth from two to three hundred pounds features they sterling. ARABIC PROVERBS. with heavy golden bracelets. as many horses. nor would the Ghazye bestow herself in matrimony on any common But these instances only occur when the peasant. half-a-dozen asses. cannot be reckoned handsome. especially in their fine aquiline noses. in the out- . and breast. their skin not being browner than that of the inhabitants of southern Europe. or divorced him. consisting in gold. and appear to bear traces of Arabian origin. not dress unfrequently seen in one family while the and ornaments of those females. so that he I3ays : at country fairs. are . the greater number.

and in Upper Egypt at Kenne. at from six to eight thousand persons. the savings collected by the poorer classes of At one the of those festivals I have seen above six in tents pitched about hundred Ghazye assembled town. and sheep in honour of that patron. not changing however their mode of The Ghowazys are protected by the governof Egypt. at Tanta times celebrated three every year.) an hundred all thousand persons sometimes crowd together from parts of Egypt. title of life. Saint el On the great festival of the in the Delta. saint never to be unfaithful to her sacrifices a makes a solemn vow upon the tomb of some new husband. in the Their principal settlements are towns of the Delta. before she marries the sheikh. I believe they may be fairly estimated. Some of tlie most wealthy Gliazye ]\Iekka perform the pilgrimage Sfreat state. The number that in Egypt is very considerable . I have been assured on good authority that no Ghazye married under these circumstances was ever known to violate her vow. ment influence in the open country was very considerable. set of 177 which she can never be induced to renounce her hereditary profession. to perform a pilgrimage resembling in many respects that of Mekka.ARABIC PROVERBS. to themselves in and assume ever after the honourable Hadjy. When such an event is to take place. the Ghazye. (which is Bedowy. where they have a colony of at least three hundred individuals. which swallows up Cair^o. to which they pay an annual In the time of the Mamelouks their capitation tax. 2 A . males and females.

who are at present masters of Egypt." el Nezel " {^^y^W . At Cairo all itself their number is but small . The Arnaut soldiers. on the feast-day after Eamadhan. but like them intermarry among is There anotlier tribe of public (^w-. In a city where among chastity is women of every rank so scarce as at Cairo. them is much less but woe to him whose indecent than might be imagined they captivate At every them is place where they are numerous one of of " regarded as head of their community. The Ghowazys have established among themselves a vocabulary of the most common nouns and phrases. in whicli they are able to converse without being visit understood by those who them. called Ilcdebye Egypt fewer in numbers ^^^J than the Ghowdzys. they live together in a large khan. called Hosh Bardnl-.^)' '^^^ women in . so that fled many have from the garrison towns into the They have a custom in Upper Egypt.! 178 ARABIC PROVERBS. have plundered several and killed others in fits of jealousy. just below the castle. however.^c^)> or " chief of the settlement which. when they open country. does not invest her with any authority over the others. Their who do affections not meddle with . it could not be expected that public prostitu- tion should thrive. and title assumes the Emeer . of paying visits to all the first people of the town or village. dance for a few minutes in the court-yard of the house and receive a present at behaviour towards those parting. tlie and protection of a CJliazye was courted by many respectable jjei'sons.

The value of each man i^*^^-:^l consists in ivhat he does well. which are called ^^i Ghadjar Syria Korhat)." jSii~\ U for U meaning " I cannot which the Egyptians express by U 497. and horse or ass the believe not women for the greater part. A certain i^erson said.. very few families are found in are Egypt they more numerous in Syria.s:b It is in this sense usually. Jc«. doctors . but I They wander all. 179 The men are tinkers. much Hke here Gypsies. 496. handiwork.ARABIC PROVERBS.\j a large jar in which the ^^ater is kept for .xu. harlot loves goodbj uvrks. hut cleaned " that out the mosque.^. common prostitutes. r:S!i uJ 'li. but not always. themselves.-"' A harlot did not sweep her oivii house. over the country Of the latter.^ * ^yJ tc iiLjs^^Ji]! A harlot does not repent: and water in a jar does not become sour milk." 498. applied to ^j^^^^^.. j. The Syrians say (do it). (in . ^j^^^j^^\ is here equivalent to ^ .

" said "at the guard and the crop. every family's use.. Moonshine and oil.180 ARABIC PROVERBS. one. turns sour. is To is light the lamp while the moon shines an extravagant expense that will ruin the family. sour milk called 499. a bean of bitter taste and but esteemed.:1\ sants frequently field. '-r-'^. those are the win of a house." used instead of "the sown a small Tormus little is the lupinus. . shows his contempt of the gift tU jsji by returning it and saying to the donor "(buy and) chew some tormus with it. and principally eaten by children without either salt or butter.^^ J U^j^^ J^^ J^' u^<J L"^V. and on this account it is very generally cultivated in Egypt. u^. often used instead of ^^1^ ." This alludes to a despicable person occupying a despicable office." Boiled tormus beans are sold in the morningf at the bazdr.:- ^ 500. '^ A monkey tvatches [ajield of) tormus. Look. . is is jjw^lU in the dialect of the peac . therefore. A person to whom ^j^tj compliment given. is apj)lied to milk when is it In Egypt. The meal of this bean is used instead of soap by the jDOorer classes for v/ashing their hands.

181 They said to some blind men. " thai is ''oil is become dear'' They replied. 501.'' \d used Lvj^ instead of . a thing ivith which we can dispensed ij>jc^\ of Proverb 259) means here (as observ^ed in tlie explanation "not to be in want of.ARABIC PROVERBS.

He is scahhy -headed and quarrels about the comb.. 506.'" A Said of lock on a ruined j^ains 2^l(^(ce. is appHed to fools such that they pride themselves on the circumstance which contributes to their misfortune. [Like) assignments j^-L^jJj upon p)<^upers. 505." &c. The Jish hinny said. or ^\j^\ used instead of ^^ or ^.182 ARABIC PROVERBS. assignments. " if thou canst find titan a hetter fish myself do not eat 7ne. bills.llu. 503. a person's disputing about a thing of which On he does not stand in need." The hinny whose vanity is reckoned the finest tasted This proverb is fish of the river Nile. unnecessary taken to preserve what is not worth keeping.ij or tj^'^^i " titles. because equals. it distinguishes them among their 504.i-. . receipts.

meaning " ! "God restore thee to thy prosperous state Thus they say l^V^\ ujly " ! aUI or c_>li ^<j^j thee to health " God restore thee to ^H "God restore " youth ! . proud. and very obstinate. ail^ Tn saying a compliment is intended. 507. although. This saying is applied to a person who expresses his surprise at not having any friends. On t_5jj foolish congratulations or wishes. The word of a Moggrebyn {l^_f^ «uK) has become a proverbial Turk. The MoggreGhoorye and byns form a colony of very wealthy merchants at Cairo._^ U jiJ j^. but nobody ever mentions the word of a Syrian. with respect to probity. " Why ill- do not ye love us?" "On account of your natured cliaracU'r. and are therefore disliked . surly.'' once more!'" a step down- he replied. They said. They have the reputation of being ill-bred. a Hedjazi. established in the quarters of Fahamyn.ARABIC PROVERBS. Jjb^J h^ c^L- TAe Moggrebyns said to the people of Cairo. or a 508. UL- l:." they replied. saying in trade. who trade in the produce of their native country. thiy bear a character superior to the Moslims of any other nation. jl>-^\ 1 83 ^. " priest ! may God ''That inahc you a lay is brother ivards.

in a state of . means " to throw about. jlx^^ among the Egyptians ." On spittle the delusive consolations offered by medical attendants. 509.Li (J^^-ri ^^-^ u^^^ They asked. must extreme debility. of coarse.184 ARABIC mo VERBS. L^^* kar- . be." \\ord r-'-tj " to scatter " it comes from the but differs in signification. This is said of a person . A patient who cannot even throw his upon the ground. "Eat. whom all it is difficult to catch or find one who eludes search. They said replied.'^ ''Very they replied. now he spits upon his breast.510. [Like) a karmoot rubbed with seder in a tank of soap (ivater) . ^juV^ ^. " he used to spit upon the ground. to the hen. 511. ''How does your patient f' ivell." she It is useless to instruct an inveterate scoundrel in morals. and do not scatter leave off [the corn) about" "[cannot my habits.

" The blind men of Cau-o. They asked sleep?" replied. are used as soap by people of the poorest bodies of their friends. (rhamnus lotus. skin. " What hast thou seen in thy sifting {corn).ARABIC PROVERBS." "I saw people he 2 B . especially those quar- tered in the mosques." ^. being dried and pulverized. daily fed in The multitudes of blind men the Mosque el Azhar have frequently in committed violent outrages another. What is the ivish of the blind ''A basket full of horns. and of a very smooth Seder [j^-^) signifies the leaves of the nehek or seder tree. moot is 185 a fish of the river Nile. are notorious for their very quarrelsome temper." they replied.LUj ^xi ^iauj_ jj J\ ^»J " JL' ^^^Jl ^\j< JlA JIj " ? It ivas asked. fighting one with 513. the cock. class in washing their the Egyptian hands.) which. and by the richer classes in washing the dead CLi^l^ as ^y&J^^ in dialect has the same sense 512. "if he does not see he may like butting. witiiout any scales.

^} V. "deceit . " Take these two p)0unds of this sugar and carry letter to the cat. " Why do 7iot you ruminate ? " Conceit. " the is person loho washes his hand '' he to eat ivith usV Neither he nor thou also. confident of obtaining some advantage for himself." " The {the good etiough.186 ARABIC mo VERBS. or at least the right hand." U verbatim." ^1^11 "the chewing and ruminating of cows JUull ^is." c-^l::^ often used in Egypt 516. J'^^ ''Father. They said fee is to the mouse." he said.-" Ls-A ^Z^\ ^ ^ Jl* \ux^ Jib ii^i J-«-V. which alone is used at meals. but finds at last that his prospects have vanished. On in a person who. In the East. " hut business) is tiresome." They asked ** the ass. 515.'' he said.'' he replied. endeavours to thwart others their wishes. before a own man begins to dine he always washes his hands. ^^Ikx) and camels. for ^y:>^« " a letter. 514. " never deluAes me. lJ^^^' ." she replied.

" That is thy business." 517. cannot be gilt me. ." my head. it served for {the covering of) the drum." " I can have no idea of " I am not to be gilt over with this. so as not to be wholly useless." he replied." (or laid like 187 gold leaf) over or upon better \si> " does not than I am. is not too much expense. which employed in some manner. make me appear to myself The expression ^^ U ^. 519. i^^j^ikil L::-. To cut off the mice ivith hemp oil. 518. Commonly said of a broken or spoiled piece of can. however. be still any thing. Wilt thou run aivaij?" " That is my business. Do not care for expense in freeing yourself from an enemy.^:s^^ UjxLi ivell They cut it to pieces." he answered." often used.iliij is and conveys the same meaning as " this can never enter it. The hemp oil mixed with arsenic is used as poison for mice. " slave.. J He Ujfe JU i-Jji^ Jli lJ^ UJ^ Jli ^-^[/^^ ^^ " \\ J^-' said.ARABIC PROVERBS. I have bought " thee.

520. . c:j\:j^^ is the diminutive i—. shrouds f "If you They die. is The diminutive often used not only because the object in question is really smaller or inferior in quantity or quality. and in this sense the Bedouins especially Thus "poor little thing" might be applied in a kind and compassionate manner to a person by no means diminutive in stature or wanting money. use it on many occasions. do they not put rep)lied.\\ The Syrians say in the 521." 1»8 ARABIC PROVERBS. " what is ? the " matter thee what dost thou want same sense t_Jo ^Ji.-^ . They asked you into the cows.<3 U is a common or jJc^ of ^_^^^ the eyes. but to give a kind of bonhomie to the expression . not implying "what ivith is it to ? thee " 1 " but. expression in Egypt.. ^-m. They said to the wolf. u::^! the Egyptians more frequently it and then would stand \1^\. "The dust little [upon which they tread) eyes!' good for poor On the hypocritical professions of tyrants. "Would /" to God they may leave our shins upon us Instead of sav sj. "For ivhat art thou following those poor little sheep f" He is replied.

" " thy Lord eats the melon together with the melon peels. ?>e(7 of you) the melon jjeels." When a person eats melons in the bdzar or before the coffee CLi\csr signifies a piece of melon peel. which ^Ji} signifies " to grant hospitality.jX in opposition to ^J^.'' ^-. as all the peasants do when hungry. "(/ quoth he. he is always accosted by beggars. 189 *'lf?/ Lord. A monkey solicited hospitality Jrom demons. Egyptian dialect the same as ajLJl ." " Alan." if to be understood as preceded by j\^\ " the house from which everv thing has been removed. 522. who ask for the peels." he said." ARABIC PROVERBS. which they eat.-ll^ is a title given from mere " gentleman " or pohteness and equivalent 'i^y^^ to is "young gentleman." It in the is in vain to ask charity from wretches. is t_jU . 523." they replied. " the house quite empty of provisions. "Yotmg is gentleman. shops." or " which has remained empty of provisions. .

originally " blood flowing out of tlie in this proverb is The reproach conveyed more applicable to Western than nose.— 190 ARABIC PROVERBS. 526/" Truly.'" From t_a£^_ his pen nothing flows means but malice. A verse : is cited expresses the same meaniug When crows are the guides of people. 524. the mis- This is said in consolation of people's sufferings. 525. Verily he loses his way whom which blind men guide." to Eastern writers. to the They lead them carcases of dogs. the sword inspires dread even in its scabbard. 527. . Even the handsome {looman) experiences fortune of divorce.

J^£ "to be afraid. a promise. term t-J^j The for " rain. and the fear of broaching or opinions. The accident happened quite unexpectedly. a saying." or ^' amazed. ." Before the clouds {appeared) the rain came upon me. 528." is no longer used at Cairo.530. . and they render justice one they correct an ration. J^ a word. Oriental authors are distil igiiished for . error. it is perhaps in a strain of excessive panegyric and if with coolness and mode- The total want of publications resembling our Keviews. new doctrines contribute probably to this spirit of indulgence. among them. i^rjl Ij^ d\^ii ^ c-jLiJiil The hutcher is not startled at the multiplicity of sheep. 191 great gentle- ness towards each other paper wars seldom rage to another .ARABIC PROVERBS. A tyrant perpetrates bloody acts without com- punction. ^y^ [It is still) "k j^-* ^^ •^^^ worse than a promise ivithout performance.

. (jw^-i plural of LjsL a water-wheel..192 AUABTC PROVERBS.r:5-).^-^! <dll " is God is the first cause. . This e^l»-j saymg is used in derision of old women." »»_. i^\ i. her and one hundred oxen luere killed by her {ivith the ivork). signifies " buying and i«. Be ^ diligent. and then means.aux« selling in general. . of Djyze.—!y>- 531." 'Ho work carefully.:.>-.-r^^'^\ be trades. the cause of thy profits" The word " trade." ^." Jj>-j for " trader or merchant.. ( J^j ^ al'l« c:-J. being sold. c_^L~j^ in the Egyptian dialect. means the ." is more commonly used than j^VJ 532." This is often said in trade.. the cause of causes. " God the cause of thy goods (^->^--^^ <d. pills " .i j ^i^\)'^^ ^s^f-'i^ '^Jr^~^^ 4^^'^ 0"° ^'^ As if she teas one of the water-ivheels hack teeth fell out.^^j to make balls this generally implies "to be diligently occupied. " and God small luill send or profit.

"a tlie 193 teeth of a watert_jl--> e-^ ox is .-"' hite. also wheel. The people of Djyze the their Baeotians of Egypt. the oxen it that draw soon overworked and killed by are for excessive labour. they are despised stupidity and slovenly negligence. the person 2 c . the Egyptian pronunniation of " young man If the peasants also give this name to a strong place. back teeth of a person. A dog that harks does not 535. roasted meat in the bdzdr.ARABIC PROVERBS. —hence the pan are which occurs in this a water-wheel be half broken. Eat ivhatever thou likest. like at Do whatever you home. Hoiv many sheej) at the roaster's ? and how many ? dogs in the sheep/old How many who sells good people are sacrificed while the Ij^ll wicked enjoy their hfe in repose.533. 534. but in public behave according to received usage. hut dress as others do. . and often afford subject for ridicule.

U Am*." 538. strikest a scahhy-headed the head). A man is easily wounded in his weak part.-* in the show any marks Egyptian dialect of labour or fatigue. 539. " scratched.194 AHABIC PROVERBS. The face of a milksop does not jLi.^. and then become a hammer. 7%e hunting dogs have scratched faces. He ivas an iron block 07' anvil. J» ivhatever manner person {on thou. 53G. The same meaning phrase is also expressed by the Beaten — but to-day beater .' is here put for ^-^^ ^\ ^^^^J 537. his blood willfloiu. A hand accustomed ^_^*j to take is far from giving.

hut do not eat the bread of her ivho constantly remiiids thee of having given it. The dirtiest bread. East." . L\j will l^ursT tL!?lk< i^j Ji' Under every doivn-hanging head mischiefs. brooding while on evil designs. much as being reminded of people are probably because ingratitude. there is In the no sort of insulting language which hurts the feelings so favours conferred conscious of their . 195 The lazy is not fed on lioneij. tlie own 542. made by a lizj ''a woman with a bleeding nose." recounts his person who LU own good works. Eat of the hvead made hy a ivoman ivith a bleeding nose. divell a thousand This is said of persons who « in comj^any sit with all downcast eyes and low-bent head.ARABIC PROVERBS. and reminds another signifies a of the favours he has conferred on him. 540. 541. lect signifies " the ^^— in the Egyptian dia- bent downwards.

544." "at intervals only. Every sheep is suspended by its (otni) heels." 545. rather than fine flour at certain times only.-"" '^-? Jr^^ j^'-> J^* er'= lK Whoever cries " Fire. Coarse meal for ever. In a future state. JijL> is the " coarse meal used by peasants. (of Achilles) (-r'^'ij^ is the sinew or tendon by which Imtchers hang up the slaugh- tered sheep.196 ARABIC PROVERBS." has he his mouth hurnt? Those who cry out most loudly have often the least reason to complain." lA^ ''the flour of meal" Iz^ "cut off. none will be made to suffer for the (. This proverb is founded upon the saying of : Mohammed recorded in the Hadyth or Traditions The best 'works are those ivhich last. . although they should not he of great imjjortance.rimes of others. 543.

) {'i\kx^) in wdiich the horse which the horseman likewise it and hangs it upon a post or nail. I require no civihties.ARABIC PROVERBS. ajid whose ivoted must wise be driven into the ground. As soon from his horse the master of the tent or house takes from him the barley-sack receives his food. horseman wliose like- barley-sack is hung up. each horse attached by a chain on his legs to an iron spike driven for that purpose into the ground. As often as I strike a uvtedfor hmi he hangs up [another) harley-sacJc. 197 Xe^ 7?ie 0??/^ he excused from thy had smells . another driven one ivoted arrives. either before the tent or in the court-yard of the house.347. I do not luant thy perfumes. customary that w^hen is guests arrive on horseback.) called woted. fill From it this his people take in the evening and with barley. No about sooner anotlier. In this proverb the master's serv^ant iias complains. and every horseman as the guest alights carries one with him. is one business finished than he sets Among Arab it is sheiks in the desert. about eight (j^v. speech in the closet from a husband to his Leave oft' thy rudeness. . 540'. (and carries with him. as well as in the villages. . inches long. is This spike. A wife. that as soon as he into the ground.

and hcej) between you the accounts of merchants. if May my hand is be cut off — " (the amputation of the hand rich a thief's punishment). and let the ivorld go to ruin. 541). of erdeh. A handful of consideration ratlicr riches. 548.'" Be hrothcrs. make an 550. Eat and drinh. " A low fellow without money." my wealth to the poor 551. . "I will give if . The great and whole estates or men swear. He ivas ivont to swear ! " hy the cutting off of his right hand!" He money This aequh^e novj sivears ''hi/the giving of his to the 2)oor who having been poor wealth and inunediately assume the kmguage is said of persons of rich people.— " 198 All ABIC riiO VERBS. swears. titan a woehe of Woehe •which six {^-^i.') is an Egyj)tlaii coin measure.

God is the physician. . wants money may bestow it on 555.nces. tliat lie He others. the temple of Thebes. its ^di From el plural J^1^ which the peasants pronounce oksor. we have formed Luxor." 55-1.ABABIC PROVERBS. his distinguishing Every one parades or displays quaUties in his own circle of acquainta. or reeds. 552. " \ or ''to my honour. iJ L^\^ (pronounced kornidly) does not mean in the usual sense "for but merely " for my honour/' my sake. ." \f ••> The generous is never satisfied ivith riches. We are all (afflicted) ivith this disease . Said in offering consolation to others. 553. 199 Every one sells his rags in his own market. For the saJce of thy j_^Ak\ll palace shall ive demolish our hut ? is an Arab hut constructed of brushwood a stately building or palace.

Every thing forbidden 558. the dish {in ivhich it was The gation. Every man — and his oivn care. EcU the present (sent to thee) and break hroiight). but which they believe to have suffered by the interpolations of Jews and Christians. Be or else do not pla.^ is . 557. the Books of Moses. you of the obli- a small basin of earthenware glazed on the inside it is usual to serve up sweetmeats in dishes of this kind.^^ lias his share of trouble. 55 fi.\>.ij with the Old Testament. . foretold in the original text.200 ARABIC PROVERBS. put Be a thorough Jew. because the mission of Mohammed was as they pretend. is sweet. however bad. dish will otherwise remind Ljk. Every person instead of &. sincerely attached to a religion this. cl'. il^^dl rather than laugh at thy religion. which are respected by the Moslims as derived from heaven.

and never diminishes.' butter. Like the asss tail. forget the when passion has ceased. 562. decHned the performance of her promise. . Said of a mother who neglects her children." ^.'' 201 Like a cat that eats her own young ones. that. it never increases. ^sy^^-^ iSi^\ (^J^ This means.. which away when day upon it. we promise made while it influenced us. is expressing ivith that promise of melts ruhhed shines i'jJj.ARABIC PROVERBS. generally It is has A similar saying more " the current at the night the Cairo. I 2 know D .561. Applied to one who remains constantly in the same condition.* The day obliterates the ivord (or promise) of the night. thus become proverbial.-^_ J j\^\ ^i ^lia. 560. This verse was quoted in reply to Haroun el Rasheed by a beautiful woman who at night had promised that she would bestow her favours on him but when day appeared she the next morning . There is a popular notion.

It affords light to the 'peop)le while itself is burnt. Like the truffle. alludes to persons under similar circumfine verse and is taken from that The same meaning in the following verse is still more forcibly expressed / have become like a wick placed in a lamp. not whether founded on that the tail of an ass it never increases in length.* Be of good memory if you become a liar. 564. t-^o is used in Egypt for L_^'i 5G3. fact. luithout any (known) origin. and sending forth any branches. except as to the growth of hair. is itself naked.'u is a species of truffle found in the deserts .— 202 — ARABIC PROVERBS. not il. but remains as was when the animal was born. Like a needle that clothes people and This stances .

. On minded the effects of poverty and wealth upon lowpersons. is prodigal in 568. nourishment to many Bedouin Like the is European truffles they produce no plant. 569:' Every slave ivhen he is hungry steals.ARABIC PROVERBS. and when he is satiated. Soft ivords. 567. (I 203 believe not in Egypt. nor it known how they are propagated. The Arabs say that they are produced by thunder and lightning. 566. The dog does not hark in his oivn house.-"' HoiD many a hand iveak in gaining spending. of Syria. practises ivickedness. but open injustice.) which affords families.

^. who says '' " Behold. potent. signifies one naturally imthis subject the following fine verse — Ij Ij^ The ancient Arabs quoted on U J^ij ^. Like the impotent.-^r. who glories in the vigour of his father. Hearsay ^Lc is is not like ocular testimony. ocular evidence.204 ARABIC PROVERBS. 570.'' not he ivho says My father vigour.'' is What is above translated for in the original Arabic a term which the Dictionary may be consulted. r^' 571. Applied to those who without any just personal pretensions assume airs in consequence of the merits of their ancestors.^1 ij^^Uu . I am the man. was.« t_5%il^ J\ He is the truly nohle youth. equivalent to ^.

some remnants of his former meanness will always . 573. certain j^arts of him would he of wood. foot.«'2j' 4j If thou wert to see my luck. '-^*j. If the fellah were made of gold. It is commonly although believed in the East that radishes eaten at or after facilitate the digestion of other food. aJJUu (^'.^. If a man were to inquire after [the dirty manner of malcing) bread. 574. 572.mh^ 205 lS"^. Did hut the radish digest its oivnself! Could we but rid ourselves of the person whom we have meals invited to be our assistant. Although a low person may attain an exalted station. and however his manners may be improved. 575. they themselves remain undigested in the stomach.ARABIC PROVERBS. thou wouldst trample it under Said by the unlucky. he would not eat it.

If his gain lay in the hinder dog he tvoidd [or filthiest) part of a eat it. If I had lighted for thou wouldst darkness. Were it not for fractures there woidd he no pottery. verse ARABIC PROVERBS. Misfortunes are not without some good consequences. Here may be quoted the following Riches have disclosed in thy character the had qualities formerly concealed hy thy poverty.obtaining profit. On a person descending to the vilest modes of . 576. 577. still thee the ten [fingers as candles) regard them as if they ivere in Said of one who forgets or never acknowledges the most signal services rendered to him. . hyJi in the Egyptian dialect for yjS 578.— 206 be conspicuous.

581.''' c. On J:j\i a person indebted for safety to his insigni- ficance or trifling character. I If they had not dragged me from under should have hilled him." ARABIC PROVERBS. 580. . Aiijj 207 l::^-^ ^cj^ ^ 4^^^ ^ ^ him. he woidd not have escaped the sportsman. the hath that has shoivn to me the hinder like part of him ivhose face {even) I should not Accident has thrown us into the society of one whose very aspect is disagreeable to us.:. dSl^\ In the Egyptian dialect ^1^ " such a thing has escaped it. 579.-^'^ Cursed he to see. If his mouth ivere silent another part of him woidd speak. Alluding to one who talked incessantly. Said in ridicule of a bragging fellow.' If the falcon had been good for amj thing. " I have not been able to lay hold of 582." me .

clouds luoi.''- ^*XJJ » ^'^^^^f^.''^- have appeared. 583. Tears soothe the pangs of distress.dd 585. . Her meat and his meat cannot he cooked together in the (same) pot. ei^/i-i l::^!^ JtiXJ i-::-^!^ ^ If it irere to rain. 584. Said of a husband and wife ill-suited to each other. is used by the Egyptians." In this sense also ufj^'. Were it not for the tears the ribs ivould have been burnt.208 ARABIC PROVEKBS. used to denote the ornaments of foreparts. 587. The word *J j is a horse's head and .*A~i2:j " the preparing of victuals. To the lion belongs whatever his hand has seized. i^r^ LJ^^ The mare is not {to be valued) according to its housings Jj>- and its ornameyits in front. the housings of a horse.

If I were to trade in winding-sheets. If a hloiu were to fall from heaven it ivould not light upon anything hut Said of the unfortunate. A reply to those who bewail without reason the Ji. is one of the upper regions in the Mohammedan hell." 2 E .* Not every one whose face has heen hlackened can say ''/ am a hlacksmith. 588. the neck his neck. a person unfortunate in commercial specula- 591. see No.^ situation of another person.ARABIC PROVERBS. On tions.. 209 {He is) not in hell luhere neither luater nor trees {can he found).) 590. 2. (Respecting a blow on among the Egyptians and Arabs. no one would die. 589.

term in this sense is very commonly used. 593* If the gain ivere to approach his to mouth. he would turn his hack it. the final " the ^ strengthens the imperative. t_J^y«^ LT*"* ("J"*^' The thus " ^'^^ ever the services of a superior or inferior in solicited. 592.210 ARABIC PROVERBS. lii signifies not only the hinder part of the neck. do not stretch it out in quest of high places. and ^Ui^^S called by the Arabs such good ^J kind By i_J^-«ll is expressed others . A hand that has been short in rendering services to others. The ^s^'j is 'i selfish person is unworthy of a high station. 594." whenrank are . Said of the negligent and indolent. rendering oflfices of services it to his " as every one feels duty to perform towards his fellow creatures. but also the back. y^^ ^® kind enough. The tongue of experience has most t^nith.

" day till to-morrow. j=^^_ ''put back. Said of a person who always frightens t__. Not a single grain of mustard seed falls from hands. . 595. 597. Do not put 'Ho off the luork of this defer. 596.) serve as guides in the lectures delivered at the Mosque el Azhar.ARABIC PROVERBS." &c. among the Olemas of Cairo several of his works on the Hadyth or Tradition (especially his Annotations to Kastellany's Commentary on the Hadyth.U*ll others ijl with disastrous or portentous news.:§• wicked with hell-torments.* 211 He reads notlihig hut the sentences of toiinents and the hook of thunderholts.c^j^\ ^'ijss\^\ — Ibn Hadjar is an author much esteemed . Mustard seed is extremely small. his Said of the care with which a miller watches his property. those are passages of the Koran which threaten the ^z\_yj\ . (^[^^ alludes to ^ji) which has a work written by Ibn Hadjar ( for its title " The burning Thunderbolts " j.

as long as thou thyself art ivithout a beard. common in Egypt and Syria.212 ARABIC PROVERBS.* Do not trust the emir if his vizir cheat thee. 600. 598. 601.-^ The hawk It j_f. For <L:^ -f^-s/ the Egyptians more frequently say In J l« the ma stands for U ^Uj or U J^L 602. The serpent brings forth nothing but a little serpent. Who gives not thanlcs to men.* Do not ridicule the short and thin-bearded. 3. not size that imparts courage or strength. gives not thanks to God. 599. a species of buzzard ^(/l^ see No. .Ul is is is not frightened by the cries of the crane.

605. T'/ie misfortunes of some people are advantages others. 603. r^' t—SfS'' 604.ARABIC PROVERBS. ^Z^ that is known is not told. 606. to . 213 Heji^ids no ascent to heaven and no seat on earth. FT^o knocks at the door ivill hear the answer. Said of one so perplexed and embarrassed that he knows not where to turn.

'' T^e affiicted mother who has lost her children hire. It is also used as an exclamation on entering the houses of strangers.214 ARABIC PROVERBS. is not like the ivoman ivho weeps for now use the word A'jljj " pleureuses." or " take care frequently employed. 607. The word in Arabic has two significations. It means. He knows heaven. 609. and passing by the places occupied by women. that they may be warned to retire . only the most conspicuous ^^art of A saying appUed to persons Httle versed in the details of business. as here. to express those hired For 'i:^\j the Egyptians 608. " and in this sense it is . is equivalent to " with your leave. the liberty granted to a person who is high in favour to do whatever he pleases. He does not know in the heavens any thing hut Sirius." or mourners. A fool — a7id free ^^u-jJ license luas allowed. it then . a usually circumstance the case Math Turkish go- vernors' favourites.

" 'ij\ujs^ U is here used in the same manner as signifies t_i3 U (see No." 611. <t]U<_^i-c- l5^. The women on bier. whom. warm." or " I am ready for it.* 215 Not In to every face is said " Welcome." Egypt Us-^* implies " welcome.<W so ^jUJsail t« " Why *' is the funeral hot ? " One answered.) and "what is the matter with the funeral.hot." and is the usual reply given by servants when commanded to do any thing by their masters. JEvery person weeps for his oivn (unhappy) state. (^^^ cK J^ d*. whether male or female. In Egypt the servant says on that occasion ^^U'' I am ready. they celebrate chiefly for beauty or finery " : What a beautiful turban he had ! " " What a lovely person she " was ! " " What a fine veil she wore ." &c. when crowds of mourners attend those occasions crying loudly. or it." In the Hedjaz it means " you are welcome to it. 520.^\=. wave their handkerchiefs with both hands over their heads. is A burial or funeral said to be i. and following the sing the praises of the deceased. 610.! — ARABIC PROVERBS.

216 ARABIC PROVERBS.-N. i.« families or friends. 616.iJ ^ J^ to It is not every woman luho blows {the fire) that cooks also. . 612." in the field. woman who puffs herself up or assumes airs " for the word i^ may be used figuratively in Arabic as in English. T^e bad coivs only remain at the mangers.r^ial? L::. Jx^ssj- <s-J^\ -ry*^ ^ is ^ not Every thing crooked-necked a camel. JjIj^ is the plural of 615. 614. The good cows or *'a employed manger. 613. Said of those who continue as burthens on their are either sold JjJ». It may likewise mean " not every .sn. He alone knoivs the heat of the bath ivho has entered it. No right is lost ivhich is folloioed up by demands.

" ARABIC PROVERBS.„:^_ jw' ''he continued railing or abusing 619. dialect for (J->*j woman who spoke in a mean ljj. 617. We cannot persuade or compel every person to Sorcerers serve our purposes. No ivorm-eaten bean remains without finding a half-blind measurer. finds *J' something equally bad to is The word frequently used in the sense here expressed. 217 /(^ {5 not every spirit that enters the glass bottle. who pretend to con- fine hostile or familiar spirits in a glass bottle i^-^) are as well known in the East as in Europe. .^ according to the Egyptian 620. as ssXs J "he remained sit- — (J.>." until it. gets no boy by her. On account of her fine talking they sent her (for a friend). 618. to ivoo Said ironically of a or vulgar manner. is This saying often addressed to a friend whom 2 F .. Every bad thing match ting. He who is bashful with his cousin.

The cock calls likened to the muezzin. to live in is poverty and contempt. daughter of house j^ i^:^u} Ij " the wife says to her husband ^^^ my ^j\ uncle Ij " and " son of my uncle." 621. or to pay a If we debt. It is a general first we obtain nothing from him. He is like the cocks of the Bedouins.) have no criers or muezzins but their cocks. notwithstanding all his services. or act bashfully with him. eating dung and calling to prayers gratis. ^Si^ is the Egyptian pronunciation of The phrase "for God's sake. we are ashamed." even after the " .dl or The Bedouins (here designated by the word Arab." call cousin. . marriage. Said of one who is left. which may be. ^ij^. entreat to render us some service. because he crows at the time of morning prayers when the muezzin people to their the devotions. and not '^husband and wife tie because the more sacred than that of matrimony.218 ARABIC PROVERBS." is expressed by . and here name stands Cousins thus married continue to each other " cousins. custom in the this Levant to marry the for " wife. and is frequently." " gratis. Thus the man calls his wife in the . dissolved at the momentary caprice of of first-cousinship is universally regarded as either party.

He who leaves {the fame of good or great ivorl's) after him. To him come ivhose is mother is the hot fever. 622.:yt\\ sort of labour its is own particular workat the 'ij^2x. 219 N^one got the coiv hut the hdclhy. To every jl. one extracts the oil hut the oil-presser. from whence can health Children suffer from the discordant tempers of their parents. arbitrator himself seized t_5^1 upon the object of " it ^^^ is an expression frequently used. ^-sr in the Egyptian dialect for 624. The dispute. ." "it appropriately to thy lot." ^ (from the verb . it/' meaning exactly " thou hast luckily gotten was fell what thou shouldest have <-J^l had.^ the person who works or oil-mill." 623.f^ originally signifies "it is perfect for thee. No man.ARABIC PROVERBS. and ivhose father ? the cold fever. 625. does not die.

so shallow that they can take the young fry in immense quan- by means of wicker baskets dragged along the bottom.) into the ponds. because female slaves attend only on extraordinary occasions. sprats of from two to four inches long they are found in the tanks and ponds of Egypt after the inundation subsides. fish of the Nile deposit their spawn and when the river sinks. 626. a great honour conferred the company and upon the fishes called dish she carries. and lets it fishery a public out to several companies. A covered dish and a handmaid for a worth of sjyrats. or hisarye. farthing's The construction the inversion A'X* is is for is J^:>J^sr_ hj\^) (_>%Lc i>jU. the copper cover placed over the most choice in setting is dishes them before the guests. At present the government has declared the whole concern. In these ponds the . The upon female slave here supposed to bring one of those dishes into the room.uij) (made of hemp in oil. In order to feed the young fish.220 ARABIC PROVEIlBg. and this them a short time. they throw oil-cakes called hoJcma the dregs of fattens (A*.j <LC* the sake of the rhyme at the end. it the fishermen stop up the communication between and the ponds until the water becomes tities. them is sufiicient to satisfy . In November and December the and one pennyworth of hisarye form one of the principal dishes of the middling classes at Cairo. The small hj\^ very much resemble .

. 221 name of the bisarye. The ^aj noticed. Finding the actual enemy too powerful.. 263.^»^ ^^J 627. espeof dried cially in is the YaUey of the Jordan. where I have seen it. they being no longer current ten of them were equal to one para. a superfluous particle.\ ^^J or c_. it is I believe that it not a native of Egypt. stands for J>. The preposition ^-^^ is put here for J^^J and thus in the common in this sense is often used " for what ? " or " what for ? " ^\ "question ^^ The original . a person. is ^^^j^j copper coin of Egypt) few now remain. He ivmits of dried fruits only the zaroiir. is here (See as already " No. and rarely to be found sell in the shops of those fruits at Cairo. he . Said of unreasonable demands. and an apple in taste and colour. resembling a cherry in size. as I Of the Jjj^ (an ancient have heard.) JjLl^ are " dried fruits fruits (and JjJi\ "the Zarour is a small fruit seller ").ARABIC PROVERBS. He loas not a match for his mother-in-law —he then rose against his wife. Damascus people who dried 628. It grows upon a low thorny shrub in different parts of Syria.

but the very tomb pressed upon him.__c. saying therefore means " not only was he punished for his sins by death." . —according to the practice before mentioned of — and vice versa." 630.Mji. presses upon by Mohammedans that the tomb the body therein deposited either This lightly or heavily according to the sins or merits of the deceased." " Here IS\jj ^s>~ means moreover. ^Iki also It requires no ability to cheat the stupid. 629." "active/' and " knowing and expert in business. a. abused him and even (or moreover) struck him.. ji. is the plural of Jb\J:> ^'able." ^JLz jSi\ U "I am not a match for him." or " even. the grave moreover must It is believed p7^ess upon him." l^S ^U —having no reference to time. weak and jSi\ \j\ innocent." iOi^^ Instead of Aji^l ^^Jlz we find putting the J for ^£.'i]\ i-w2j: .r^ AjJy^ ''^^-^A^ fJ^ ^^ Death ivas not sufficient for the dead. " I In the Egyptian signifies am quite a match an overmatch) for him.— 222 attacks the dialect (or ^-. " he Thus it is said ^yj ^Jlr*.l^ ARABIC PROVERBS. The fraud is not comijlete unless clever it he practised upon and cunning persons.

upon him. J^«aj " it enters upon him " that is. U shrewd False coin is passed upon none hut hanher. O God ! God is " ! ^1 l ^Ul A porter or the carrier of a load called in Egypt Jlj^ also Jl^ or Jlli . are depositories of the cash of all the wealthy merchants. " it is passed . 223 JJ\ dj^-^W J^ ^J^ J^J\ ^j^\ J^j. where sums of money are paid and received by tates his transferring them from one account book to another. " The accustomed to I exclaim at every step while they carry heavy burthens. especially at Aleppo. 631. Each has in his shop a kind of Giro-bank. This system much facili- payments. or bankers. 632. In Syria. {He is) like the perverse porter is who calls upon God only ivhen he under the load.ARABIC PROVERBS.^. He never thinks of God but when he porters are is suffering from misfortune. these seyrafs. and is conducted with sufficient security." The money-changers {dj^) i^ -^oyP^ are mostly Jews. the <uLc The over-shrewd are most easily cheated.

Here is an allusion to the custom of taking a new ever wife immediately on the death of a former. (and) comest from Cairo upon my jackass. is So universally is this practised.c y~2^ ^J'< f^j^ ^J^ ^j:~^\ ^ o"-iJ *^ Thou didst and thou art my neighbour. 634. 633. The death of the wife is the reyiewal of the ivedding." The must be father loves most that child of mother's fidelity he does not entertain a doubt. The Arabic easily perceive that the latter part of this proverb would not decently bear a literal translation. i_cjlr cA. who had a right to expect them from 635. that no blame what- attached to a man or woman who remarry — . not visit me. w y w ^^ L<\ ^jiS |i-c lS'^I (^-^ J^-J < ^'^^ (^ iUrsr |^<! " Which dost thou most love of thy children'^'' 07ie.'^ ''That he replied. deficient in polite Said of a person attentions towards those him. ''ivhose mother's conduct I most whose It strictly ivatch.- 224 ARABIC PROVERBS. recollected that in consequence of a plurahty of wives the children of different beds are often scholar will found in one man's house.

" also " a share or 638. C—jIc ^^ share {or his share He who absents himself loses his absents itself). A harher opened {his shoiD) — the first per so7i ivhom he shaved was scald-headed. own " dignity will be slighted and " No God ! Levantine will read sentence without exclaiming " El hamcloo is V illahy foible ! Thanks be to that not my " 637. i_^. Him ivho makes chaff of himself. attend to thy task. — ^j^ generally used by shopkeepers to express the first 2 G . He who this does not support his ill-treated. 225 the former in the next fortnight.! ARABIC PROVERBS. Said of business commenced inauspiciously. the cows will eat." the same as jL^ after J3 is understood ajl^j "he opened his shop. "a barber. from the death of their partners.^J c_«?li. iiU-. 636." In the Egyptian dialect " and the word .^ " the lot bestowed by portion. the latter after the stipulated term of forty days." fate. That thou mayst prosper.^JlL^\ is for jSj\ " to begin with is .

226 sale ARABIC PROVERBS. They 640. the Every morning." <^u^ (JiV. A bankrupt and an usurer do not disagree. it Thus they say. t-?*^ cj^-i !f^ fj'* He from it. they make in the mornmg. which they have at home. " I sold sale) cheap to you. lost when he enters the crowd upon the stage of this world.''' Who is Oweyshe in the market of the cotton-yarn ? A person great or famous in his is own immediate neighbourhood. spun women of the lower classes at Cairo take the cotton-yarn. that I might begin (this day's with a goodly work. for sale to certain bd-zdrs ( JjAll j^). a woman's name." 639. easily conclude a bargain. ^. just after sunrise. where . who cooks a bad thing. of iLluȣ. The promoter or contriver of a bad affair suffers 641. eats of it.y^ is a diminutive The diminutive is often applied to the names of children who are favourites with their parents or acquaintances.

for surely thou hast no occasion to meet him .^. "give him more. and ivho ivishes thee at a wish him at a still greater distance. The Egyptians say sense as l." or "is fond of me. sell him for a hens egg. Jjj^. and an industrious woman may support herself by not distinguished from the others. spinning.AEABIC PROVERBS. He who is not ashamed does whatever he likes. Who likes thee." t-^Ji? a^j literally Here similar is to be understood j^^ is d :>s:j Of a : meaning the following proverbial saying Who abandon him. of course there are great crowds 227 of women. is m own quar- The sale by which of this yarn is one of the few means females can earn an honest hvelihood at Cairo. . abandons thee." 643. JH "such a one me. him . and her where Oweyshe. and who sold thee for a dindr.^j jlj and sjjJ^ in the same likes — thus. 642. like distance. however emment ter.

646.228 ARABIC PROVERBS. It is reckoned a shame in the East to eat alone. has become one of their number. This is not the bishop's square. 647. and those who do so are despised as misers. „U^ is often used instead of j*^> 645. Truth becomes disagreeable to the fool only. ^Jo- J t^^ li ^J^^ Jil ^ abandoned in his -ftTe it'Ao ea^s alone. or when one has been almost suffocated by somemisfortunes. is The egotist or selfish miser ^_^ to cough with the throat crammed." . A saying square derived is from the chess-board. where the c:^-.' called or *' house. coughs alone. (*f^ jL ^L«5 uy^J^ (*y j--'^ (^ He ivho intimately frequents people for forty days. thing sticking in the windpipe. This is not the proper place for a person.

sofas. comprises the whole furniture — beds. . when the husband may clairn it on her leaving his house. plaits. She retains. &c. 648. however. which she after- wards week. china-ware. unless she demands a divorce." peasants signifies " a woman who earns her livelihood by combing and cleaning the long all thick hair of the female villagers. hut A ip\jSL^\ pretty girl. 229 A hair dresser. which a wife brings to her husband. This is said of good work. but too poor to obtain a husband. How very great is the yiumher of how small the quantity of my wooers my furniture. the property of this furniture. such as is executed by ali^U skilful artists among the when they work "con amore. amounting often to a greater value than the price paid for the girl to her father. .ARABIC PROVERBS." an operation to which the respect- able Turkish women submit is at least once in every in This business performed towns at the baths by professional women called iiL 649. kitchen utensils. and she comhs {or dresses the hair of) her daughter.

Among the pottery there is none like him. many is are the roads that lead not heart U here to be understood as U b 653. "It . JE/e ly/io cannot reach to the is bunch of grapes.! 230 ARABIC PROVERBS 650 Nobody considers himself as contemptible. says sour. to hear something not pleasing him. is distinguished only among his low com- 654. commonly foi- ^^i 651." of it. U to the ^0?/. Is. He luho talks tvill about that ivhich does 7iot concern him.ijiJl . He panions. 652/'< >i(L> < >. is In the Egyptian dialect a:^ used for j^:^' — and a^^ .

a man says merely " good night." and immediately withdraws. 655. ^:sn]b \^^^j is ^JJ^. that if marries in the morning at the bird-market he will be divorced on the evening of the same day.ARABIC PROVERBS. \^jj^ JL« " he said 'good evening. in the is is The serat that narrow bridge by which the MosHms pass over the precipice of Hell towards the avenues of Paradise. 231 He ivJio distributes bran in alms.' and went away. the divorce be [as quick as one can say) ''good night. expressed thus." " good morning. ^ j^^^^. for him it is to ivritten receive Book of Destiny that he a puff of wind vijon the serdt. verb The prothe person may perhaps also mean. 656.i Here to be understood cGE> ^^ That a person went J\j off in haste. Of him who marries ivill in the bird-market. ." quitting a In the East on company it is not usual to make long o]' adieus ." Women of the lower class and of unchaste cha- racter sell pigeons and other birds is in the different b^zdrs of Cairo.

232 ARABIC PROVERB?. 657. UjkLs^ o (^="«J^ (J-^-V. From the heginning affair of the vinegar dregs were in it.. It contains several beans. lAt*^^ S? ^^^^ J^*^' L« J^u As the sheep does with the acacia-pulse. the acacia- pidse does x'i tvith the sheep's skin. and when fresh is excellent food for cattle when dried it is used by the tanners in Upper Egypt and all the Bedouins of is the fruit of the consisting of a small pulse or . in the Egyptian dialect "dregs or lees." is He who passes the night in revelry . 060. Arabia to tan sheep's skins. The j_^o.o was badly concerted from the signifies first. ^' He who unfit for watches during the night during the day.^ or l^u. (He is) like the icorld . It is ivritten upon the cucmmber slee2')s leaf. no corifidence him. mimosa called k. is to be placed ill 659.^ pod resembling that of carobs.' the same as G 658.

the meat. and seated themselves near the banks of a river when dinner time approached the kombar came flying with a locust in his bill. and received answer. Arabian story relates that the bird komhar {j^i of the lark species. that everythmg necessary had been provided. as cucumbers and common in Egypt. vV< There are ^^\y» 7io fans in '' hell.) once invited King Solomon to dine. the plural of ^>-j)/* a fan made of the chips of date-leaves. JJJl and In ^1^1 are here put for jjJJb and jl^Jb or JJJl J. 661." 662. and j. and requested that all Iris courtiers might An accompany him. The king inquired whether there supply of food for so large a comin was a pany sufficient . cuciiTuher leaf. dispense witli this manner the Egyptians frequently the prepositions ^. The guests arrived . He ivho loses an opportimity of let him feed on the (eating) broth. business during the day. Having eaten some 2 H .ARABIC PROVERBS." signifies ^' 233 It is ivritten it is upon the that written where even the meanest people are very cheap may read it.

thanked their 6G3. 664. have heard at Cairo.) that a small tribe of Zotty still established in some villages of Palestine. and departed. (but cannot is affirm as fact. even the most miserable hamlets. am .. threw the rest into the water. he and his attendants drank some of the water. The wise monarch smiled.-" - y After Ahhdddn no village remains {or This is exists). ignorant whether Ahhdddn exists at present or not I nor can imagine it why the Egyptians should have introX. j signifies a village in the modern dialect of Egyj^t. lie ARABIC PROVERBS. J^^l ^-^' 'J^ L>J^ (^ U'^ He who talks with the Zoity commits a sin against himself. Avoid the conversation of unmannerly persons. host.234 of it liiinself. . belonging to the district of Sowdd. l?j an Arabian tribe noted I for the coarseness of their manners. said in derision of the praises which people so lavishly bestow upon their native places. and addressed this proverb to his royal guest. was a place Ahhdddn on the eastern bank of the I ( Jj'uc) Tigris. duced into one of their proverbial sayings. advising him to satiate himself with the locust-broth.

There every person must pay his in the fare.u U b " tliis does not his eye. 235 There is not in the ferrij boat any [gratis or) for God's sake.u^ Common "his eye his expressions is are ^^LL (for JL. c^yi J'/^e cZiti"^ ^J! ^j1 ^^ U." or content him.e." A saying of is Mohammed proverb in sense recorded as follows 667. 666." here signifies j\i]\ (_j\j the "dust of the resembling this : grave. ct/o7ie ca)i Jill the eye Man he " is continues to be ambitious or covetous until deposited in the dust." or is he possesses . ^U is " for used same manner as the expression i. does not sleep at night. ^^^z) full. fill he satiated " ^:^£ i. The person whose fortune is intrusted to the .— ARABIC PROVERBS. God's sake/' gratis. i. every object of desire.: U of man.-'- He who has a head at the sellers of sheep's heads. This figurative sense ^' is restored in the proverb to the real meaning of c__)1j to fill the eye. 665.

generally spent by his rela- tions in loud expressions of grief . sumptuous enterInstead of tainments being given to the mourners.* which is a corruption of ^-'U 669. ^ 236 ARABIC PROVERBS. He who ^^l^*J\ is is fatigued shall repose {afterwards). the expression used in inviting a person enters a room. Of that person at ivhose ivedding thou dost not eat. Lose no opportunity of gaining from a stingy The more natural construction verb would be person. eat at the funeral. but sellers of sheep's heads. cannot enjoy repose. hands of strangers. at Cairo The poor have are not buy sheep's heads and for a trifle them boiled in the bazar by persons who only cooks.. of this pro- The word \r^ means the first days of mourning- after a person's death. Ijjr the Egyptians say also *:u. and therefore called ^^J or in the Egyptian dialect ^jw^j 668. as the Arabs say to sit down when he .

^-^y^ jX=c: ^j ^ ^* 672. to saying has latterly been often quoted express that those who did not like the Mamelouks. . more tyrannical goThe construction is it according to the vulgar dialect of Cairo. The Madjous.ARABIC PHO VERBS. 670." do or 671. should have been (more correctly) ^^y ^ ^y. Said to a person finally who highly values that which Idolaters^ must hurt him. It is nothing hut the fire of the Magians. He ivho is not satisfied with the government of Moses. " I suddenly begin to be. I have no money left to assist thee (or to supply " I rise " (to the want of thy lost cow). will he satisfied ivith the goveriiment of Tills Pharaoh. still must now submit vernment of to the Mohammed Aly. or adore the same element which burns them. ^y\ to be). 237 / iiave no cows. noi' do I set myself up as a sorcerer.

like filth." that the. Instead of ij^ the Egyptians more commonly use the term ^j^ in speaking of lungs. what may not be slovenly is the dishes f What can the work be it ? if fools are employed to execute species of 'Ljc^ latter. On the heavy fines imposed on those J^' is who emJil bezzle the public money. poor. G74." Thus ^jU '' he has eaten "he has cheated me . the an emblem of ugliness and It is tlie same animal which the learned Arabians sometimes call Jjt^ 675. and cited." ^^^^1 ^^ ^\ But it always (embezzled) some of the money.eater has betrayed at the same supposes . The poor must be content with that which the The lungs are eaten only by the lich disdains.238 ARABIC PEOVERBS.:>- ^\ ark Us Ji ^c whose cook a beetle. 673/'' He who does not taste the {best likes jmH of the) meat the lungs. constantly used to imply "the taking of illegal gain. He ivho eats a hen of the sultan will return her to hitn a cow. as ^^j^^ y} the largest or scarabseus. ^P^ ^fi Of him ^^j^ U is ^j<.

Who is able to restore {what was) yesterday. evil ivill not mend. such incorrigible persons as cannot be softened by kindness nor corrected by punishment. He who loves a thing often talks of if." my expenses. fore it is not said of a 239 There" he shopkeeper who cheats his . time the trust or confidence placed in him. I say "he has Him On On vjhom goodness cannot mend. or to plaster over the rays of the sun ? as One is impossible as the other.m customer by overcharges cheated him . .. Literally " abounds in the mentioning of it. this subject the following verse is cited 677.^ &ji.^ but if my servant overcharges J^l me in an account of cheated me." 678.— ARABIC PROVERBS.u." J^^ — but ^J. This is generally said of any undertaking quite beyond the .

. The noble lies Bedouin in " Surely the worth of a man two of !" his smallest parts — his heart and his tongue Others affirm that this answer was given by the Arab Mady Kerb to the King of Persia. 680. saying in opposition to the celebrated chief. answer given to the great Arab Hyra. i^laster. whom Neman when he came into his presence reproached for the meanness of his look and the smallness of replied. human power.240 reach of ARABIC PROVERBS. and from this they derive their name. 679.. or King of Neman Ibn Monzer. Jl^ who pretend the eyes. JUi^ Ji^\ u^A. A man to should first attend to his In Egypt those quacks are styled cure own defects. especially antimony. his person.:^\x^\ Among tvofide^fid things is is a sore-eyed person ivho an oculist. Mail This vile is only is man by his money. for which purpose they usually employ a mixture of mineral or metallic substances. ^j^^'j (from j^l?) to cover a wall or anything with mud. &c. by his enemy and rival Dhamra Ibn Dhamra.

ui^x J^Ij bl ^Li^-x "I ate of his bread/' as if . ivho eats the sultdn's broth. is taken from the chess board.'^' Of him time. J^ 2 I . The \ of Lii^jyu'i is superfluous.»jsn>U^ ^^ J^ preceded or as a host says to his guest. paivn This ? Said of low people suddenly elevated." it is Isj^ stands for i>Jyo Thus said . The ancient poet Abou Tamam has a similar expression : 682. when a pawn passes to queen (jj).O . the lips will be scalded. 681.ARABIC PROVERBS." (jlisLJ!' or "gain. should it be even at a very distant On is the dangers attending those who accept lucrative situations undei Eastern rulers. . The ^\ ^^^ here in its true sense and implies " illegal eating.C '^ 241 When wert tJioic changed into a queen. " eat o/the meat. and must be ascribed merely to the vulgar pronunciation." for ^s:^\ ^.

The advise)' of the fool jj^] is is The word a fool. A small date-stone "props up the ivater-jar. in an upright position and well some small stones are often put under them. (J^'i] ^\j (or becomes) his enemy.'jly trifling circumstances. great concerns are i.3 That the large water-jars. ^^'^\ U^' c_J> 683.— 242 ARABIC PROVERBS. 684. Great princes often owe security to the meanest of their subjects supported by the most is . . ^_jJkX. applied in Egypt not only to but also to an obstinate headstrong person. which are of this form may be kept balanced. tlieir or. the diminutive of ^.

" body from J^ which and coy motions of a woman impatient of reproach. 685. applied to a person resembling the grooms of the stable. and breathes high. she remained silent. when a person resembles a horse that issues from his stable in full vigour..C: 243 [si^[j They embraced proached her.ARABIC PROVERBS. said on two occasions . '<^iri. snorts at the hoofs. they re- her. not ashamed of L::. She dreads the reproach. signifies " the twisting of the and the women of Cairo flatter all themselves that their other females in the Ji is superior to that of Levant." The same word is often used to express similar motions produced by coquetry or voluptuousness.-^:saxj "to enjoy female society. 686. but the deed. The blowing of This is the stable. blows out and strikes the ground with his is but soon after found to be tu^ed . lii-^Aj U_j-I'U u::-v:. first. fellows noted in Egyj^t for their insolence. . then she assumed is airs. it is nostrils. who puff themselves up and give them- selves great airs. secondly.

* Man to the generous. 244 ARABIC PROVERBS. i^Hj'^ c. ?jj i_5^ rr-^ Sr ^^^. ^su£. wherein it is ^j kS^ ji^ ^^^. Beneficent actions and kindnesses enslave a man 690. in allusion to a passage of the Koran (Chapter said xiv). 687. lik. 688. stands here for or fJ — these prepositions being in common conversation frequently misused one for the other. ancient origin. .^\ iL^^ liU-Jl ^li The jive of reeds is of rapid extinction. '^'^ CI-^JJ / alighted {at his house) in a barren valley Said of an inhospitable mansion.'* ^^^-^^^^ i^^ ^^:j by which valley <ij^ is understood the valley of Mekka. of long standing. is the slave of benefcence. _»j «_^ LiJ He Of ivas horn ivith Noah in the ark.-"<Xi-»iLuJl ij. 689.. of The passions of those who have no energy character are easily subdued.

have more influence upon man than education or the example set by his parents.. maxim equally just as sagacious.— ARABIC PROVERBS. with their time. G92. ^ If I should Jind my friend in the wrong. still more the time in which they — Men." " disgust/' This meaning as follows : well expressed by an ancient poet. \\ the (place) filled is loathsome. its notions and manners. People resemble live.\Lc ci^w^j \S^. I praise him. ^Ju Egyptian dialect is " loathsomeness.) This proverb means. 245 Advice given in the midst of a crowd. 691. I reproach him secretly. (Verbatim to it. that the general state of society. ill! JilrsnU o J !— ' ^'j-Cii ^^^xA\ (_. than to than they resemble their fathers. hut in 2)resence of company. (with people). It might have been expressed more precisely in Arabic thus . A s. are more similar their fathers. in the &c.

[:]\ 695. 093. or placed flowers.246 ARABIC PEOVERBS. [Like) the look of the miser at his bankrujjt debtor. It is well known that presents are frequently interchanged between friends in the East. a favourite among . on the leaves of some fragrant «_^U-» is herbs or the plant rue. is A thing generally presented wrapped in a handkerchief. Used business. 694. The presents of our friends are [as dear to us as if they -were) upon the leaves of rue. The clarionet is in my sleeve and the breath in my mouth (ready for playing)." to express " I am completely ready for ^U is a sort of clarionet very common in the Levant.

the Turks and Arabs. 699. . He by is running away.ARABIC PROVERBS. whose contain it 247 drawing-rooms often t-_?^jcw»» in pots. and take sheep to-morroiv. He is high-minded. he attracts notice by crying with a loud Jl^j it is voice. Instead of endeavouring to facilitate his escape silence. hut empty-hellied. yet shouts loudly. yet trifles it annoys us.. The merest may cause vexation and pain. It is Hkewise called •.. Applicable to those who give small presents hoping to receive some more valuable in return. Give me ivool to-day. This tine is almost universally the case where a Levanto makes a present an European. Here we must understand Is Ujl^ 696.^. For more usual 697." It is not larger than a button. to say • . 698.

" tresses ^\ J." so this expression is frequently used. Musk became so common and luas scattered about.248 jj is a silk ARABIC PROVERBS. ornamented A reproof to an ugly woman angry at her face .*_t " it it dis- and occupies our inmost thoughts. neck. woman and in grief. Of the same sense or ^IjjO" y^\ i_. that so awkward an attempt it to conceal this '' mystery can hide from the public ? 701. so it." 700..vcj We hear also J»A^i^ i-w ^_^<^. ivhen attired. is vexes us . "Do you suppose hidden. or of a distinguished personage connected with those unworthy of his acquaintance. ^\ means the mind. the secret." ^^^ "do not vex me. 702. that even the coivs used Said of a precious thing used by mean people . the secret intention. Is this a drum hidden under the clothing f The drum will be heard although it may be The question means. It is thy face. button which fastens the gown about the here " the innermost. ^ i^ ''l^e is vexed.

&c. simples. 703. toilette for the purpose of personal decora- " such as the kohel for her eyes. &c. apphed to all vain attempts at concealing ^~^ natural deformities or bad qualities. which are found in druggists' shops. of a very destructive quality. the henna her fingers. 704. all j-^^ in the Egyptian dialect spices. means "the jewels or gold and the head or neck. Is this an art of drugs ? Is it as difiicult as the profession of a druggist ? This is said to imply that it is as a matter of which the knowledge may be easily acquired.ARABIC PROVERBS. causing almost ruin. and which cannot well be distinguished one skill from another without much and patience.^'' It is It is an how's poison. the perfume for her hair. signifies the difierent drugs. and endeavouring to deck saying is ifc 249 This with ornaments.." lxij\ silver " ornaments of the is whatever used at a woman's tion for . immediate 2 K .

remove the be exposed. veil of a woman so that her face may Hence and are derived the other significations. 707.250 ARABIC PROVERBS. is Doubt In its here personified as a veil or curtain is with which virgin truth or knowledge original sense (. 706. and to regulate his expenses.JcJ^ signifies to covered. . Tear off the curtain of doubt hy questions.-"' This dead (jperson) is not ivorth the iveeping. 705. disgracing violating. Is this provision for a year'^ Said in advising a person not to squander away his little stock of provisions. certain consequences in the veil East at- tending the removal of a woman's by force.

709. In the open country of Egypt large sycamore trees are frequently found by the side of public fountains (J-*--)? under the shade of which travellers and cattle often repose.\\ 708. The door has rested upon its hinges.''' The knife has reached the bone. its proper situ- . is The wound deep. each being fastened by its halter to the tail of the one immediately before him.\.ARABIC PROVERBS. 710.=^ The cmnels have reached jiy is the sycamore tree. 251 . a line of camels walking one behind another. Everything has been placed in ation.

and it was ivetted. / io. and overwhelmed by mis- fortune.-* Ji " de gustibus non est as cOV. always implies disrespect or ridicule towards the owner of the beard. 252 ARABIC PROVERBS.. or other . respecting it Indeed they carry their scruples to such a degree that in when a person relates a story or sings a song which occur the words dung. 202. The axe has fallen upon The blow was well directed. ^j. •- y^ (J-* lJ^ \^\i ^jxJ^ t t^"- * i^vlii 5 <^»^ (J^s*' <\>-i« One shaved his heard. according own The abridged phrase used in the same sense disputandum. a second plucked out to his his hairs liking. hogs. every one.uj »jfc y& stands for ^J^ — to «-^ express it we should say. A poor little creature. they said. this appendage so venerated among the Arabs. •^> A small leaf. ever the Whensame word heard it mentioned in the phrase with a term expressing some object dirty or contemptible. 712. 711. the head.^ is ^f* u^ liT* Respect- ing the true meaning of iyt^ see No. dogs." clearly is often .

a female neighbour wifes affects to look as if she herself ivere in the 'place. . he requests any of his auditors who may his at that moment be moustaches. 714. I have heard often this proverb (which. but eats vile things. as the is Arabic scholar will perceive. 715. not inserted in this collection. Cll-^^si*ji ^'J^ J ^JL*^ '—^^1 Jo-lj A ijerson embraces his ivife . even in the presence of virtuous and most respectable women. Said of a bystander who assumes the air of enjoying that which he had merely happened to witness. ^A^f A^^j'wj) c^V. translated. in the act of touching his beard or request to remove hand. although frequently used by the best-bred people.) not very literally society. J 'j^™* ^"T 3 A fine face.ARABIC PROVERBS. 253 terms denoting what they regard as filthy or impure. quoted others in still respectable And there are many more indelicate. Alluding to a person of good appearance who commits base actions. which proves that no offensive allusion was meant between the beard and the word which the speaker or singer was going to pronounce.

. He takes a place to which he is not entitled. the dialect of ij^^^ in Egypt is seldom used to express savage or wild. 716." in the East. so disagreeable that no one likes to deal with him. 717. Sour faces and dJi^ deceitful hearts." [JSj^ manners and appearso to see No. Rude and morose. morose. than which nothing is is more disliked for where a man if forgiven being a scoundrel. yet he sits in front {of the company). 716. _^ It ^_^^1^ pronounced by be many persons for is understood 718. ill-natured countenance.^^ His face His face is cuts off all gain. dialect. but " rude in ance. in the Egyptian " a sour.254 ARABIC PROVERBS. ^j)\ ^j i. but not he seems to despise or dislike scoundrels. Orientals I have before remarked that the dislike extremely a sour or morose countenance.

" said they. even in remote consequences or effects. ^ A rise ^^\ ^Jl) l^ ^i-^J^ 9^'^ LS-^. when they This are fulfilled is God the We enjoy ha^ e often to lament the accomplishment of .— ARABIC PROVERBS. ^jj or eit3^. our wishes or we cannot from the them. 255 ^f? led him to the 7'iver. "^^^ J'i-I^ person sat demandi^ig as a favour from of morn —ivhen morn arose. signify- ing nothing more than J^ —thus. yet brought him hack thirsty." for ^\\ ]\ or 720. l:^L "be . he became blind." The its fall of a great man is to be dreaded.| in the Egyptian dialect means " to . 7J9. 721. lead.j^]\ carry. "eve7ifrom the very dust of it. proverb derived following verse The verb sat. transport. bring to. "God save us.-"' The Pharos of Alexandria has fallen down." x-H does not here exactly mean ^t^] " he but is employed as a kind of auxiliary.

^ss^^ jj« whether sitting or standing. or " sit silent. More easy is to he broJcen than the house of the spider." said to a person (J.^ " I did love him for a long time. where :^Jj^\ we read.256 silent. This taken from the Koran." ARABIC rROYKRBS. ." " I continued loving him for a long 722." or time. ^"^ " he did speak to me until " " — or rather " <Ui-l he continued speaking to [j\ me until — Uj li^'a.

because the masses of clay would . floor They find it necessary to keep this very clean. leaving in that condition until for a sufiicient state of maceration renders being worked. spoil the flax hence arises the proverb.! a tank sunk into the ground above four . The mo- hella is also called ^uL^^ —and to prepare the flax in this manner L^j 2 L . In this tank the Egyptian peasants deposit it their flax after has been well dried in the sun. They then let in water and cover the wetted it it fit flax with heavy stones. feet. ^ 2)o 710^ Lx\ Joy ^ ac?c? wiore mud to the Mohella.ARABIC PROVERBS. 257 U^\ ^^U^ ^> 724. Do fire. ' and from forty to fifty feet square it is waUed up witli stones and level with the surface of the ground the floor is composed of unburnt mud : bricks. not make an is evil worse. nor add fuel to the iLi.

c_y^' ^ " I have unjustly or . nor will vjill I suit thee." same sense and they also say. — 726. holders or jliu*)! The Egyptian peasants call the landproprietors of their fields by the name of ^jA^ In towns those landlords are called has sequestered But as at present this class does not exist in Egypt. 727.'" Do Do thee. not cut out of the purse of another.258 ARABIC PROVERBS. (_J-J: ^j^ J. all Mohammed Aly Pasha landed property of individuals. It is in vain to ask for the thing. no one can give it to thee. nor I leave thee. It is neither (to he found) ivith thy God nor ivith thy landholder. This is said is of a wearisome hanger-on. / will not he thy friend. yet perseveringly obtrudes . 725. not seize upon that which does not belong to The people of Cairo say ^j ^n^ty meaning by force taken something away The word hjJ> is used in the from such a one. and obliged them to take from the fiscus what they formerly received as rents from their farmers. who knows that he disliked.

ti profitable to himself or any iJ\^ «-r^^i>^^ ^j f^.j here " -l^® is be understood jjuidl gained not the merit of having expended it in alms. without rendering else.— ARABIC PROVERBS. else he that it may fancy belongs to himself 730." also a "friend. his 259 Persons of ^^j. presence upon his acquaintances." . Neither loith thine eye hast thou seen. from comes from ^-." The proverb derived an old Arabian saying 728. this description are numerous in the Levant.ij is a ''companion. He gained He one no merit {by spending he leave it it liberally) nor did to the right owners. 729. Lend not to the fool anything. Applied to one who person afiects violent Idve for a whom he has never seen unveiled. nor with thy heart hast thou loved. unjustly took it ^ ^ (the money) from to another.

260 ARABIC PROVERBS. This is quoted as advice to dealers. frequently synonymous with " ^^ — thus. Z)o ??o^ /e^ ^^5 cheapness delude thee it) . Do not cry out i^i the face of gain else it flies away. often merchandise. j»x^]\ d AVl^l ks- put the thing into the chest." (See Nos. 731. .me form are correctly pronounced. 34 and 378. some it is article of &c. 734. such as u-i^ lJ<^>." tiling. {if thou purchase throiv away half of According to the Egyptian pronunciation is j_^' used for t_£^ although other words of the sa. that they .-" Thei^e is no peace until after enmity.) 733. T/ie 6a(i stuff remains ivith its oicner to until {some fool) comes aJ^-W buy it. thou ivilt it. — 732. means " a some stuff.

-"- Neither' handsome." a. nor good-natured. jli3 one who expends money liberally. should behave reject civilly 261 towards customers and not ." ^ " commercial or j)ecuniary t—i^x*. good offers harshly otherwise the goods may remain upon their hands. else thou wilt be tired in putting him back again. . The lazy will do nothing for thee and the owner of the jackass will purchase food for his beast with the profits which he ought to divide with thee. is equivalent to Jjf^ ^ 737.-" Have no dealings ivith the indolent. nor liberal. Do not push forward a ivorthless fellow. Said of a repulsive character.UU'. 736. and none ivith the oivner of the jackass. 735. .ARABIC PROVERBS. il^U^ signifies " trade.' concerns.

262 ARABIC PROVERBS. where the Koran is explamed. Among a thousand females who knows how to read. Do not heat the wolf. at Cairo scarcely one can be found education of the mind is totally neglected. I am not encumbered with children and there- fore ready for any vocation. but the school where women instruct young girls in sewing and spinning. 738. nor a Fatme in the ivorJcing school. and their language little else. {I have) neither an Aly in the reading school. generally held in is The school c— a mosque where little children >l:i$' learn to read the Kordn. and al^Lt^ religion is systematically taught. and perhaps not more than twenty who know how to pray or possess the least notion of Even among the highest classes the their religion. and do not cause hunger to the sheep. Be kind and mild towards friends and enemies. . 739. After four or five years they are sent to attend lectures in the mosque. is the only maxim recommending miiversal charity that I have been able to discover among This tliose current at Cairo.

^^ astrologer.ARABIC PROVERBS.s^xi and he is not any remuneration.''^ (A 2^<^f'son good) neither for the sword nor for the guest. *. 263 Do not give any money to the astrologer for this. its . The expectations excited in thy mind entitled to -which the fortune-teller has are ridiculous.^'' We must hear the medicine on account of usefolness. who deceive the credulous by skill in fortune-telhng. U^ -j^ 742. 741. 740. their pretended Sheikhs and olemas are found in every town of Egypt. Cowardly and stingy.

7U. He owes obligations to the captain. <\\ or "' ^^y The word signifies wink at. yet enis deavours to seduce his wife. '-r'^l here -^IAj to be understood " to ." dialect for ^^j. Among things thrown which is not away is found (perhaps) found in the casket. in the but frequently in Syria. where to express go7ieJ' (or the vulgar English " get out") for w^hich in jj<\ used . . Egypt the word —^^^ is common. 743.:2G4 ARABIC PROVERBS. in the Egyptian ^^." make mutual signals of intelli- gence with another person. that ki^ a box in which jew^els and golden ornaments are kept. and Black country ''he is on the Nile. He He of mail. so full of wily tricks that he would con- trive to slip away through the wire-work of a coat The word j^aj is seldom used in Egypt. is slips out through the coat of mail. and in Hedjdz. He gets his passage for nothing. 745. and winhs to the wife of the captain {of the ship).

This is said in advice to those who make an \^:>- ostentatious display of hospitality towards strangers. The great want the is assistance of the mean. 748. sit doivn out of the ivay to eat it." "within. quested to sit down and partake 2 M .. of resources and knows how to avail himself of the smallest means. JljklU L-^Jti^^l TT^^^'^:'. stranger of respectable appearance is invariably reof the repast." Eat with your own people. by the It is side of the road where travellers ^Dass. but leave their own family to starve. you ivho feed the peop)le are (left) ivithout ivhile those ivithiji longing for it. 747.ARABIC PROVERBS. Gold cleaned with bran. The gold ivants bran. 746." " ji^iall u:^ viz. 265 He He is swims in a span {depth) of full icater. in the ( Egyptian dialect "inside. very usual in the Levant to eat before the gate of the house where travellers pass. and every out of their way.

at least they may town be certain of getting food in some part of the before sunset . to farther did not the extortions of government obHge work. if sleep. generous towards strangers as well as I towards the poor. and they neither seasons nor from classes being suffer from the . are here unknown. as Montesquieu soil. although poor-houses. that in this great capital there any. inclemency all want of lodgings the lower to from their infancy accustomed go half-naked and to sleep upon the bare ground under the canopy of heaven. and public charitable institutions. It must be acknowledged that with respect are to food.2G6 ARABIC PROVERBS. have reason to beheve that very few at Cairo suffer from hunger. and those who feel for their fellow creatures must be gratified on reflecting when they retire to are few. food is a main cause of this facihty of procuring inactivity and indolence carried still among the Egyptians. which would be them taxes. and tends to reconcile us with the character of the inhabitants and their political condition. This consider- ation counterbalances a number of disadvantages. But on the other hand. but the luxuriance of southern and . and in general the Orientals of every class. Beggars of can easily obtain work if they like to be employed. parish-rates. hospitals. individuals who pass the night without thanking God for an evening meal. imagines. merely that they might jmy the land It is not the southern sun. the Egyptians. Even the poorest man while he is eating invites any one passing by to share his humble meal.

tempted to of Egypt. that relax the exertions of the inhabitants and cause apathy.. ^j^-:^^ " to inquire. of a tem- perature equally warm." is a verb of very common use. but grows wild. of Northern Europe are to those of Spain or <U: He inquires about the Beshneen solved it. ARABIC PROVERBS. and India. in the midst of which stands the v^How seed-vessel. the people are lulled into indolence . easily however coarse or simple. while in neighbouring countries. as among the mountains of is Yemen and in Syria. 267 the abundance of provisions. where hard labour necessary to ensure a good harvest. By the fertility Mesopotamia. about one inch and a . and the person wJio Everybody at Cairo knows the plant beshneen. these inclose the inner which consists of a double set of smaller white leaves one ])ehind anothei'. and that it is not sown. The flower consists of four green -coloured outer leaves. . is Where a man is almost certain of finding sufficient food. we find a race as superior industry to the former. which yield their produce almost spontaneously. The beshneen is undoubtedly the lotus of the ancient Egyptians it at least its flower resembles exactly the lotus as is represented on the walls of the Egyptian temples. he indulge in laziness. as the inhabitants Italy. and four of a violet or rose colour placed in the interstices of the others part.

In their hands it closely resembles the plant which is held by the Theban priests in the pictures that decorate their spotted with white. covered externally with a green skin. Cairo in the tank called Birket near one of . The children play with this stalk. though rather insipid. the inside of which is fibrous. The flower generally stands on the stalk from one foot to two feet above the surface of the water. of which is the taste not disagreeable. They likewise eat the yellow seed-vessel. This plant grows at el Rotoli. which is probably the reason why is the natives call these J-^H ij^}-£- plants "the brides of the Nile" rests It five upon a stalk which about three feet inches long. The whole flower when half opened is one of the most beautiful plants in Egypt.268 half high. temples. and use it as a pipe-tube by placing some lighted tobacco at the place where the seed-vessel stood. ARABIC PROVERBS. with the isolated seed-vessel in the midst. until it is its weight for several ingulphed. under which lies a second skin of a fine violet colour. When the flower opens completely the leaves form a horizontal disk. the smoke of this they draw through the stalk. which bends down the stalk by and swims upon the surface of the water days.

(and I believe the it Egyptians did understand in both senses. 269 the northern suburbs. asleep and in- when life. as dicating it were. and death in the other. fortune. 1815. about twelve miles south-east from. which is blossoms during the the certain cause and forerunner It is of plenty in Egypt. on the Damietta branch. as the flood then retires. " It dies when the water boatman to me. and nature." (^lU ^-j^. an emblem of death also. but abounds in the Delta. when quite open. ll '•^y^') said my It is emblem it of life in all its vigour and luxuriance while inundation. Mansoura. or exclaim used by the Egyptians for ^'b " to Ah Ah !" ! . near the ruins of Tmey.ARABIC PROVERBS. I believe. I saw in great abundance. 50. dicating while in blossom that everything covered with water. in good health and prosperous complain of sickness or is murmur at ^J^^ sigh. Or it may be understood differently. and attains maturity at the time when the Nile reaches it its full height. where I happened to reside. and in full flower. in a state of decay that nature is for restored to soon after that period seeds are sown by the husbandmen thus. inundation in one sense. covering the whole inundated plain on the twelfth of October. — is life He circumstances.) as inis . therefore a fit retires. It is not found in Upper Egypt. Said of those who. eats and sighs.

went out in these he brought back search of two large stones to the tent. therefore." (over which the broth is poured to make soup). He learns cupping on the heads of orp)hans. for the sake of the marrow. : for soon after a copious repast of meat was placed before us. I happened one day in the Sinai mountains to Arab tent. as soon as he had sipped his coffee. When I asked why he had done to use so. and placed them by his side. 751. to resemble rises The man. sat down. alight at an . supposing that broth on the fire and expecting that it will to him. is said the bread in a plate when the be brought smoke is from the kitchen. Ayd.270 ARABIC PROVERBS. of a sheep that was (as he expected) to be slaughtered in honour of us . 752. is Cupping generally applied in the East to the . He is preparing for some expected good fortune its without any certainty of occurring. t::. it appeared that his object was them in breaking the bones. but Ayd had not indulged a vain speculation.^ " to break bread into small pieces. my old Bedouin guide. He resembles the bread on {seeing only) the smoke. yet he had never received the slightest intimation that such a circumstance was intended all present began to laugh.

is This in opposition to the proverb immediately preceding. do not reckon life. just above the neck. patients who come 753." '* thy own. 754. A day that is not thine^ own. but this saying means that it is silly to undertake the shoeing or curing of those animals which are reckoned valuable by their owners without an adequate knowledge of the art. I know not that asses are particularly esteemed by the Kurds. 271 hind part of the head. . it as of thy uj3 "thine." That day which thou . dost not enjoy in perfect freedom which thou canst not pass according to thine own will. He is instructed in the blacksmith's or farriei^'s art (or horse-doctors) hy practising upon the asses of the Kurds.ARABIC PROVERBS. Thus in some hospitals of Europe the young surgeons learn their art by practising upon the bodies of poor to be cured gratis.

272

ARABIC PROVERBS.
755.

A^\

All

I'

Jyi,j.

J

^^^^ 'J^ ^5^^.

He

walks upon the highest part of the wall
''For safety ive trust
to

and

says,

God!"

He demands

or expects safety yet does an act

which exposes him to danger. If security be thy object do not voluntarily run into the way of danger.

756.
J^jsu_arij-lk).

c_Jyi

J^rj

Jj^

He

descends

(like) (like)

the foot of
the

a

croiv,

and ascends

hoof of a camel.

Said of an ill-bred person affecting refined manners.

In eating with the assistance of one's fingers

only out of the dish round which
seated,
it
is

many

guests

ai-e

necessary to observe several rules of

good-breeding established

among Arab gentlemen.

One
close

rule

is,

to take

up small morsels at a time, and
This

therefore to keep the fingers thrust into the dish as

together as circumstances will allow.
is

proverb

quoted in derision of an ill-bred person,

whose hand, when it descends into the dish, appears very small to the company (as small as a crow's foot),
but v/hen withdrawn from the dish and ascending towards his mouth, incloses so large a piece within
its

grasp that

it

resembles the hoof of a camel.

ARABIC PROVERBS.
757.

273

He
j^l

tells

lies

of the dead and belies the
is

living.

(from which
dialect, to

formed '^^) means in the
and
falsely in a

Egyptian
which he

affirm boldly

person's face that he has done or said something of
is

innocent or ignorant

;

thus,

dj^

" dost

thou behe
that which

me ? "
is

or rather
"
?

''

dost thou state of

me

a falsehood

758.

He

contents himself with {incurring) the suspicion

of doing This
is

evil actions.

said of a person
actions,

who

does not actually

commit bad
to suspicion

but constantly exposes himself

by conversing with abandoned women,

associating with drunkards,
ters,

men

of infamous charac-

&c.

j_j«?l*i.^

means

actions contrary to divine

and human

laws.

759.

He

causes enmity between the bear

and

his fodder.

He
variance
^,«j

is

such a mischief-maker that he sets at
those

who
is

are

most

intimately

united.

"to throw,''

often used in the sense above
2

N

274
mentioned
;

ARABIC PROVERBS.
as
U^i^j

Jj^ caused mischief or enmity between us." Jj^ s:^ JU; " by cahimny or false accusation he has caused such
an one to

^,^,

" such a person has

become

my

enemy."

The meddHng
^l^j

mischief-maker bears at Caii^o the appellation of

760.

He

eats luhatever is there

and

contracts {or
others.

makes

narrow) the place of

Said of a low-mannered person assuming the
privileges of high rank.

This proverb supposes a

vulgar ill-bred man, voracious at an entertainment,
(while the great Arabs never are so,) and pretending

nevertheless

to

the

privilege

of

a distmguished

personage in occupying with his body as
as possible,

much room
to be

and thereby causing other guests
places.

crowded

in their straightened
j,\^

K U

J^L

stands for

^\^

U
sit

J^

J^Ij

It is usual to say

J-c

ij^

^

"do not

too close to me," or "let

me

have more room."
761.-"'

A

time

ivill

come when they

ivill solicit

God^s mercy

for Pharaoh.

Times are

so

bad that even Pharaoh

is

regretted.

ARABIC PROVERBS.

275

The Egyptians often mention this sovereign, and the Turks call the inhabitants of Egypt by the opprobrious

name

of ^.^.i

Jjiil

or the people of Pharaoh,

meaning

" impious."

It is said of a

man who

has

proved stubborn, malicious, or impious, ^.ju" he has become hke Pharaoh.
762.

He

is

niggardly towards his family, hut beneficent

towards strangers.

j^
food.

in the

Egyptian dialect

signifies " to curtail

the dues of people/'

principally with

respect

to

^\ Jx

Jii.

(See No. 748.)

763.

A

rose issues

from

thorns.

A good son from

worthless parents.

764.

He

defiles his clothes,

and

sits

reclined in front of

the

company.

Of

the same signification as No. 760.


276

ARABIC PROVERBS.

The

sitting

rooms in Egypt are generally on
:

such a plan as the following outlines represent

1

2

. hut dislikes the battle. or affects to be a either man of importance. O thou ivJio trouhlest thyself about the cares left of others. to ivhom hast thou thine own cares ? ^J . He there- who is takes his seat and reclines upon the sader. 765.:^\ These lines are pronounced at Cairo as follows kail HI El komhar kyky Ma ahlattyn arryky Kalloo tdddeb yd komhar Ma bad el aysh mokhahhar. 277 ment fore to the great man of the company. the meeting (of the enemy) or battle.—— ARABIC PROVERBS. {knoiv that) bread is the chief of all things. is Another verse of similar meaning \^J\ quoted ^U ^\ 'U\ U JlJlU ^}\i J'.'' thou who askest one about my food.^ in the Cairo pronunciation for He \i] longs for war. 767.

with an empty stomach.ij\ morning when nothing has been swallowed except spittle. kombar. Oil the day of victory no fatigue is felt.278 ARABIC PROVERBS." The komhar and kyky are birds about as large as sparrows. " !" How sweet is a breakfast "Learn better manners. Ic means that state of the stomach in the j." i." The Egyptians say breakfast. 768. The kombar fig for said to the kyky." "a "a for j. in the above translation of the it I believe stands for j\^i — as neither nor nin^ hterally explained." he replied.e.. fig (JjJ\ Jx or ^j^\ means fig upon the empty stomach." fasted. and numerous in the vicinity of Cairo." -^Jji] cL^yJ U " I have not yet breakI The word j^:ku has here the sense which it have assigned to proverb j\s^. convey in this place any true sense. or the bile. (by eating) or to breakfast. when the person is still " upon his spittle.\j\ jh^ "to breakfast. " after bread nothing deserves notice.^* ." or "to eat a morsel immediately rismg from bed . ." which the Syrians express by 'iyiJ] j^^ " to break the phlegm.

which the inhabitants.). . or the devil to man.''^ 279 He gives advice such as the cat gives to the mouse. and under the jurisdiction of a kadhy. but also a size. He builds a is j^cdace and ruins a quoted in city. on Fridays. 770. the Friday prayer should be performed only in a city {^2^ J. He advances one leg and draivs bach the other. wants decision and is unstable in all his . This proverb often allusion to Mohammed Aly and is Pasha's passion for building palaces villas. name appHed to all cities of considerable Thus we read in the Mohammedan law that in opposition to the ojDen country. justice.^^ not only means Egypt or Cairo. or some head of a tribunal of 771.. as well as not required to are make the particular prayer of noon The commentators explain this term ^^ as relating to any town or city governed by an emir or chief.ARABIC PROVERBS. He actions. Alluding to insidious advice. of all travellers. 769.

The word ^\^^ is repeated during prayer thirty. and most pure and holy. . The mouse is bridled in his house. 772. lest thing. "0 most holy.three times in passing many beads through that God is free from all so the fingers." Said of base hypocrites who are constantly seen with rosaries in their hands. governor do not tyrannize last — the dominion does not for ever. 774. and expresses defects or faults. Said of a miser in whose house even the mouse has been bridled. it should be able to eat any- 773. He prays upon his rosary the prayer of the mouse.280 ARABIC PRO VERBS. who hast created me for vile doings.

2 O . and (at the same time) swalloivs a large pole. ijj^* signifies Egypt the long pole with which sailors push on the vessels in shallow water. He like J^\ is rigid in judging the affairs of others. 281 He strikes my face. 775. 'ij^\} ^-Lj j 'ijii\ . " and to the house- oivner. " Steal . 777. not his in j-Lj is used to signify that a person devours property own nor confided to his care. who expresses surprise at the complaints of his subjects." Applied to double-dealers. but commits flagrant peculation himself. and says cry?" " Why does this man On the unjust ruler.^_^ ^^i> ^e pronounces ^idgment upon a needle. -He says to the thief. " Take care of thy goods. ^_^ for \ ^c^ 776.ARABIC PROVERBS.

Instead of thanking. is j^^. J]j in the Egyptian dialect "to .— 282 ARABIC PROVERBS. knoio what his and his left hand does right hand disi^enses. not 779. 778. He eats and {at the same time) mocks {at ivhat he eats). Mohammed Scripture." spoil (a child) by too much indulgence for Jjjj often hear -Jju 780. Thy right hand knows nothing of thy has left hand. he ridicules the host. Said of those who spoil their inferiors or their for and then punish them what their own we has caused. a low word of the Egyptian dialect synonymous with j^^^_ . taken this principle from the sayings is One of his recorded which concludes with the following words A man distributes alms. folly spoils the slave and then beats him. He children.

781. the most common is salutation . PBIMIEBS IN OBDINABT TO H£B MAJESTT.jLiLo s^\ 782. The eye-witness observes what the absent does not see.1Q [I HARBISON AND SONS. . MABTIn'S LANE. 283 One day LiUll is in {perfect) health is much. which one receives on the road from peasants it " they pronounce Howdfye." The reply (. ST.ARABIC PROVERBS. <: «0RG30 jH ex UERIS \V. THE END.

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