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Commensalism: one partner benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited. Mutualism: both partners benefit. Parasitism: one partner benefits at the expense of the other.
Role of the resident flora
Members of the resident flora in the intestinal tract synthesize vitamin K and aid in the absorption of nutrients. Members of the resident flora on mucous membranes and skin may prevent colonization by pathogens and possible disease through ―bacterial interference‖. The normal flora may antagonize other bacteria through the production of substances which inhibit or kill nonindigenous species. The normal flora stimulates the development of certain tissues, i.e., the caecum and certain lymphatic tissues (Peyer's patches) in the GI tract The normal flora stimulate the production of cross3 reactive antibodies. www.similima.com
Pathgen: A microorganism capable of causing sisease. 4 . and attachment are often used interchangeably. Virulent agents cause disease when introduced into the host in small numbers. Nonpathogen: A microorganism that does not cause disease. may be part of the normal flora. adhesion. Hospital acquired infection: Infections acquired during hospital stays. fungi. at least. adherence is a major initial step in the infection process. and viruses enter host cells or tissues and spread in the body. etc ) LD50: The number of pathogens required to cause lethal disease in half of the exposed hosts is called an LD . animal parasites. Opportunistic pathogen: An agent capable of causing disease only when the host’s resistance is impaired (ie. LD 50 (age /sex /health /route of entry. Toxigenicity: The ability of a microorganism to produce a toxin that contributes to the www. Invasion: The process whereby bacteria. ID50: The number of pathogens required to cause disease (or. attachment): the process by which bacteria stick to the surfaces of host cells.com development of disease. when the patient is ―immunocompromised‖). infection) in half of 50 the exposed hosts is called the ID50 Adherence(adhesion. Pathogenicity: The ability of an infectious agent to cause disease Virulence: The quantitative ability of an agent to cause disease.similima. Virulence involves invasion and toxigenicity. Once bacteria have entered the body. The terms adherence.
similima.com .Koch's postulates Koch’s Postulates Molecular Koch’s Postulates Molecular Guidelines for Establishing Microbial Disease Causation Isolated people – diseased not healthy Growth – pure culture Induce disease – susceptible animals Re-isolated 5 – susceptible animals www.
www. the nature of the species or strain (virulence factors) and the number of organisms in the initial exposure.similima.Pathogenesis Pathogenesis is a multi-factorial process which depends on the immune status of the host.com 6 .
similima. cause infection under abnormal condition.Source of infection Exogenous infection : patient. diseased animal or animal carrier. Endogenous condition : most are normal flora. carrier.com Routes of infection Respiratory Gastroenteric Genitourinary tract closely contact insect bitting blood transfusion Parenteral route Mucous membranes 7 . Transmission • Airborne droplets • Food • Water • Sexual contact www.
4. www. According to infectious state Inapparent or subclinical infection Latent infection Apparent infection : cause apparent clinic syndrome Carrier state: carrier 5.com 8 .similima. 2.According to infectious sites 1. Bacteremia : is an invasion of the bloodstream by bacteria. Endotoxemia : is the presence of endotoxins in the blood. Local infection Generalized or systemic infection Toxemia : is the presence of exotoxins in the blood. Pyemia : is caused by pyogenic microorganisms in the blood. 3. Septicemia : illness that occurs when poisonous substances (toxins) produced by certain bacteria enter the bloodstream.
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com 10 /low ion/Osmolality /Growth phase/pH/Specific ions . Common signals include:Temperrature/Iron availability : C diphtheriae www.BACTERIAL VIRULENCE FACTORS Environmental signals often control the expression of the virulence genes.similima.
1.similima. Adherence Factors 1. Tissue tropism: 2. Species specificity: 3.com 11 . Genetic specificity within a species: Hydrophobic interactions Electrostatic attractions Atomic and molecular vibrations resulting from fluctuating dipoles of similar frequencies Brownian movement Recruitment and trapping by biofilm polymers interacting with the bacterial glycocalyx (capsule) www.
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similima.Adhesion Type 1 receptor BACTERIUM adhesin EPITHELIUM P mannose lipoteichoic acid F-protein galactose – glycolipids – glycoproteins E. coli fimbriae www.com fibronectin 14 .
com 15 .similima. Invasion of host cells & tissues www.2.
similima. cholera.com Cell surface 16 A B . Active Binding Antibodies (anti-toxins) neutralize – vaccination www.g. and toxigenic E.3. tetanus. coli enterotoxins. etc. and streptococcal erythrogenic toxins. Local toxic effects : e.g. staphylococcal enterotoxin. Toxins Exotoxins Endotoxins Exotoxins Produce in vitro cause food poisoning: botulin. Produce in vivo: Systematic toxic effects : e. diphtheria.
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Endotoxemia and shock Lethal 1 milligram/ kg Identification: Limulcyte assay www. Cytokine release Complement activation B cell mitogens Polyclonal B cell activators Adjuvants 19 .Endotoxins LPS Lipopolysaccharide: core or backbone of CHO side chains of CHO: "O" antigen Lipid A Cell wall lysis required formaldehyde and heat resistant poor antigen as free molecule Endotoxin effects Fever-pyrogen 1 microgram/ kg Leukopenia and leukocytosis necrosis Shwartzman phenomenon and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).similima.com Non-specific inflammation.
com 20 .www.similima.
www.Peptidoglycan of Grampositive bacteria May yield many of the same biologic activities as LPS.similima.com 21 .
Antiphagocytic factors Tissue-degrading enzymes IgA1 proteases: split IgA1. pneumoniae 3. www. meningitidis Some pathogens evade phagocytosis or leukocyte microbicidal mechanisms by adsorbing normal host components to their surfaces. N. influenzae 2.similima. S. A few bacteria produce soluble factors or toxins that inhibit chemotaxis by leukocytes and thus evade phagocytosis. and inactivate its antibody activity. an important secretory antibody on mucosal surfaces.com 22 . 1. gonorrhoeae 4. H.4. Enzymes 5. N.
and opsonin-mediated ingestion of the bacteria is blocked. Polysaccharide capsules of S. B. Haemophilus influenzae.com 23 . coli or the analogous Vi antigen of Salmonella typhi 6. anthracis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Treponema pallidum . www. Protein A attaches to the Fc region of IgG and blocks the cytophilic (cell-binding) domain of the Ab. Thus. Surface slime (polysaccharide) produced as a biofilm by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4. pneumoniae.similima. O polysaccharide associated with LPS of E. M protein and fimbriae of Group A streptococci 3. Cell-bound or soluble Protein A produced by Staphylococcus aureus.Antiphagocytic Substances 1. the ability of IgG to act as an opsonic factor is inhibited. K antigen (acidic polysaccharides) of E. 2. coli 5.
Protein A inhibits phagocytosis Fc receptor immunoglobulin PHAGOCYTE Protein A BACTERIUM M protein inhibits phagocytosis Complement M protein r r r 24 fibrinogen peptidoglycan www.com .similima.
similima. Intracellular pathogenicity Some bacteria live and grow within polymorphonuclear cells. preventing phagosomelysosome fusion and living within the phagosome. macrophages.com within the phagolysosome. 25 . or being resistant to lysosomal enzymes and surviving www.6. or monocytes by avoiding entry into phagolysosomes and living within the cytosol of the phagocyte.
7. www. Some bacteria may make frequent shifts in the antigenic form of their surface structures in vitro and presumably in vivo. Antigenic heterogeneity Antigenic type of bacteria may be a marker for virulence.com 26 . related to the clonal nature of pathogens. allowing the bacteria to evade the host’s immune system.similima. though it may not actually be the virulence factor.
8. www. the iron metabolism denies pathogenic bacteria an adequate source of iron for growth. Bacterial siderophores compete effectively for Fe3+ bound to lactoferrin and transferrin.similima.g. e.com 27 . they have developed several methods to obtain sufficient iron for essential metabolism. For the bacteria.. the low-affinity iron assimilation system or the high-affinity iron assimilation systems. The requirement for iron For the host.
Development of the Immune System ery pl neu mφ nk CD8+ CTL CD4+ TH1 thy TH2 mye lym www.com 28 .similima.
TNF etc. Specific Humoral Cellular T cells.similima. other effectors cells 29 Cellular macrophages. neutrophils antibodies www. interferon.Components of the Immune System Nonspecific Humoral complement.com .
com 30 .similima.Balance between Infection and Immunity infection immunity Disease = Bolus of infection x virulence immunity www.
Response to Infection infection Innate immunity no disease x adaptive immunity disease www.similima.com 31 .
com 32 .similima.Significance of the Immune System Beneficial: Protection from Invaders Elimination of Altered Self Detrimental: Discomfort (inflammation) Damage to self (autoimmunity) www.
similima. NK cell eosinophils. lung cilia. gut Villi.etc Adaptive Immunity none physical barriers soluble factors many protein and non-protein secretions phagocytes.Components of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Innate Immunity skin.com cells Immunoglobulins (antibody) T and B lymphocytes 33 . K cells www.
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com 35 .800) Chemotactic response to inflammatory stimulus www.Macrophage Attacking E.coli (SEM x8.similima.
Adaptive Immunity www.com 36 .similima.
com 37 .similima.Characteristics of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Innate Immunity Antigen independent No time lag Not antigen specific Adaptive Immunity Antigen dependent A lag period Antigen specific Development of memory No Immunologic memory www.
www.similima. DTH response (DTH) involving TH1and macrophages) mainly. SIgA). phagocytes (neutrophils). Immunity of intracellular bacterial infection: cell-mediated immunity (delayed-type hypersensitivity.com 38 . complement. Immunity of extracellular bacterial infection: antibodies (IgG. humoral immunity mainly. IgM.
com 39 .INADEQUATE IMMUNE RESPONSES TO INFECTIOUS AGENTS Causes immune suppression—an example is infection with HIV. Evade the immune defenses by altering their antigenic structure—an example is that influenza virus undergoes antigenic variation by two mutational mechanisms called antigenic shift and antigenic drift that creat new antigenic phenotypes which evade the host’s current immunity and allow reinfection with the virus. www. ultimately suppressing the immune response and allowing the pathogen to multilply. initially stimulating large numbers of T cells to proliferate but. Release toxins that function as superantigens.similima. which alters T cell immunity and allows further infection with opportunistic pathogens. because of the release of cytokines from T cells.
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