# A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO DRAFT SURVEYS TRIMMING CALCULATIONS ETC.

GLENN J SALDANHA
(allgeez@gmail.com)

PLEASE PRINT THIS OUT USING BOTH SIDES OF THE PAPER - HAVE ADJUSTED THE FILE TO ALLOW EASIER READING WHEN PRINTED & FILED THIS WAY

INDEX
CHAPTER I II III IV V VI TOPIC THE 6-SIDED DRAFT THE DRAFT SURVEY TRIMMING HOG / SAG CONTROLLING DRAFTS MAXIMUM DRAFTS PAGES 3 - 10 11 - 21 22 - 51 52 - 56 57 - 59 61 - 63

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CHAPTER I - THE 6 - SIDED DRAFT

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In the above diagram L.B.P. = Length between Perpendiculars L.B.M. = Length Between Marks C = LCF = Longitudinal Center of Floatation - distance fm midships c = difference between draft at LCF & draft at midships dF = Ford Draft mark dA = Aft Draft Mark FP = Forward Perpendicular AP = Aft Perpendicular WL = water line when even keel W1L1 = water line when trimmed (in this case by stern) T = TRIM (at the perpendiculars) Ta = APPARENT TRIM (at the marks) A = Distance between the ford draft mark & ford perpendicular a = Difference between draft at ford mark & draft at ford perpendicular B = Distance between the aft draft mark & aft perpendicular b = Difference between draft at aft mark & draft at aft perpendicular ^M = Angle of Trim As all are similar triangles with the same ^M : T = Ta = c = a = b = Tan ^M LBP LBM LCF A B Since Ta = a then a = A x Ta LBM A LBM & Ta = b then b = B x Ta LBM B LBM In the formula for correction to be applied to the ford draft A is a constant value on EACH SHIP as is LBM as is B

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On a Cape-size vessel A = 1.00 metres and LBM = 248.50 meters Since Correction to be applied to the ford read draft (marks) = a = Therefore a = 1 x Ta 248.5 and a = 0.0040241 x Apparent trim and since B = 10.5 meters Therefore b = 10.5 x Ta 248.5 and b = 0.0422535 x Apparent Trim

A x Ta LBM

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which are the same as above except that they are corrected to the perpendiculars or midships as the case may be. Asc . Apc. Mpc.Aft port As . Fsc.( same explained later) to convert these read drafts to drafts at the perpendiculars We are now left with drafts Fpc. reqd for calculating displacement. the trim correction is applied to the ford & aft drafts & to the midship drafts when relevant (on some vessels the midship draft marks are not exactly at midships) . known as Mean Quarter Mean (MQM) draft we use the six . Msc. Aft & Midship Drafts (Fpc + Fsc) = F (Ford Draft) (Mpc + Msc) = M (Midship Draft) 2 2 (Apc + Asc) = A (Aft Draft) 2 (F + A) = 2 Mean (Mean Draft) Now to get the draft.Aft stbd After these drafts are read. Using the mean of each set we get the Ford.sided formula (6M + F + A) = MQM 8 OR 6 x Midship draft + Ford Draft + Aft Draft 8 = Mean Quarter Mean Draft Now as (Ford Draft + Aft Draft) = Mean Draft OR ( Ford Draft + Aft Draft) = 2 x Mean Draft 2 Therefore the 6 Sided formula is also : (6M + 2Mean) = MQM 8 OR 6 x Midship Draft + 2 x Mean Draft 8 = Mean Quarter Mean Draft 6 .Ap .

then the MQM is NOT 16.0 . MQM = 6 M + F + A or MQM = 6 M + 2 Mean 8 8 and Hog / Sag = Difference between Midship Draft and Mean Draft When Midship Draft is greater than Mean Draft.0. and vessel is sagging 10 cms Vessel is sagging 10 cms.0 . during & after loading. In the first place it is used in all actual all draft calculations. the following examples. or very close to even keel.0.8 8 8 Therefore MQM = 16.The 6-sided formula is central to all calculations on bulk carriers & must be dinned into your head and understood completely. without trim.90 meters . which are useful in pre calculation. but can also be used in precalculation of cargo figures as the following examples will show It is to be remembered that using the 6 sided formula for actual draft calculation is completely accurate. when in case of bulk carriers we almost always finish even keel. Vessel is Hogging. Therefore Mean Draft = M . and that is.10) = 6(17.10) 8 8 = 102 + 2 (16. Now it must be understood that if M= 17.in actual fact the vessel trims about the Centre of Flotation which is not necessarily midships.9) = 102 + 33.0. that we are assuming the vessel is trimming about midships .0 meters.to illustrate Example 1: Given that Midship Draft (M) = 17. the formula must be understood properly the Mean Quarter Mean Draft which is used for obtaining displacement concept must be understood properly.0.10 = 17.0 meters and the vessel is sagging by 10 cms. so very small as to be discarded. therefore the Midship Draft is 10 cms more than the Mean Draft.10 = 16. but the recalculation examples are shown for when the vessel is completing loading. When Midship Draft is less than Mean Draft. In any event pre-calculations are only that and the actual picture only obtained. which makes any inaccuracy caused by making the assumption that the vessel is trimming about midships.90 meters Therefore as MQM = 6M + 2Mean 8 MQM = 6M + 2(M . makes one assumption which is theoretically incorrect. Before any examples are given. Vessel is Sagging.975 meters 7 .0) + 2(17.

025 Displ in DW = 169229.475 Dock water 1. SILC.3 Lightship = .15 = 169560.5 meters. constant and deductibles and you will get the cargo to be loaded. To get max cargo have the Midship draft equal to the max draft . and you wish to sail out even keel . As v/l is sagging 12 cms.40m A = 17.20 / 2) = 16.475 meters 8 Therefore you will get the displacement for 17.50) + 17.2800 CARGO TO LOAD = 147786.88 + (0.000 dwt Given that max draft is 17.20 / 2 ) = 16.023 1. reduce the lightship. F = 17.0.3 K + deductibles = .15 x 1.40 meters and as v/l to finish even keel. the fore & aft draft only once so it is much better to have the midship draft maximum.00 meters V/l to finish with 20 cms trim by stern 12 cms of sag To calculate Ford & Aft drafts and MQM to obtain displacement & therefore cargo. MQM = (6 x 17.18643 Deadweight = 150586.AND THIS MUST BE PROCEEDING FURTHER UNDERSTOOD COMPLETELY BEFORE Example 2: Consider a Cape-size bulk carrier. displ in DW = 169560.3 Example 3: Max draft = 17. loaded in all 9 holds will sag 10 cms.88 Now to calculate the fore & aft draft we assume that the v/l trims about the midships and since v/l is to be trimmed 20 cms & is trimming equally ford & aft therefore ford draft = 16.(0. Mean Draft = 17 . Mean draft = 17.98 8 .40m and therefore.40 + 17. by experience you expect that the vessel with that cargo.78 & aft draft = 16. apply the Dock water correction.40 = 17. of about 151.you will by the formula get Midship draft = 17.023 .88 .023 lightship = 18643 K= 400 (FO: 2000 DO: 100 FW: 200 U/Pumpable Ballast : 100) Deductibles = 2400 Displacement in SW at 17.12 = 16.475 meters.remember that in the formula the midship draft is multiplied 6 times.50 meters ( v/l sagged & even keel). To expand : the density of Dockwater = 1.

825 metres = M Since v/l hogged by 10 cms & even keel Mean Draft = F = A = 15.85 meters Example 5: Same conditions as in Eg 4 except vessel to finish hogged by 10 cms Let Midship draft = X metres As v/l hogged by 10 cms. Mean Draft = 15.0.0.85) .85) = 8X . sagged by 8 cms. A.79 = F = A ( v/l finishing even keel) To confirm in reverse MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6(15.20 8 (15.87) + 2(15.000 MT FO: 1800 MT DO: 100 MT FW: 250 MT U/P ballast : 100 MT LTSHIP: 18643 K: 400 Density : 1.78 + 16.MQM = 6 x 17.97 meters 8 Example 4: Cargo to load = 130.0.08 = 15.20 8 8 8 ( MQM) = 8X + 0.16 (126.16 = 8X Therefore X = Midship Drafts = 15.85 meters Let Midship Draft = X meters Since v/l sagged 8 cms.87 meters v/l sagged 8 cms.08) meters From Formula MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6X + 2 (X .0.10) = 6X + 2X + 0. calculate F.8) + 0.825 + 0.85 meters Therefore MQM is 15.10 = 15.0.0.87 .925 9 .16 (8 x 15. Mean Draft = (X+0.98 = 16.10) metres MQM = 6X + 2 (X+0. displacement of 151293 in 1.08) 8 8 8(MQM) = 6X + 2X .20 = 8X X = 15. Mean Draft = (X . M Displacement = 130000 + 1800 + 100 + 250 + 100 + 18643 + 400 = 151293 For SILC.025 corresponds to draft of 15.79) 8 8 MQM = 15.025 v/l to sail out even keel.0 + 16.

10 . MQM = 6X + 2(X .85 Example 6: MQM = 15.16 Therefore X = 15.all other calculations same.010.0.08 = 15. & very likely it will.87 = Midship draft Sag = 8cms Therefore Mean draft = 15.9 1.0.010 = 151293 x 1.08) mts ( sag of 8 cms) MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6X + 2(X-0.79 mts Assuming vessel trims abt midships & trim = 14 cms F = 15.07 = 15.08 = 15. assume X = Midship draft and Mean Draft = (X + 0. say hog by 10 cms then as in Example 5. you would have to first convert the MQM of 15.0.You can confirm same by formula MQM = 6M + F + A = 6 x 15.025 Midship draft = X mts Mean draft = (X . If the vessel were to hog instead of sag.825 + 15.08) where X = Midship draft 8 8(15.010.010 = 15.988 = Midship draft and Mean Draft = 15.838 & A=15.85m Sag: 8 cms Trim: 14 cms by stern RD: 1.72 & A = 15.07 = 15.0.0.968 mts Assuming that the sag remains same.87 . say 1.925 + 15.10) .6 was then to go into RD less than 1.908 Again assuming v/l trims around the midship we will have F= 15.925 8 8 = 15.025. in Eg.85) + 0.08) 8 8 MQM = 6X + 2X .16 => 8 MQM + 0.978 However there will be a change of trim due change of density & this will have to be applied to get the actual Ford & Aft Drafts in the DW of density 1.025 = 153539.16 = 8X => 8(15.79 .85 mts displacement in SW = 151293 Equivalent displacement in 1.86 Example 7: If the v/l.988 .79 + 0.0.85 into the MQM of that density At MQM 15.16 = 8X 8 Therefore X = 15.010 Therefore MQM in 1.968) = 6X + 2X .0.

THE DRAFT SURVEY 11 .CHAPTER II .

This correction is also known as the ‘layer correction’ and is applied as follows when the COF is in the same direction as the deepest draft it is added. Some ships have corrections for this. Remember in this formula. but when this is not provided the following correction called the 2nd trim correction must be applied 2ND TRIM CORRECTION = (TRIM IN METERS) x (TRIM IN METERS) x 50 (dM/dZ) (IN TONNES) LBP (in meters) 14 . when a ship trims. In some ships the LCF is given in the hydrostatic tables from the aft perpendicular.CORRECTION TO THE PERPENDICULARS For correction to the perpendiculars of the ford and aft drafts see Page 4. Also on some ships the sign (-) indicates the LCF is aft of midships.most surveyors disregard this. can be considered to be at the midlength of the vessel .the best formula used for calculating the draft making allowance for the various hull deformations for a bulk carrier or tanker has been found to be the 6 sided formula where MQM = FORD DRAFT + AFT DRAFT + (6 x AMIDSHIPS DRAFT) 8 TRIM CORRECTION When a ship is trimmed the calculated mean draft is not the same as the true mean draft measured at the LCF. IN MOST CASES.please make sure you know exactly what the sign convention in your ship means. on others the sign (-) indicates the LCF is ford of midships . the COF moves from it’s tabulated position. and when the COF is on the other side of amidships as the deepest draft it is subtracted.please note that even though the midship draft marks are slightly displaced from the center line . This correction does not allow for the fact that. To correct the displacement to that corresponding to the ‘true mean draft’ the following correction(s) are applied: FIRST TRIM CORRECTION (IN TONNES) = TRIM (in cms) x LCF(in meters) x TPC LBP (in meters) In the above formula LCF is the distance of the Centre of Flotation (COF) from amidships. If the midship draft is obtained by measuring the freeboard to the deckline then no correction is necessary as the loadline disc. the LCF is the distance of the COF from amidships. CORRECTION FOR HULL DEFORMATION If the vessel is neither hogged or sagged ( at amidships) then the midship drafts will be the mean of the fore & aft drafts but this is very seldom the case .

017 then true displacement would be calculated as follows: Scale Displacement for 15.D2) where TP1 TP2 D1 D2 = = = = TPC for the deepest draft amidships TPC for the shallower draft amidships Deepest draft amidships ( IN METRES) Shallower draft amidships ( IN METRES) This correction is ALWAYS ADDED to the displacement because the effect of heel is to increase the waterplane area & so lift the ship out of the water.e.0 meters then dM/dZ would be the difference between the MTC (Moment to change trim) at 12. This correction is ALWAYS ADDED to the displacement.00 metres & v/l is lying in DW of 1. When there is very little trim many surveyors ignore the 2nd Trim Correction.where dM/dZ is the difference between the MCT for a draft of 50 cm greater than the corrected mean draft and 50 cm less than the corrected mean draft i. if the corrected mean draft is 12. i.D.2 tonnes True Displacement = SCALE DISPLACEMENT x R. CORRECTION FOR HEEL Vessel should be upright for draft survey but when it is not the following correction must be applied CORRECTION FOR HEEL IN TONNES = 6 x (TP1 . However what we are interested in finding is the actual displacement.e.50 meters and 11. is the displacement in the dock water that the vessel is lying in.D. OF DOCK WATER R.00 metres = 143291.D. USED FOR DISPLACEMENT SCALE eg: On SILC if your draft is 15.3 tonnes 15 .D. OF DOCK WATER x SCALE DISPLACEMENT R.025 = 14217.50 meters.017 1.025.TP2) x (D1 . TRUE DISPLACEMENT = R.2 x 1. CORRECTION FOR DENSITY Almost all ships have their displacement tables tabulated for a Relative Density of 1. FOR DISPLMNT SCALE = 143291.

using the Bill of Lading figure.AT THE DISCHARGING PORT Repeat the draft survey prior commencing discharging and after completion of discharge and you will be able to get the cargo discharged.BW1 .LS Using this you should in theory be able to compute the cargo on board.FW1 .K .( a + K + LS) opening the bracket CARGO ON BOARD = A . At the discharge port cargo is calculated as followsLet Displacement prior commencement of discharge Fuel Oil prior commencement of discharge Diesel Oil prior commencement of discharge Fresh Water prior commencement of discharge Ballast Water prior commencement of discharge Constant Light ship = = = = = = = A FO1 DO1 FW1 BW1 K LS Deductibles on arrival = FO1 + DO1 + FW1 + BW1 = a Displacement prior commencement = A = a + K + LS + Cargo on Board CARGO ON BOARD = A . This however is not always true so the cargo is actually calculated as follows Let Displacement after completion of discharge Fuel Oil on completion of discharge Diesel Oil on completion of discharge Fresh Water on completion of discharge Ballast Water on completion of Discharge Constant Light Ship = = = = = = = B FO2 DO2 FW2 BW2 K LS 17 . Remember you will get your constant on completion of discharge .K .FO1 .LS as a = FO1 + DO1 + FW1 + BW1 CARGO ON BOARD = A . but this assumes that the value of the lightship is accurate and your computed constant at the load port is accurate.DO1 . you will only get an idea of what your constant is.at the initial draft survey at the disport.a .

At that time to arrive at a constant satisfactory to you and the surveyor some adjustments are made to the ballast quantity / density / drafts to 18 . In many ways the method described here is used at the load port except for an important difference . cargo on board would be a simple matter of A .LS )) . CARGO ON BOARD = A . when the ballast tanks are absolutely full and the vessel is trimmed by the stern . But as all these values change.LS )) opening the double brackets CARGO ON BOARD = A . CARGO ON BOARD = (( A .Deductibles on completion of discharge = b = FO2 + DO2 + FW2 + BW2 Displacement on completion of discharging = B = b + K + LS Please note that K & LS are the same prior commencement & at completion of discharge.a .B + b CARGO ON BOARD = A .b .the tendency is to try and show less ballast on completion of discharge .K .DO1 . This means it shows you have less ballast on board & consequently less cargo .at the load port you compute your constant at the time of initial draft survey.a .a .please remember that less ballast at the completion of discharge will result in LESS CARGO.a shrewd surveyor then sounds the tanks and applies a trim correction to the sounding which results in the tank showing not completely full. do not fill the tanks completely full .FW1 .BW1 .(b + K + LS) )) opening the single brackets CARGO ON BOARD = (( A .B + b + K + LS CARGO ON BOARD = A .(( B .B +FO2+DO2+FW2 + BW2 Please carefully see the signs on all the values in the above equation . diesel.even though you know the tank is completely full he does not accept this to prevent this unless you can ensure that the same surveyor is doing the initial & final draft survey at the disport & he will accept that your tanks are completely full .LS .FO1 .a .(a + K + LS) )) .keep them slightly slack so that when he applies the trim correction this will reflect the actual ballast in the tank & you will not have less cargo.(( B . fresh water and ballast between commencement and completion of discharge.K . if there were no changes to fuel.K . Ideally.B + b THUS THE CONSTANT AND LIGHTSHIP DO NOT COME INTO THE PICTURE AT ALL. A problem sometimes occurs on completion of discharge.B.

TRIMMING 21 .CHAPTER III .

84 Therefore.50 248.70 M = 16.5 Apparent trim = 0. Assume the read drafts at the draft check to be Fp = 16.042 22 . CASE 1.004 Aft trim correction = Apparent trim x Dist fm aft mark to aft perpendicular Length between marks = Apparent trim x 10.have learnt the following method from the foremen in Brazil who are loading at up to 16.24m Mc = 16.94 = Apparent trim x 0.0009 = corrn to ford draft which is negligible Apparent trim x 0.93 Ford trim correction = Apparent trim x Dist fm ford mark to ford perpendicular (see page 4) Length between marks = Apparent trim x 1 248.004 = 0.83 Ac = 16. Am going to show various possible situations on the Cape-size vessel SILC at the stop for draft check prior trimming and then trimming with different sets of holds.23m Apparent trim x 0.70 Mp = 16.042 = 0.004 = 0.70 = 0.70 Corrected trim = 16.93 As = 16.000MT per hour and require to be spot on.82 Ms = 16.TRIMMING This is probably the subject about which very little or almost nothing is taught in any nautical school .83 A = 16.23 x 0.70 Fs = 16.94 .16.5 = Apparent trim x 0.042 = 0.01 = corrn to aft draft(to be added) Therefore corrected drafts are Fc = 16. F = 16.93 Ap = 16.23 x 0.

35 = 3244 MT Final midship draft will be Midship draft + sag caused + sinkage = 17.48) = 1.35 .48 1.001 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.29 x 0.let us assume that there will be 1 cm further sag.30 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.72 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 4 .00 Fs = 17.525) for every 100 MT No.83 25 .21 Ms = 17.025 V/l to finish even keel Max.0 = 0.042 = 0.29 As = 17. 7 Hold sinkage ford 2.01 Corrd drafts are Fc = 17.07 sinkage aft .55 (disregard for the moment only that #3 will trim the v/l by head & #7 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) Present trim is 30 cms by stern & we require to finish even keel therefore change in trim should be 30 cms by head. To trim by head by 30 cms = Trim required in cms x 100 = 30 x 100 = 1060 Trim caused by 100 MT 2.(-0.305 = 30.00 = 0.79 .525 meters .5 x 106.loading in #3.CASE 2 Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 17. First tackle this . Therefore sinkage available is 17.29 x 0.29 .17.042 = 0.525 .(17.29 R.37 ( mean between 17.305 = 17.00 Mp = 17.35 0.07) = 2.525m from Trim tables for draft of 17.79 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 2.01 + 0.29 + 0.3 .(-0.21 + 0. 3 Hold No.17.21 & 17.01) = 0.00 Mc = 17.21 + 0.5 cms Since TPC = 106.D. = 1. Apparent trim is 17.01) = 17.21 Ap = 17.004 = 0.0.83 1.004 = 0.29 cms by stern Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.21 Ac = (17.525m Trimming with #3 and #7.draft: Summer = 17.35 cargo to load = 30.30m BY STERN v/l to load to max draft of 17.

992 m draft = 164419.19 First we will have to check whether after loading this 2536.the MQM = 16.023) = .247 = 17.247 .025) = 106.947 and Aft draft of 17.14 = 23.81 Required to load = 145000.If we assume that she trims about the midship & we require to be trimmed 52 cms by stern our departure drafts would then be F: 16.19MT and therefore lift the max.0. of 145000.50 mts.26 mts.00) = 16.247 mts our mean draft will be 17.81 Constant = 393.19 MT what the sinkage will be .695 cms = 0.207 & assuming we trim about midships we will finish with Ford draft of 16.85 True Displacement in DW = 164108. within the limitation of a max.48 However it is not necessary we will reach these drafts as this time we are also limited by a maximum quantity of cargo we can load.1235( mean between 17.14 Sinkage = 2536.8 cm) and check whether the midship draft will be within the allowed calculated maximum of 17.18643.draft of 17. Therefore we can load the 2536.81 Deductibles = .00 & 17.26 A: 17.8 = 24.00 145072.66 Correction for Density (1.895 cms Sag caused by trimming = 0. At the stop for trimming the corrected drafts are F: 16.895 + 0.00 Cargo on Board at trimming stop = 142463.add the estimated sag caused by same (of 0.81 Lightship = .046 + 6 ( 17.41 Trim correction = + 10.320.8 cms Total sinkage = 23.992 8 Displacement in SW for 16.89 M: 17.26m.19 / 106.00 Cargo available for trimming = 2536. this is fine.35 x 1.046 By the 6-sided formula .25 Displacement corrected for trim = 164429.023 / 1.247m As max permissible midship draft is 17. As we will be sagged 4 cms and the midship draft will be 17.467 meters which is permitted.04 = 17.247 m Therefore final midship draft = 17.247) 36 . We are attempting to sail out with a trim of 52 cms by stern.00 A:17. Sinkage = W / TPC (TPC = 106.00 Deadweight = 145465. from Trim tables for draft of 17.96 M: 17.89 + 17.2609.00 + 0.

17.PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT. of 145. As we will be sagged by 4 cms our Mean draft would then be 17.8cms overloaded.26 = 0.100MT in the afterpeak will cause a change of trim of 6.4 cms of trim.6) = 13.04 = 17. As the midship draft without filling the afterpeak was 17.000 MT our midship draft we have found to be 17.26m.11cms .17. Since the change of trim on the voyage remains 52 cms we will still have to have an effective 52cms trim by stern after loading. In order to arrive at the disport even keel we would have to fill some water in the afterpeak such that it will result in (52 .84.247 .247 + 0.20m. Therefore we would be 17.6cms.Therefore to cause a trim of 13.014m.06 cms = 0.268m.247m. From Case 7 we have 2536. From trimming tables for this draft . Also note that we would fill the 219 MT required in the afterpeak only after sailing & would thus calculate our drafts without considering this quantity and working to finish with a trim of 38.00 mts Sag caused by trimming cargo = 0. If we load to the max.8 x 106. We will be trying to load the maximum cargo and also as the limiting draft at the disport is still 17.386m & the ford draft would 17.008m Sinkage caused by trimming cargo = 2451.14 = 0. Midship draft at trim stop = 17.4 cms we will have to fill (13.40 mts our trim will be (17.4 x 100)/8 = 219 MT in the afterpeak.008m = 0.207m & assuming we trim about midships and that our max.91 MT less during trimming. CASE 7B.14 = 84.40 .207) x 2 = 0.247m the effective midship draft would be17.28 / 106.268 .91) = 2451 MT. However we are required to have a trim of 52 cms in order that we arrive at the disport even keel.38.231m Midship draft on sailing = 17. (When following this case please disregard Case 7A.20m we will be still required to arrive at the disport even keel.40m The limiting draft at the disport remains 17.19 MT for trimming . We would therefore have to load 0.239 m 40 .19 .021m..14 = 2.021 = 17.) All conditions the same as in Case 7 except that the limiting draft at the loadport is 17. However when we fill this water in the afterpeak this would result in a sinkage of W/TPC = 219 / 106.we would therefore trim with (2536. midship draft we could have was 17. draft can be 17.0. However we have found out that the max.

HOG / SAG 48 .CHAPTER IV .

CONTROLLING DRAFTS 52 .CHAPTER V .