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GLENN J SALDANHA

(allgeez@gmail.com)

PLEASE PRINT THIS OUT USING BOTH SIDES OF THE PAPER - HAVE ADJUSTED THE FILE TO ALLOW EASIER READING WHEN PRINTED & FILED THIS WAY

INDEX

CHAPTER I II III IV V VI TOPIC THE 6-SIDED DRAFT THE DRAFT SURVEY TRIMMING HOG / SAG CONTROLLING DRAFTS MAXIMUM DRAFTS PAGES 3 - 10 11 - 21 22 - 51 52 - 56 57 - 59 61 - 63

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CHAPTER I - THE 6 - SIDED DRAFT

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In the above diagram L.B.P. = Length between Perpendiculars L.B.M. = Length Between Marks C = LCF = Longitudinal Center of Floatation - distance fm midships c = difference between draft at LCF & draft at midships dF = Ford Draft mark dA = Aft Draft Mark FP = Forward Perpendicular AP = Aft Perpendicular WL = water line when even keel W1L1 = water line when trimmed (in this case by stern) T = TRIM (at the perpendiculars) Ta = APPARENT TRIM (at the marks) A = Distance between the ford draft mark & ford perpendicular a = Difference between draft at ford mark & draft at ford perpendicular B = Distance between the aft draft mark & aft perpendicular b = Difference between draft at aft mark & draft at aft perpendicular ^M = Angle of Trim As all are similar triangles with the same ^M : T = Ta = c = a = b = Tan ^M LBP LBM LCF A B Since Ta = a then a = A x Ta LBM A LBM & Ta = b then b = B x Ta LBM B LBM In the formula for correction to be applied to the ford draft A is a constant value on EACH SHIP as is LBM as is B

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On a Cape-size vessel A = 1.00 metres and LBM = 248.50 meters Since Correction to be applied to the ford read draft (marks) = a = Therefore a = 1 x Ta 248.5 and a = 0.0040241 x Apparent trim and since B = 10.5 meters Therefore b = 10.5 x Ta 248.5 and b = 0.0422535 x Apparent Trim

A x Ta LBM

When the Draft Marks are on the Perpendiculars then no correction is to be applied If the ford draft mark is aft of the ford perpendicular and the aft draft mark is ford of the aft perpendicular as in the diagram and on most but not all vessels then, “a” will be subtracted from the read ford draft to get the draft ford and “b” will be added to the read aft draft to get the aft draft WHEN THE VESSEL IS TRIMMED BY THE STERN WHEN VESSEL IS TRIMMED BY THE HEAD the correction sign will be opposite. After reading the drafts and applying the draft correction then one will proceed to calculate the Mean Quarter Mean Draft using the 6 sided formula Many surveyors do not worry about the correction to the read drafts when the trim is very small. Actually, in theory, there is a correction to be applied to the read midship drafts as well - unless the midship draft is computed by measuring the freeboard from the deck line or computing the draft by measuring the distance from the Loadline Mark to the water line - because the loadline mark is exactly at midships and the midship draft marks are actually displaced either just forward or just aft of midships but as this distance is so small & the correction so small I have never known anyone to apply a correction to the read midship draft mark. No matter what is taught in the various colleges of the world wrt hydrostatic draft, bulk carrier draft calculations the world over is based on the six-sided formula. Drafts are read on all six sides Fp - Ford port Fs - Ford stbd Mp - Midship port Ms - Midship stbd

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which are the same as above except that they are corrected to the perpendiculars or midships as the case may be. Asc . Apc. Mpc.Aft port As . Fsc.( same explained later) to convert these read drafts to drafts at the perpendiculars We are now left with drafts Fpc. reqd for calculating displacement. the trim correction is applied to the ford & aft drafts & to the midship drafts when relevant (on some vessels the midship draft marks are not exactly at midships) . known as Mean Quarter Mean (MQM) draft we use the six . Msc. Aft & Midship Drafts (Fpc + Fsc) = F (Ford Draft) (Mpc + Msc) = M (Midship Draft) 2 2 (Apc + Asc) = A (Aft Draft) 2 (F + A) = 2 Mean (Mean Draft) Now to get the draft.Aft stbd After these drafts are read. Using the mean of each set we get the Ford.sided formula (6M + F + A) = MQM 8 OR 6 x Midship draft + Ford Draft + Aft Draft 8 = Mean Quarter Mean Draft Now as (Ford Draft + Aft Draft) = Mean Draft OR ( Ford Draft + Aft Draft) = 2 x Mean Draft 2 Therefore the 6 Sided formula is also : (6M + 2Mean) = MQM 8 OR 6 x Midship Draft + 2 x Mean Draft 8 = Mean Quarter Mean Draft 6 .Ap .

then the MQM is NOT 16.0 . MQM = 6 M + F + A or MQM = 6 M + 2 Mean 8 8 and Hog / Sag = Difference between Midship Draft and Mean Draft When Midship Draft is greater than Mean Draft.0. and vessel is sagging 10 cms Vessel is sagging 10 cms.0 . during & after loading. In the first place it is used in all actual all draft calculations. the following examples. or very close to even keel.0.8 8 8 Therefore MQM = 16.The 6-sided formula is central to all calculations on bulk carriers & must be dinned into your head and understood completely. without trim.90 meters . which are useful in pre calculation. but can also be used in precalculation of cargo figures as the following examples will show It is to be remembered that using the 6 sided formula for actual draft calculation is completely accurate. when in case of bulk carriers we almost always finish even keel. Vessel is Hogging. Therefore Mean Draft = M . and that is.10) = 6(17.10) 8 8 = 102 + 2 (16. Now it must be understood that if M= 17.in actual fact the vessel trims about the Centre of Flotation which is not necessarily midships.9) = 102 + 33.0. that we are assuming the vessel is trimming about midships .0 meters.to illustrate Example 1: Given that Midship Draft (M) = 17. the formula must be understood properly the Mean Quarter Mean Draft which is used for obtaining displacement concept must be understood properly.0.10 = 17.0 meters and the vessel is sagging by 10 cms. so very small as to be discarded. therefore the Midship Draft is 10 cms more than the Mean Draft.10 = 16. but the recalculation examples are shown for when the vessel is completing loading. When Midship Draft is less than Mean Draft. In any event pre-calculations are only that and the actual picture only obtained. which makes any inaccuracy caused by making the assumption that the vessel is trimming about midships.90 meters Therefore as MQM = 6M + 2Mean 8 MQM = 6M + 2(M . makes one assumption which is theoretically incorrect. Before any examples are given. Vessel is Sagging.975 meters 7 .0) + 2(17.

025 Displ in DW = 169229.475 Dock water 1. SILC.3 Lightship = .15 = 169560.5 meters. constant and deductibles and you will get the cargo to be loaded. To get max cargo have the Midship draft equal to the max draft . and you wish to sail out even keel . As v/l is sagging 12 cms.40m A = 17.20 / 2) = 16.475 meters 8 Therefore you will get the displacement for 17.50) + 17.2800 CARGO TO LOAD = 147786.88 + (0.000 dwt Given that max draft is 17.20 / 2 ) = 16.023 1. reduce the lightship. F = 17.0.3 K + deductibles = .15 x 1.40 meters and as v/l to finish even keel. the fore & aft draft only once so it is much better to have the midship draft maximum.00 meters V/l to finish with 20 cms trim by stern 12 cms of sag To calculate Ford & Aft drafts and MQM to obtain displacement & therefore cargo. MQM = (6 x 17.18643 Deadweight = 150586.AND THIS MUST BE PROCEEDING FURTHER UNDERSTOOD COMPLETELY BEFORE Example 2: Consider a Cape-size bulk carrier. displ in DW = 169560.3 Example 3: Max draft = 17. loaded in all 9 holds will sag 10 cms.88 Now to calculate the fore & aft draft we assume that the v/l trims about the midships and since v/l is to be trimmed 20 cms & is trimming equally ford & aft therefore ford draft = 16.(0. Mean Draft = 17 . Mean draft = 17.98 8 .40m and therefore.40 + 17. by experience you expect that the vessel with that cargo.78 & aft draft = 16. apply the Dock water correction.40 = 17. of about 151.you will by the formula get Midship draft = 17.023 .88 .023 lightship = 18643 K= 400 (FO: 2000 DO: 100 FW: 200 U/Pumpable Ballast : 100) Deductibles = 2400 Displacement in SW at 17.12 = 16.475 meters.remember that in the formula the midship draft is multiplied 6 times.50 meters ( v/l sagged & even keel). To expand : the density of Dockwater = 1.

825 metres = M Since v/l hogged by 10 cms & even keel Mean Draft = F = A = 15.85 meters Example 5: Same conditions as in Eg 4 except vessel to finish hogged by 10 cms Let Midship draft = X metres As v/l hogged by 10 cms. Mean Draft = 15.0.0.85) .85) = 8X . sagged by 8 cms. A.79 = F = A ( v/l finishing even keel) To confirm in reverse MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6(15.20 8 (15.87) + 2(15.000 MT FO: 1800 MT DO: 100 MT FW: 250 MT U/P ballast : 100 MT LTSHIP: 18643 K: 400 Density : 1.78 + 16.MQM = 6 x 17.97 meters 8 Example 4: Cargo to load = 130.0.08 = 15.20 8 8 8 ( MQM) = 8X + 0.16 (126.16 = 8X Therefore X = Midship Drafts = 15.85 meters Let Midship Draft = X meters Since v/l sagged 8 cms.87 meters v/l sagged 8 cms.08) meters From Formula MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6X + 2 (X .0.10) = 6X + 2X + 0. calculate F.8) + 0.825 + 0.85 meters Therefore MQM is 15.10 = 15.0.0.87 .925 9 .16 (8 x 15. Mean Draft = (X+0.98 = 16.10) metres MQM = 6X + 2 (X+0. displacement of 151293 in 1.08) 8 8 8(MQM) = 6X + 2X .20 = 8X X = 15. Mean Draft = (X . M Displacement = 130000 + 1800 + 100 + 250 + 100 + 18643 + 400 = 151293 For SILC.025 corresponds to draft of 15.79) 8 8 MQM = 15.025 v/l to sail out even keel.0 + 16.

10 . MQM = 6X + 2(X .85 Example 6: MQM = 15.16 Therefore X = 15.all other calculations same.010.0.08 = 15. & very likely it will.87 = Midship draft Sag = 8cms Therefore Mean draft = 15.9 1.0.010 = 151293 x 1.08) mts ( sag of 8 cms) MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6X + 2(X-0.79 mts Assuming vessel trims abt midships & trim = 14 cms F = 15.07 = 15.08 = 15. assume X = Midship draft and Mean Draft = (X + 0. say hog by 10 cms then as in Example 5. you would have to first convert the MQM of 15.0.You can confirm same by formula MQM = 6M + F + A = 6 x 15.025 Midship draft = X mts Mean draft = (X . If the vessel were to hog instead of sag.825 + 15.08) where X = Midship draft 8 8(15.010.010 = 15.988 = Midship draft and Mean Draft = 15.838 & A=15.85m Sag: 8 cms Trim: 14 cms by stern RD: 1.72 & A = 15.07 = 15.0.0.968 mts Assuming that the sag remains same.87 . say 1.925 + 15.10) .6 was then to go into RD less than 1.908 Again assuming v/l trims around the midship we will have F= 15.925 8 8 = 15.025. in Eg.85) + 0.08) 8 8 MQM = 6X + 2X .16 => 8 MQM + 0.978 However there will be a change of trim due change of density & this will have to be applied to get the actual Ford & Aft Drafts in the DW of density 1.025 = 153539.16 = 8X => 8(15.79 .85 mts displacement in SW = 151293 Equivalent displacement in 1.86 Example 7: If the v/l.988 .79 + 0.0.85 into the MQM of that density At MQM 15.16 = 8X 8 Therefore X = 15.010 Therefore MQM in 1.968) = 6X + 2X .0.

THE DRAFT SURVEY 11 .CHAPTER II .

0 & 17. do not be gung-ho at the loading end to try & show more cargo than there actually is. who wants to pay less.46 meters & discard anything else .THE DRAFT SURVEY Always keep the 6 sided formula in mind when the draft survey is being conducted. is not likely to make adjustments in order that the figures tally. However should you land up with slightly less cargo.8 meters & you feel it is 17. the surveyor. but at the same time remain firm. who wants to sell more.when you complete the discharging & you land up with a cargo figure greater than you have at the loaded end.the best way I have found was taught me by surveyors in Australia . as nobody gives you a medal for having more cargo. This is not really bad. If there is a difference.you normally land up with slightly more cargo. In places where there is a swell have asked the surveyors the best way to get an accurate draft .e. This actually results in the cargo figure after loading to show a little less than is actually on board. 12 . the surveyor is quite happy to make adjustments so that the figures tally. & in Hay Point if you are overloaded by even 1 cm they may refuse to sail the vessel. you mentally & physically lock onto 17. if the level is oscillating between 17. but should you land up with less cargo all kinds of hell breaks loose. but this is not always the case. because then you do not finish the discharging and find a shortfall of cargo . noting the reading each time .no surveyor likes to record a negative constant & some adjustments are made with the ballast to record a positive constant. so keep this in mind & guard against it. might want to do this. mentally & physically you lock onto a particular reading & stick with it i. the draft surveyor’s read draft is taken as the official draft by the port authorities.46 meters.they very rapidly read the draft 20 times. Remember also.the midship draft is multiplied 6 times. In some ports such as Hay Point. The surveyor. but not on the midship drafts . who normally represents the receiver. So.more often than not in the case of a Panamax bulker will show a negative constant in ballast with trim .remember the 6 sided formula . Remember not to create friction between yourself & the draft surveyor. that very often the surveyor at the load port is often representing the shipper & would like to show more cargo whereas the surveyor at the discharge port very often represents the receiver & might like to show less cargo. & with the swell you encounter it can be a notoriously difficult place to read the draft.& the rapid 20 reading & noting method much better. Ideally both of you should be able to read the draft exactly the same. be prepared to compromise a little on the fore & aft drafts. but remember this .they then discard the 2 extreme readings on either side of the mean & then take the average of the remaining 16 readings . at the discharging end.their argument is that if you take your time over the reading. the fore & aft only once each. Remember also that the initial draft survey at the load port is basically to find out what the constant is .I have found this to be true . as he represents the shipper.

002 should be subtracted for glass and brass instruments respectively to allow for the different buoyancy of water in air. Remember though that when you load right up to the loadline assuming the density to be 1.025 as read from the draft hydrometer. is when you are loading when the vessel is on a direct charter with Owners .where you would have to be careful is if your discharging in one of these countries .Where you should try to show the maximum cargo.e. “BULK CARRIER PRACTICE.when they use the reading that they get in Australia & South Africa do not argue with them because they are right . always on the off-shore side of the vessel.using this you get Seawater density of about 1.I do not know where else they do this but as those 2 are export countries you should not have a problem . Most important . Most instruments are calibrated for water in vacuum & so 0.025 as you would get on the draft hydrometers normally carried . CALCULATION PROCEDURE: DRAFTS . if possible .002 when using a glass draft hydrometer. PLEASE SEE THE EXPLANATION OF THIS TOPIC IN THE PUBLICATION.023 & not 1. further corrections supplied with the instruments must be used. you should lower the container (preferably with a perforated lid) to the maximum draft & pick it up at a constant speed.Drafts are to be read on all 6 sides. This should be done without any delay as the density at many ports varies with the tide. you are actually overloaded by a factor of density of 0.As soon as possible after reading the drafts obtain the density of the dock water. Owners are getting paid on basis of freight .i. Preferably take 3 samples.see Page 4. DENSITY .as we normally load in Australia & South Africa we should not have a problem because when we reach the discharge port & the surveyor there uses the reading that we get we get on our hydrometer we land up with more cargo . even insisting on recording a negative constant.0011 and 0.then every tonne on board is more money in the bank for the Owners. as the instruments are not being used at their calibration temperatures. Glass instruments are more accurate than brass ones.they are then corrected to the perpendiculars and to midships ( if required ) . Also.” 13 . Ideally.you would land up with less cargo when you arrive if you have not made the correction in the load port.remember that there is a difference between a draft hydrometer and a loadline hydrometer .surveyors in Australia and South Africa use the loadline hydrometer which is theoretically the correct one .

This correction is also known as the ‘layer correction’ and is applied as follows when the COF is in the same direction as the deepest draft it is added. Some ships have corrections for this. Remember in this formula. but when this is not provided the following correction called the 2nd trim correction must be applied 2ND TRIM CORRECTION = (TRIM IN METERS) x (TRIM IN METERS) x 50 (dM/dZ) (IN TONNES) LBP (in meters) 14 . when a ship trims. In some ships the LCF is given in the hydrostatic tables from the aft perpendicular.CORRECTION TO THE PERPENDICULARS For correction to the perpendiculars of the ford and aft drafts see Page 4. Also on some ships the sign (-) indicates the LCF is aft of midships.most surveyors disregard this. can be considered to be at the midlength of the vessel .the best formula used for calculating the draft making allowance for the various hull deformations for a bulk carrier or tanker has been found to be the 6 sided formula where MQM = FORD DRAFT + AFT DRAFT + (6 x AMIDSHIPS DRAFT) 8 TRIM CORRECTION When a ship is trimmed the calculated mean draft is not the same as the true mean draft measured at the LCF. IN MOST CASES.please make sure you know exactly what the sign convention in your ship means. on others the sign (-) indicates the LCF is ford of midships . the COF moves from it’s tabulated position. and when the COF is on the other side of amidships as the deepest draft it is subtracted.please note that even though the midship draft marks are slightly displaced from the center line . This correction does not allow for the fact that. To correct the displacement to that corresponding to the ‘true mean draft’ the following correction(s) are applied: FIRST TRIM CORRECTION (IN TONNES) = TRIM (in cms) x LCF(in meters) x TPC LBP (in meters) In the above formula LCF is the distance of the Centre of Flotation (COF) from amidships. If the midship draft is obtained by measuring the freeboard to the deckline then no correction is necessary as the loadline disc. the LCF is the distance of the COF from amidships. CORRECTION FOR HULL DEFORMATION If the vessel is neither hogged or sagged ( at amidships) then the midship drafts will be the mean of the fore & aft drafts but this is very seldom the case .

017 then true displacement would be calculated as follows: Scale Displacement for 15.D2) where TP1 TP2 D1 D2 = = = = TPC for the deepest draft amidships TPC for the shallower draft amidships Deepest draft amidships ( IN METRES) Shallower draft amidships ( IN METRES) This correction is ALWAYS ADDED to the displacement because the effect of heel is to increase the waterplane area & so lift the ship out of the water.e.0 meters then dM/dZ would be the difference between the MTC (Moment to change trim) at 12. This correction is ALWAYS ADDED to the displacement.00 metres & v/l is lying in DW of 1. When there is very little trim many surveyors ignore the 2nd Trim Correction.where dM/dZ is the difference between the MCT for a draft of 50 cm greater than the corrected mean draft and 50 cm less than the corrected mean draft i. if the corrected mean draft is 12. i.D.2 tonnes True Displacement = SCALE DISPLACEMENT x R. CORRECTION FOR HEEL Vessel should be upright for draft survey but when it is not the following correction must be applied CORRECTION FOR HEEL IN TONNES = 6 x (TP1 . However what we are interested in finding is the actual displacement.e.50 meters and 11. is the displacement in the dock water that the vessel is lying in.D. OF DOCK WATER R.00 metres = 143291.D. USED FOR DISPLACEMENT SCALE eg: On SILC if your draft is 15.3 tonnes 15 .D. OF DOCK WATER x SCALE DISPLACEMENT R.025 = 14217.50 meters.017 1.025.TP2) x (D1 . TRUE DISPLACEMENT = R.2 x 1. CORRECTION FOR DENSITY Almost all ships have their displacement tables tabulated for a Relative Density of 1. FOR DISPLMNT SCALE = 143291.

diesel. correct for trim & list. However. as the ship ages its weight increases (primarily due to the reluctance of ship’s officers to throw anything away. fresh water and water ballast from the deadweight. ballast and fresh water tanks. The remainder represents the constant. The weight of the cargo on board is found from the displacement as follows : 1. 2. fresh water and ballast tanks. As soon as possible after reading the drafts & density. within the limits of accuracy of the drafts and the ship’s stability data. as said earlier. diesel. The time to try and get as small a constant. Using the constant found previously (prior loading). From the calculated displacement subtract the light displacement to obtain deadweight. fresh water and ballast. 1. Correct the soundings for list and trim and using the calibration tables calculate the fuel. to determine the vessel’s constant. without going to ridiculously low levels. the value of the vessel’s constant should not matter. 16 . In truth. (b) After Loading Read the drafts and calculate the loaded displacement. is when you are on a charter when the Owner is getting paid on basis of freight. AT THE LOADING PORT (a) Before Loading Cargo The initial draft survey taken before loading cargo is.also not all surveyors are above board & some will try & pull wool over your eyes in order to show more cargo at the loading port and less cargo at the discharge port.) In many cases the constant is too low.The displacement now obtained is the true displacement. The tendency is to try and show as small a constant as possible at the load port in order to show more cargo on board . use the calibration tables to find the quantity of fuel. sound all the fuel. when calculating the cargo. While the actual calculation on all of our ships is just a matter of feeding in the read drafts and the deductibles it is wise to know what is actually being done . subtract the lightship from the loaded displacement together with the deductibles and you will have the cargo loaded.this is because no surveyor likes to have a negative constant. sound fuel. (as will be shown later) but every draft survey will be used to determine the constant . as it does not actually come into play. The value of the constant in the ship’s data represents the constant for a new ship. diesel.avoid this tendency as the surveyor at the disport is not going to be charitable and will be trying to show as little cargo as possible & will be trying to compute as large a constant as he can.

using the Bill of Lading figure.AT THE DISCHARGING PORT Repeat the draft survey prior commencing discharging and after completion of discharge and you will be able to get the cargo discharged.BW1 .LS Using this you should in theory be able to compute the cargo on board.FW1 .K .( a + K + LS) opening the bracket CARGO ON BOARD = A . At the discharge port cargo is calculated as followsLet Displacement prior commencement of discharge Fuel Oil prior commencement of discharge Diesel Oil prior commencement of discharge Fresh Water prior commencement of discharge Ballast Water prior commencement of discharge Constant Light ship = = = = = = = A FO1 DO1 FW1 BW1 K LS Deductibles on arrival = FO1 + DO1 + FW1 + BW1 = a Displacement prior commencement = A = a + K + LS + Cargo on Board CARGO ON BOARD = A . This however is not always true so the cargo is actually calculated as follows Let Displacement after completion of discharge Fuel Oil on completion of discharge Diesel Oil on completion of discharge Fresh Water on completion of discharge Ballast Water on completion of Discharge Constant Light Ship = = = = = = = B FO2 DO2 FW2 BW2 K LS 17 . Remember you will get your constant on completion of discharge .K .FO1 .LS as a = FO1 + DO1 + FW1 + BW1 CARGO ON BOARD = A . but this assumes that the value of the lightship is accurate and your computed constant at the load port is accurate.DO1 . you will only get an idea of what your constant is.at the initial draft survey at the disport.a .

At that time to arrive at a constant satisfactory to you and the surveyor some adjustments are made to the ballast quantity / density / drafts to 18 . In many ways the method described here is used at the load port except for an important difference . cargo on board would be a simple matter of A .LS )) . CARGO ON BOARD = A . when the ballast tanks are absolutely full and the vessel is trimmed by the stern . But as all these values change.LS )) opening the double brackets CARGO ON BOARD = A . CARGO ON BOARD = (( A .Deductibles on completion of discharge = b = FO2 + DO2 + FW2 + BW2 Displacement on completion of discharging = B = b + K + LS Please note that K & LS are the same prior commencement & at completion of discharge.a .B + b CARGO ON BOARD = A .b .the tendency is to try and show less ballast on completion of discharge .K .DO1 . This means it shows you have less ballast on board & consequently less cargo .at the load port you compute your constant at the time of initial draft survey.a .a .please remember that less ballast at the completion of discharge will result in LESS CARGO.a shrewd surveyor then sounds the tanks and applies a trim correction to the sounding which results in the tank showing not completely full. do not fill the tanks completely full .FW1 .BW1 .(b + K + LS) )) opening the single brackets CARGO ON BOARD = (( A .B + b + K + LS CARGO ON BOARD = A .(( B .B +FO2+DO2+FW2 + BW2 Please carefully see the signs on all the values in the above equation . diesel.even though you know the tank is completely full he does not accept this to prevent this unless you can ensure that the same surveyor is doing the initial & final draft survey at the disport & he will accept that your tanks are completely full .LS .FO1 .a .(a + K + LS) )) .keep them slightly slack so that when he applies the trim correction this will reflect the actual ballast in the tank & you will not have less cargo.(( B . fresh water and ballast between commencement and completion of discharge.K . if there were no changes to fuel.K . Ideally.B + b THUS THE CONSTANT AND LIGHTSHIP DO NOT COME INTO THE PICTURE AT ALL. A problem sometimes occurs on completion of discharge.B.

. Would advise that you do use this method when the cargo is being loaded on a charter where the Owners are being paid for the freight. that once this is done then the method of calculating the cargo on board is the same as that at the discharging port. but this assumes that the value of the lightship is accurate and your computed constant at the load port is accurate.DO3 .K . At the load port to get an accurate amount of cargo you could use the same method.this is in order mainly not to get a negative constant or a constant very different from the constant that is normal for your vessel. but in the case of the load port at the time of initial survey. to calculate the cargo loaded. fresh water.BW3 . If you used the same system (without making adjustments to arrive at a contrived constant)you would get the actual cargo figure but a constant far removed from the normal or a negative constant.arrive at this figure . Using this you should in theory be able to compute the cargo on board. This however is not always true so the cargo is actually calculated as follows Let Displacement after completion of loading = D Fuel Oil on completion of loading = FO4 Diesel Oil on completion of loading = DO4 Fresh Water on completion of loading = FW4 Ballast Water on completion of loading = BW4 Constant = K 19 .LS Where D = displacement after loading.FO3 . Remember. if there are no changes to fuel. Either of these is a red flag to anyone checking the figures & therefore we adjust & arrive at a contrived constant. adjustments are made to either the drafts. eliminating the lightship and constant. ballast or soundings to compute the constant. Let Displacement prior commencement of loading Fuel Oil prior commencement of loading Diesel Oil prior commencement of loading Fresh Water prior commencement of loading Ballast Water prior commencement of loading Constant Light ship = = = = = = = C FO3 DO3 FW3 BW3 K LS Deductibles on arrival = FO3 + DO3 + FW3 + BW3 = c Displacement prior commencement of loading = C = c + K + LS as c = FO3 + DO3 + FW3 + BW3 In theory.FW3 . ballast then CARGO ON BOARD = D – C = D .

C + FO3+DO3+FW3+ BW3 Once again it appears that the constant and lightship are eliminated.BW4 .(d + K + LS) )) (( C .K . but remember you have adjusted the draft.d . But as all these values change.C.should you then get the real constant at the disport ( which you do by using this same method without making any adjustments) you will end up with less cargo and real problems. 20 .(( C .LS .C + c + K + LS CARGO ON BOARD = D .FW4 . As I have repeated over and over again do not reduce the constant. fresh water and ballast between commencement and completion of discharge.LS Ideally.C + c CARGO ON BOARD = D . CARGO ON BOARD = (( D . if there were no changes to fuel. IF ONE UNDERSTANDS THE DRAFT SURVEY AND HOW TO GO ABOUT IT.LS )) opening the double brackets CARGO ON BOARD = D .d . The constant is calculated at the initial draft survey .K .Light Ship Deductibles on completion of loading = LS = d = FO4 + DO4 + FW4 + BW4 Displacement on completion of loading = D = d + K + LS + CARGO CARGO ON BOARD = D – d – K .d .LS )) .c . IF YOUR DRFAT READINGS AND SOUNDINGS ARE ACCURATE YOU SHOULD NEVER HAVE PROBLEMS WITH THE CARGO TO LOAD.DO4 .less ballast shown at the initial draft survey will show a larger constant and more ballast shown at the initial draft survey will result in a lesser constant. CARGO LOADED OR CARGO DISCHARGED AND NO DRAFT SURVEYOR WILL BE ABLE TO PULL WOOL OVER YOUR EYES. diesel. cargo on board would be a simple matter of D . the ballast soundings or the density which has changed the initial displacement C or the initial ballast BW3 to arrive at a contrived constant.K .(c + K + LS) )) opening the single brackets CARGO ON BOARD = (( D . even though less constant means more cargo .FO4 .

TRIMMING 21 .CHAPTER III .

84 Therefore.50 248.70 M = 16.5 Apparent trim = 0. Assume the read drafts at the draft check to be Fp = 16.042 22 . CASE 1.004 Aft trim correction = Apparent trim x Dist fm aft mark to aft perpendicular Length between marks = Apparent trim x 10.have learnt the following method from the foremen in Brazil who are loading at up to 16.24m Mc = 16.94 = Apparent trim x 0.0009 = corrn to ford draft which is negligible Apparent trim x 0.93 Ford trim correction = Apparent trim x Dist fm ford mark to ford perpendicular (see page 4) Length between marks = Apparent trim x 1 248.004 = 0.83 Ac = 16. Am going to show various possible situations on the Cape-size vessel SILC at the stop for draft check prior trimming and then trimming with different sets of holds.23m Apparent trim x 0.70 Mp = 16.042 = 0.004 = 0.70 = 0.70 Corrected trim = 16.93 As = 16.000MT per hour and require to be spot on.82 Ms = 16.TRIMMING This is probably the subject about which very little or almost nothing is taught in any nautical school .83 A = 16.23 x 0.70 Fs = 16.94 .16.5 = Apparent trim x 0.042 = 0.01 = corrn to aft draft(to be added) Therefore corrected drafts are Fc = 16. F = 16.93 Ap = 16.23 x 0.

83) = 0.72 . The difference between 17. Do go through all 9 cases so you fully understand this.09) = 2.85 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 4.30 tonnes.81 .35 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 1.70 Mc = 16.25 to get 2.72 2.4 hold as loading in #4 will cause both the ford and aft drafts to increase and therefore the values in column 2 & 3 are positive.50 sinkage aft 0.25 . Assume you are to trim with holds 4 & 8. Sinkage available = (17.50 & 2. 4 Hold No.83 Ac = 16.0. Max allowed draft = 17.025 and is required to load such that it’s midship draft is 17. (This was an actual situation where we were loading in Richards Bay where max draft is 17.57 (Disregard for the moment that #4 will trim the v/l by head & #8 trim by stern) **** (In the case of No. Winter zone draft when passing Finistere en route to Le Havre is 17.83 + 0.42m = 42 cms Just so that you do not overload assume that the vessel will sag a further 2 cms after trimming.83 and 17.(0.35 . therefore cargo to load = 106.50 meters. In the case of No.16 metres.25 meters.16.8 hold.09 2.02 + 0. Therefore sinkage available is 42 . = 1. and the last column is the DIFFERENCE between the two. you add the values 0.2 = 40 cms. 8 Hold sinkage ford 1.83 meters and maximum midship draft is 17.94 Midship draft is 16.25) for every 100 MT No.30 x 40 = 4252 MT.16 metres is the consumption en route from Richards Bay to Finistere and the 42 cms trim would after consumption result in v/l arriving Le Havre even keel. Final midship draft will be Midship draft + addl sag + sinkage = 16.) Corrected drafts are Fc = 16.25m From trimming tables at draft of 17.50 metres.09 are subtracted to give 1. since the ford draft reduces and the aft draft increases.81 and 0.(-0.25 metres and finish with a stern trim of 42 cms.81 .50) = 1.Vessel is in water of R.40 = 17. the values 1.25 metres & 17. the signs are different when you are looking for the DIFFERENCE.D.05 metres ( mean between 16.) 23 .85. As TPC = 106.

Therefore we have to load 4252 .009 17.02 After loading in #4 17.428 which is a 42 cms trim by stern Midship draft from above = 17.therefore you have to trim the vessel by a further 42 .you can check this .469 On completion of trimming 17.85 = 2257.24 cms = 18 cms by stern.94 Loading 2258 MT in #4 0.5 = 2258 Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.96 Loading 1994 MT in #8 .409 0. To load in #4 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #8 = 3620 x 2.without causing any further change in trim.4 = 1362 Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.see below Ford Aft 16.We have a 24 cm trim by stern presently and require to finish with a 42 cm trim by stern . 24 .70 16. First tackle this To trim the vessel by stern and you are trimming with 4 & 8 you would have to load in 8.109 16.72 = 1362.25M PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT.57 To load in #8 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #4 = 3620 x 1.85 = 631.10 0. Use the formula Trim required in cms x 100 Trim caused by 100 MT (from the values lifted from the trimming tables listed above) Trim required in cms x 100 Trim caused by 100 MT = 18 x 100 2.632 = 3620 MT distributed in holds #4 & #8.57 Therefore you will have to load 2258 MT in #4 and (632 + 1362) = 1994 MT in #8 to finish with the required drafts .58 MT = 632 MT Therefore 632 MT in #8 will be required to finish with the required trim.0.

35 = 3244 MT Final midship draft will be Midship draft + sag caused + sinkage = 17.48) = 1.35 .48 1.001 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.29 x 0.let us assume that there will be 1 cm further sag.30 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.72 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 4 .00 Fs = 17.525) for every 100 MT No.83 25 .21 Ms = 17.025 V/l to finish even keel Max.0 = 0.042 = 0.29 As = 17. 7 Hold sinkage ford 2.01 Corrd drafts are Fc = 17.07 sinkage aft .55 (disregard for the moment only that #3 will trim the v/l by head & #7 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) Present trim is 30 cms by stern & we require to finish even keel therefore change in trim should be 30 cms by head. To trim by head by 30 cms = Trim required in cms x 100 = 30 x 100 = 1060 Trim caused by 100 MT 2.(-0.305 = 30.00 = 0.79 .525 meters .5 x 106.loading in #3.CASE 2 Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 17. First tackle this . Therefore sinkage available is 17.29 x 0.29 .17.042 = 0.525 .(17.29 R.37 ( mean between 17.305 = 17.00 Mp = 17.35 0.07) = 2.525m from Trim tables for draft of 17.79 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 2.01 + 0.29 + 0.3 .(-0.21 + 0. 3 Hold No.17.21 & 17.01) = 0.00 Mc = 17.21 + 0.5 cms Since TPC = 106.D. = 1. Apparent trim is 17.01) = 17.21 Ap = 17.004 = 0.0.83 1.004 = 0.29 cms by stern Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.21 Ac = (17.525m Trimming with #3 and #7.draft: Summer = 17.35 cargo to load = 30.30m BY STERN v/l to load to max draft of 17.

26m BY HEAD v/l to load to max draft of 17.55 Therefore you will have to load (1060 + 826) = 1886 MT in #3 and 1358 MT in #7 to finish with the required drafts .D.32 = 32 cms 26 .Therefore (3244 .21 Loading 1358 MT in #7 0.72 = 825.042 = 0.25 cms by head Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.55 To load in #7 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #3 = 2184 x 2. Apparent trim is 17. Therefore sinkage available is 17.25 Mc = 17.00 As = 17.19 Ms = 17.453 which is EVEN KEEL Midship draft from above = 17.17.25 Fs = 17.30 Loading 1886 MT in #3 0.25 x 0.5 -(17.25 Mp = 17.004 = 0.01 0. Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 17.83 = 1358.17.023 V/l to finish even keel Max.19 Ap = 17.50m Trimming with #3 and #8.draft: .6 = 826 Change of trim caused by #3 & #7 4.042 = 0.00 = 0.01 Corrd drafts are Fc = 17.4 = 1358 Change of trim caused by #3 & #7 4.001 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.00 .00 R.0.00 17. = 1. CASE 3.25 .16.525m PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT.25 .99 = 0.99 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.0.004 = 0.443 .453 17.243 On completion of trimming 17.19 .01) = 16.let us assume that there will be a 1 cm hog caused by the quantity of cargo loaded in #3 & #8 during trimming.50metres .you can check this Ford Aft 17.19 Ac = (17.443 17.01) = 0.25 x 0.0.1060) = 2184 must be distributed in #3 & #7 without any further change in trim To load in #3 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #7 = 2184 x 1.09 After loading in #3 17.

19 .0.86 = 1245 MT Change of trim caused by #3 & #8 5.32 = 17.86 2.0.hog caused + sinkage = 17.1 = 917 Trim caused by 100 MT 2.(-0.475 2.34 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 2. First tackle this .01 + 0.023 / 1. 3 Hold No.50) for every 100 MT No.917) = 2479 must be distributed in #3 & #8 without any further change in trim To load in #3 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #8 = 2479 x 2.50m from Trim tables for draft of 17.you can check this Ford 27 Aft .14 cargo to load = 32 x 106.385 .025 = 106. 8 Hold sinkage ford 2.835 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 5.835 Therefore (3396 .385 -0.34 . Present trim is 26 cms by head .495) = 2.695 Therefore you will have to load 1234 MT in #3 and (917 + 1245) = 2162 MT in #8 to finish with the required drafts .we require to finish even keel therefore change in trim should be 26 cms by stern. To trim by stern by 26 cms = Trim required in cms x 100 = 26 x 100 = 917.475) = 2.loading in #8.695 (disregard for the moment only that #3 will trim the v/l by head & #8 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) In this case as the signs are opposite for both holds the values will be added to get the Difference.835 = 1234 MT Change of trim caused by #3 & #8 5.(-0.14 = 3396MT Final midship draft will be Midship draft .695 To load in #8 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #3 = 2479 x 2.35 x 1.35 ( mean between 17.495 sinkage aft .19 & 17.Since TPC = 106.

99 Loading 1234 MT in #3 0.07) = 1.81 = 0.07 Ac = (17. = 1.45) for every 100 MT No.025 = 105.437 which is EVEN KEEL Midship draft from above = 17.72 No.26 ( mean between 17.72 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 3.107 0.03+ 0.(0.35 x 1.25 16.(0. 7 Hold 0.03) = 0.45 .018) = 17.437 17.81 = 0.931 Loading 2162 MT in #8 .247 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.042 = 0.50m PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT.002 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.45m from Trim tables for draft of 17.09) = 1.81 Fs = 16.247 .017 Corrd drafts are Fc = 16.35 = 35 cms Since TPC =106.0.23 .D.45meters .79 .81 Mp = 17.81 sinkage aft 0.42 cms by stern Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0. 4 Hold sinkage ford 1.042 = 0.0215 / 1.42 x 0.004 = 0.(17.45 Depth available at this port 22.437m BY STERN v/l to load to max midship draft of 17.42 x 0.0215 V/l to finish 70 cms by stern Reqd midship draft by calculation =17.16.99 = 3710MT Final midship draft will be = Midship draft + sag caused + sinkage = 17.544 16.17. CASE 4.16.0 meters Trimming with #4 and #7.294 .07 Ap = 17.44 28 .23 As = 17.07 & 17.506 On completion of trimming 17.07 1.059 After loading in #3 17.99 cargo to load= 35 x 105.07 + 0. Therefore sinkage available is 17.09 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 1.004 = 0.81 Mc = 17.23 R.07+ 0.79 1.35 = 17.0.07 Ms = 17.let us assume that there will be a 3 cm sag caused by the quantity of cargo loaded in #4 & #7 during trimming. Apparent trim is 17.23 + 0.81 . Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 16.

To trim by stern by 26 .3 cms by stern.197 0.469 On completion of trimming 17.7 cms by stern .248 Loading 1091 MT in #4 0.1529) = 2181 must be distributed in #4 & #7 without any further change in trim To load in #4 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #7 = 2181 x 1.45m PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT.727 which is 70 cms by stern Midship draft from above = 17.we require to 70 cms by stern Therefore change in trim should be 26.72 Therefore (3710 .loading in #7.3 x 100 = 1529 Trim caused by 100 MT 1. Present trim is 43.3cms = Trim required in cms x 100 = 26.you can check this Ford Aft 16.(disregard for the moment only that #4 will trim the v/l by head & #7 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) In this case as the signs are same for both holds the values will be subtracted for both to get the Difference. 29 .81 17.258 Loading 2619 MT in #7 0.018 0.72 = 1090 MT Change of trim caused by #4 & #7 3.007 17.025 17.01 After loading in #4 17.72 = 1091 MT Change of trim caused by #4 & #7 3.44 To load in #7 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #4 = 2181 x 1.44 Therefore you will have to load 1091 MT in #4 and (1529 + 1090) = 2619 MT in #7 to finish with the required drafts . First tackle this .

06) .6/2) = (17. A: 17.0.55 cms .24 .3) = 17.004 = 0.CASE 5.022 V/l to finish 60 cms by stern Maximum draft at load port 17.draft for the load port has been declared to be 17.D.60 Using the 6-sided formula the MQM = F + A + 6M = (17.20 + 0.002 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.60 in R.03 Ap = 17.6) + 6(17.30 1.0 + 17. = 1.94 mts = Ford draft (M .60 metres.285 8 30 .75 Mc = 17.3 = 17.0.16. Apparent trim is 17. Now you going to finish loading with a sag of 4.30 A: 17.004 = 0.022 with no hog or sag.30 metres.45 cms by stern Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.03 Ac = (17.06) + (0.remember that you should have incorporated this further sag of 1 cm in you pre-calculation.042 = 0. Therefore you should finish with drafts of (M .219 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.e. The max.6/2) = (17.20 R.30 = 16. To calculate the final drafts use the 6-sided formula You already know that the midship draft is to be 17.03 A: 17.75 Mp = 17.45 cms .0.30m & you should be trimmed 60 cms by stern to arrive even keel.219 .019 Corrd drafts are Fc = 16.219 i.16.assume that the cargo loaded for trimming will cause a further sag of 1. your midship draft at the load port should be 17.00 M: 17.75 Fs = 16.75 = 0. By your pre-cal you have found that to arrive at the disport at the required draft.54 mts = Aft draft This will mean that your MQM = 16.45(caused by the trimming cargo) = 6 cms.94 + 17.30 .(0. Trimming with #4 and #7. V/l required to sail out with 60 cms stern trim to arrive disport even keel.30 metres. so we will assume that you have already taken this into account when in your pre-calculation you have precalculated a departure load port midship draft of 17.24 + 0.0.54 + 6(17. Also the consumption of fuel from the load port to disport by your estimation will result in a further sag of 1 cm .06) + 0.D.30 = 17.019) = 17.30) = 17. Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 16.20 As = 17.00 M: 17.03 Ms = 17.75 M: 17.75 = 0.06) .30 8 8 However present drafts at the stop for trimming are F: 16.3 = 17.30 .042 = 0.0.20 . Drafts by pre-calculation prior to loading F: 17.45 x 0.55(present) + 1.45 x 0.0.60m.469m BY STERN By pre-calculation v/l should finish with drafts of F: 17. we have a sag of 4.

we require to be 60 cms by stern Therefore change in trim should be 13.9 cms by stern.04= 2699MT Final midship draft will be Midship draft + sag caused + sinkage = 17.3m from Trim tables for draft of 17.0155+ 0.45 x 106.This means that you will have loaded (1.03 + .44 Therefore you will have to load 969 MT in #4 and (762 + 968) = 1730 MT in #7 to finish with the required drafts .07) = 1.44 (disregard for the moment only that #4 will trim the v/l by head & #7 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) In this case as the signs are same for both holds the values will be subtracted for both to get the Difference.45 cms Since TPC= 106. First tackle this .(0.81 .03 & 17.81 0.07 1. Sinkage available = 17.72 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 3.2545 = 25.(0.165 ( mean between 17.03+0.762) = 1937 must be distributed in #4 & #7 without any further change in trim To load in #4 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #7 = 1937 x 1. 7 Hold 0.72 No.35 x 1.loading in #7.04 cargo to load= 25.2545 = 17.0155) = 0.79 .72 = 969 MT Change of trim caused by #4 & #7 3. so it would be wise to always estimate some sag in your pre-calculation This calculation of MQM in this case has no meaning with regards to the trimming but have just shown it to tell you to always take into account hog or sag in your pre-calulation so as not to load less than the cargo you asked for. 4 Hold 1.(17.1cms = Trim required in cms x 100 = 13.022 / 1.025= 106. To trim by stern by 13.30) for every 100 MT sinkage ford sinkage aft difference = CHANGE OF TRIM No.79 1.30 .09 1.09) = 1.you can check this Ford Aft 31 .72 Therefore (2699 .72 = 968 MT Change of trim caused by #4 & #7 3.44 To load in #7 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #4 = 1937 x 1. Present trim is 46.1 x 100 = 762 Trim caused by 100 MT 1.1 cms by stern.5 x TPC) MT less than you have asked for.

your mean draft will be (17.936 17.03 Mp = 17.49 = 17.001 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.505 metres.174 0. 32 .525 metres and you will finish with a sag of 2.924 17.20 Ap = 17.5 cms .75 .0cms.010 Corrd drafts are Fc = 17.219 Loading 969 MT in #4 0.30m CASE 6.17. trim by stern.29 As = 17.75 metres and you require maximum stern trim your aft draft will be 17.0.75 m V/l required to sail out at summer mark of 17.004 = 0.30 . Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 17.75 .0.29 R.54 which is 60 cms by stern Midship draft from above = 17.042 = 0.009 After loading in #4 16.29 . = 1.228 Loading 1730 MT in #7 0. Apparent trim is 17.26 metres.5 .26 x 0.17.020) = 17. As the maximum draft will be 17.20 Ms = 17.30 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.010) = 17.20 Ac = (17. As your midship draft will be 17.26 x 0.27m BY STERN We have a sag of 3. I MAKE THE ASSUMPTION HERE THAT AS LONG AS YOU DO NOT SUBMERGE YOUR LOADLINE MARK YOU CAN HAVE GREATER DRAFTS AT THE ENDS . Therefore your trim will be (17.5)= 2.525 metres THIS will be the midship draft.0 cms As you will be loading to summer mark of 17.012 0.29 + 0.26 cms by stern Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.THIS IS ALMOST ALWAYS ACCEPTED BUT THERE ARE PORTS WHERE THEY STIPULATE THAT THE DRAFT AT NO POINT SHOULD EXCEED THE SUMMER MARK WHEN IN THE SUMMER ZONE.025 V/l to finish with max.505) x 2 = 0.525 .49 metres.525 m. Assuming that you are trimming about midships you should end up with a ford draft of 17.75 metres. Maximum draft at load port 17.5 cms.75 17.17. Therefore you will complete loading with a sag of (3.D.03 Mc = 17.16.assume that the cargo loaded for trimming will have a hog effect of 1.310 On completion of trimming 16.03 Fs = 17.1.004 = 0.03 = 0. Trimming with #3 and #8.03 = 0.042 = 0.

835 Therefore (3616 .015m V/l to load to summer mark of 17.525 metres Therefore sinkage available = 17.495 2. Present trim is 27 cms by stern .20 & 17.385 .695 (disregard for the moment only that #3 will trim the v/l by head & #8 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) In this case as the signs are opposite for both holds the values will be added to get the Difference.835 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 5.525) for every 100 MT No.34 metres = 34cms As TPC=106.525 .86 No.495) = 2.20 metres Hog caused by loading trimming cargo = 0.0.776) = 2840 must be distributed in #3 & #8 without any further change in trim To load in #3 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #8 = 2840 x 2. First tackle this . 8 Hold -0.015) = 0.3625 ( mean between 17.34 x 34= 3616MT Final midship draft will be Midship draft .86 = 1426 MT Change of trim caused by #3 & #8 5.695 33 .(17.015+ 0.525m from Trim tables for draft of 17.475) = 2.475 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 2.695 To load in #8 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #3 = 2840 x 2.34 and sinkage = 34 cms cargo available for trimming= 106.(-0.34 .we will finish 49cms by stern Therefore change in trim should be 22 cms by stern.0.385 sinkage aft .hog caused + sinkage = 17.835 = 1414 MT Change of trim caused by #3 & #8 5. 3 Hold sinkage ford 2.(-0.20 .Present midship draft = 17. To trim by stern by 23cms = Trim required in cms x 100 = 22 x 100 = 776 MT Trim caused by 100 MT 2 .0.34 2.20 .loading in #8.34 = 17.

= 1.D. Charter party stipulates maximum cargo = 145000 MT Total change of trim on voyage from load port to disport including change due to consumption of fuel & fresh water & change of trim due to change of density = 52 cms Sinkage due to change of density at disport = 2 cms Sag due to consumption of fuel and fresh water on voyage = 1 cm Rise due to fuel and fresh water consumption on voyage = 9 cms.515 On completion of trimming 17.you can check this Ford Aft 17.0 ltship: 18643 Deductibles = (FO + DO + FW + BALLAST) = 2609 K:393 In almost all cases trimming is governed by drafts not quantity of cargo to be loaded where the draft is a limiting factor .89 Mp = 17. At load port : FO: 2179.0.TRIM = 0.20 m.525m CASE 7.in the Case under study I have given a situation where you are not permitted more than 34 .0 FW: 250 U/pump ballast: 93.50 mts.89 Fs = 16.337 .very often the C/P states something like 135.04 As = 17. Trimming with #4 and #8.067 After loading in #3 17.04 R.00 Ap = 17. Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 16.49m Midship draft from above = 17.03 17.233 Loading 2202 MT in #8 .draft at the load port or max draft at the disport or the draft when v/l crosses into Winter zone from Summer Zone or when it crosses from Tropical Zone into Summer zone etc.023 Maximum draft at load port 17.30 Loading 1414 MT in #3 0.000 +/-5% MOLOO which means you can load anywhere between128250 & 141750 but not less than 128250 & not more than 141750 .367 17.0.00 Ms = 17.109 0.max. However you can also have a maximum quantity of cargo to load .0 DO: 87.258 17. V/l required to arrive at disport with max draft of 17.Therefore you will have to load 1414 MT in #3 and (776 + 1426) = 2202 MT in #8 to finish with the required drafts .748 which is as required .

2 cms .042 = 0.046 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.as we are aiming for the max draft at the disport we will require to arrive there even keel .0006 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.1 cm .2 cms = 6 cms.89 Mc = 17.26m Read drafts to be Fp = 16.22 m 35 .20 + 0.046 .89 = 0.2 + 0.04 . Therefore you will complete loading with a sag of (3.26 mts .you would have to apply the fuel consumption to compute your change of trim on the voyage etc.00 Ms = 17.20m Trim change between load port & disport = 52 cms .8 cms.sag = 17.04 As = 17. will be 17.006 Corrd drafts are Fc = 16. Midship draft max.15 x 0. Normally you would be told the density of the disport & then you would have to calculate the rise or sinkage between the load port & disport due to the change of density and also the change of trim due to the change of density .00 Ap = 17.89 = 0. Also just for practice & understanding have stated a max draft at the load port & the discharge port.26 -0.006) = 17.04 = 17.draft at the disport + Rise on voyage = 17.042 = 0.26 .15 x 0. .145000.0 cms.004 = 0.89 Fs = 16.50m Max draft at disport = 17.sinkage caused by change of density at disport = 9cms . the max draft at the disport will be amidships and therefore the max POSSIBLE midship draft at the load port = Max.8) = 4.16.but as the object of this exercise is TRIMMING I have given an example where all the required changes have been pre-calculated.004 = 0.16.assume that the cargo loaded for trimming will have a sag effect of 0.156m BY STERN We have a sag of 3.00 Ac = (17.04 + 0.04 Apparent trim is 17. therefore trim on departure load port should be 52 cms by stern.06 = 17. From the information given we have Max cargo to load = 145000 MT Max draft at any point at the load port = 17.if reqd to load to this draft then mean draft will be 17. Therefore as we will be sailing out with some sag & there will be an increase in sag on voyage & we will arrive at the disport even keel.sag caused by consumption .15 cms by stern Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.89 Mp = 17. Change in midship draft on voyage from load port to disport = Rise due to consumption .

992 m draft = 164419.19 First we will have to check whether after loading this 2536.the MQM = 16.023) = .247 = 17.247 .025) = 106.947 and Aft draft of 17.14 = 23.81 Required to load = 145000.If we assume that she trims about the midship & we require to be trimmed 52 cms by stern our departure drafts would then be F: 16.19MT and therefore lift the max.0. of 145000.50 mts.26 mts.00) = 16.247 mts our mean draft will be 17.81 Constant = 393.19 MT what the sinkage will be .695 cms = 0.207 & assuming we trim about midships we will finish with Ford draft of 16.85 True Displacement in DW = 164108. within the limitation of a max.48 However it is not necessary we will reach these drafts as this time we are also limited by a maximum quantity of cargo we can load.1235( mean between 17.14 Sinkage = 2536.8 cm) and check whether the midship draft will be within the allowed calculated maximum of 17.18643.draft of 17. Therefore we can load the 2536.81 Deductibles = .00 & 17.26 A: 17.8 = 24.00 145072.66 Correction for Density (1.895 cms Sag caused by trimming = 0. At the stop for trimming the corrected drafts are F: 16.895 + 0.00 Cargo on Board at trimming stop = 142463.add the estimated sag caused by same (of 0.81 Lightship = .046 + 6 ( 17.41 Trim correction = + 10.320.8 cms Total sinkage = 23.992 8 Displacement in SW for 16.89 M: 17.26m.19 / 106.00 Cargo available for trimming = 2536. this is fine.35 x 1.046 By the 6-sided formula .25 Displacement corrected for trim = 164429.023 / 1.247m As max permissible midship draft is 17. As we will be sagged 4 cms and the midship draft will be 17.467 meters which is permitted.04 = 17.247 m Therefore final midship draft = 17.247) 36 . We are attempting to sail out with a trim of 52 cms by stern.00 A:17. Sinkage = W / TPC (TPC = 106.00 Deadweight = 145465. from Trim tables for draft of 17.96 M: 17.89 + 17.2609.00 + 0.

4 cms by stern.046 Loading 785 MT in #4 0.85 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 4.032 17.19MT in #8 to finish with the required drafts . 4 Hold sinkage ford 1.85 = 785. To trim by stern by 36.09) = 1.57 Therefore you will have to load 785 MT in #3 and (1277. 37 .4cms =Trim required in cms x 100 = 36.(0.89 17.57 To load in #8 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #4 = 1259 x 1.85 Therefore (2536.0.(-0.55 (disregard for the moment only that #4 will trim the v/l by head & #8 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) Present trim is 15.1 = 785 Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.for every 100 MT No.247m PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT.81 sinkage aft 0.007 After loading in #4 17.you can check this Ford Aft 16.6 cms by stern .35 .09 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 1.465 which is 52 cms by stern Midship draft from above = 17.412 On completion of trimming 16.19 .8 = 474 Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.81 .19MT Trim caused by 100 MT 2.50 2.loading in #8.4 x 100=1277.19) = 1259 must be distributed in #3 & #7 without any further change in trim To load in #4 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #8 = 1259 x 2.35 2.19 + 474) = 1751.0. First tackle this . 8 Hold .72 = 473.50) = 2.088 0.72 No.1277.we require to finish 52cms by stern Therefore change in trim should be 36.19 MT in #8 .142 0.944 17.053 Loading 1751.

2 x 106. (please note this is different from & not more than maximum) To illustrate You are loading on the Cape-size at Richards Bay where the max draft is 17. midship draft at disport + Rise on Voyage . We will go about the trimming to complete with 52 cms trim by stern as before.50 meters.00 + 0.21m.15 + 0.14 Therefore Cargo available for trimming = 20.19 MT at the trimming stage to lift the max.35 x 1. permissible midship draft at the load port. 38 .202m TPC = 106. cargo .00m and estimated sag caused by trimming to be 0. on the basis of the estimated S/F given us by the shipper and when we reached the trimming stage we made our calculations based on finishing with midship drafts of 17.CASE 7A. Since max.025 = 106.15m Due to the above the max.008m therefore the sinkage available is 17. In this case we were loading for Rotterdam.21m From Case 7 we have found that we are required to load 2536. We were given a stowage factor of the coal such that by our calculation we were going to have all the holds volumetrically full and would finish well below the draft of 17.008) = 0. even keel with some sag. present midship draft is 17. which has no draft restriction for a v/l this size.21 .247m which is greater than the max.50metres.023 / 1.14 = 2144 MT.06 = 17. By careful monitoring of the loading and several on-the-run draft checks we found that the cargo was stowing much better than the S/F declared by the shipper and we were actually able to lift as much as 2498 MT of cargo more than we had asked for . All conditions same as in Case 7 except that the limiting draft at the disport is 17.50 meters. midship draft is to be 17.however if we do that we find our midship draft to be 17.(17. sometimes at the trimming stage you are able to calculate how much more you can load rather than how much less. In the above you have reached the trimming stage and found you can load less than the maximum .sometimes you reach the trimming stage & find you can load more than you had calculated prior arrival load port. midship draft at the load port = Max. So. midship draft at Load port = 17.Sag caused by consumption Sinkage due to change in density Max.

005 After loading in #4 16.(0.35 .428 which is 52 cms by stern Midship draft from above = 17.988 17.051 Loading 1603 MT in #8 .from Trim tables for draft of 17.85 Therefore (2144 .55 (disregard for the moment only that #4 will trim the v/l by head & #8 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) Present trim is 15.377 On completion of trimming 16.4 cms by stern.046 Loading 541 MT in #4 0.210m 39 .(-0. To trim by stern by 36.105( mean between 17.7 = 541 MT Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.50 2.72 = 326.908 17.loading in #8.you can check this Ford Aft 16.0.09) = 1.72 No.81 0.we require to finish 52cms by stern Therefore change in trim should be 36.09 1. First tackle this .57 To load in #8 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #4 = 867 x 1.6 cms by stern .098 0.85 = 540.50) = 2. 8 Hold .35 2.81 .57 Therefore you will have to load 541 MT in #4 and (1277 + 326) = 1603MT in #8 to finish with the required drafts .4 x 100 =1277 Trim caused by 100 MT 2.21) for every 100 MT sinkage ford sinkage aft difference = CHANGE OF TRIM No.00 & 17.4cms = Trim required in cms x 100 = 36.85 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 4.89 17.0. 4 Hold 1.1277) = 867 must be distributed in #4 & #8 without any further change in trim To load in #4 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #8 = 867 x 2.080 0.3 = 326 MT Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.

17.PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT. of 145. As we will be sagged by 4 cms our Mean draft would then be 17.8cms overloaded.26 = 0.100MT in the afterpeak will cause a change of trim of 6.4 cms of trim.6) = 13.04 = 17. As the midship draft without filling the afterpeak was 17.000 MT our midship draft we have found to be 17.26m.11cms .17. Since the change of trim on the voyage remains 52 cms we will still have to have an effective 52cms trim by stern after loading. In order to arrive at the disport even keel we would have to fill some water in the afterpeak such that it will result in (52 .84.247 .247 + 0.20m. Therefore we would be 17.6cms.Therefore to cause a trim of 13.014m.06 cms = 0.268m.247m. From Case 7 we have 2536. From trimming tables for this draft . Also note that we would fill the 219 MT required in the afterpeak only after sailing & would thus calculate our drafts without considering this quantity and working to finish with a trim of 38.00 mts Sag caused by trimming cargo = 0. If we load to the max.8 x 106. We will be trying to load the maximum cargo and also as the limiting draft at the disport is still 17.386m & the ford draft would 17.008m Sinkage caused by trimming cargo = 2451.14 = 0. Midship draft at trim stop = 17.4 cms we will have to fill (13.40 mts our trim will be (17.4 x 100)/8 = 219 MT in the afterpeak.008m = 0.207m & assuming we trim about midships and that our max.91 MT less during trimming. CASE 7B.14 = 84.40 .207) x 2 = 0.247m the effective midship draft would be17.28 / 106.268 .91) = 2451 MT. However we are required to have a trim of 52 cms in order that we arrive at the disport even keel.38.231m Midship draft on sailing = 17. (When following this case please disregard Case 7A.20m we will be still required to arrive at the disport even keel.40m The limiting draft at the disport remains 17.19 MT for trimming . We would therefore have to load 0.239 m 40 .19 .021m..14 = 2.021 = 17.) All conditions the same as in Case 7 except that the limiting draft at the loadport is 17. However when we fill this water in the afterpeak this would result in a sinkage of W/TPC = 219 / 106.we would therefore trim with (2536. midship draft we could have was 17. draft can be 17.0. However we have found out that the max.

40m & so will fill the 219MT in the afterpeak after sailing.6cms by stern Therefore change in trim should be 23 cms by stern.386/2) = 17.35 2.7 = 619 Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.81 .04 = 17.50 2. First tackle this .0.09 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 1.35 .72 No.0.81 sinkage aft 0.(-0.85 = 1025.6 cms by stern .(0.3 = 1025 Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4. from Trim tables for draft of 17.57 To load in #8 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #4 = 1644 x 1.(if we had filled the 219MT in the afterpeak prior sailing it would have been 17.you can check this 41 .85 ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 4.807) = 1644 must be distributed in #4 & #8 without any further change in trim To load in #4 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #8 = 1644 x 2.57 Therefore you will have to load 1025 MT in #4 and (807 + 619) = 1426MT in #8 to finish with the required drafts .55 (disregard for the moment only that #4 will trim the v/l by head & #8 trim by stern) (PLEASE SEE NOTE MARKED **** IN CASE 1) Present trim is 15.26m but we cannot prior sailing as we are limited by a max.we require to finish 38.239) for every 100 MT sinkage ford No.392m which is permissible.draft of 17.386m which means our aft draft would be 17.199m we are looking to trim vessel by 0. 4 Hold 1.85 Therefore (2451 .00 & 17.04m our Mean draft would be 17.loading in #8.1195( mean between 17. 8 Hold .50) = 2.09) = 1. To trim by stern by 23cms = Trim required in cms x 100 = 23 x 100 = 807 MT Trim caused by 100 MT 2.72 = 618.239 .) As we would be sagged by 0.199 + (0.

239m PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT. You should then be able to get the trimming as accurately as in the formula. i. you can estimate whether she will hog or sag depending which holds you are using. assume that after trimming it will sag further.in the athwartship and fore & aft directions. should you load in 3 or 8 it will be much more gradual similarly the sag effect will be much slower when loading in 4 or 7 and much faster when loading in 5 or 6. if the sag before trimming is about 3 cms. if prior trimming you are sagging 3 cms.#6 is just abaft midships . if the maximum draft is aft assume she will hog a bit after trimming.009 After loading in #4 17.trimming with #4 & #8.but please do remember that the ship is not a violin and the hog & sag effect is not always instantaneous . I am confident that on the Cape-size.if you load at #1.5 cms by stern as required.005 17.if your maximum draft is to be at midships assume she will sag a bit due to the trimming cargo.always play safe .about 3500 MT for trimming at the stop for trimming .e. Remember that the vessel is almost always hogged or sagged and hogs or sags under the effect of cargo loaded or discharged in different holds . However.Ford Aft 16.076 17.89 17. Midship draft from above = 17.335 On completion of trimming 17.e.071 0. Of course once you are comfortable with the way your v/l behaves.186 0.055 Loading 1426 MT in #8 .an example to illustrate Voyage 8 on SILC . On Voyage 8 the loading sequence was such that the run before the trim stop called for loading 5450 MT in #6 hold . From the above 9 cases you will assume that trimming is really quite easy and it really is. if you are careful and know what you are doing .2 or 9 on the Cape-size you will probably see the hog effect come into play almost instantaneously. she will sag 1 cm. Remember it is not always instantaneous . trimming with 3 & 8 will produce a hog effect .we were sagged at this point after trimming at #4 & #8 we ended up with a sag greater than at the trim stop. after trimming. Voyage 9 similar situation. i.what you should ensure is that the cargo for trimming is distributed evenly across the hold .loading coal at R/Bay . In Case 3.046 Loading 1025 MT in #4 0.0.39 which is 38. 42 .remember that the change of trim values per 100MT in the trimming tables assumes that the weight is loaded or discharged from the middle of the hold and you know that it would be impossible to load all the cargo for trimming in the centre of the hold . even tho’ max draft is to be at midships.

keep the required safety margin in hand. is that in Voyage 8. Conversely the v/l was undergoing a hog effect when loading at #2.when the shore side is required to load a certain quantity. Also.you will be even more hogged at the trim stop than at completion . Secondly.50 metres . the run in #6. and this does not stop immediately on stopping loading at #2.was later advised & realised that it is much better to do the trimming in 2 drops i. In all the cases I have explained .to compound that you probably will be trimming with #3 & #7 which means that at the trim stop. then remove a total of about 700 tonnes from the figures .On Voyage 9 the loading sequence was such that the run before the trim stop called for loading 6600 MT in #2 hold .I have shown you calculations right down to the absolute maximum .50 metres .let’s say about 1 cm at least on the Cape . as in Voyage 8.i.do ONE drop in #3 & #7.e.what my conclusion is.e.make your calculations for #3 & #7. in Voyage 9.the calculations were right down to 17.at the trim stop we were sagged . was causing the v/l to sag & this sagging does not stop immediately you stop loading at #6 .also if you have underestimated the effect of hog or sag at the 43 . we found that the sag had decreased. do another draft check.this small amount of cargo in the 2nd drop eliminates any error caused by the error in the loader .draft was 17. if the max. stop for trimming .but the difficulty you encounter is that it is extremely difficult to predict what amount this hog effect or any sag effect actually is however if you trim as suggested below you should be able to eliminate any estimation errors.1 & 9 . This seems to support the idea that the v/l hogs & sags over a period of time .the v/l takes some time to complete this sag effect. very unlikely you will get that exact figure. with loading complete at the end holds .there is absolutely nothing wrong with this method & you should be able to get right down to the absolute maximum but prudence would suggest that you always have a little in hand .e. your estimation of the sag or hog caused cannot be far wrong with the final drop of abt 700 tonnes .after loading the trimming cargo at #3 & #7 you should be able to reduce this hog .after trimming at #4 & #8 with almost the same quantities for 4 & 8. I would reach the trimming stage.size which translates to abt 100 tonnes & about 1. this problem can be experienced especially when loading in alternate holds invariably when loading alternate holds you end up with a hog for the vessel . This is the 2 drop method for trimming to which I will refer to a little later. This method is infinitely better . and do the trimming in 1 drop. i. if I was trimming with #3 & #7 .5 cms on a Panamax which also translates into 100 tonnes. after I was comfortable with this trimming calculation method. then do a final drop in #3 & #7. In my early days as a Chief Officer.I would calculate the quantities to load in #3 & #7 & load them .

you will be able to load a little more .000 dwt) it is likely #4 & #7 & hence I would prefer to do my trimming with these sets of holds. you could then load a little more cargo However. On the Cape-size would prefer to trim with any combination of #3 & 4 ford & #7 & 8 aft.chief among them is that even though you do your very best to ensure there is absolutely no list you are 1 cm in excess on 1 side & have no sinkage available to correct this .i. Considering the Cape-size Trimming with #4 & #7.e. & you actually sagged only 1 cm more. On the Panamax would prefer to trim with #3 & #6.always play safe . on the safe side .2 & 9 on the Cape-size and 1. if circumstances permit.first trimming drop you can still make a correction . There are still many possibilities that will cause you to be overdraft . Ideally if loading at alternate holds would trim with #3 & #7.the problem is that it is impossible to predict how she will or how much she will hog .. When sagging the effect is at one point . 44 . at a push would trim using #2 & when loading alternate holds would probably trim with #3 & #7 but in no event would I trim with #1.for eg if you had estimated that the v/l would sag 3 cms more during the first drop & reduced your quantity in line with that. if you are loading at #1 this will cause the ford draft to increase more than the trimming tables suggest. Choosing which holds to use for trimming is a matter of personal preference but I will list some of the factors I would take into consideration Firstly.e.on Panamax size (7 holds) the likely holds are #3 & #6 .besides that if you have erred the other way with your hog/sag estimation .i.on the Cape size (9 holds abt150.1. in any type of loading I would avoid trimming with the end holds .midships. Examination of the trimming tables would show that almost all vessels have ONE hold ford of midship where loading would cause a very negligible change in the aft draft and also ONE hold aft of midships where loading would cause a very negligible increase in the ford draft .but you will face all sorts of trouble if you are over draft. in ports where they will absolutely not allow you to sail even with 1 cm excess. such as Hay Point or Richards Bay I would strongly advise that you keep something in hand even at the 2nd drop. Also because loading in #5 & #6 on the Cape-size or #4 & #5 on the Panamax would cause the v/l to sag I would not trim with these holds if I could help it.loading in these holds definitely cause the v/l to hog .2 & 7 on the Panamax . but the decrease in the aft draft due to the hog effect will be much less & it is impossible to predict how much at each end.REMEMBER nobody gives you a medal for loading extra cargo .

45 .79cms Therefore for the 440 MT to be loaded in #7 the increase in ford draft would be nil and the increase in the aft draft would be 7.00 .he would then make his way to the midship draft on the shore side. all is well .if the reqd aft draft is 17.you read drafts and make you calculations to load quantities in #4 & #7.this now removes the problem of the aft draft.00 metres & 5cms sag i.you have people checking on either side with one person in contact with the loader to ensure you complete absolutely upright..00 metres aft .05 metres.966 then he knows that he is going to finish over draft so he can stop the loading and make adjustments.054 = 16. Now all you are to worry about is the midship draft . When the 440 MT is complete at #7 and you have reached the reqd draft of 17.the Mate would make his way quickly forward and read the ford draft . checking the midship draft.81cms & aft draft increases by 0. Now the trimming tables tell us that for every 100 MT loaded in a) #4 the ford draft increases by 1. b) #7 the ford draft increases by 0.if all is going well the ford draft should be 17.if however the draft is 16.946 with 300 MT to go. Immediately loading at #7 complete . The Mate is kept informed all the time about the quantity remaining .09cms Therefore for the 320 MT to be loaded in #4 the increase in ford draft would be 5. then 1600MT in #7 and keep the loader at #7.e.You have reached the draft check stop prior trimming .9 cms.when the loader states that there is 300 MT to go. he can then monitor if all is well .8 cms and there would be no increase in the aft draft. Now the midship draft is 17.942 metres . By trimming with #4 & #7 he knows loading in #4 will not change the aft draft so at this stage .0. the Mate reads the draft. Assume these quantities to be 440MT in #7 & 320 MT in #4. Let us say that these figures are 1500 MT in #4 & 2000 MT in #7.05metres which is the maximum possible.he only has to bother about the aft draft. I would then load abt 1200 MT in #4. we would load first in #7.4 cms. At this final drop I would have someone ensuring the v/l is to be upright.07cms & aft draft increases by 1.00 mts and he reads the draft to be 16.01metres . with one person on the offshore side on the ladder.you are going to load 320 MT in #4 which will result in a sinkage of 3 cms & assuming this will cause a sag of 1 cm you will finish with 17. Knowing that the remaining 300 MT is going to cause an increase in the aft draft of = 5.midship draft of 17. Then I would read the drafts and make calculations to load certain quantities in #7 & #4 to reach the final required drafts. with the Mate watching the aft draft on the shore side.when loading at #7 . Assume the vessel is finishing even keel with 17.

50 x 0.02m No problem at the ford draft but the draft at the aft perpendicular is 0.00 m as required on completion of loading at #3.98 metres. 320MT in #3 & 440MT in #8 Trimming tables tell us that for every 100MT a) In #3 the ford draft increases by 2.2cms and the aft draft would increase by 10.48cms therefore loading the 320 MT in #3 would result in the ford draft increasing by 7.This would result in the aft draft being 17.015( the decrease in aft draft caused by loading at #3) =17.02 = 16.3 cms. 4 & 7 change 46 . if you were finishing even keel. However both 4 & 7 would cause the vessel to sag so your sag caused by the trimming cargo would be quite a bit.00 meters on completion of loading at #3.015 on completion at #8.0.042 = 0.0.004 = 0. be 17. Also. which means that the Mate monitoring the aft draft should ensure that the read draft aft should not be more than 17. would on completion of loading at #8.5 cms. of 50cms.00 + 0. say by stern.50 x 0.In the example of the trimming operation above. However you may be trimming with #3 and #8 with say. allow the aft draft to reach 17. Each of the combination of holds you would use for trimming would have it’s pros & cons #4 & #7 by virtue of changing the draft only ford and only aft respectively make it easy for monitoring the draft during trimming.00 + 0.35cms & the aft draft reduces by 0. Now we know that on SILC Ford trim correction = Trim x 0. I have again finishing to the absolute maximum .004 = 0.34cms therefore loading the 440 MT in #8 would result in the ford draft decreasing by 2.02(diff between read draft & draft at perpendicular) = 16. but you maybe finishing with a trim. If the vessel was to finish with a 50 cms trim then he would ensure that the aft draft. In the above example I have shown the situation when the vessel is finishing even keel.02m more than at the aft draft mark.5cms and the aft draft would decrease by 1.if you are loading at one of the extremely strict ports would as before suggest you keep something in hand. Now when you are doing the final drop the Mate at the aft draft mark would. In the example on the previous page have shown a situation where you are trimming with 4 & 7 which do not change the draft at one end.995 This would result in the aft draft (at the perpendicular) to be 17.50cms & the aft draft increases by 2.002 which is negligible Aft trim correction = 0.00 . b) In #8 the ford draft decreases by 0.015 .

that in your plan necessarily you need to have 1750 in #4 & 1750 in #8. i. then at (d) #4. If however you plan to finish with 50 cms by stern and your plan calls for you to reach the trimming stage with 25 cms of trim . at the end of (a). Also. Say. say. when not loading alternate holds a combination . 2000 in #4 & 1250 in #8 even in your plan.were you trimming with #7 you would have to load 2034MT to achieve the same. you are trimming with #4 & #8 using the 2 drop method. Be sure that at the end of each one i. It’s quite okay to have. is quite sufficient for trimming it is not too large.the trim only very slightly .8cms per 100MT . Probably the most important part of trimming is to make absolutely sure that each time you stop loading at a hold during trimming you are absolutely upright.say. 47 . end of (b).e.therefore you would have problems if you reach the trimming stage with a trim far different from what you require to finish with. On the Panamax I would be happy to trim with about 2500-2700 MT. (c) & (d) you are absolutely upright. such that the hog or sag caused becomes a very big factor.but this way you only have to make the correction in trim caused by the loader. At the first drop you load at (a) #4 then (b) at #8. say.e.then during trimming you would be not only trying to change the trim to the 50 cms but also making the correction to the trim caused by the loader which would be so much more difficult if.such as 4 & 8 sometimes works best . also not so large as the shore loader error begins to make a big difference & also large enough to make any changes of trim you might require. it is not necessary that should you . Also have found that about 3500MT.it is a pipe dream to think that when you actually make the stop for draft check & trimming that you will have the trim you desire . For eg: in Case 7A when you had to change the trim by 36. make a plan to trim the v/l with #4 & #8 and plan for 3500MT for trimming. on the Capesize. When possible. A list of 0. you reached the trimming stage with 5cms trim. I would advise that you make your cargo plan such that in the pre-calculation when you reach the trimming stage you have the same trim as when you complete loading .4 cms at the trimming stage you had to load 1277MT in #8 to achieve that .25 degrees translates into almost 25 cms difference in the midship draft.but the choice is yours. Then after a quick draft check and calculation in the 2nd drop you load at (c)#8. #3 & #8 would both work to slightly hog the vessel & it would be easier to correct any trim using #3 & 8 rather than 4 & 7.about 1. Also.

HOG / SAG 48 .CHAPTER IV .

the vessel’s drafts can only be read at the ford and aft and at the midships on both sides .HOG / SAG What your hog/sag will be is very difficult to predict . For every 2% the loadicator shows on either side of this 8 % you should get either 1 cm of hog or sag .6% on either side of the 15-16% translates into 1 cm of hog or sag at midships.but the old one exists .the strain gauge clearly showed the v/l to be sagged but the drafts did not & since the only way you can calculate hog or sag is by reading the drafts at the 6 draft marks to all means & purposes we had no hog or sag. if the loadicator shows 6% sag at midships you should end up with a 1 cm hog at midships.to get no hog or sag at midships ..I knew full well that the v/l was sagged over the length of the v/l.Navios Bulker if you are using the old loadicator .a new loadicator has been fit in the 2nd half of 1998 .it is important that I am talking only about no hog or sag at midships and it is here only that it is important .e. PLEASE REMEMBER THAT IN ALL CASES WE ARE TALKING ABOUT THE LOADICATOR INFORMATION OF THE BENDING MOMENT IN HARBOUR CONDITION & this is limited to individual vessels & loadicators.however having loaded these ships over the years have observed out the following On one Panamax I served on .then every about 1. Have loaded the Cape-size more than twice and finished with no hog or sag by calculation . 49 .if you can distribute the weights such that after reading the drafts you have no hog or sag at the midships then for all means and purposes you have no hog or sag. On another Panamax .Lucky Bulker I think you have to distribute the weights such that as per the loadicator the Bending Moment at Midships in the Harbour Condition is about 8-9 % sag to get no hog or sag at midships . If it shows 12% sag at midships you will probably end up with a 2cm sag at midships. If you had noticed I have kept mentioning “no hog or sag at MIDSHIPS” .i.I was last on the Lucky in 95and I am not sure if I am absolutely right but even if I am not I would not be far wrong.if you can distribute your weights such that as per the OLD loadicator the Bending Moment at Midships in the Harbour Condition shows 8% sag you will end up with no hog or sag at midships. On the 2 sister Cape-size I sailed on you require to distribute the weights such that as per the loadicator the Bending Moment at Midships in the Harbour Condition is between 15-16% sag . but with my cargo distribution I had no hog or sag at the midship draft marks .

of the Summer mark when that is below 17. We have found how to be able to make the distribution of cargo work for us in that there is no hog or sag at the draft marks & therefore we have loaded the max.50 metres.only when you explain the day/night effect to them will they permit you to sail . and there is no correction factor that can be applied here. However this same situation sometimes can work against you .when you are in the ballast condition on both Panamax & Cape-size you will be hogged over the length of the v/l .no allowance is made for hog or sag at the completion of 50 . working to your max.but if you are in the Heavy Ballast condition .which means that the read midship draft is greater than it actually should be. or the figures that by experience you have determined for your vessel/loadicator.when you are loading alternate holds you will almost definitely end up hogged .the max.You will not always be able to distribute the cargo such that you will end up with the figures mentioned above & achieve no hog or sag . when your summer draft permits & you are allowed to have your midship draft to a max. where they are working at a max. It can happen there that you finish loading at night.cargo & also have actually a little more cargo on board than the Surveyor’s figure shows so that we have no problem at the discharge port. draft you are permitted to sail with is 17. Where this may affect you is at ports such as Richards Bay. and make no changes at all after that and read the drafts again at midday. but because the ballast hold is just off the midships you will be sagged at the midships even though you may be hogged over the length of the v/l. draft and cannot allow this changed hog or sag to increase their draft & so have the deck water running at all times over the main deck in order that the entire shell plating is at the Lake water temperature.50 meters.on the other hand if at the time of completion of loading your midship draft has exceeded your summer loadline they will not permit you to sail even though your MQM may be equal to or less than the summer mark . temperature effects the hog or sag. it is quite likely that the drafts will not be exactly the same as at night. and the v/l is said to be ‘doubly deflected’ which results in the constant being very much higher by calculation than it actually is if you are in heavy ballast on arrival at the load port and you get a very high constant be sure to tell this to the surveyor and try & bring the constant down nearer normal levels. drafts permitted & you & the draft surveyor agree on the drafts & these are all within permissible limitshowever you are unable to sail immediately for whatever reason -such as too much swell at the entrance & you only sail at midday .or when you are loading all holds and are volumetrically full or very close to you don’t have much choice on how to distribute the cargo .e. This is best illustrated by vessels plying in the Great Lakes. .but what you can do is that within the limitations of the particular circumstance you work.at midships .. because the hog or sag has changed. with the hold in and also all the ballast tanks you will also in all probability be hogged over the length of the v/l. to get as close to the above figures as you can. Also. If you read the drafts at night.if somebody from the port authority then reads the draft prior sailing you might have exceeded the max draft . where this has actually happened to some vessels .i. As we use the 6-sided formula this results in the Initial Displacement being higher than it actually is.

25 = 17.0.47 A: 17. A very important thing to remember is that the while the loadicator calculates & shows the ford & aft draft. (from which you can calculate the mean draft) it cannot take into account hog or sag or anything else .it therefore shows mean.25 = 17.15 = ford draft & 17. For this reason.47.47 .they will only permit you the day/night effect allowance in case you cannot sail on completion.0 meters A: 17.0 meters ..40 = Mean & 17. You would of course declare your drafts to be 17.65 = aft draft.40 metres. 51 . If you are hogged or sagged it cannot take that into account & therefore as far as the loadicator is concerned your mean draft is your midship draft & when that happens so is the MQM.sag = Mean & then trimmed about the Mean which would be 17.4 If you expect to be trimmed 50 cms with a midship draft of 17.10 = 17.25 = 17. Say your midship draft is to be 17.47 + 0.4 M:17.5 . midship & MQM as the same. What you would then seek to do is to adjust your weights to get F: 17.0+17.5) )) / 8 = 17. if the loadicator shows F: 16.0.50 metres and 10cms sag.72 Of course your declared drafts would be worked on the basis of Midship .loading by the port .0. Now if you assume that the vessel is going to sag say 10 cms you will have to adjust your figures to show the right displacement .4 .5/ 17.22 & A: 17. keep something in hand when transiting the Panama Canal.it is showing all figures on basis of displacement at the mean draft of (16. THIS IS WHERE YOU ARE WRONG.50 metres.0) / 2 = 16.4 you would get an MQM of (( (17.4 x 2) + (6 x 17.50 metres & you expect to sag 10 cms & are at even keel. If you used the 6 sided formula with drafts of F:17.5 A: 17.4 / 17. Your first instinct would then be to work your figures such that the loadicator shows ford draft to be 17. you would work your weights such that the LOADICATOR shows drafts of F: 17. Eg.remember displacement is got from MQM.47 on the loadicator.40 & aft draft to be 17.

CONTROLLING DRAFTS 52 .CHAPTER V .

Australia.0m. You are loading at Newcastle. 5. Disport 1 is Constanza. Say.simple you can load in Tubarao up to the summer mark assuming Tubarao is in the Summer Zone .CONTROLLING DRAFTS When you start making your calculations for a particular voyage it is most important to know where to start i. taking ballast to avoid arriving down by the head.00 metres draft after calculating what your fuel etc.25 metres. Say. In this case the initial controlling draft is Eregli. ROB would be at the disport. Romania.simple .e. 2. Turkey where max draft is 11. Loading at Saldanha Bay.if it is in the Tropical Zone you will be able to load up to Summer Loadline plus the consumption in the Tropical zone till you reached the Summer Zone. Sometimes this is quite easy. ROB would be at Eregli.you can load such that when you enter the Winter Zone off Cabo Finistere you are at the Winter Mark of 17.your controlling draft would be at the disport . for Rotterdam where max draft is 23. then work for arrival Rotterdam. at Rotterdam 23m.16 metres. It would then work out that your sailing draft from Tubarao would be Winter Draft + consumption from Tubarao to Finistere. Your controlling draft would therefore be 17. Max draft in Saldanha Bay 20m. you are in Tubarao. your summer draft is 17. your summer draft is 17. When calculating I would start at Finistere and then work backwards to Tubarao 3. you are loading in Tubarao. where max. that is possible.52 metres.50m. Say. then discharging at a port where the allowed draft is 16. Max draft in Constanza 17m. draft is 15. 4.16 metres when entering the Winter Zone & you would have to start your calculations from that point. You are on a Panamax size where you are required to load as follows Disport 2 is Eregli. South Africa.00 metres . assuming you are loading maximum for Eregli.50 metres after calculating what your fuel etc. Simple your controlling draft is Newcastle & you would start your calculations to sail out of Newcastle even keel. Your summer draft is 13. . All ports & the entire route in the summer zone.52 meters .you would base your cargo to arrive even keel at the disport with 16. you are loading at Tubarao for Rotterdam when it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere. when it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere. You would have to start your calculations based on first arriving at Eregli with an even keel draft of 11. Draft available at Tubarao is 22m. loading for Rotterdam. 1. 53 .5 metres. You have to load for Constanza all you can. where your controlling draft is..

draft is 23m.Isles -it was . 1st discharge port Kimitsu. South Africa. .37m.Then work your fuel consumption backwards to sail out of Saldanha Bay.Sept Isles. you would have to start with Nagoya.when you do that in Tubarao .2 types). in this calculation. 2nd loading port Saldanha Bay. Nagoya cargo on board.Isles. Max draft 20m 2nd discharge port Nagoya. Max draft at Seven Islands less than summer draft.52 . & calculate the trim you would have to sail out of Saldanha Bay with.then after calculating your weights at S. then discharge the Saldanha Bay cargo at Kimitsu. summer draft = 17.thus your draft arrival Pohang would be 17. 54 . & then see whether with the max. Please remember there will be probably be density changes which you have to take into account. Both ports & route in the summer zone. draft at Nagoya. at Tubarao. you were within the limiting draft in S.would be then work the fuel etc. at the summer loadline . then after consumption of fuel Kimitsu. for Pohang where max. You are permitted to load up to your summer mark of 17. after calculating what your arrival Nagoya bunkers etc. Japan .iron ore lumps. even keel at Pohang. 1st loading port .your arrival draft & trim at Constanza in this case is not really a problem. & discharging in Constanza you would arrive at Eregli with the even keel draft of 11. the departure draft in Tubarao is the controlling draft. draft is 17. to arrive. via Kimitsu & Saldanha Bay. where max.your consumption en route to Pohang cause a rise of 15 cms .iron ore pellets.0.50 metres . 7.limiting draft. Here even tho’ the draft available in Tubarao is much higher than in Pohang. reqd to disch the Sept Isles cargo.Isles. work your fuel consumption to Saldanha Bay on basis of that work your figures to sail out of Saldanha Bay at your summer draft. This was a situation on SILC (actually the cargo was iron ore concentrates . such that after fuel consumption en route. Japan . Of course you would have to adjust your trim departure Tubarao.summer draft = 17. max draft 20m.52m.you would then work out the cargo you can load for Constanza. after the fuel consumption. Cape-size situation .no bunkering en route. 6.40metres. Consumption of fuel en route causes a rise of 15cm.Isles .in this case it was at Nagoya . Also vessel must be within allowable stress limits at all times. You are loading on the Cape-size.52 metres . Canada . Now.52 metres & no more .discharge the Saldanha Bay cargo. consumption backwards to S.15 = 17. to arrive at the max.all ports & route in summer zone.but if it were not then the limiting draft would be at S. Required to load max cargo for Nagoya .

CHAPTER VI .MAXIMUM DRAFTS 55 .

Therefore. 56 .draft at Pohang = 17. Thus while loading/trimming what would be the maximum drafts you could load to at ford.12m M: 17.0 meters.92 m aft.but I would highly recommend that the 2 cms you have in hand you keep in reserve & not load. Consumption of fuel from Tubarao to Pohang = 1656 MT. Your computed drafts tell you that with a ford draft of 17.38 Therefore difference = 12 x 106. Max.56MT But difference in displacement will be 1556 MT. in theory.12 meters in practice.12 meters = 12cms TPC = 106.23.92. the v/l’s summer draft is 17.if you can adjust your trim then you will arrive at Pohang.38 after leaving Tubarao with an aft draft of 17. Or for that matter. & in practice 17.17.38 A: 17. Max. you cannot load more than to a ford draft of 17.40 meters. max. after sailing out of Tubarao at summer draft. draft in Tubarao . Increase in FW = 100MT. since the vessel cannot load more than the summer draft the controlling draft in this case will be departure Tubarao . in theory.38. Korea.draft of 17.40 meters. even if the aft draft is 17. in this case.00 you cannot load to an aft draft more than. 17. if any available. the drafts by the loadicator.WHAT ARE YOUR MAXIMUM DRAFTS? Consider this situation on the SILC C/P terms require you to load a cargo of iron ore from Tubarao.draft at Pohang is 17. to more than 17. less than 17.38 MT = 1276. only 2 cms less than the maximum you do not have much sinkage.draft in Pohang .100 = 1556 MT less.12 meters with your F. Thus.it is the summer loadline so come what may you can load upto a maximum of 17. at midships and at aft? In this case the midship draft is quite simple .92m With these drafts after our consumption of fuel & increase of fresh water. Difference = 0. With your arrival Pohang midship draft.94.025. Relative Density at both ends taken to be 1.52 meters.94 meters aft .O/FW you will arrive in Pohang with a ford draft of 17. to fill ballast to change the trim. Max. By calculation we have found that to arrive at Pohang even keel. Similarly you would arrive with an aft draft of 17.80 meters. in this case.14m.38 M: 17.38.52m A: 17.40 meters & therefore in theory you would be able to load to a max.52m draft at midships. departure Tubarao are as follows F: 17.14 meters ford & 17.40 meters. This means that even if your ford draft is 17. difference in displacement Tubarao to Pohang = 1656 .12m ford & 17. Notwithstanding the available depth of water at Tubarao. the arrival drafts at Pohang are computed to be F: 17. & 17.92. Brasil to Pohang.when the vessel can load to the summer draft .

In the previous example you had a situation where the max.35. your max.92) / 2 = 17.05 = 17.95 M: 17.Also if you were hogged. even if your midship draft does not reach 17. Please remember that if the density at Tubarao is not 1. Now consider this situation .47m Using the 6-sided formula.12 + 17.20 A: 17.52m With a 5cm hog your midship draft would be 17.say you are on a vessel where the summer draft is 17. your max aft draft would still be 17. your MQM would be 17.you could only load to your summer draft. your drafts at completion are F: 16.00 A: 17.0. You are loading at a port where max draft is 22m.12 & 17. but there is nothing you can do about it as otherwise you will be over draft at the ford & aft ends arrival Pohang. midship draft was clear-cut .if you do so. you will be over draft at the disport. but can you load anymore . you would not be able to fill more cargo.20 M: 17. such that the ford & aft draft exceed 17. In this case you find that you are going to finish with a sag . while you will comply with your summer loadline. and you know that your present midship draft is 17.52 . mean draft would be (17. Therefore your max.025 then you have to make allowance for that. The answer is NO .10m you have to sail out of the load port with drafts F: 17. Should you be hogged say 5 cms.this means less cargo.48m .92 respectively. ford draft would still be 17. The max draft at disport is 17.25 metres.40. You know that you have not reached the max.92 metres.loading would cause your midship draft also to increase.10 meters. possible ford or aft drafts.say. By calculation you have found that to arrive at the disport at an even keel draft of 17.25 meters.20 metres & the summer draft is 17. 57 .12 meters.52m.

58 .

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