Sand processing plant design and supply

Frac sand plants

2010

Technical resources

Outotec’s test facilities house our full range of gravity, magnetic and electrostatic equipment enabling both laboratory and pilot-scale studies for frac sand plant design.

. we know market requirements: • The American Petroleum Institute (API) sets demanding specifications for silica sands to be used in hydraulic fracturing (frac sands). We provide successful operations by ensuring products are to spec.Industry know-how More than just how to process.

Acceptable frac sand It must be round grain It must withstand tremendous pressures and not breakdown • Older deposits are generally more pure and thus stronger. Some specifications dictate that 90wt% be between designated sizes such as: • -12 +20 mesh (-1600 µm +850 µm) • -40 +70 mesh (-425 +212µm) • -70 +140 mesh. (-212 µm +104 µm) . It must be relatively coarse • The primary frac sand • requirements are 90wt% -20 +40 mesh (-850 +425µm).

If the grains are not strong enough or are not the right size. or “Sized particles mixed with fracturing fluid to hold fractures open after a hydraulic fracturing treatment” Hydrofracing is the forcing of a concoction of frac sands. they won’t effectively prop open the passageways Before After . viscous gel and other chemicals down a well to prop open fractures in the subsurface rocks thus create a passageway for fluid from the reservoir to the well.Why such stringent specifications? Frac sands are used as a proppant.

Outotec frac sand process offerings .

Outotec’s applicable technologies Outotec’s line of physical separation equipment: • Floatex® Attrition Scrubber • Floatex® Density Separator • Outotec® Spirals • Outotec® Rare-Earth Roll Magnetic Separators Solid liquid separation: • Outotec® thickeners • Outotec Larox® filters The entire process can be automated with Outotec’s Intelligent Instruments: • Analyzers and automation Limited use equipment • Outotec® Rare-Earth Drum Magnetic Separators Floatex is a trademark of Floatex Separations Ltd (UK) .

Break up agglomerates Preliminary sizing to remove unnecessary undersized material while still wet and water extraction when needed • Reduce down stream processing costs Dry processing Size sand into various frac sand products Remove any magnetic minerals which are generally too soft Remove any non-quartz minerals that affect crush and acid solubility requirements set forth by API .Wet and dry flowsheet Wet processing Reduce turbidity by washing away any clay slimes or other fines.

Comprehensive frac sand flowsheet .

most of the time more is needed .Unfortunately.Washing Simplest/lowest cost for cleaning frac sand Sometimes all that is needed Process: • Water added to sand • Pumped to cyclone for desliming • Movement is sufficient to loosen clays which can then be removed in a variety of ways ….

number of units and proper positions in flowsheets are all determined during the testing phase of flowheet development. .Scrubbing Used when clay/silts are tightly bound to silica. or when larger clumped balls of clay are present Scrubbing breaks down the clusters to allow concentration of silica grains down stream Scrub times.

Cyclones Remove –100µm (-140 mesh) material below 23 wt% Effective for removing 80-90% of slimes Extra stages can improve rejects Low cost but underflow contains high water .

Hydraulic classifiers More efficient than cyclones Remove –150µm (-100 mesh) material above 45 wt% Consistently lower level of fines Also used for pre-sizing • Improves efficiency of dry • Sometimes used with a cyclone for best plant performance plant Allows for market flexibility .

Thickeners Remove solids from slurry (improve clarity) Retrieve water for re-use in plant Limit requirement for slurry transport and disposal .

Heavy mineral rejection Remove free iron bearing minerals If high percentage of impurities are present as inclusions. .e. not liberated from the silica. spirals will not be effective • Magnetic separation would be implemented to reject these grains. i.

Filters Remove moisture before drying to reduce costs Key for colder or high humidity climates Secondary role of water retrieval for re-use within the plant .

Fluid Bed Dryers Silica sand products are generally sold dry Normally performed on fluidised bed dryers • More fuel-efficient than rotary dryers of the past .

Product Sizing Crucial step Ensure product meets minimum 90 wt% of a particular product Require advanced screeners • High throughput • Precise sizing • Ensure high recovery Trailing or polishing screens can scavenge for misplaced products .

Magnetic Separation Used when excess levels of non-quartz minerals are present • Critical to remove as they • • • • • tend to be softer and more acid soluble If not products can fail API tests High throughput Precise separation Low energy consumption More accurate and less costly than flotation Rare-earth magnets .

.Frac sand plant process solutions Mineralogical testwork Bulk sampling and processing Flowsheet development Engineering Management of the procurement and construction of turnkey operations.

turnkey plant supply and circuit upgrade Capacity: 1000 TPH . circuit design.Reference operation: USA 2008 Application: Frac Sands Scope: Flowsheet development.

procurement and construction. Capacity: 200 TPH . engineering.Reference operation: USA 2006 Application: Frac Sands Scope: Complete turnkey plant.

Reference operation: Jordan 2005 Glass Sand. Frac Application: Sand & Ground Silica Scope: Complete turnkey plant. procurement and construction. engineering. Capacity: 80 TPH .

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