CE 303 – Transportation Engineering

Highway Engineering Lecture 10 - Pavement Design Introduction to highway engineering Transportation planning and traffic planning are the initial stages of transportation engineering pertaining to road transport. Having planned highways, the next stage is the construction of the highways. The roads have to be constructed in different ground conditions and in different environments. The conditions and environments pose complex issues in highway construction. In Sri Lankan context, these issues are, (1) Congestion on urban roads (2) Accidents (3) Major roads running through built up areas (Cities and townships) (4) Narrow roads (5) Structural inadequacy of pavements (6) Poor geometrical design (7) Small structures such as bridges (8) Funding for maintenance and rehabilitation (9) Funding for expansion and new facilities (10) Environmental pollution These issues provide the following challenges to the highway engineer. (1) Challenges of design, construction, rehabilitation, reconstruction and expansion (i.) Design and reconstruct using modern technologies (ii.) Redesign older facilities to meet today’s demands. (iii.) Secure budget provisions. (iv.) Adopt cost effective and environmentally sound solutions. (2) Challenges of safety and environment (i.) Identify necessary safety requirements of the road system especially, to protect vulnerable road users. (ii.) Implement regulations controlling noise, air and water pollution. 10.2 Pavement Design The main purpose of a pavement is to provide a means of reducing the stress due to the wheel load to a value bearable to ground under the pavement. Fig. 10.1 shows how the high stress that exists at the point of wheel contact is reduced down the pavement structure until the stress is brought down to a level acceptable to the less competent naturally existing ground called the subgrade.
High stress at wheel contact

Road surface
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Reduced stress on natural ground

Formation level

Natural ground (Subgrade)

Fig. 10.1 Distribution of wheel load to the ground 1

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Pavement

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They are (i.) the stresses from vehicles travelling on the road are highest near the surface (ii. Roadbase (a) Main load spreading layer of the pavement structure 4. Rigid pavements are constructed of Portland cement concrete (PCC) Composite pavements have a base layer of PCC and a surface layer of hot-mix asphalt. Sub-base (a) Assists load spreading (b) Assists subsoil drainage (c) Acts as temporary road for construction traffic 2 Walkway Backfill .) a smooth riding surface is necessary to reduce fatigue due to varying stresses on surface. They have strength of rigid pavements and smooth surface of flexible pavements. (b) Provides smooth riding (c) Provides skid resistant surface (d) Waterproofs the pavement 2. 1.2 shows a typical cross section of a flexible pavement. 10. 1. Basecourse (a) Supports wearing course (b) Assists protecting layers below 3.The pavement may be a single layer of one material or multiple layers of different material. Flexible pavements 2. They can be subdivided into two types.2 A typical section through a flexible pavement Fig. The functions of the different layers of flexible pavement are as follows. which are. There are two factors which lead to the development of layered flexible pavement construction. There are three types of pavements. Composite pavements Flexible pavements are constructed using granular material and bitumen. Carriageway Wearing course Kerb Basecourse Camber Roadbase Sub-base Formation Subgrade Fig. 10. Rigid pavements 3. conventional flexible pavements which consist of two or more layers of different material and full depth flexible pavements which have only one layer. Wearing course (a) Withstands direct traffic loading.

) Smaller size material than Type1.) The strength of the subgrade. Lean concrete 6. The different layers can be constructed with the materials described below. Mixtures of soil or granular material and cement. (iii.) Locally available materials for construction.3 Grading of sub-base materials Percentage passing Sieve size Type 1 Type 2 75 mm 100 100 37. Soil cement and cement bound granular road base. Roadbase can be made of the following materials. Laid in 200 mm layers and compacted or rolled. natural sands and gravels. 10. 3 . 50 – 58oC ect).7mm down crushed rock layer is laid on top and vibrated into the course layer. A 25mm thick 4.2.The design of a flexible pavement is based on. It has good particle distribution and hence good interlocking quality. Dense bituminous macadam Crushed rock (fines <3. Dry bound macadam 37. 3.1 Selection and properties of materials used in pavement layers To design the pavement layers it is necessary to select the materials for the pavement construction. Repeat until no more smaller material can be worked in. 5.) The number of wheel load applications on the pavement during the design life. 1.35 mm 38%) mixed with bitumen (10 pen to 200 pen. (ii.0 mm single size crushed rock laid in 75-100 mm thick layers and rolled. (Crushed rock. Cement bound roadbase 7. 2. (i. Excess fines removed and additional course layers are laid to build the required thickness of roadbase. Rolled asphalt Well graded crushed rock (35% fine aggregate and 65% coarse aggregate) plant mixed with 50 – 70 % pen grade bitumen. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is one measure of subgrade strength. (iv. Type 1 2. Type 2.5 mm 85-100 85-100 10 mm 40-70 45-100 5 mm 25-45 25-85 8-22 8-45 600 µm 0-10 0-10 78 µ m Type 1 is stronger. layer thicknesses have with CBR value of subgrade and number of wheel load applications. Therefore. Wet mix macadam Crushed rock graded and mixed with 2-6% water.5 mm to 50. Sub-base 1. Granular sub-base.) Table 10. slag or other hard material.) An empirical relationship. Graded Granular sub-base. Good load spreading properties 4. laid full depth in one layer and rolled.

27 mm per min. (b) Double bituminous surface treatment. The surcharge load applied using a steel disc represents the loading condition above the subgrade after laying of pavement. 2. CBR value is an undefined index of strength which depends on the soil condition at the time of testing. 10. (c) Hot rolled asphalt. rolled. Wearing course (a) Bituminous surface dressing and a layer of chippings <10 mm.4 shows details of mould. The test is carried out by subjecting a sample of the soil held in a mould to the load of a standard plunger.3 (a) and (b) show schematic arrangement of test equipment for a CBR test. The tangent is drawn to get an approximate correction to the curve. 10. Made of high fines. aggregate later rolled followed by bituminous surface dressing. Thickness 35 – 50 mm for 20mm.Surfacing has either the wearing course only or wearing course with a base course. 10. The Strongest and durable. It is given by the ratio expressed as percentage of load for 2. 10. Fig. no fines <3. aggregate layer. Thickness 35 – 50 mm for 20mm. 1.3 Wheel load applications 4 .35 mm. The plunger penetrates into the soil. (b) Dense basecourse Well graded crushed rock (35% fine aggregate and 65% coarse aggregate). Bitumen layer.5 shows load vs penetration graphs. Fig. Thickness 60 – 80 mm for 40mm. Load Plunger Surcharge weight Penetration Sample Load P lunger S urcharge weight P enetration Crushed rock (a) Penetration in sample (b) Penetration in standard crushed rock Fig.10. x is the point at which the tangent to the curve of sample B meets the x axis. (c) Rolled asphalt basecourse. plunger and test procedure. The test compares the loads on the plunger to penetrate 2. Rolled and excess chippings removed.3 Schematic arrangement of test equipment for CBR test. 50 – 75 mm layer of rolled asphalt C B R Test CBR test is an indirect test for the determination of the strength of a soil. An upward convex graph is expected as shown for sample A. In this case a correction is required to the graph and the graph is shifted by the amount x shown. Basecourse (a) Open textured macadam. Tack coat. Load is applied at the penetration rate of 1. Laid 40 mm thick with 20 mm coated chippings rolled into the surface for better skid resistance. Thickness 50 – 60 mm for 28 mm.5mm of penetration in soil sample to load for same penetration in standard crushed rock sample.2. Fig. Sometimes the graph behaves as shown for sample B. Thickness 60 – 80 mm for 40mm.5 mm into the soil sample and a standard sample of crushed rock. Coarse graded.

Rate of penetration is 1. 2.4 Details of mould.05 mm 2. 4.1 gives these equivalent factors which are based on the empirical relationship.25 mm up to 7.1.1 Estimation of the amount of traffic and the cumulative number of equivalent standard axles (esa) Base year traffic flow is the Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) of the base year. the anticipated number of different types of vehicles using the pavement during the design life and the conversion (equivalent) factors for each vehicle type which converts an axle loading to a standard axle loading.5 (10. .27mm/min.2. CBR Test Surcharge Weight equivalent to weight of pavement 152 mm 1. plunger and test procedure Load on plunger Vs Penetration for Standard crushed stone 5 .6 mm dia end. height = 51 mm Collar height = 127 mm Mould Note: 1. This is based on the design life.The other required data for pavement design is the number of times wheel loads are applied to the pavement. Record load at penetration intervals of 0. Soil compacted in the mould in three layers using 61 blows per layer with a rammer weighing 2. Determine moisture content 3. Fig. Plot Load Vs Penetration. Base year esa (esabase) = AADT x 365 x Ef (10. The no of vehicles is converted into equivalent standard axles (esa) using the equivalent factors given in Table 10. 10.1) 10.5 mm. Maximum particle size is 19.  AxleLoad  Equvalent Factor ( Ef ) =    8160  4 . Table 10.3.5 kg.2) Plunger 49.

0 14.0 18.5 Penetration in mm Fig.15 x 100 13.5 19.0 8.0 44.5 15.04 2.11 3.50 5.0 12.70 8.0 5.0 0.0 10.0 16.5 11.0 5.5 3.24 Load in kN CBR of A = 7.0 17.83 6.20 9.0 x 2.13 7.70 CBR of B = 5.50 4.15 5.0 2.20 9.5 17.0 3.0 56.91 4. 10.0 8.0 6.30 7.Load on plunger (kN) Penetration (mm) 11.5 7.0 20.0 30.5 9.5 2.0 0.0 4.5 The Load on plunger Vs Penetration graphs Table 10.0 20.01 2.0 35.0 0.24 x 0.3 10.0 11.90 10.24 Sample A Examples Sample B 7.0 1.50 Example: Base Year Equivalent Standard Axles (esa) Axle load of vehicle class AADT of vehicle class Equivalent Factor(Ef) Base year esa 6 .0 0.55 5.0 33.0 Standard crushed stone 13.0 27.3 8.0 0.0 22.0 0.0 7.5 12.0 26.0 15.0 1.5 5.0 3.5 13.70 x 100 13.1 Equivalent factors for different axle loads Single and dual Wheel Load (103 kg) Axle Load (103 kg) Equivalent Factor (Ef) 1.25 3.67 6.0 2.0 6.50 8.0 4.6 4.2 6.

0 250 6. Example.55 22630 2.7 – 1.2. The esacum can be directly used to find the thicknesses of pavement layers if the design charts of Road Note 29 are employed.0 25 12.3 S1 2 T2 0. Calculation of cumulative esa Growth Factor Design life Cumulative esa Axle load of vehicle class Base year esa (%) (n years) (esacum) 3.0 – 30.67 31043 life (n years) to calculate cumulative (10. In order to use the design charts of Road Note 31 Table 10.0 85 8.50 15513 0.0 100 7.11 10038 0.0 S6 30 T7 10. the wheel load applications during design life are calculated as follows. (esa)] during the design life.25 9125 0.3) esacum = esabase (1 + r ) n − 1 × r Thus.2 Traffic and subgrade strength classes.83 34949 5.0 380 5.0 31938 4 10 383451 11.0 31043 5 10 390456 Total 2269343 The traffic class is T5 10.0 S4 8-14 T5 3.5 – 3.0 1643 4 10 19726 4.50 31938 3.0 10038 3 10 115074 6. 0.2.0 450 4.0 34949 4 10 419601 12.0 9125 4 10 109556 7.4 Road Note 31 7 .0 It is necessary to convert the esacum into Traffic Classes and CBR values into subgrade strength classes as given in Table 10.7 S2 3-4 T3 0.0 5548 3 10 63602 5.3 – 0.0 40 10.0 75 9. Traffic Classes Subgrade Strength Classes 6 Traffic Class 10 esa Range Subgrade Strength Class Range of CBR % T1 <0.0 S5 15-29 T6 6.91 24911 1.04 5548 0.01 1643 0.3.0 – 17.0 24911 5 10 313328 9.0 T8 17.0 – 6.0 15513 5 10 195121 8. • Assess base year traffic flow by classes of commercial vehicles • Determine the axle loads and growth rate of each vehicle class • Apply the equivalent axle load factors and growth rates to base year traffic flow to determine the pavement damaging effect [equivalent standard axles.0 35 11.5 S3 5-7 T4 1.0 15 Use growth factor(r) for each vehicle class and the assigned design esa.0 – 10.0 22630 3 10 259428 10.

Overseas Road Note 31. 10.6 gives a flow chart leading to the design of flexible using steps discussed in this note. The charts give directly the pavement layer thicknesses for different combinations of Traffic and Subgrade strength classes. Fig.7 gives the legend of description of pavement materials necessary to refer Charts 1 to 8. United Kingdom gives a simple but adequate design procedure for most Sri Lankan roads. 10. Assess geotechnical problems Survey Possible Routes Search for sources of materials Search for sources of materials Measure traffic volume by class Assess Traffic Measure axle load Choose design life Calculate cumulative traffic loading Measure Subgrade Strength Assign climatic regime Test soils Define uniform sections Design earth works Select Pavement Materials Locate sources Test properties Accept reject or modify Assess severe sites Select Pavement Structure Build Cost analysis Review local experience Risk analysis (or full appraisal ) Design drainage Fig. 10.“A guide to the structural design of bitumen-surfaced roads in tropical and sub tropical countries” published by Transport Research Laboratory (TRL). Fig. Please refer to Charts 1 to 8.6 Flow chart for the construction of a highway pavement 8 .

10.GB3 Granular sub-base GS Granular capping layer or selected subgrade fill GC Cement or lime -stabilised roadbase 1 CB1 Cement or lime -stabilised roadbase 2 CB2 Cement or lime -stabilised sub -base CS Fig.Double surface dressing Flexible bituminous surface Bituminous surface (Usually a wearing course WC and a basecource BC ) Bituminous roadbase RB Granular roadbase GB 1 .7 Legend of definitions of pavement materials for use with Charts 1 to 8 9 .

The substitution ratio of sub-base to selected fill is 25mm-32mm. A cement or lime stabilized sub-base may also be used.Chart 1 GRANULAR ROADBASE / SURFACE DRESSING T1 SD 150 T2 SD 150 225* T3 SD 200 200 T4 SD 200 T5 SD 200 T6 SD 225 T7 S1 175 250* 300 * 325* 300 300 300 300 300 300 SD SD 150 200 200 SD 200 SD 200 225* 150 200 175 200 200 200 200 SD 225 200 275* 300* SD 200 225 S2 SD 150 SD SD S3 SD 150 200 SD 150 SD 200 200 250 225 275* 325* 350* SD S4 SD 150 125 SD 150 175 SD 200 150 SD 200 SD 200 225 275 200 250 SD S5 SD 150 100 SD 150 100 SD 175 100 SD 175 SD 200 125 SD 200 SD 225 150 SD 225 250 175 SD 250 S6 Notes SD 150 SD 150 1 2 * Up to 100mm of sub-base may be substituted with selected fill provided the sub-base is not reduced to les than the roadbase thickness or 200mm whichever is the greater. 10 .

Chart 2 COMPOSITE ROADBASE (UNBOUND AND CEMENTED) / SURFACE DRESSING T1 SD T2 SD 150 175 T3 SD 150 200 T4 SD 150 225 T5 SD 150 T6 SD 150 125 275 150 T7 SD 150 125 175 S1 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 SD 125 SD 150 150 200 SD 150 175 200 SD 150 200 SD 150 250 SD 150 125 125 SD 150 125 175 200 SD 150 125 150 150 SD 150 125 175 SD 150 S2 150 200 200 200 SD 150 200 SD 150 125 S3 SD 125 150 100 SD 125 150 125 SD 150 150 125 SD 150 225 175 150 SD 150 200 250 150 SD 150 125 150 SD 150 125 125 S4 SD 125 150 SD 125 175 SD 150 175 SD SD 125 125 SD 150 125 SD 150 150 SD 150 175 SD 150 200 S5 125 125 250 SD 150 175 SD S6 SD 150 SD 150 SD 175 SD 200 SD 225 150 150 Note Sub-base to fill substitution not permitted 11 .

A cement or lime stabilized sub-base may also be used. The substitution ratio of sub-base to selected fill is 25mm-32mm. 12 .Chart 3 GRANULAR ROADBASE / SEMI-STRUCTURAL SURFACE T1 T2 T3 50 175 T4 50 175 250* T5 50 175 T6 50 200 T7 S1 200 300* 325* 300 300 300 300 50 50 175 50 175 50 200 S2 175 175 225* 275* 300* 200 200 200 50 175 200 50 200 50 50 175 275* S3 175 225 325* 350* 50 50 175 50 175 250 50 200 S4 175 150 275* 200 50 175 150 50 200 50 200 50 150 50 175 125 50 175 S5 S6 Notes 1 2 100 50 150 175 50 225 * Up to 100mm of sub-base may be substituted with selected fill provided the sub-base is not reduced to les than the roadbase thickness or 200mm whichever is the greater.

Chart 4 COMPOSITE ROADBASE / SEMI-STRUCTURAL SURFACE T2 T3 50 150 T4 50 150 T5 50 150 T6 50 150 125 T7 50 150 125 150 T8 50 150 150 150 S1 175 200 250 125 300 300 300 300 300 300 50 50 150 200 50 150 225 50 150 125 125 50 150 125 150 50 150 150 150 S2 150 175 200 200 200 200 50 150 200 50 150 125 200 50 150 150 125 150 50 150 150 150 50 150 125 50 50 150 150 150 50 150 200 150 S3 150 150 125 250 125 150 150 50 150 125 S4 50 150 150 50 150 175 50 150 225 50 150 250 150 50 150 225 50 150 150 S5 50 125 125 50 150 125 50 150 150 50 150 175 125 50 150 150 S6 Notes 1 50 150 50 175 50 200 50 100 150 Sub-base to fill substitution not permitted 13 .

A cement or lime stabilized sub-base may also be used. 14 . The substitution ratio of sub-base to selected fill is 25mm-32mm.Chart 5 GRANULAR ROADBASE / STRUCTURAL SURFACE T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 100 200 T7 125 225 T8 150 250 S1 225 * 225 250 350 350 350 150 S2 100 200 125 225 250 225 * 225 250 200 200 200 150 S3 100 200 125 250 225 250 250 275 S4 100 200 125 225 150 250 175 175 175 S5 100 200 100 125 225 100 150 250 100 150 S6 100 200 125 225 250 Notes 1 2 * Up to 100mm of sub-base may be substituted with selected fill provided the sub-base is not reduced to les than the roadbase thickness or 200mm whichever is the greater.

Chart 6 COMPOSITE ROADBASE / STRUCTURAL SURFACE T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 100 150 T7 125 150 T8 150 150 125 S1 200 250 125 350 350 350 125 100 150 200 150 250 150 150 125 125 S2 200 200 200 150 150 225 125 150 100 125 150 S3 150 175 125 200 125 100 125 150 200 150 225 S4 150 175 100 125 150 150 125 100 150 150 150 150 150 100 150 S5 150 150 100 100 S6 Notes 1 Sub-base to fill substitution not permitted 150 15 .

A cement or lime stabilized sub-base may also be used. The substitution ratio of sub-base to selected fill is 25mm-32mm.Chart 7 BITUMINOUS ROADBASE / SEMI-STRUCTURAL SURFACE T2 T3 T4 SD 150 T5 50 125 225* T6 50 150 225* T7 50 175 225* T8 50 200 S1 200 250* 350 350 350 350 350 SD 150 50 125 225* 50 150 225* 50 175 225* 50 200 S2 200 250* 200 SD 150 200 200 50 150 275* 200 50 175 200 50 200 50 125 250 S3 250 275* 275* SD 50 125 200 50 150 200 50 175 200 50 175 125 50 175 50 200 S4 150 175 SD 200 50 200 125 50 200 50 125 125 50 150 125 50 150 S5 150 125 SD S6 Notes 1 50 125 150 2 * Up to 100mm of sub-base may be substituted with selected fill provided the sub-base is not reduced to less than the roadbase thickness or 200mm whichever is the greater. 16 .

17 .Chart 8 CEMENTED ROADBASE / SURFACE DRESSING T1 SD T2 SD T3 SD T4 SD T5 SD T6 SD T7 200 250 150 150 175 350 175 175 350 200 200 200 225 S1 150 350 350 350 350 SD SD SD SD SD SD S2 150 150 225 150 175 225 175 175 225 200 175 225 SD 200 225 225 SD 200 275 225 SD SD SD SD 150 150 150 125 175 150 125 200 175 125 SD 200 200 125 SD 200 225 125 SD S3 150 125 S4 SD SD SD 200 100 200 150 100 SD 200 200 100 SD 150 150 150 150 175 150 SD 100 SD S5 SD SD 175 175 100 SD 200 175 SD 200 200 SD 150 100 SD 150 100 SD 150 SD S6 Notes 150 150 175 200 225 250 1 A granular sub-base may also be used.

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