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We express our deep sense of gratitude and thanks to Thiru. M.Dhanasekaran, Chairman & Managing Director and Thiru. S.V.Sugumaran, Vice-Chairman & Secretary of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Educational Trust, Dr. S.Malarkkan, Principal of Manakula Vinayagar Institute of Technology, Puducherry for providing necessary facilities in the arrangement for the successful completion of our report work. We express our sincere thanks to Mrs. C.P.Subha, Head of the Department, Electronics and Communication Engineering for her support in making necessary arrangements for the Project. We express our sincere gratitude to Mrs. D. Saraswathi, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering for guiding us and helping us execute our project successfully. We thank all the department faculties, who also motivated us, parents and our friends of Electronics and communication engineering for helping us to complete the document successfully on time.

Visual cryptography is one of the techniques used to encrypt the images by dividing the original image into transparencies. These transparencies are distributed among the participants involved. The transparencies can be sent to the intended person, and at the other end the transparencies received can be decrypted only by the intended person and thus recovering the original image. Only a qualified set of shares can be used to decrypt the image. The encryption is done with another random image chosen by the sender, also known to the intended recipient. The proposed system Visual cryptography provides a friendly environment to deal with images. Using this application we can send encrypted images that are in the form of .gif and .png (portable network graphics). The encrypted transparencies can be saved in the machine and can be sent to the intended person by other means. In addition, this can also be used to encrypt color images rather than only binary images as done in the papers preceding this work.


CHAPTER No TITLE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ABBREVATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Need for Study 1.2 Cryptography 1.3 Proposed Block diagram 2 3 LITERATURE SURVEY CRYPTOGRAPHY 3.1 Cryptography 3.2 Types of Cryptography 3.2.1 Symmetric-key Cryptography DES AES Cryptographic Hash Functions 3.2.2 Public-key Cryptography

PAGE No i ii vi vii viii 1 1 1 2 3 9 9 10 10 13 14 15 16 RSA Algorithm Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol Digital Signatures Algorithm (DSA) 3.3 Cryptosystems 4 VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY 4.1 Introduction 4.2 How Visual Cryptography Works 4.2.1 One-Time Image 4.3 Halftone Technique 4.4 Dithering Technique 4.5 (2,N) Visual Cryptography Sharing Case 5 EXTENDED VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY SCHEMES 5.1 Introduction 5.2 A Sample EVCS Program 6 PROPOSED SYSTEM MODEL AND RELATED WORK 6.1 Existing Work 6.1.1 Limitations of Existing Work 6.2 Proposed System

19 20

21 22 24 24 25 26 29 30 33 36

36 36 40

40 40 40


6.2.1 Advantages of Proposed System 6.3 Hardware Requirements 6.4 Software Requirements 6.5 Base Paper Algorithm 6.6 For Embedding 6.7 Modules 6.8 Modules Description 6.9 Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio 7 SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION AND ALGORITHM 7.1 Java 7.1.1 Performance 7.2 Swing (Java) 7.3 Netbeans 7.4 LZW Compression Algorithm 7.4.1 LZW Fundamentals 7.4.2 Compression 7.4.3 Decompression 8 9 SIMULATED RESULTS CONCLUSION

40 41 41 41 42 42 42 46 48

48 48 49 49 50 50 51 52 57 64


1.3.1 3.2.1 4.1.1 4.2.1 4.5.1 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

Proposed Block Diagram Types of Cryptography Visual Cryptography Visual Cryptography Demonstration of Visual Cryptography Encrypted Transparency 1 Encrypted Transparency 2 Encrypted Transparency 3

22 24 25 35 57 58 59 60 61 62

Overlay Transparency 1 Overlay Transparency 2 Overlay Transparency 3


TABLE No 8.1 TITLE Compression Process Decompression Process Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio PAGE No. 52 54 63


LIST OF ABBREVATIONS AES Advanced Encryption Standard ARM Advanced RISC Machine ATM Automated Teller Machine AWT Abstract Window Toolkit CBC Cipher Block Chaining CFB Cipher Feedback CPA Chosen Plaintext Attack CP/M Control Program for Microcomputers DES Data Encryption Standard D-H Diffie-Hellman DSA Digital Signatures Algorithm ECB Electronic Codebook EVCS Extended Visual Cryptography Schemes FEAL Fast data Encipherment Algorithm FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard GCHQ Government Communication Headquarters GIF Graphics Interchange Format GNU GNUs Not Unix GUI Graphical User Interface IDE Integrated Development Environment JFC Java Foundation Classes JVM Java Virtual Machine LCD Liquid Crystal Display lpi lines per inch LZW Lempel-Ziv-Welch MAC Message Authentication Codes MS-DOS Microsoft Disk Operating System NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NSA National Security Agency

OFB Output Feedback PKC Public Key Cryptography PNG Portable Network Graphics RSA Rivest Shamir Adleman SHA Secure Hash Algorithm SQ String Quartet SSL Secure Sockets Layer TLS Transport Layer Security UNIX Uniplexed Information Computing System VPN Virtual Private Network