“DNA Structure and Function”____Biology

A. DNA Structure DNA is a nucleic acid composed of nucleotide monomers DNA nucleotide consists of: • one phosphate group • one deoxyribose sugar • one nitrogenous base (DNA is a double-stranded helix) Pyrimidines (T & C) form hydrogen bonds with purines (A & G) • •

13th Chapter

Thymine pairs with Adenine, forming 2 hydrogen bonds Cytosine pairs with Guanine, forming 3 hydrogen bonds

DNA Strands are anti parallel (numbering of strands is based on position of deoxyribose sugars) DNA is highly condensed • DNA is tightly wrapped around proteins and folded • DNA must unwind for replication to occur B. DNA Replication Process by which DNA is duplicated • occurs during the S phase of Interphase • is semi-conservative (Meselon and Stahl)

C. COMPARISON OF DNA AND RNA

RNA is a more versitle molecule than DNA. It is able to store and code for information or act as a catalyst. RNA however is less stable than DNA -subject to degredation or mutation. Six major differences are:
1. The sugar in the RNA molecule is ribose. DNA's sugar is deoxyribose. 2. RNA is usually a single stranded molecule while DNA is nearly always 3.

4. 5. 6.

double stranded. DNA's rigid double helix structure allows for only one function (information storage) whereas RNA's greater molecular diversity results in a wider range of functions RNA uses the nucleotide uracil instead of thymine DNA is often 103 to 106 times larger than RNA RNA is much less stable than DNA. As a single stranded molecule it has no way of reparing itself.

D. Transcription mRNA is made from DNA • occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells

BE SURE TO KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION >>> WILL BE ON THE TEST

There are 3 major types of RNA that can be TRANSCRIBED • mRNA (messenger RNA) – used to make proteins • rRNA (ribosomal RNA) – used to make ribosomes • tRNA (transfer RNA) – transports specific amino acids during protein synthesis (translation)

tRNA
Eukaryotic mRNA must be processed before it exits nucleus and enters cytoplasm • nucleotide cap is added • “poly A tail” is added • introns are removed E. Translation Protein is made from mRNA • occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

THE GENETIC CODE

REVIEW:
Genetic information flows in cell from DNA > RNA > protein

Each gene of DNA codes for production of a specific protein

F. Mutation A physical change in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA * may not affect phenotype (silent mutation) * can form spontaneously or be induced by a mutagen 1. Point Mutation – one DNA molecule replaces another * missense mutation – point mutation that changes a codon to specify a different amino acid * nonsense mutation – point mutation that changes an amino acid specifying codon into a stop-codon 2. Frameshift mutation – the insertion or deletion of nucleotides, results in disruption of the reading frame 3. Expanding repeat – the # of copies of a 4 nucleotide sequence increases over several generations