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Booklet No.199 Animal Husbandry –Cattle: CAS-7
Contents Preface I. Introduction II. Care and Management of Cows III. Care and Management of Calves IV. Care and Management of Heifers V. Management of Bull VI. Management of Cross-bred Cows VII. Periodical Weighing of Cattle VIII. Providing First Aid to Cattle. Preface Though India has the largest number of cattle in the world, the productivity in terms of milk and meat is perhaps the lowest. Besides, the genetic potential is not only underdeveloped but also degrading slowly and steadily. Lack of proper management is the main reason for these problems. This booklet covers all the aspects of the management of various types of cattle. Dr. K. T. Chandy, Agriculture & environmental Education. I. Introduction The total cattle population of India is about 180 million excluding 61 million buffaloes. Though lndia abounds in number, it is a well known fact that there is an overall shortage of milk in the country. The daily per capita consumption of milk and milk products has been estimated to be about 120 g, as compared to 250 g recommended by the National Nutrition Committee. The majority of Indian animals are low producers of milk. The old philosophy was to develop a breed which not only produced a fair amount of milk but also provided bullocks which were hardy and capable of doing agricultural work. This was termed as dual purpose breed. There is no doubt that some good local breeds are still found in the country which owe their availability to nomadic and private breeders. Some of the buffaloes and cows can be compared favourably with any recognized high yielding breeds of the world. There have been many factors which have contributed towards low yield by cattle. The major factor among them is the faulty or inadequate management of dairy cattle. Management of cattle includes procurement and raising of good animals, their proper feeding, housing, maintenance, and other major and minor management practices like record keeping, budgeting, etc. It is a well known fact that maximum production from animals and better returns per unit depend upon five factors namely breeding, feeding, management, disease control and proper marketing of the dairy product. A. Philosophy of cattle management Present day domestic animals unlike their remote ancestors are put to abnormal use and they have to stand against artificial conditions of life. For instance, cows milk was not intended by, nature for human consumption. Originally, it was meant to be utilised by its calf. Selective breeding by man over centuries led to the improvement of the productive capacity of the cow to
animal's own growth and the calf in the womb during the subsequent gestation. . etc. which consumes agricultural byproducts and grassland crops and converts these into one of nature's most nourishing and nearly perfect food -the milk. 1. 2. It is essential to provide milch cow with a well balanced ration. The peak production is reached in about 2-3 months and remains static for a few months and then starts declining. housed properly in well ventilated. 6. The quantity of concentrate mixture is increased slowly so that a complete ration is fed after about 15days. the animal has to be provided with a combination of nutritious fodder and concentrates properly supplemented with vitamins and mineral so Copious amount of clean and fresh water should also be given regularly. Lowest possible investment per animal in direct raising or replacement. Highest level of production per man employed or per man hour. A. iron. Highest level of production per animal with less cost. end of gestation. For other details about feeding cattle. well looked after. capable of meeting the demands of all the essential body functions including production. This artificial method of increased milk production is a strain on her bodily resources. 3. refer to booklet No. Deficiency of any vital feed constituent will surely affect the production of the animals. she will not maintain high production capacity. It means that the animal gets slightly more quantity of concentrate ration than actual production in order to induce the animal to reach its maximum potentialities. With the rearing parturition of a heifer. 41 on “Cattle Feeding”. fed on liberal nourishing and well balanced ration. Proper margin of net returns. As soon as the heifer is transformed into cow. 4. procurement of feeds. Throughout the lactation and other stages of motherhood.such an extent that her milk today serves as an important item of the diet of man. If the yield of milk increases. 5. B. Comfortable but less costly buildings. in order to maintain good level of milk production. and the udder tissues of the cow take up their shape and size. when extra ration proves uneconomical. After 15 days of calving. "challenge feeding" or "lead feeding" may be enforced. Care and Management of Cows The cow can be described as a natural mobile factory. spacious and comfortable sheds. Objectives of cattle management The following six basic objectives are to be kept in view while making a productive plan for cattle management. Thus livestock are to be maintained in comfortable conditions if they are to produce and reproduce ideally. it is to be fed and bred in a way that the maximum potential of the animal is fully exploited. fodders and animals for replacement. A slight increase in milk yield with large quantity of concentrate mixture is not economical. the quantity of ration is further increased till a stage is reached. provided with a plentiful supply of pure clean water for drinking. phosphorus. all the inputs required should be meticulously provided.Profitable production. By the. the need for nutrition becomes higher to cope up with demands of milk secretion. II. It is also the time when the animals may be fed on additional minerals like calcium. Feeding cow during lactation The cow should get light diet for the first few days after calving. During lactation. the requirement increases greatly as the development of foetus in the womb is at the maximum. Unless she is carefully selected.
Dry cow should never be starved because she is not giving the milk. which had depleted due to milk production. The udder fills up and due to pressure that builds it the secretion of milk stops automatically after sometime. it also leads low to productivity of the animal. This can be assured by having a bull parade. However. it will be better to watch the udder closely. in case of heavy yielders a different strategy will have to be adopted. These changes can be observed by the experts only. Some people do not breed their milch cow for a long time thinking that milk yield would decrease. (i i) to enable them to replenish store of body minerals. D. a phased programme of drying of animals is required. she is preparing herself for the production (calf and milk) in the coming season. (iii) to rest and restore to organs of milk secretion. The opening of the uterus will be closed. It is generally dried off about two months before calving. In order to have regularity in calving.B. This is not a correct thinking and needs to be discouraged. So she needs sufficient food for maintaining-the normal life process. Besides. The cow itself may put on weight due to extra feed. it should be noted that a longer dry period is in no way conductive to more milk production. Such cases needs to be treated properly before milking isstopped. The size of the abdomen becomes bigger. One bull is enough for 50cowser buffaloes in case of natural service. month after month. The udder will get slowly filled in as the calf in the uterus grows bigger and bigger. Alternatively the animals may be bred with the artificial insemination for which proper heat detection is essential. Breeding cows The animals starts coming in heat regularly but the first two heats may be missed and the animal should preferably be mated at the third heat. Care of dry cows This is very important as a cow's next production record is determined by the care bestowed on her during the dry period. The grain ration may be cut down and the animal may be milked at irregular intervals. In such cases. Below are given some tips to find out whether the cow is pregnant or not. All the lactating cows need rest for certain period and should be dried off in order (i) to allow them to build up body resources and to improve in physical condition before calving. The size and health of the calf in the uterus also depend on the care she receives during her dry period. and (iv) to allow them to use their feed to nourish the foetus. fallopian tubes and the uterus. If the herd or the animal has any history of mastitis. 3. 1. . respectively. better helping the calf inside the uterus and for building up the reserve in her system for the next lactation. A pregnant cow will not come to heat. Dry period in cows The time between the end of one lactation and the beginning of subsequent when a cow does not produce any milk is called dry period. 2. However. The daily milk yie1d will come down gradually. it may be milked out at regular intervals. 7. At the beginning. If necessary. 6. C. this schedule is desirable as it will ensure one calf in a-year in case of cows and one calf every 15 months in case of buffaloes with an average gestation period of 285 and 310 days. The cow must be mated with the bulls whose pedigree is known and are reputed to transmit their traits to off-spring. 5. 4. animals are milked once a day and then after two or three days the milking is stopped completely. There will be changes in the ovaries. The best way to dry off an animal is a complete cessation of milking.
Preparation for calving When the cow is going to calve. Depending upon the condition of the animal. 4. The cow will try to urinate frequently in small quantities. 6. lie down for sometime and will stand up now and then. The lips of the vulva will become loose. In addition mineral mixture at the rate of 1 % is advantageous. 6. damp-free. 1. 10. where she has access to copious supply of clean freshwater. To meet the needs of calcium and phosphorus. She gets isolated from the herd and does not eat her usual quantity of feed. 3. Do not frighten the pregnant cow or allow her to fight with other animals. different types of cakes like cottonseed cake. 5. Avoid overcrowding. 8. The pregnant cow will be inclined to eat more feed and green fodder. The milk veins will be full. the cow should also be given about 5 kg good pasture hay or straw and 10. F. Do not make her walk long distances. 10. Take good care of the udder by visiting the cow daily and release the tension to some extent by milking if the udder is full. Prevent mechanical injuries by providing comfortable housing with a bedding of straw or dry leaves. 5. 2. she should be transferred to a quiet comfortable and well bedded place. 9.e. It will remain like a plastic streak undissolved when dropped into glass of water. . 11. The udder will be full and teats filled and turgid.8. tortuous and prominent. 8. Well ventilated. she should receive special care and attention. E. give light and easily digestible feed. There will be mucous discharged from the genital organ. relaxed and slightly separated. Following tips will be useful for taking proper care of pregnant cows. 4. The abdomen will be fully distended and pendulous due to the weight of the full grown calf in the uterus. In addition. Do not allow her to mix with other cows which might have aborted previously . Give some exercise under supervision or leave the cow to move freely in an enclosed space with plenty of water to drink at will. As the pregnant cow should not get constipation. Constant watch should be kept over the animal so that approach of the calving time can be ascertained. There will be characteristic depression just above the pin bones. 10. The coat (skin of cow) will appear polished and shinning. The cow urinate more frequently. it would be quite safe to feed 2kg of concentrate mixture every day during the later part of pregnancy for boosting up. The amount of grains to be fed during this period depends upon the actual condition of the cow. The milk will be thick and not easily soluble in water. 7. The depression will become deeper and deeper and becomes more pronounced as the time of calving approaches. groundnut cake or mustard cake should be given along with wheat bran and grains. To get a good calf and more milk after calving feed liberally during pregnancy. House the pregnant cow away from the restore the herd at least a week before she is expected to calve. on either side of the base of the tail. The cow will feel restless. 9. non-slippery sheds are necessary for her. driving fast or slipping.20 kg green grass to ensure the supply of vitamin A. 7. The approaching signs of parturition are mentioned below. Care of pregnant cow If it is known that the cow is pregnant. i. 9. 2. 1. Stop milking the pregnant cows at least 2 months before calving. 3.
When the after-birth (placenta) has been discharged. it may range for 270 to 290 days after . it should immediately be buried deeply. To avoid milk fever. it is best not to draw all the milk from the udder for a day or two after calving. Knowing expected date of calving is very helpful in preparing the pregnant cow for safe and easy calving. All care should be taken to avoid licking or ingestion of the placenta by the cow as it would reduce the milk yield due to excessive protein intake. you must check up if the calf breathes normally. administer Ergot mixture or take the help of a veterinarian. the calving date can be calculated to within one to 10 days. etc. If she fails to do. following points should be observed during and after the process of parturition. which every farmer should do. Care should be taken that iron nails. 9. Milk the cow partially to avoid milk fever after parturition. 3. This is a good sign of normal delivery. 8. It is normal for the udder to be swollen and become large just before parturition. Generally. 6. Such calf will come out sometimes in a few minutes at any rate within half an hour. 2. especially in winter season. . clear fluid from vagina. However. This will give a good antiseptic wash. While calving the golden rule is not to interfere if everything appears to be normal. eyes and ears of the cal f and warm up the cal by briskly rubbing the body surface. The dairy man should remain alert for any symptoms of the disease. mouth. bran and linseed mash can be used to replace bran mash. Care of cow during and after parturition Usually a dairy cow will carry her calf for a periodof282days (gestation period). 1. you must hasten to remove the mucous from the nostrils. It is desirable that the hot water is readily available. conception. the exterior of the genitalia. the amount of feed during these two days does not matter. loose glass pieces. When once this happens. The placenta will normally leave the cow within 2-4 hours. The amount of concentrates should be gradually increased. Give the cow -to -calve some warm bran mash with one kg of boiled bajara and a handful of jaggery before and after calving. If it is not expelled within 12 hours. 10. The first sign of calving will be the bursting of the "water bag" and letting out copious. Remember that if the labour prolongs more than four hours. This will not only help in increased milk production but will also help in the separation and expulsion of the foetal membrane. Controversy exists as to whether or not the milk should be taken out before calving. In case of any problem the help of the veterinary surgeon should be obtained.G. After parturition.As soon as the calf is born. do not injure the swollen udder. some problems may be there and immediate veterinary aid is a must. To avoid mastitis regular tests should be made by a veterinarian. Some green grass may also be given. 5. the flanks and tail of the cow should be washed with warm clear water containing some crystals of potassium permagnate or neem leaves boiled in water. one can normally expect the calf to come out in about half an hour. a mixture of oats. Keep the cow warm to prevent her from chill and it is desirable to give her warm water or warm gur sarbat to drink just after parturition. She should be given lukewarm water. 4. There are always dangers that high producing cows will develop milk fever and mastitis. After two days. allow the cow to lick the calf. 7. with dry straw or by a piece of gunny cloth. Feed the cow at first only bran mash moistened with lukewarm water to provide laxative effect. In winter the animal should be saved from exposure to low temperature and direct draft. Within minutes the hooves of the forelimbs of the calf with the snout resting on them a few inches behind will be seen protruding. If accurate dairy records have been kept. Any abnormality in presentation requires immediate attention by a veterinarian. it may take a little longer in the case of first calving. However. If the cow is in good condition at the time of calving. If not so.
free from drought and dampness. 1. Give some dry bedding (straw or dry leaves) and keep the calf warm and well protected from being trampled by older animals. 8. 2. Some calf raisers prefer to allow the calf to be with its mother till the colostrum period. Dehorn the calf at an early age preferably within 15 days. If scouring occurs the milk allowances should be reduced to half or less until the calf recovers. the calf should be vaccinated against anthrax and 15 days thereafter. providing some dry leaves or straw as bedding.S. eyes and ears. cut it off about two inches from the body before applying iodine. Provide an enclosed space for exercise. At the age of 3 months. Teats of the udder in excess in female should be removed at an early age. In such a case expert veterinary aids are necessary. If not.Once the placenta has been discharged and the calf is on its feet it can be taken as successful parturition. 9. A. House the calf in a comfortable shed. resort to artificial respiration by gently pressing and releasing the pressure on chest wall. The lactating cow should get ration for maintenance. 11. it should be vaccinated against black quarter. At the age of 15 days. but actually it begins with the proper nourishment of the developing foetus. The rate of milk feeding should be about 10% of the calfs weight per day. The cow can be returned to the milking herd after about 10-15 days. The calf is taken away from its mother either just after birth or after 2 -3 days of birth. If a long cord is attached to the navel. production and growth of foetus. Tattoo the calf for identification or fix a neck tag or ear tag. 10. Make sure that the calf breathes well. 3. 7. The first milk from the udder (colostrum) is necessary for the new born calf at least during first 3 -4 days so that the "micconium" will come out and the calf will also acquire some immunity from the mother as colostrum is rich in antibodies and vitamins. 6. serum should be inoculated into the calf. 4. Care and Management of Calves Successful calf raising does not begin from the time calf is born. This is called "weaning system". Under most conditions the calf will be on its feet and ready for suckling within an hour. Some assistance at this stage is helpful. The navel cord should not be tied but allowed to dry and drop down naturally. The practices of management of calves at different stages are described here. . Make certain that the calf born is normal without any deformity or abnormality. use a wisp of straw to remove the mucus covering of nostrils. The calf is allowed to stay with its mother and to suckle only a little before and after the cows are milked. 2. Apply tincture of iodine to the navel at birth. Infection can be prevented if an attendant cleans the cows udder before the calf nurses. Care of the new born calf A new born calf is naturally exposed to a variety of harmful organisms which may affect it adversely. 1. B. 5. 30-40 cc of H. up to a maximum of 4 to 6 litres per day. Systems of calf rearing There are mainly the following two system of rearing the calf prevalent in this country. mouths. After that feeding and management of the calf will be entirely in the hands of the dairy man. One kg of extra concentrate mixture (with 16% protein) is enough for foetus development in addition to the dams own need. III. rub the body surface softly but briskly with a wisp of straw to give some warmth and if necessary. and dust with boric acid powder. 12.
Weaning has several advantages: 1. Milk can be warmed to a temperature of 37. The nipple pail has advantage in that the calf takes the milk more slowly. It makes the cow independent of the calf and she continues to yield milk. Excellent dairy calves can be raised by changing them from whole milk. Proper feeding of the calf can be scheduled. By continuous feeding it will learn to drink. One should pour about a quarter of the mother cows milk into a clean pail used for feeding calves and bring the nose of the calf in contact with milk. Feed milk immediately after it is drawn. calves may be fed as per the feeding schedule. the mouth of the calf may be washed with water and a little salt may be rubbed in the mouth. An injury to the cow's teats may be avoided which may be caused by the calfs teeth. Calf can be on milk for minimum period and subsequently on a calf starter. 3. After feeding the milk. If this precaution is not taken. as some calves are slow in learning to take milk from a pail. gradually after two weeks of their age.8 to 38. the calf starts licking the other calves or start licking the earth. it may cause diarrhoea. In some farms it is thought preferable to feed the young calves during30r 4 weeks of age from a nippled pail (a pail equipped with a rubber nipple). While feeding whole milk the following points should be remembered. b. d. 2. This is best accomplished by allowing the calf to suck the finger of the feeder so that its head may be guided into the pail and then the hand of the feeder can be gradually lowered to the bucket and submerged in the milk sufficiently deep to allow a little milk to be taken by the calf. The total amount of milk may be fed at 3-4 equal intervals up to the age of 7 days and then twice daily. This is an operation that requires considerable patience. oC (animals body temperatures). its natural instinct automatically leads the calf nearer the udder of its mother within half an hour to one hour of its birth. If the earth is licked. calves which are weak may need a little assistance to reach the teats. the licked calves present an ugly look. 4. 6. in order to keep down the cost of rearing. Care should be taken that nipple pails are thoroughly cleaned after every feeding. Better standard of hygiene can be maintained. a. In case of weaning system teaching the calves to drink becomes necessary. large quantities of separated milk are available. Cow becomes regular breeder. As far as possible provide milk from calf's mother. . On many farms. 1. In feeding whole milk. The sudden death of the calf does not affect the production of the animal in any way. and is then less likely to have digestive upsets. c. When the calf is allowed to stay with its mother. Proper records of the milk yield can be maintained. C. However. Feeding of cold milk is to be avoided. on the basis of which the schedule of the feeding of the animal can be drawn. Invariably. 5. Here again the feeding schedule should be followed. Calf feeding Some important points of feeding management of calf are given here.
Calf pens should be located close to cowshed. they can also be fed to calves. After a calf attains the age of two weeks. The period during which calves are most often neglected is soon after milk feeding is discontinued. rain and other inclemencies of weather. 3 months. The expenses and labour involved in raising calves when either. One example of such a mixture is as follows. A separate pasture for calves is always desirable to prevent injury by the older animals. 7. In rearing of young calves. it is desirable that an open exercise paddock directly communicating with their shelter and feeding house should be provided. they will not grow normally as they are unable to obtain adequate feed from pasture alone. The exercise yard should not be of a lesser area than 3 square yards for each calf and the calf shelter should be of 10 square feet the floor area for each calf. If dried skim milk. vitamins and antibiotics. the amount of whole milk given to it may be cut down. the mix should always be fed to calves after warming it to 1000F. The calves dung may be got examined from time to time. These dried products are mixed with water and then it is fed as skim milk. liquid whole milk or skim milk is used have inspired many dairy farmers to turn the calf to "calf startar method" of feeding. whey or butter milk are easily available. Feed 1-2 kg silage daily to calves up to 3 or 4 months and then increase this amount by about 500 gm per day for each month of the calf. 8. calves of different age groups viz. Calf starters can be prepared by selecting necessary feed items which are locally available. the calves must be periodically de-wormed with the help of veterinary surgeon. 9. Use every precaution to ensure the quality of silage fed. Mouldy or damaged silage may lead to serious digestion problems. 6. One continues to feed whole milk to calves until they are 1 to 10 weeks old. 5. 3. Good legume hay and concentrate are among the best feeds. 4. Salt licks may be hung at convenient heights to prevent the calf licking each other or earth or walls. 3 -6 months and over 6 months till they are weaned.2. should be housed separately for better management and care. D. . If there are signs of worm infestation. Calves at their ages between 3 to 6 months may be given small amount of silage. Feed the calves liberally from the time milk feeding is stopped. Housing of calves The object of housing is to provide shelter to calves against sun. If possible. If calves have to depend largely on pasture for their feed before they are 12 months of age. To avoid digestive troubles. Make available plenty of fresh drinking water to calves. Calf starter is a mixture consisting of ground farm grains. Groundnutcake Tapioca chips Yellow maize Wheat bran Fish meal Molasses Mineral mixture Salt -32 parts -15 " -10 " -25 " -10 " -5 " -2 " -1 part Additives like vitamin B complex (dried yeast) and vitamin A (shark liver oil) in small quantities can be added. protein feeds minerals.
This is a tubular iron piece heated by the electricity. In caustic potash method. better if it is done in the first week itself. Marking for identification Irrespective of the age of the animal. The branding is usually done on the thighs. Caustic potash is hygroscopic and so on the applied area moisture accumulates and may flow down. I t causes the burning of the skin around the horn bud and later the horn bud sloughs and get removed. F. Instead of caustic potash electric dehorner can also be used. Dehorning can be done either by applying caustic potash orby an electric dehorner. Hot iron branding is the age old practice of putting identification mark on the animal. There are a number of ways to do it e. .E. the hair around the horn bud are clipped and small quantity of Vaseline is applied around the area. it has to be done within two weeks of age. ear marking. Then the necessary number is arranged on the machine and checked by pressing on a thick paper. Tattooing is the usual method used for identifying the animals. tagging. The machine is then removed and the ink is rubbed hard on the broken skin. These are metal badges in which a number and name of the owner or farm is engraved. Tattooing machine consists of different numerals made of fine needles and a machine in which numerals are to be arranged to be pressed on the ear. Dehorning the calves Dehorning is a process by which the horns of an animal are removed after birth by treating the tender horn roots with a chemical. the treated calf may be isolated for a day. This can be screwed on the ear through a hole made in the ear. In case of male calves. tattooing and branding. This is made red hot and applied over the horn bud area. There will be severe irritation in the horn bud to the chemical. Dehorned animals can be handled easily when they grow up. to prepare the pedigree of the animals. notching. This is done by burning the skin by using hot iron which is shaped in the form of numbers. Inside of the ear is cleaned with cotton to remove the wax. Tattooing ink is applied on the surface of the ear.g. to know their affliction to diseases and other breeding records. The caustic potash stick is rubbed on the bud for few minutes till the bud becomes soft and fine drops of blood starts coming. In both the cases. This is usually done in female calves. It causes pinpoint breaks on the skin surface in the shape of the numerals. on the middle area and the ear is placed in between the jaws of the machine and pressed. However. it is desirable to properly identify the animals in the herd in order to keep records of their perf6rmance. The disadvantage with this method is that it may get dislodged when the animal rubs the ear against some objects. Care is to be taken not to rub the caustic on the skin around. It also avoids injury due to fighting between them especially when they are let loose in the pasture. Also. Ear tags are sometimes med as identification marks. mechanical or electrical dehorner. this system is not being followed now -a -days. It is done to prevent caustic potash from flowing over the skin. the calf may rub the head against Some objects. Applying the electric dehorner to the horn button for 10 seconds is sufficient to destroy the horn cells. The ink particles which go into the broken skin remain life long in the shape of the number. It is a method of affixing a permanent number on the inner surface of the ear. It can be soaked with cotton. many owner would like to have the horn as they give a better appearance to the animal. therefore.
Castrator should not press on any folds of the skin. 1. Calves should be castrated while they are young. respectively. When the testicles have been absorbed. Care and Management of Heifers Heifers are the future cows of the herd but are unfortunately neglected and considered a burden. There are three methods of castrating a male calf which are described below. branding is done by brands made in the shape of numbers and frozen by liquid nitrogen. This creates a constant pressure. This system has many advantages. IV. The cord should not slip away at the time of operation. Later. A newer method of branding is becoming popular now-a-days. To achieve proper growth in young calves (would be heifers) following points may be kept in view. it has many disadvantages. Castration with the help of a "Burdizzo's castrator". The best time for castrating calves is between 8-10 weeks. The castrator crushes each cord separately an inch or two above the testicles. 1. This will cause the death of the pigment producing cells on the skin. after about two weeks. The Indian heifers mature and calve much later than the European breeds. a. Calves of different age groups should be separated indifferent pens for proper feeding and management. In this method. Recently. the ring drops down.e. a new method of castration has been in western countries. a strong and tight rubber ring around the cord is used. to increase faster growth. Thus the spermatozoa will not be able to flow out of the penis. Proper development of heifer is an important part of the dairy business. G.Even though the marking permanent. There is no injury to the skin and it is not painful. By making an operation in the scrotum where the vas deferens are disconnected from the scrotum. b. The frozen brands are applied on the body usually on the side of the abdomen for few seconds. It is time to realize that the productive and reproductive performance of cows depend upon the care and attention given to them at heifer stage i. This is done at the earl y age of the calves. The only limitation is that it can not be practiced on animal having a white coat. This method is also known as "bloodless castration". from 1 to 2 years old to calving. It is called freeze branding. following precautions should be taken. They are the future cows of the herd. It gives a permanent marking which is visible from a distance. . The Burdizzo should not be placed too low to crush the testicles. It is painful to the animal and the continuity of the skin is lost in that area reducing the hide value. 2. The notion that heifers are non-returning animals and should not be fed is wrong. In this method. Castrating the male calf Castration is the unsexing of the male or female and consists in the removal of both testicles or ovaries. they will be colourless on the branded area. when fresh hair comes out. 3. to produce a more desirable type of meat and to make the animal docile and easier to handle. While performing castration by this method. It is probably the most common and the oldest of all surgical operations. Its objectives are to prevent reproduction. 2. c.
If the teats are small. Normal growth cannot be attained unless an adequate supply of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and energy is ensured. these may be fed one kg concentrate per day in addition to good quality roughage (green and dry fodder). When the calves are one year old. whereas full hand milking can be done in case of animals with larger teats. it will start yielding milk regularly within3-4days. the contribution of bull in procreation is tremendous. A.6 hours of labour pains. It is a common observation that the cows generally calve at the age of three and half years in India. and (b) a heifer with abnormal body weight may not turn out to be a good dairy cow. This space is enough to give protection from inclement weather and for exercise. it impregnates more than 30-50 female a year or is instrumental in the birth of several thousands calves by artificial insemination. Since the sire contributes one half of inheritance of each animal born. and undoubtedly. Management of Bull The bull has been defined as the male of cattle which is especially used for breeding purposes. The age of first calving can be reduced to increase the overall useful life of the animal. The young calves grow faster than the older ones. Availability of good pasture is an additional desirability. the body weight of heifers at first service should be 200 to 250 kg. the . it has resulted into the well known popular statement "Sire is half of the herd". B. slight fomentation with cloth dipped in hot water and then squeezed can prove useful. First calving in heifers The size and age of heifers should be the basis for giving first service (mating with bull).5 to 3 square metre covered floor space and 9 to 11 square metres space in the open area. In initial stages of growth more proteins than energy are required. 4. the calf is born within 5.3. Breeding of under-sized heifers causes stagnated growth. The manipulation of udder of the first calver by massaging is helpful in milking the animals after calving. A good management practice requires that the actual date of calving should be known from the records. It is given on the basis of average daily increase in the body weight. they require more of growth allowance. The heifers are to be fed adequately but it is not desirable to overfeed them because (a) it is not economical. as the cow is experiencing such an act for the first time. Normally. On an average. It is to be designed in a way that each heifers gets about 2. Raising of heifers in this way is more economical. The gestation period of cows is 280-285 days. At this stage adoption of cruel means is to be avoided. Heifers can thrive on good fodder and roughage. Due to the influence it has on the herd. In early stages if there is too much of swelling in teats. Other practices and precautions are same as in general dairy cows. Bull has always been given special consideration in India. Housing of heifers A simple and cheap covered shed with open "loafing area" is the basic need for housing. The chances are that the teats may become longer as the animal advances in age. V. Average age at first service heifers is 33 to 37 months. Patience is needed with such animals in order to train them with the process of the milking. Sometimes due to accumulation of plasma the animal does not allow to touch the udder and teats. A comfortable house also includes mangers and fresh water troughs. With patience gentleness and affection shown to the animal. Hind legs may also be tied before milking. weak calves and difficulty at the time of delivery. therefore. It is difficult to milk the first calver. it is good practice to milk the animal with two fingers and thumb.
A. The open area or loafing area should be enough to provide exercise for maintaining reproductive fitness. Phosphorus deficient fodders can also reduce fertility besides causing nutritional deficiencies. On age factor. . 1. the half sisters and the grand parents should be given proper consideration. Bull should have the ability to pass on desirable characteristics to its progeny. These ticks can cause a number of diseases. Proper cleaning of paddock is essential. B. the following points may be considered. 2. 3. After this. 12sq. Selection can be made by studying pedigree records. There should be no indication of any disease or physical deformity. Bull should be checked thoroughly for diseases and breeding efficiency. the sire. vigorous. In case where the bulls remain in confinement and do not have loafing area. The preservability of the semen should also be satisfactory. the male calf. Breeding record of the bull should be good. (crude protein) concentrate mixture in addition to good quality green fodder and roughage. through the sire. 5. While selecting a bull. Feeding and breeding The male cal f can be fed along with other calves in the herd up to six months of age. It should be healthy. the nutrients are required to maintain physical fitness. should get special care till maturity. masculine and docile. better fat production. to repair continuous tissue break-down and to provide energy for life process and physical activities. there cannot be any other reliable method. But at present sire is the most important single factor in the improvement. etc. Free access to good water supply is essential both in winter as well as in summer.P. The conformation of the bull should also get due weightage. Housing The bull may be housed in a small paddock attached to the open shed in which the bull can move freely. 6. It becomes difficult to eradicate ticks if once lodged in crevices. 4.greatest opportunity for improvement of a herd lies in the introduction of desirable characters like milk yield. It is different from growing bull as allowance for growth has also to be given in addition to other requirement. The feeding should be based on the weight of the animal and intensity of service -natural or artificial insemination. When in active service. The concept may change with some development as cloning. the sisters. If the pedigree records are complete. fertilized embryo transplantation etc. While considering pedigree. long walk or by working with implements. a young sire should be preferred to an old one. Once bull reaches maturity. 7. Some of the bulls are ferocious and it is essential while planning housing that the attendant should have access to the animal without being harmed. the quantity and quality of the semen should be good. they should be exercised by giving bull exercise. If the bull is to be used for artificial insemination. Space requirement for bull is 15 square meters covered area. metre open area and 75cm watering space. the bull should get 2 -3 kg of 16% C. which has been selected to be raised as bull. Bull should be fed good quality roughage and enough concentrates to keep it in trim condition but not fat.
Although no unusual care is needed for this category of livestock but still there are certain fundamental points which should always be kept in mind while rearing a cross -breed cow. Service One bull may be provided for 50-60 cows of breeding age. On the basis of number of daughters. this critical temperature is 70-800 F for Holstein Fresian and Jersey. Many states have initiated progeny testing work. Jersey is the breed of small sized animals with relatively high fat content in its milk (4.5 percent in the hilly areas. For comparison. Red Dane and Jersey.C. whereas 62. The value of such bulls has become all the more as artificial insemination has been extended to large population of cattle. them Holstein is the highest milk producer (over 6000 litres per lactation). A bull staff is useful in handling the bull. Progeny testing Evaluation of sire can be done by the performance of its progeny.5 per cent).0%) and can better suit the hilly areas. D. Management of Cross-bred Cows The foreign breeds used for cross breeding purposes in India are Holstein Fresian. The attack of foot and mouth disease also leaves its mark on the hoofs. A proven sire is one with 5 or more unselected daughters whose production can be compared with that of their dams. which can be replaced by strong metal ring of7cm diameter at the age of12to 15 months. when the environmental temperature rises or falls abnormally. VI.5 to 5. the animals are in stress. E. The rings may be forced through the nasal septum and then fastened together when the bull attains the age of 9 -12 months.e. Brown Swiss. In case of young bulls. In general for cross breeds (such as Brown Swiss x Sahiwal) the critical temperature leading to a decline in milk at higher level comes at about 90 to 95°F. therefore. this will mean roughly 60 -100 services in a year. respectively. Such sires are of considerable value in the improvement work. The milk production potentiality of jersey is estimated at 4000 litres per lactation. F. Brown Swiss and Red Dane are in between Holstein Fresian and Jersey regarding their milk production and fat content. Dairy cattle are homothermous (i. For Brown Swiss it is between 85 to 900F. maintain constant body temperature) and. At present it is advisable to maintain 50% exotic blood in the cross -bred animals in plains of India. Ringing Different types of rings are available in the market which can be used as a safeguard for handling bulls. This level may be achieved by using inter-mating or forward crossing of F2 generations. The other two foreign breeds i. Among . This happens particularly in bulls which remains on "pucca" floors. The comfort zone for all cross-bred cows is likely to be affected during the summer . 10 -15 services are desirable. All over the country cross-breeds are gaining popularity for their higher milk yield as compared to buffaloes and other cows. although the fat percentage of its milk is somewhat low (3. Ring should be of light weight. The length of active productive life in bulls depends on the level of energy intake and the extent to which the bull has been used. Trimming hoofs It has been observed that the hoofs of the bull become disfigured and should be properly trimmed to avoid difficulty in walking.e. non-rusting metal and about 4 cm in diameter. the sire stands proven.
In farmers holdings. The next important consideration is about the nutritional aspect of cross-breeds.months of April to August. Periodical Weighing of Cattle Cattle should be weighed periodically to know whether there is appreciable growth in them or the growth is stunted. rigorous preventive measures should be taken right from the early age. 41 on “Cattle Feeding”. VII. Incase of male. To check the spread of this disease. extreme temperature coupled with high humidity lead to degeneration of testicular epithelium. Weighing also helps in determining feed requirement for particular animal. By virtue of being high yielders. supplementation of concentrate mixture (having high energy content) is must. For further detail I about feeding and nutrition. cross-breds are having less disease resistance capacity in comparison to any Indian pure breeds. Second important point in the management of cross-bred is disease control. breeders are advised to get their cross-bred stock vaccinated against foot and mouth disease and all other contagious fatal diseases. It is essential that platform scales are used for weighing large animals. Length (in inches) X Girth (in inches) Live weight (in pounds) = ---------------------------------------------------------300 . An occasional check up for mastitis is a must. For adult cattle follow the direction given by the veterinarian. De-worming with piperazine compound should be practiced once during 1 -2 month followed by 3 -4 monthsand 5 ~ 6 months. weighing of cattle by platform scales may not be possible. As a thumb rule for the sake of economy. This situation may be partly avoided by providing ample shady trees during summer months. In general. feed the cross -breeds l/l0th of its body weight) with I green fodders along with concentrate mixture. It has been observed that cross-bred animals are very prone to foot and mouth disease. Mastitis is the next important disease which may very often be found in cross. thereby causing inferior quality of semen production. One such formula which is commonly used is given here. It has been calculated that energy need for such high yielders can never be met with only succulent fodders. Thus cal f mortality in cross-breds is high due to parasitic infection in comparison to Indian pure breeds. These scales should be tested to know whether they are in good working condition and giving accurate weight. their nutritional requirements have to be higher. As such.bred animals. In such a case. Animals to be weighed should generally be starved over night and kept without access to water for at least 6 hours. please refer to booklet No. the weight of the animals can be determined by certain formulae developed for predicting the weight. Cross -bred animals are also very much susceptible to all kinds of parasitic infections. It has also been observed that exposure of cross-breds to high environmental temperature reduces the feed intake. Regular weighing of adult stock once in a month is necessary the optimum body weight indicates the normal condition of the animal and going down condition is evidenced by reduction in weight.
The aim of the first aid is to render such skilled assistance to the affected animal that will alleviate suffering. The common accidents to which farm animals are prone include injuries. The first thing to be done in all such cases is to arrest bleeding. (t) provision of warmth to check fall in temperature and shock. then two or three times a day with warm water. and (h) keeping the animal still (especially when fractures occurred) by drugging or by diverting its attention towards some palatable food. promote recovery or prevent aggravation of the abnormal condition until the arrival 0 f the veterinarian. In some cases of bruising the accumulation of the blood. as well as to ensure the greatest possible peace and comfort for the animal during transportation to hospital. Providing First Aid to Cattle. do not use any strong antiseptics on wounds. If there is not much bleeding. the wound should be washed with clean cold . Discretion must be exercised whether to take the animal to veterinary hospital or send for a veterinarian. poisoning. vein or capillaries. 3. VIII. A. (g) covering with a clean dressing all skin injuries. 2.Length is the distance between point of shoulder top in bone. Bruises A bruise results from the rupture of tiny blood vessels following a blow or fall and is very painful. The swollen part should be gently washed with cold water on the first day. preserve life. When sending for a veterinarian. Haemorrhage Bleeding may occur from a cut artery. fractures. the nature of the case and the whereabouts of the animal should in variably be conveyed to him. Though it must be the endeavour of the cattle owner to see that no accidents involving the animals occur on his farms. fight between animals or impact with stationary or moving objects can be as simple as minor skin cut or as complex as multiple fracture. If bleeding is intense. The importance of providing an early veterinary aid cannot be overemphasized. for his own guidance and reporting to the veterinary surgeon. veterimry aid is desirable. burns and scalds etc. obstretical trouble. following damage to blood capillaries result in a swelling known as hematoma. (b ) arresting of severe haemorrhage. (c) provisions of plenty of fresh air to the patient (animal). Other steps include (a) removal of the cause. Girth is measured behind the point of elbow. the entire circumference of the body. steps described under haemorrhage should be taken. Bleeding from capillaries ceases soon after a clot has formed. The first aider should get a history of the case that he is going to attend. For this reason. I. (e) provision of rest by changing the position of the animal into an easy posture. accidents do occur involving one or more animals. If the hematoma persists even after the above treatment. but arterial and veinous bleeding must be stopped by keeping a pad over the injury by means of a bandage. Attending to traumatic conditions The result of a physical injury due to fall. In favourable cases blood clotting will occur and the blood flow ceases. Open wounds These are always painful because the nerve endings are exposed and contact with soil or grit often results in an infected sore which may be slow to heal.
'thorn or seed in the eye. Eye injuries Eye injuries are due to the presence of a piece of grit. 7. for the cause of injury is often a picked up nail or piece of glass or stone or piece of wood wedged in the cleft of the foot. But it is generally wise to wait for veterinary aid meanwhile the wound should be kept free from dirt and the animal should be kept as quite as possible and its attraction is diverted from its wound by offering food of alluring nature. Feet injuries The injured foot should be cleaned with cold water and bleeding arrested if any. more so with the advent of large scale utilization of modem weedicides and pesticides in agriculture. poisonous plants. The animals should be kept warm. The sole should be examined after removing all dung and dirt. This reduces friction and eases the animal. sorghum fodder poisoning (HCN poison) contaminated pastures. fertilizers. B. The foot should be washed with a warm antiseptic solution. 6. The animal should be isolated from the rest. Common sources of poisons on farms can be the fodder sprayed with pesticides. the injury should be washed with cold antiseptic solution and the horn protected by means of a pad or bandage. 5. Poisoning in cattle Figures have revealed that loss of cattle due to poisoning through toxic plants and agricultural chemicals is widespread. Similar line of action holds good for joint dislocation also. 8. Fracture If the herdsman is sufficiently experienced and if the fracture is simple one. an attempt can be made to bring about the fragments of fractured bones together and retain them in that position with a bandage. The bandage should be taken around the sound horn while applying. When the horn core is injured there will be bleeding from the nostril on the corresponding side. A drop or two of castor oil should be put in the affected eye.water or with a weak potassium permagnate lotion (faint pink colour). Greasy ointment should be avoided as dirt tends to stick to it. wound dressing. machine and 1ractor oil. sometimes horns get fractured or tom off with or without damage to the horn core. Teat injuries Even the smallest of abrasion or sores on teats should be treated promptly for these sites frequently become infected and the infection spreads up the teat canal resulting in mastitis. 4. etc. The tourniquet should be removed after cessation of bleeding. disinfectants. paints. This is done by applying a piece of rubber tubing around the base of both the horns in (8) fashion and tightening it with a stick or pencil. rodent poisons. A dry dressing of sulphanilamide powder or quick drying antiseptic creams are best for teat injuries. the wound then swabbed dry and covered with clean surgical gauge and bandage. Horn injuries In cattle. If the eye or eyes are badly inflamed. old paint cans. . they should be protected by blind folding loosely with a strip of cloth or by housing in shady places. Some sulphanilamide dusting powder can be dusted over the wound before covering. old gunny bags containing agricultural chemicals. an attempt can be made to apply a tourniquet to the horn base. Some sulphanilamide dust should be dusted over the wound and the foot covered in a cloth sack until the arrival of a veterinarian. contaminated water supplies. Though it is often difficult to stop such bleeding. chaff.
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Poisoning Acids Antidote Alkalies such as bicarbonate of soda Alkalies Vinegar. C. etc. The alkaloid poisons (present in most poisonous plants) can be oxidized by dilute potassium permaganate solution or can be precipitated by tannic acid containing substances such as strong tea decoction.First the affected animal should be kept in a safe place to prevent more poison to be taken. potassium ferrocyanide Hydro-cyanic acid Inhalation of amyl nitrate i. Certain troubles can occur before or after parturition like retained placenta. Pure food and fresh drinking water should be provided to the animal. catechu. Promotion of the excretion of the poison from the body is equally important. etc. tartaric acid. oak bark. obstetric ropes. etc. etc. In the case of dystokia in cows. The first aider can at the most attempt the simple obstetric . HCN Iodine Starch gruel Lead salts Epsom or Glauber’s salt Mercury salts White of egg Narcotics (opium) Brandy. milk.etc. Table: Common poisoning agents and antidotes Sl. Organophosphates Atropinsulphate (0. The poison in stomach should be diluted by giving plenty of water through stomach tube. Potassium iodide is also given to facilitate elimination of lead and mercury. This can be achieved by giving only purgatives. Convulsions Depressant like chloral hydras Carbolic acid White of egg. first aid should be under taken with the utmost caution and only after making sure that the fingernails are short and clean.5 mg/kg body such as Malathion. eggs. linseed. Then some physiological or chemical antidotes should be given to neutralize the effect of the poison. caffeine. lemon juice Arsenic Moist ferric per-oxide Bleaching powder White of eggs. mustard oil.e.etc. emetics of pigs. Any help may be attempted only when there is some difficulty and the animal is notable to deliver within normal time. chains and hooks are well washed in a suitable antiseptic solution like Dettol. Glauber’s salt Copper White of egg. To alleviate the irritant effects of poisons on stomach and intestines the animals should be given some demulcents like oat meal gruel. vaginal or uterine prolapse. and the hands. Attending to obstetrical difficulties It is best to watch animal giving birth to its young one without disturbing. Some common poisoning agents and their neutralizing antidotes are given in the following table. weight) parathion. Dystokia means difficulty in parturition. tea.
Hence. If . The top two strings are taken forwards around the base of tail and the lower strings around the udder and fastened to a string tied around the body in front of the udder. Retained placenta means the failure of the after-birth to fall within 4-6 hours of calving. pressing against the organs. It usually follows a case of abortion or dystokia. With extensive burns and scalds. The direction of motion should be in line of the natural arch of the sacral region. To prevent the organs from coming out again. but should never tackle difficult presentation but await professional aid. D. shock due to pain. a scald is more serious than it appears. a strong thick glass bottle should be inserted in the vagina. In the case of scalds. the burnt hair. a sedative like coral hydras (30 -50 gm in 0.conditions like flexation of legs.5Iitres) may be given. Prolapse of vagina or uterus means the eversion (throwing out) of vagina or uterus inside out through the vulva. Four long strings may be tied to the bottles neck. The organs should be handled with properly disinfected hands. Tannic acid jelly may be smeared on a cleaned piece of old sheet and applied to a bum and held in a position by bandage. there are three possible dangers vz. First aid consists of excluding air from the burnt part by covering it. In the case of burns. The organs should then be covered in a freshly laundered cloth and veterinary aid should be sought. tissue destruction infection and toxemia due to toxic substance released by the burnt tissues entering blood stream. the animal is straining. disinfected and lubricated fists. The problem is more serious if the prolapse occurs towards the late pregnancy. with its bottom inside. In all such cases the hind quarters of the cow should be washed with warm water taking care to see that the hanging membrane does not get entangled or pulled out. The animal should be offered plenty of fresh water. If the veterinary aid is not expected earlier the organs may be pushed in slowly and gently with well cleaned. skin and other tissues are obvious. the hairs are stuck together by discharge of serum and a scab covers the injury. The infected organs should be washed with weak acriflavine or potassium permanganate by rinsing and never by rubbing them. A leg flexation can be rectified by first pushing the foetus back into the woumb gently and then straightening the flexed leg. Keep the cow secluded and seek veterinary aid if the placenta does not fall even after 24 hours. Level of ground below the hind feet of the animal should be raised by placing earth covered with gunny bags so that the animals hind quarters are at a higher position. Attending bums and scalds Burns and scalds are extremely painful due to which it will be difficult to control the animal. The foetus can then be pulled gently by ropes tied to fetlocks or by holding fetlock with hands. Bums caused by acid should be treated with an alkali (washing soda 109 in 1 litre water) and bums caused by alkalis like caustic soda must be treated with a weak acid (equal parts of vinegar and warm water) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% .
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