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GENERAL INDEX
1

-

PREFACE
Page A to T
"\

2

- ARABIC -ENGLISH
Page r

LEXICON
colored pages

to T

3

-

TECHNICAL STUDY on
Page T
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TAA

4 -

ENGLISH-ARABIC LEXICON
Page 26 to 136

5

- INSTRUCTIONS
Page 6 to 25

FOR USE

^J^iM

PREFACE .

Lg-LJL*J ^-jjJJaJI SiLJJ ^*JU i_^[ *-lij <ji ^ji <. JS" ji-l ^^l jj> iJlj Zs~yb~0\ JL* jjfij oNTJi Jjf dJLu> 0| Jjj XJLS" ^ t l!~.~*£ j*y> iUaj (quiescence) ^j Oj^j .v'j*^' t ( i ) Sjl-S" t ( a ) *^C3 t5 ( u ) <Uw? : oLS"js- i±j!>U ^j*" j^-^' j*"' ls^ ^*"° •'^J o[ . ^yJ' lb ajIaj lst^"^" IsjlSJI Jij-^j ^ ^r**J J- LgJ M (j-** (j-fj-^' t£->*lyiJI i_A~Ua^)l -k-~> o' i<J _y cJJJaJI IJl» ^ cJ»^i US' .^J5" yLJI JUj U^ oULl oNUJ J>(Jip iUi| ^^is.s2J3>M jjNi ~u>y£ '^j^>3 J^- ^ j^^> -^ ^j*" j*^ 1 siji* °j^* <Ji ^£jUi! ulS" i~u>j* * ~7lS" <uJI t-l^jf- J&\y i^US" j* jjS'JuJI jU»l «j>«jcJIj aJUI iU-j^Jlj ijj^-^J .

The that presence of one of them at the end of a word gives its word a grammatical function over and above own meaning. \\ . That for dictionary an written by Arab author an Arab reader according to a scientific arrangement of the matter to be taught. The sists first demonstration on the way towards generalization consituations in resolving the of declension (v"'j — *•)" ^"^ — *" wherein conventional symbols placed at the in end of each word indicate a diversity of meanings. There are Arabic three vowels u {Z>J>). its lucidity. and precision of the Arabic and syntax a right language certainly morphology to universality. The obvious next step was to lead the foreign reader to an analogous cultural experience. a (^i). The give clarity. aims all languages and men. the quiescence (6jkl). i (oj-~^)' and an anti-vowel.) : AUTHOR'S PREFACE The notion of the to universality of Arabic grammar book : first occurred me during the composition of my first «A Dictionary of is Arabic Arabic Grammar grammar in Charts and an Tables». as understood to extend Arabic grammatical nomenclature to all book. provided that the sources of the terminology and the intention of the grammarian are not lost in the transfer in this from one language to another. Universality.

. y toy j^iiJI y llLo t t l$J oLil °js- liiiui Lais- (/) L^ii) Sj~£JI alj (reduction) y J ^^f^ J>JJl- li iU>JI y * t l$J SJU. *kf.l t ^J (regulator) ( regularity . regularity) in a. ijr ^ ^yj* .. ji *-*»« C^ ~o\ : Oj^j Ulue- ^11 ^_pJ Til 5V^ll y (regula) 'iJ& "{j-*°j-^ p~J\ 1)U- j! f_y^JI ^Sll > II* £-ij t( regular) L^LJLii . t >JI O^U ^1 ) ^^ >T y st I -* i. ending (Vowel i. . elided ending."jjJ>C> <. ^ j*JI ^1 ^o2ll J^* >T (Vowel u.Z~JJi _ f .£i*ujij tsijo^i iiUjj tijsm J*i*ii '-A* <w*aJi ^^^u.^Jl ^ l_L_j_i. ^*. elision) *jk t fjj^<> t o^« J o of .y . a^. t *-y]p t £»^ _ > (Vowel a.) j*uj ^wiu. ^1 «ilj o£l&.l J*iJI . 0%ii jy JSwj ols-jj*£j iiUI dili y Liu t (^^adl itf>MI OUJJI y . ending in k.u^J ysj . Lt-jz~~* yli jjhj «cw> y* i^JLJI ( quiescence Uj^-J 1 J&. openness) reduction) H~Uj t L>_>iiLo t Ska _ t ending ^i. in i.<..i (Quiescence.

openness reduction 'Vj^ i t. Any word not under some lifted syntactic influence [jhat when such influence it (H-jSy) from it J. which are so obvious besides why is that they have not been interested in exploiting them ? \r . is. ending In a.*i!j). Thus 8 is the regular \{j*y) ] ending.**^*) -~° < s- " - ending in /. eloquent by its very for evoking at the end is. elision VfJ^ 'fJJ>* declension. Finally silence the quiescence (j^l). the orientalists are . of the verb the action of cutting (*kS) that elision (fj>-). In sum u. regularity \£*j 2' ('r**' t <-f\3 > j* i<w~<>. should end in the vowel u. concretizes the end it of the a noun situations in reduction Cyr) which there is establish for dependency meaning.: Endings word. l ^j>-j absent This Interpretation of situations of though from the vocabulary of the orientalists. one may say. for action. it is used situations of openness (L1a>) thereby enriching the language with supplementary explications. etc. and . 1 2 3 a. (*i~j) . /.Vowel — Vowel . The vowel a for (*c>cj) is above all an open vowel. The vowel languages of the ''< i (« j ) presents close resemblances to other { in that its It pronunciation necessitates a reduction at uoa^) of lips. 1 .Vowel - ending in u. But. in u (w) and are reserved for normal situations of the that is is for primacy. or the situation of regularity (f*j) The word Cregula in Latin allows interesting possibilities in derivation: regular regularity \fyy). regulator (. surely not it ignorant of these facts. elided ending. \ yr jlj^* e j~i ~<r \ ) 4 Quiescence. nonetheless reflects the basic Arab way of thinking and is useful in all languages.

iAjLjuJI <d_jJ (. ^4* .ijj^adl OMU- ^yifc.° <uAJ ^ O^ * - „ -* - LgJ jjji' iU«jl ^jj I'jutU- ZjjA\ rr~> <j\ JjU- eSj^ J^ - ^ y <J\ ^J^ ' "J^° jf^* is* J^' O^j lSj^ J2 O^" " blj .r (3y^-~JI oUjI ^P i_iJb><^ oUjI ^ j^—p J^P obLi ^ji C~*j IJJ aL^JI . jP^I I I «— "ill <^J ^jj^> ^j JjUJI 11a lJul C^> ijyT lil ioili *Jls- <UI i—J'b tUJI ^^jsj. ^jJiSo^I ^ Z^kS\ oIjjJ^JI Ji olil Sll £_}Ji£J^I Z>'jfc ^ tiUjC^JI . Ui« 3 I'jj.Jj'UJI ^ji JjuJI t 4jjjw LJS' oj^i- ^ »_*illi L. ^ iaii v'j*- 'j^^lj (j-^bJI . SL'yJI Ob*Jda-A<JI ^^Jw ^1^ .i.-^ J«a!i ^yjl J«iJl II* ^iS"l ?w "Oy" tJ*iJI o^ t .fjUiJl ..xply ^ t J[ _<L~LJI J _ ^U i'^jf- 'j^t ^ tli[ P&ijt..((f-jUiJi oJlj-_^I [j* : 1^)15 jJ L/jiJi o^ CJlp- . 01 cJa*I Uj .<r>yrj s r^Ji oyj^~-»J' l# jfi ^l SpjUI oUjULJI jlpI^JI I^Jio^j <jl Ijaljl ^i*.JUai 4JjU^> obi ^r-Jj ur^23 : Ji« oljLt IjiJk?- ^Js- \y^\y ji ^Jyi^uJI ol a* t ( Conform verb) Ijl» ^1 ^1 (Unaccomplished verb. present or present-future) JjuLII )) 4j ^JU.

above is the declined word (yy) it . conform. to his it — Although perfectly difficult each well for author. Why should not an Arab. The only asked for here will be that of understanding the true meaning of the Arabic terminology being used. verb in to define to is this a tense. or present-future. The noun being. a different That is why I have chosen to undertake a work orientalist. analogous. Lebanese as it happens. but as means of communication is Arabic thought ? Besides. explain Arabic grammar to foreigners by using English not to a it make a parallel with for explaining English grammar. direction from that of a classical who a non-Arab studying our language and our civilization. because this resembles the mood that it of the verb only one which noun all. desirable to spare readers the task of going to the technical in definitions of English grammar simply order to follow the ingenious comparisons established by the orientalists. which I have called conform verb. the verb being in always structured (^w») the past and imperative moods. even though like have agreed on expressions i. unaccomplished verb. the nonetheless that in is reader to follow him along road. I take as an example the term (f-jUi^ J*i orientalists ) .: Two phenomena grammar 1 emerge from a reading of works treating Arabic language in a foreign — Each author has tried to explain the Arabic by seeking comin parisons 2 his own native language. the would be useless to effort them two tasks at same time. language rather with best the English serving purely as an instrument of the expression than of the best comparison. is VO . Furthermore. knows very where he wants to go. according own is logic. structure (tbJI) for it an exceptional situation.e. But the Arabs have used (f-jUia) say the similar. or present. in admits declension (t_->f^l). some and it readers may have forgotten the rules of their set own grammar.

.j£U~« j*^i* 4**Ju ^l^" IjLL—i J~tJ>. Ujli jil^j N iikj*» t_ijli»j If! 5Lj»JI IfJNil** ON .11 «Jr*^ Ly>] tr**^ •» •* olf * .] t . (JC C Jr**.# . 1* uJiJ«JI] „ ol» ** Ai-JI 9 1 ii*i\ j* ^^ 5<5«"» iLty jJJI JiiLj ^j*)' m **o -Jl 9 .juUl f ^JI ^ ^1 ^r^i oui ^ . epithet.ji . ^J SjJJI Jk'j 61 -^u (Primate and predicate) bw U^ijb ^ >Jlj Ix-Jli . preposition.* J JJ - .. pronoun.^wNI • iL^JI ^ JJJi JU ^jU» Jit. conjunction.. j" j*-^" rf TjV^r 5 . j£a!I oJk?-j j-^ij t j*-liL»JI . 0LJ^4.tJ' participle) . [f'J^ p-^'j '-^ *J' J*^ 1 0^ y ufji jUji ja «->* M-'jla ~jf-*i\ jyf^ j^r**-* -verb) *^*<ii O^i (Unaccomplished verb) (t^Jy UZJ 1 5JjJ^J*i/l jjjli* iUwl iJjU^ ^ c~J (i^JI II* XAi- "^ij .3*I_jj U .] OjSuJI :uLij_Jl tJu» ^_» sIxjNI ojlo^. liijji • jl Sll <uJ»y l-U^I JaiL *L** j-^c. infinitive. attribute.j^jUJI ^j^lw J^kil (Adjective. JLS"flJbj Wl^* .(Conform ^jUkJI J*aJI] Js-\jSi\ j^ _jju JU»c-L. [^JjaJQ ^ J^*J yl^J oi L^i 1* S'jtf.JI IJ^J complement. : J_i» Ol_J^ JL**iJ O-^UxJ >_^- r. Cr*J >•.i-U-NI j* l-C-Jli J^~J-j 4_JL*JI IJCw. Jfj : ^-JyJI 0>«-aJI £• ls* ^r**-!' <it *l**- c^y Oj^i 'Jr*^" cr'"*li *-^j*" >J^i Ujll*» <JJ |jll~. Jsjjijl .

I complement. to However. But the goal study is it of this not to fashion a rough approximation between terms. will an insepa- tandem of syntax.f-) for the information-function. These ( ditions taken together will be consecrated by the term Ij~* for the subject-function and (j '. have avoided using words such as adjective. Assuredly implies in the sentence.only in certain conjugations that it can be declined. This similitude of the verb to the noun has been consecrated here by use of the term: conform verb (fjCai J**). to f- '° J \ f-3 in .. For this reason epithet. to express what i. the information (xli). because their Arabic correspondents have with the English con- varied functions which do not always agree text. pronoun. while (^unaccomplished can better suggest the meaning of the present. several conditions must be Cweather] a subject in order make con) and CbeautifuQ an information. will • - be called in this book: Primate and Predicate (j Primate. pillar a The two terms of the ( Jui ) of the nominal sentence /-'. also suggest by their feelings rhyme something of that harmony which soothes the and favors unity of thought.~ftkH) is [The weather beautiful J this a complete sentence.J ~V show the priority of the initiative virtue of the traditional importance of that function. When one is says Arabic: (J^**- . It is true that this expression seems verbal meaningless in English grammar. Weather is the subject (<u[ «u~«) and beautiful. preposition. infinitive. QThe weather beautiful] (Jr^r tr*^") Arabic that «the weather (js] beautiful» making of the indeterminate adjective QbeautifuQ a complete information sustained by a hidden copula. etc. constituting the meaningful rable speech. Predicate. Primate and predicate. A in typical example is that of the nominal sentence. conjunction. Rather aims to show in a precise way how the Arabs have named their own. is said of the primate in the fundamental enunciation. participle.j.e. attribute. W . Subject + information fulfilled = sentence.

^j t ^_p*j ^LjLj tiJJIj-ttJI oLjNI j^J j* tLij Ji*j 5ijyw to^UI ^U t <uy ikU JoZJli (Jj^Jb ^ii c^ci JaiJli oS ^Ij C~<M>-rfJ lilii yiii O^r-S j[j tySjsJI SiP (illi j^Ju ^j ikU tiJj^JI y-..^1 U 01 ^j«JI .a.yuJ *L«^ yjl} aUUJI 0}£ (^jjl j_^*?JI oU^Js) .jSsill jUalSI 4J_jJjI J^a^J ^j yUl ^ ~<?3j* .pJjl ^jlJf yi 3a£jl ljl*j £Jb*JI OlS>«JI *J Jyj uIjLS' y-^jl j^p J Jijj^]\ Js. vl^J ^ 4kiJI Jj^li (( (j«^a£i AkiJI jl&> J*»-^ r^iJ-^3 :/NI JS^JI ^U j&Jl ^l j&li t! J^JL ilL-| Ulj ^i_i 1^1 ^Ij lil _ ) .C'^J ji&j "jiJjl jl^SJI 01 UU» CjijiJI yul>JI .^jlsJ]I jJ*^ JL>«JI ^j hi ^J k~ij ***** J"jl >j (_* IT tf.^ jlj j^ lL^ CjvJI ol* .y JUL ^je-l ***** d^j^Ui) jl tjLJ 4^^J ^^l&l . TU) fi jjl.

the author of the cor- and to the to a spirit of initiative. I together my lips. \\ . in declaiming the quranic texts. Master EaBuO now in EL'EaS'OaD (ij-^l y\) letters exist." this permitted to philosophize upon these said strict directives. first Schools of Arabic grammar that about the year 664 C . his had given the following directives to "If you see calligrapher me open my mouth . here the chance to take up the challenge. and if I reduce my put the But then if follow up each of those movements a it modulation. ***** My force publisher. very respectful of conceptions established by to classical orientalists.. regularize This movement responds desire to communication between human beings and to make triumph the primacy of thought. put a a dot on the upper edge if I bring letter. very cautious regarding authors who wish but also a rapid evolution upon traditional notions. very willing to satisfy the aspiration of the public which constitutes the publisher gives for great family of La Librairie du Liban. place lips. each term of this dictionary has while started a process a of de- cision-making. is replace each dot by two others.: : These few examples have been selected to illustrate the method followed in solving problems of interpretation and equivalence. each decision made represents constant challenge to the search for effective formulae for a better diffusion of Arabic grammar in the world. my I me it. am grateful ***** The the story is told in the (42 H). to pronounce the letter. Each word. of essential to things and complete meanings relative to action. dot between the two sides of the dot under the with If letter.. you know am speaking action.. could 1 be If - you see will me bring that my I lips together in pronouncing a letter. the grammarian to have placed points on the use did not at it a is time when the vowels (otT^i-) said that this Master..

d^JI Sj^ o^">l 01 .jjl£.j^ ^ iS^ ts»J ^UiSUl JJL~JI <Jcs-\ ijl c I Jul lUl~aJ jiolj .jpLI^JI .V . uaJ&-\ Jr-^ 1 ^jiiilj li[j . 4jl5^> 4jL«?j j_y^l (jiljJIj ijJuuLi L^>JL>w ^p^»j rljL>jJI ol^JI .LJb yyJ! C*j JaJ . J**!' <JL~j Ja-»*j U_j J*aJ' J-** <ul* JUjc-»I <uj ^ jxSJl ^jJl l _ rZ 1 yi i.

3 - If you see me reduce in my lips. tell yourself that all I am looking for supplement of information on all that submits to the action of the verb and on that goes with the unfolding of cultivated the action. Exactitude I of kings. - In all the instances where have recourse to modulation of that my voice. Antoine EL DAHDAH Y^ . definition of terms and compatibility of Remember that even the most violent questions can be treated with gentleness and harmony. do not forget that I demand the ex- precision the use of words is and coordination the privilege in pression 4 of ideas. you the shall think the Master the is intransigent regarding feelings. The Arabs have always openness to clarity and progress.2 - If you see a me open my mouth.

I._. jl Co jjli tOlluJIj CjbjjtJI jJ jL d J*t" <U^tju> ^yU ^^fr *UI . ^\j-y\ J io>JI ~£jyi\ 4jJJ! ^ *Ulj L^y^l jt-jj ^f-ljkll 5ivO ^j-.« ^j c^>dl olgj lii^. J^iJ M 4ll» t\ju Uj tOLJI Yr .U 4S-L-.

despite creative Innovation. In declension he discovers the in transformations consists . Even his traditionalism. its resistance growing oid. Then : he a offered me the chance to collaborate on new I dictionary Dictionary of Declined and Structured Terms. contains much Here perhaps is the secret of his inventiveness exposing the rules of grammar on the two bases of the Arabic language: declension and structure. not in willingness to ? be transformed together with steadfastness to perdure rr . in both in his treatment and his goals. collection was quite taken by the originality of this and classification. classicism. and I considered that the author of that dictionary had done a fine piece a of work. he he is is traditional in his handling of the language. And in what to the enduring if youthfuiness this of Arabic. but effect also analytic and passionately devoted to linking its to cause. an effort unequalled by even the most eminent of standard grammarians. in structure he affirms the constants. and learned that the range of this grammarian.ARABIC REVISER'S PREFACE On first I seeing the «Dictionary of Arabic Grammar in Charts and effort in Tables». steps out beyond what we had hitherto imagined. Great was my admiration for this logical handling of a language whose beauty resides in the richness of its logic. Doubtless.

_jJ[ "^->>. _jA y oU l*j 4 'J-*-^' '^ *~..jlS" U uM t^jJI "1-j^lJI *4jlij 4 j^yJI j^ill j^yr (t^Ui t*«jUJ .tj *$»' I *bl i"< ^ULjIj vl«j>«JJ 4s»JL<s »-g-JI f -^iJ 4JCT""J" ^ r*y <Jl C-^' J ' 'Vj^ J'^ 1 1 <^* fy^ 1 -T* a* tsr^^' p 1 ^ 1 -? (^ ( J | j* y J*^ jj£j 1 4^ Q\j ^ ^ °^ OjjjiSjJ '•" ^^ U 4/ ^ 4? ^j *^ t \4pJU0 4l«JUJi "^J t C** jlS OjiS* l^JUfiJ Ti .'..jJlJI .j~ t iJ[ »j*A ^^. n-JU-^ll MjUaJI .fiui a^jjij 4*ij* li^i m^i jki* Jl ci^JI «ji^j ^ 4 **ry.. jjU«Ij U.

The Dictionary of Terms of Declension and Structure, does not try to lay down the rules of the language, but it tries to give norms
of Arabic character for the comprehension of the language and the
clarification

of

its

prodigeous mass of definitions. These definitions

the orientalists have expressed in the logic of their

own

languages,

and so the essence of the Arabic thought as well as the precise
interpretation of terms have escaped

them because the intention of

the Arabic grammarian could not coincide perfectly with that of the
orientalist.

What
bring

the

author

is

trying
its

to

do

in

his

second dictionary
is,

is

to
its

back

Arabic

to

sources,

that

to

the

logic

of

functional declension and

its

indicative
is

structure.

This

dictionary,

while

it

addressed

to

foreigners,

is

at

the

same time destined

for the
it

beyond the didactic form,

Arabs themselves. And even as it goes serves the needs of scholars and offers

them abundant matter
The
this

for

research and discussion.

rigorous

connection

between

meanings

and

expressions
is

in

dictionary,
goal,

and between the
as

implicit

and the apparent,
Arabic
banality
or

the

author's
foreign

he

aims

at

harmonizing
into

linguistics

and

linguistics

without

falling

literal

vague

equivalences.

Ambassador Antoine El-Dahdah,
to explain
it,

after charting the
its

grammar,
opening

tries

but from inside: relying only on
restricting
its

own
at

resources.
it

He
to

aims

not

at

scope,

but

rather

worldwide universality.
There
is

no doubt that
its

a language

which has conquered
blunting
its

at

least
is

2,000 years in

many branches without
its

edges
it

a

language worthy to be described as

universal.

And what
full

needs

now
of

is

not wider diffusion, but for

users to take

advantage

its

wonderful possibilities.
possibilities

These
readers

the

author

tries

to

make
be
its

available

to

those

interested

in
its

Arabic,

whether
still

they

Arabs

or

foreign,

already skilled in

use or

discovering

beauties.

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ENGLISH REVISER'S PREFACE
Years ago, just after
I

had learned the Arabic alphabet and was

setting out to study the language,

my

teacher handed

me

the second

volume of Chartouni's (S-IjjJJI ts^V*) and told me to memorize the
definitions of
( i_i j->-

j J*i 4*- 1). His intention

was laudable:

that

I

should enter the grammar by the same door as the Arabs do. But

I

am my

sorry to say that the result eas

not nearly as enlightening as

master had hoped. For to give a beginner an Arabic definition of
is

grammatical terms

to explain

the

unknown by

the less

known.

The reason, however, why my teacher chose Chartouni's second
volume
in

preference to the

first, third,

or fourth,

is

that in the second

volume alone the author allowed himself to be prodigal of space to the
extent of using, on a modest scale,

some

charts and tables to explain

points

of grammar.
recently
at

When

the

Beirut

book

fair

I

happened

upon

Amin

bassador Antoine El-Dahdah's «Dictionary of Arabic
Charts and Tables»,
clearly
I

Grammar
it

immediately snapped

it

up,
at

for
in

finishes

and
:

in

detail

what Chartouni had hinted

his

second

volume
reader.

it

lays out the

whole of the grammar schematically before the

Then, a few months ago, and he told

I

met Ambassador El-Dahdah

in

person,

me

of his plan to publish his «Dictionary» with facing
will,
I

Arabic and English pages. This

am

sure, be a very

welcome

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^yji
'

ifrUt

jj»u;
I

j*
-•
I

-utjju
°

UiUii p
I.'

uji
,

£jjsi>i
°

ouIkXJii

-'•'!

°

Ml

f

'

--

'•

-

-•

II

I-?

Jjkll

JSJI

^

Jil_^

ilil

4J^"

^

js-lj

£JL!Ui

JilJ

lJ

^Jj

.O^xJI

TA

advance, laying out before the anglophone learner the whole structure
of Arabic

grammar

in bilingual tables

and charts, so that

at a glance
is.

he can see

how

reasonable and well ordered Arabic grammar really
is

Ambassador El-Dahdah, however,

nothing

if

not

methodical,

and so he planned another book as a preliminary step towards that
goal
:

a

«Dictionary

of

Terms

of

Declension

and

Structure

in

Universal Arabic
this

Grammar». And when he asked me
agreed.

to help

him on

book,

I

enthusiastically

His aim here has been to work out a set of consistent English
equivalents for the Arabic terms that will bring the anglophone reader
into the realm of systematic Arabic

grammar by the Arabs' own door
their

and show him the way the Arabs themselves think
mar.
Is this

own gram-

vocabulary

successful?

TRADUTTORE TRADITORE.
he knows, and

Many

of the terms

we

give in English will be unfamiliar to the reader
it

or used in a different

way from what
is

may seem

that

the language

we use

not quite English. The terms given here have

been chosen to express concepts familiar to the Arab but perhaps
unfamiliar to the Arabist, and so distasteful to the latter. The reasons
for the choices will be

more apparent

in

Ambassador El-Dahdah' s next
in

book, when the terms are seen facing each other
opposite pages.

the tables on

The author and

I

have hesitated and argued over a number of

these terms before agreeing on a translation. But every translation

must be something of
immediate
literal

a

compromise between

strict

literality

and

intelligibility.

If at

times our choice has fallen closer to
it

consistency,

we

are unrepentant... provided

leads the reader

to glimpse for himself something of the inner logic of Arabic

grammar.

MARTIN

J.

McDERMOTT

Director of the Bibliotheque Orientate

Y^

^J^>l - jydl

*j~i\

ARABIC ENGLISH LEXICON
-

from * HaM'ZaTu of rupture disjunctive. ^al (iyu») separative.. radicaQ HaM'Zafu [idem] of INDEED 6l(5>i) * * HaM'ZaTu [. formative. * [Of tanwin. detente] rr . « of equalization] * Augmented HaM'ZaTu" [Redundant. irregular] 4-#L-« (»>») * [Popular. * Modulated HaM'ZaTu" *>J* (<>>*. of conciliation ajjw^oj**. J-»j(»>i) connective. t -*o oj^a >i * 5jii t ? 1 HaM'ZaTu". c- [Reversed. * Converted HaM'ZaTu" transposed] *ij&* (o>*. root to prick l^U* * Is it? (hey! . vocalic attack] ) < * Methodical HaM'ZaTu" regular] i^LS (S>* [Syllogistic..^ *. whether) ' * Radical HaM'Zafu" £C»l(S>i) «• QHemza * root. augmented] SjjIj(S_>*a) * * Empirical HaM'ZaTu" hearsay. < [Stable.HaM'ZaTV' * *~ o . vocalic * [Of union. of nunation] * HaM'ZaTu of liaison conjunctive.

l£<^~)"£5\£j\ [idem] rt .. Primacy root to start fjj Jil^l |j£| Slj^j (. adverb] Amen Anteriorly The duration Alas! e] Vocative "V| To begin...l[. those ZJ£}\ Jjl iliJjl Possessors of These. objective complement. initial particle] ij°J~ ) %\Xj'\ Introductive sentence (.r * Ah! (vocative) * ~\ To revert 'if LaJI Also To befall of instrument "£\ jf 111 Noun [idem] First J^l Beginning of the word These. J^ji Interpreted original First patient J^ji j'jj^ j/\ J^ ^7 laj] j(j] C". Letter of introduction [inchoative. those O^jl t jJjf s *^f Those Interpreted as Interpreted as if it il^jf were explicit thJ^I Jj£ ° if it were derived j: % ..

*
Relative to EaB'JaD
Eternally (negative)

*

^ Jl^'
l-lul
**

Father

y

i
l

**

'\
I

J
t jrf

\
I

t

To take on,

root to take

^\

<u-><»l

J^l
t

Two
Twelve

iJlliJI

(jLol

5j«£i lljl tj*£i Lol
-

Twenty

two
surely, yes)

Ojj^j

jl^l
J^-l

Affirmative (no doubt, of course,

Wholly, root

to gather

a**t ""-^ £«•>'
(...

Hollow verb
^Concave,
hollow
verb]

J*i

)

*-fj>l

,

t

One
Eleven
Situations, root to change

«^J*-I

t

J*-l

Oj-i* ^J*-l ij-£* Js>\
<J_?s-

d-*>\

Jl^p-I
t

Uniliteral

£ol>

To give information,

root to

know by

experience
j«a-a'-

jf^-"'

<u-^l

j^-\

Specification, root to be special
[Particularization,
specification]
(.
.

^Lai^l

(

Specific sentence

.

Jl

<tLj>-

)

^Lalil
-,

-

t

To take
To take on

.A>l
^=""1
.

S

5

To delay
Others

j>\

j^
t£j**'

]

Other plurals

?jT
rf

"

-j

Remained behind

j*~}*

Remained behind

J- £*

,

To be flattened

j6^*!

r

*
To
fraternize
~\
;

(i.|

Brother
Sisters of Sisters of

y»|

;

y»|

Ei'LaE

^1 oly-f
5'
jlST

E/Na

Ol>-l

Sisters of
Sisters of

KaEDa
KaENa

oly-f
%
\

jfe £j\J~

Sisters of

MaE

U oly-I
Iso '&J\ jlliil

Incorporation, root to penetrate
[Assimilation,

incorporation]

Permissible incorporation

-^

Jb. «l«£l

r

*

Forbidden incorporation
Obligatory incorporation

°

1

;-

L

«

alii

I

^ -yy

j»l* °al

To aid
Article
Article of exclusion
\"-/,'\

1^1
Slj|

i

Sbl

E^rt/c/e

o/ exception]

Article of elision
C...

i. 5bl

apocopate, jussive]
±>°~z, ;fo|

Conditional article

[idem]
*
X

Negative

article

«,

obi

[Prohibitive,

negative

article]

Since

(as, at that time, then,

when, while)
li

\
i

Whenever

(when, whereupon)

In that case (hence, then, therefore, thus)

Ji
|j la

Then

(in

that case, hence, therefore, thus)

If (behold, when, whenever, whether)

Four

ibjji

t

£j

j

r
•k

Four hundred
~.

Ou
°.

s>
**

Twenty -four
Four thousand
Fourteen

-

o Jj~^j Hj
t-9"S(l
*

-° ?

<Uu» "^
*

Oj*l* *jjl tj-1* <Uuj
u>i\
,o I

Four hundred thousand
Forty, the fortieth

AjUju
-

\

_o

:

OjJoj*Sll
Jajj

'Ojjyj
JsLjj
Jjj
(^j
*lj

Attachment,

root to attach

<ds<»l

To

fall

back

To show
Facing
Exclusion, root to
fold in

two

^

<*-w»'

*Lil«i

Complete exclusion
Non-certified exclusion

it

2Lii*i

*—>j-° j?* l\1m>
J.A'i.o

Linked exclusion

^l'JL > »t

"

Emptied exclusion
[Exception

f^
void}

9

^l*****

made

Detached exclusion
[flySferenf

*ba'n

»L«1mi

exception}

Certified exclusion
Article of exclusion
[Article

u->ji
-^

^i**«•

«.
)

(...

Sbl

jL£i«i

of exception}
(...

Exclusive noun
fJVown

*—•!) *Li

o/ exception}
(
.

Letter of exclusion
[Exceptive particle}

.

.

lJj?-

)

jLil

To be impossible,

root to change

dy-

<*-w»'

JbC-i

rv

*
Letter of restriction
[Particle
(...

^

£
'iSj-

)

lill/xll

of rectification]

Help, root

to help

£>>? *£*' 5jI*£j1

[Call for help, for aid]

Letter of inauguration
[inceptive,
initial

(...

J»°j>- )

~ \\h~°J
\

particle]
l$i 4JU0I »

Interrogation, root to understand

Uj>

\

'i

[idem]

Denying interrogation
[interrogative

t£jl&l }
a negation]
(...

~\

i'°r

implying

Interrogative

noun

Ill)

»

°/

^

j-°..
'i

[idem]
Letter of interrogation
[interrogative particle]
(...
'\

<-*[f-)

p \ q n"°-

Question mark
Interrogative sentence

(... Z>yi-)
(...

A

a'tj'',

')

*&**) £j>\q&£J\

[idem]
Letter of future
[Particle
(
. .

.

lS_f-

)

J

l

,°rt"°/i

of futurity]

To

lo dge
(

^ &A
. .

'j£j
)

Sharp letter
[Apical,
sibilant
letter]

.

lSj>-

fX>!

Noun,

root to be exalted

L»I«

iCof

11»I

[idem]

Exclusive noun

j

\'},'°^ "\

11»I

[Noun of exception]
Interrogative

noun

J

J
j°<j-°.. '|

/J[

[idem]

rA

*
Demonstrative noun
[idem]

*
5jLS»l

<t-»l

Noun of annexation
[Prothesis,

isUel

wl

noun of annexation]

Noun of

origin
'

jXa«JI

l

«-»!

Noun of E/Na

"

J

7

Oj

«-»!

Noun of instrument
-

-77 ** ° 7 AJI **»!

Noun of astonishment
[Noun of
surprise,

-

'.

*

°

7

i~>*.»

«-»!

of wonder]
i

Noun of

preference
confirmative

J.

7 «Aa wl

'•'•
t

J

'

[Corroborative,

noun]

Confirmative noun
CCorrofcorartve,

$if
confirmative

y

if -

'

noun] jf^"
1

Noun of

collectivity

C**

[Plural noun]
°

J

Noun of genus
[Common,
Plural
Inert
generic,

°

(j«->
substantive

7

fi-"'

noun]
i^*" "^

noun of genus

cr-*^

l**"

noun
[Stationary,
aplastic,

-i«l> ih'

primitive,

rigid

noun]
C»li
i •

J

Concrete noun

°

7

«t-»l

Noun of time
[idem]

Owj

**»»l

Conditional noun

*J^

1

'

i***

r\

*
Sound noun
[Regular,

*

«j^
normal,

^j

|

sound noun]

Noun of

similar quality
assimilate
epithet]

^'

j
',«

L

a

q^

^J\

[Verbal adjective,

Personal noun
[Personal pronoun]

.

.

0l />

lid

Circumstantial noun
[Adverbial noun,
accusative

ci\J» 11>1

of time and place]
jjjt 11>I

Numeral noun
[Noun of number, numeral adjective]

Proper noun
[Proper name]

J&. 11]

Proper noun of genus
Concrete noun

.-^
-

.

fr ^,1
°'f

111

Invariable

noun
uninflected

\Sj

n~~*

V-f

-

*1>1

[Unconjugated,

noun]
*

Verbal noun
[interjection,
infinitive

l^j

°.

~\

noun,

onomatopoeic exclamation]

Agent-noun
[Present,
active participle,

j^G
agent

111

noun]
*
o

Allusive

noun

%>££
»"
-

. ,-

r

CA/efowymy, filiation, periphrasis]

Noun of KaEDa

~& ZJ
Jtf" 11,]

Noun of KaENa

Noun of LaE

^

111

r

o„

if e

Structured

noun
uninflected

"_L«o *~i\

[indeclinable,

noun]
iiJLo

Superlative

noun
superlative

^1

[intensive,

noun]
\J}Jj£a
*~>\

Variable

noun
inflected

[Conjugated,

noun]
^Jz** **J
nude,
I

Denuded noun
[...

bare of accessory,

simple]
it

Noun

with reduced ending
[Nominal subordinate,
in

o,i»o
*""l

JJj^
the
indirect

case,

diptote]
Ala u9jJt?«-o

Retrenched noun
[Curtailed noun]

^1

Noun of one

act

iy>

11/i

[Noun of unity]

Noun

with regular ending
[...

"c.

Sja

llil

in

the

subject

case,

indicative,

nominative]
("-*) Juji *-jI

Augmented noun
[Redundant,

augmented noun]

Quasi-sound noun
[Quasi-perfect,
-

— — "flHT

^."

L 1fi.«

l«j|

normal,

-

regular]
,J
1/ c

Derived noun

j"-'""

/t-*"'

-

^

«

Original

noun
0/ action,

jJu&a

^1

[JVokw

infinitive,

masdar]
jiuan
*~il

Diminutive noun
C/dem]

n

*
Annexing noun
[Prothetic
nourT\

£
u?Lu wl
,

j

ii«

Annexed noun

aJI

u$Lu wl

[Complement of the noun, postfixed, governed^]

Declined noun
[inflected,

,...i^»jjm

wl wl

declined noun]
u9j«A'«a i^i^ju

Declined and varied noun

Declined noun prohibited from variation

M-*"° 'r'j**

if*'

Definite

noun

ASjM>

wl wl wl wl

[idem}

Abstract noun
(

-Jw

Patient -noun

Jjjuii
jj-flq*

Noun

with shortened ending
[^66rei>iated

noun,

6ri'e/]

Noun of

place

;...

jl£i

*««»l

Noun

with extended ending
[Prolonged noun}

JjJu»i

wl

Noun

prohibited from variation

uS^IaJI jj> f>U>i *l»l

Relative

noun

i_-jm'«

wl

C^dyec/jVe o/ relation}

Varied noun

y_,«

,,/?>

^1

IT

y **i\ specificative. lean on x~* aL^>\ jL. z \jya> *--»! in the direct case.. root to be Jii ilUl jliiLl [idem] Demonstrative noun [idem] (.Ill) Sj&l ir ... root to occupy split somebody J*i <JL^»1 Jlilil Derivation. root to [Predication. to il»l o~j£j **i\ indeterminate noun] & Noun of manner [Noun of Five nouns kind.. regimen case.. abbreviated noun] Conjunctive noun [idem] Jj^jjt **i\ Noun of MaE Indeterminate noun [indefinite.. of manner] <L*fe> «U»>I Nouns of quantity jt*^ iu^U *Ul>l »U->I Attached nouns Nominal [idem] [r^ Slo^il Nominalization Reference. accusative. Referential relation [Predicative relation] ."\j£~y) j^jLliI £ compound] ( .ul attribution] Referential composite [Attributive {. .* Noun with open ending [. adverbiaQ ^fijALa «*»! Noun with curtailed ending [Defective. Zlj ) £oLltl Occupation.

I r * Things * i\J*\ To become Friends In the morning ***fi\ iX&jLgA Terminology Ol>5Ua*tfl J £ To reach the root Originally X>fi %*\ (^-"I •>-** Cardinal numeral Derived radical Derived attached to the radical Radical Jr-"' J~~* I-* Jr-"^ O^" (3~~* HaM'Zaf root.. . To bring to light . Letter of rectification [Particle of digression] ^Sj>- ) w jjs I Annexation. T..12. noun of annexation] {. annexation of qualification] *!>-** isUtfl Moral annexation [Proper.1) SiUtfl Noun of annexation [Prothesis.\na\ isL^I impure annexation. annexation] . Annexation of the sentence {Phrasal prothesis] iUiJI isUtfl Oral annexation [improper.. annexation of dependence] (. root to annex i_>L» 4^1 isUtfl s [Prothesls. £JL»I Sjl* [Hemza radical} i«****l ( . pure annexation.."LS'Ja) rJUtfl Annexed composite [Prothetic compound] Ijvbl To nourish ii .

° JJ * * °.u-*\ %\j£- incitation] Ouf! . root to know defect Jt JIp ^JUol ^ Defection...y> '&>C* ) Action of declension ( . root to speak pure arabic u/ 4^1 t^lj^l «t-«"^l £->ljje [inflection.- Lit Singularity. root to be alone sj .r * Declension.. declension. {£J... root to exhort [instigation. *La\ }\j&\ [idem] 10 . J*^l L>lji declension of the verb] Grammatical analysis Titles of declension °"\ \Sj^* «-*lj* % ( L>\£ \ ) ^\Je^\j£. root to have a ^1 J^U Defection of HalVTZaf S>4^ ^^* j-S^Jb J%e ij IkJb J^Ce t^liUb ( II Defection by quiescence Defection by elimination Defection by conversion Plural of proper J%c nouns w>-) »}Cs [idem] Exhortation. syntax. Ji* ) ^lj* ^jJai To To give notify. parsing. Z»yi-) ( II place in the analysis .. .] Analysis of the sentence [Sentence syntax] iUsJI ^\j& Analysis of the letter cijiJI L>lji Declension of the verb [inflection. i^ljje Sign of declension Its (. . declension] Declension of the noun [inflection of the noun.

t Jr*^' - To approach Quotation marks Pluperfect past (.£»^i) ( .* EaF'RaLu of astonishment C...... ^ Jl indeterminate. definite] ( > <jjj£> ) Jl Now Meeting of two quiescents 0*^1 jI^CJI i\jti\ He who They who (dual masc) They who (dual masc) They who She who (dual) ^ jjl o'J^' Oi"^' ^jj| A'\ They who (dual fern) 0^1 . of preeminence.. -t* J^sl ^LJl ) ^U Of Jii"l The (he who) ( • • • Jl **]** ) Deprived of EaL' [{indefinite.. . nude ( j Made definite by EaL' {{Determinate. JjJl o/ comparison] 3". Five verbs Other-patients ^ •» Jbiil . definite] Js~j£ ) Endowed with EaL' {^Determinate. J ff'i" 11 J*Sl of superiority. . t- i -'.'*-'•* kJ*JlS\ Jiil of surprise] EaF'RaLu of preference []. of comparison] <u EoF'RjL'BjHj []..

% Sisters of E/LaE its sisters 'Si I Ol>s... so that.. unless. iiLall without motion] Long EaLi'F ( II iLjJs c^H Orthography of the EaLiF Stf ) ioj*il c-«J< Permanent EaLiF Shortened EaLi'F ^Abbreviated. otherwise. brief] uul Oj j-aJm uul Extended EaLiF CPro/oHged..] eijJuj-o c^JI To discover ( ^iJI Common expressions te j.. * E/LaE and l$jiy-l_$ N[ iY . save) "ill ..* n JpUJI uIaJI Two thousand Titles of declension Titles of structure Is it v'j*? 1 V^ - 1 sLJI t-'UH j "ill not? (in (isn't it) s t Lest order not to..r They who (dual fem) They who (fem) They who (masc) They who (masc) u^' lt^' ^Sll sSlSlI They who (fem) They who (fem) JW ^SWI uul ciJI LaJI Thousand Million Quiescent EaLi'F C... not) (if "ill Except not.

postfixed. Or (either) l] Examples of the superlative [//ite/is/ve. Compatible without reserve [Established in the perfect declinability] j£Uz» ) j£j)\ iA . 1 1_9 La* determinative complement] Source of the relation 4 H .l *-' superlative forms] jil \'SJ>] Term Definitely To order Imperative "\il "Jc\ [idem] of J .* Up to (as far as.j •« . . r towards. to. <U governed. it-"*' Without reserve. o ^ Letter of the imperative _^l jj>- [imperative particle] Imperative mood y^\ ik^e [imperative aspect] J Imperative verb J>\ X»s [idem] Yesterday {J S\ To become in the evening root to have power long inflection] ( . . SiiLljI . at. Jfc> iJUol J&J\ [Perfectly declinable. until) ^1 d£)l ' <uil Away! Subject [Correlative of attribute] Annexed [Complement of the noun. .

however. whether) OJ . root to incline [Deflection] *k*l <Uwl t In front of - fW i Forward! *ikUl ol tjl Indeed Sisters of E/Na 0| Ol>-l O^ r»— Noun of EfNa its sisters E/Na and ^y-h o\ j ~~ Predicate of E/Na o\ j?~ HaM'Zaf That of INDEED o\ »>* Ol Even if (although. »' Either or) &[ J~* Inclination.'I o To oppose <^J^i ' ° f I You You (masc sing) (dual) plur) £~> l*^ 1 You (masc You p* °t (fern sing) if^' You You (dual) (fern plur) l*^ 1 dr*' .» ' r •-. " 1~ -> -.] ( i-£*a\ Situations of compatibility Isn't it? (is it " 0"ilU- ) a~Sj>\ t not. • . surely) t»l As for (but. j-j* u^-*^ ) J^ 9 ' imperfectly declinable.°\ Compatible with reserve [Diptote. yet) (if. long. short inflection] Compatibility [Perfect declinability... (. in case. -'*. if.

external] klwjU i_> \i- Letter of feminization ^Feminine particle] Sign of feminization i^Jl.illi-) S^lJjl ( . Exclamation mark . real] Oral feminine Mil) £Jji [Feminine by form] Figurative feminine t£jW*-» vljji [Tropical feminine] •> Moral feminine s- ..r i i5T w* To be tender Feminization '& £j "<^Jg | [idem] Intact feminine plural [_Perfect 1)L diji «1p- feminine plural. Zsji( . "iSy** CJ V» [Feminine by signification] To create Occupation of the place Creative sentence fcj| J*»iM JUiil (. . . ) JUiil ) Not- to cease root to convert (. . U iiiil L-IajI To turn about. . A * Feminine * Real feminine f*V"" vlJ ji [Natural feminine. . Lii iC»! ^l+l-Jj ) Denying interrogation [interrogative implying a negation] ^jl&l 0> .. 'Xa°$s.

J ? S0b j • Measures of nouns [Forms of nouns. those SZij 0*}fjl i^Jj t*ij 1 Possessors of These.1 "iS What That is (hey!) If i£ Affirmative (of course. root to befall dl£»j jT iJu*»l * jy » \ First ^jl i Jj - ~ * ~ Beginning of the word First patient [. . .. adverb] These. metres] ? sL-o'ifl oljj Measures of verbs [Types of verbs] JlaS'Sfl oljj Measures of the superlative [intensive forms.. ( . yes) Also Lot Where Wherever Jj U-u <o Go O you who 0> 1£j\ i 4i . those Those Alas dU^j olj a~. ioi£JI J_j*jL« ) Jj Jj objective complement.r * SI Whence Welcome! Or (unless) „ . superlative] iilLJI oljjl To draw near First.

r * Vocative (oh!) tj In what time? It is It is JUI %X.\ "6 he they (dual) UiCI liUI liCI It is It is they (masc) she It is they (dual) they (fern) UiQ "Jbt\ sing) It is It is you (masc you (dual) dJUl It is LiTCI plur) It is It is you (masc you you you St\ dJQ (fern sing) It is (dual) (fern plur) LiTQ It is ^Cl ^Cl UGl It is I It is we or .

I i\j swear by. complement of object] or . adjective] were derived J^LJL uiUa-Jb Jjj^> <tl~* Similar to the annexing noun Made definite by EaL' oy ^Jj** [Determinate. (j-Swdl j!^t t_i JiJl J}W Defection by conversion <-r^^ J^*[ Aj EaF'R/L B/Hi [\.. by means - with) Quasi sound noun ^s^aib <u~* *_l [Quasi-perfect noun] Defection by quiescence Defection by elimination . Similar to the verb adjective particle] J**^ to 'Srr i [Assimilated Interpreted as if it the verb.. for. definite] Replacer Object of exhortation Direct patient *j JjkZ* ijj** *j <> Jj*a« [Direct object.. BaE*u" of. J*il o/ comparison] Letter similar to the verb J**^ *r~* *-i j? " [Particle assimilated to the verb. By (at.B.. iw> l.. during. in..

* . T* " i" -* iT «-""° - Good! jj To substitute Jji JjJ substitute} Substitute [Permutative.JI *_s.°. initial particle} Primate [inchoative. Primacy Introductive sentence t\'jcj\ Z5\ jcj\ SJUi- Elimination of the primate Letter of introduction Ijli.^ B 1 t ** * Endowed with EaL' [Determinate. definite} JL ojJ& Attached to the five verbs <L~»i>JI JUiNLi jiJU <u£*» Called similar to the annexing noun uiUaJl i£iL» To afflict \Jb Unfortunately Sufficiently LiL °jiu iCt What glory! To make a beginning To begin 1 jj \'jd>\ .is» s'-^l ^j*" [inchoative. Substitution of a part for the whole J&l ^» cr-^' J [/dm] Substitution of the whole for the whole J&l ^ J£J I J Ju [idem} Oi . nominal subject} Position of primate and predicate Position of the primate j^-"j p£-«Jt &fp« pZllT £/.

JIJj? ) J&l Jf u*-** Unexpectedly Rather (and even. however. »»< _ Simple A few (3 to 9) £^ oUai . but. U ) '^J. yet) J..# Substitution of a part for the whole ( . Ja. to express distance and passing away] { Some > j2*i .j - Slowly To be After distant ~J*> Away! Distant . . corroborated noun] Take Not- to finish ( . •> Partial substitution Uj*? ^"V [Corroborative substitution] Global substitution [Substitute of implication.. (*-"' [intensive noun. To reach Superlative ^ noun superlative] t*^.. J^»Li J-^ comprehensive substitution] Concordant substitution [Permutative of the whole] c*^* <J-^ To change Substituted for S-*~> <^ J^ jlji [Antecedent. .B • . 00 . . .# iJ*j — < • — Letter of distancing [. .

intensiveness} ~t£.12JI Structure ill [Formation.B Examples of the superlative [intensive paradigm. Titles of structure 111 invariable. Indeclinability. Superlative iJliJI jljjl superlative} lUJLi [Hyperbole. £Ci aUT *£i indeclinable} o-\ . *^Ii indeclinable verb} Structured word Structured [Uninflected. constructed state} Structure of the noun [indeclinability of the *1^1 noun} i\L Structure of the verb [invariability of the verb} jlUI id Accidental structure </»jl* ^ Permanent structure Letter of construction £ j^ Xll ^« »ll >-*j*- [invariable particle} Sign of structure £}& lii Structured verb [invariable. yes indeed) _£ 2j *j^j> To construct Structured noun [indeclinable. invariable. Not to speak of Affirmative (no doubt. uninfected noun} stJI L. superlative} » i-ot aJJUIJI Siul Measures of the superlative [intensive forms. Uninflectedness.

Well <b To stay the night ( . .i_aL*) & jLj OV .. ot _^w» ) Prominent personal [Prominent pronoun] jjIj Although Jui Between While jj UiS When Explicative attraction [Syndetic explicative. . completive coupling] (..

o^* ) To be changed."„ — jj 9 t * „ °- *U»I ijjj t Denudation.". (I. root to fold in two ^ — . . <Sj. follower!. alliteration. root to be tender \jdem~] ti»Ju Letter of feminization ( . followed by some word in apposition] f. she) i\2 iO O tiJl <d**l (sing). I Feminization.*Le\ 2j*i> [Bareness of any accessory^ Facing ._.. . followers [Appositive. jjq ^ * — root to denude ij>..„.U aLoI J'xJ «_J [Apposition. 'r-^'y < %-i^ sequens._^^™i.._. ) c*Ju £~j\s Sign of feminization ( . ..>r u Duality. Mark of continuity OubJI Z»yi„ •„ Followed D^wtecedenf. accord^] Follower..r T.. obu Under OA . You TaE*w" swear by.. To follow Succession root to substitute J. J .

. J*i ) Jijiu To establish Letter of selection ( .i ». . J)°J- ) Vj Euphony.: to another ( . .Jl*J To be modified.T Warning.i£ Jt?o I Alphabetical order l e'^t* 4 -^f>' [idem] Ordinal numeral ( . .. status J . softening] Euphony of the called 0% <^jLJI (t^jj . . root to soften the voice ^~-> *^* (^J* [Curtailment. ordinal] Letter of solicitation [Particle of desire] ( . <Sj>- ) J. tj j>- ) . .-? t?-t" Letter of authenticity C-. . . root to move [Mobilization] . root to warn jji. Verb of transfer [Transmutative verb] .-- S'J- >. . to indicate perfect certainty] ( . root to mention _£ i 4L*I jS Jb i—~>j> EaB' JaD order [idem] -. .£U»I "jt jiu [Cautioning] Vocalization.' % <iLs>i • tiiij^u Letter of stimulation [Excitative particle] ( .° root to pass from one Jl»- aOI J]]pu ? '. ^J* ) "l^J* [Number of gradation. <J J- ) j~su Masculinity. .

the ninetieth T ijj*lj Quiescence. 2 j*i ) of equalization] ( . <Ji j>." Punctuation mark [idem] (.II t Nine hundred thousand Ninety. .. .. . root to be quiet J>i~ ilUl j-^lj pause. . declension. Letter of similitude [Particle of comparison] . root to turn away <-Jj*? *Ua\ \Jjj*a2 [Conjugation.". t j£*»S <b j^J HaM'ZaTu of conciliation [.) * *" Variability. [itesf... quiescence] ( . root to t'J'j mount IS'j *Ua\ i^*£j [Construction] Non -linguistic composition Linguistic composition [e*^ S?* 'i-^j *-**^1h ( Is"^ Nine Nine hundred Twenty -nine Nine thousand Nineteen Ninety -nine >nX Mmnl t **^n -* ^ 11 o£o i~J \jjj*f-~j *~j c^^l hit rf "' j Au"j c«il ^'loVi UjaL. etymology] Variability of the noun (-"Vi U^J-AJ [Declension of the noun] Conjugation of the verb [idem] JJuiM ujj*oj "V . j!>UI) . Defection by quiescence Jb ( .%>*&) »^jj To leave Composition.

<t— >l ) u..) Jr"*" Compensation. root to be small y^> j.*L?\ -" - wonder] ( . learn. . . [Surprise.JLaJ Astonishment. . Letter of astonishment [Particle of surprise] *-*j*. root to be astonished >—^f. <-Jy- ) u*»j*> instrument of definition] Woe To to Uu know ( . Noun of astonishment [Noun of surprise. . .) Diminution. . ^ v~?\ ujj^oj UHj-oj *_$ j>. Jl J** I ) of surprise] ( . ( . ill uA!j-flJ> #U . definition] ( U ) /j*? ^j* ****' <-*!j-*' Letter of definition [Particle of definition. . EaF'RaLuof astonishment [. root to *-l* *!-«<»' «**«• J o o - Letter of causality [Particle assigning the motive or reason] . root to exchange ^1* *^' j^ij*' [Substitution] "\\ . root to pass over !-*# <u-«»l *d>!L*J' [idem] By impossibility Definition. <-*j*..) <-*£«** Transitivity.'yj u«i**J of wonder] ( . root to be acquainted with [Determination. . . .T 1» *» o — Complete conjugation Incomplete conjugation Letter of variability [Particle of declension] ( .

^>j- ) J--/?fl T Preference. «*i- ) i-^" Voluntarily *liU iliJ That one (fem.) XmiJ Supposition. You do (fem. . . root to be able [Assumption. preeminence. hypothesis] jj$ *L*\ wJuLi Classification. sing. . . . tj ji- * •*. root to prefer one to another J*ii 4X~a\ A tii" [Superiority. preeminence. . ( .- Separation. root to divide *~i <Us<9l . tj ji- ) j-i&i * — of multitude] ( .. . 11. broken] . ..Jljiil) Y'ah" You do You do (masc. ". comparison] ( .) T Letter of explanation [Expository particle] -To ( . . root to separate [Distribution] J^ai 4X*a\ J nk" Letter of separation [Distributive particle] ( . Noun of preference . ni ft" Letter of paucity [Particle of rarity] ( .) (dual) OjSjJti O^ukOj -. Broken plural [internal plural. tJ ji- ) J-JLoJ Letter of profusion [Particle of frequency. comparison] EaF'RaLu of preference [Comparative and superlative adjective] (. . .) To be complete nr Ij . plur.1 ) J ff4" IjVown o/ superiority.

'. concrete <JjiL° - _^* J^r*- . .:"f" j^ ' '<- ^j**^ T " • * - '' jJ {° Compatibility.j t . &£+* j-oJ . root to distinguish J^ <Lw>> J^r** [Objective complement for specification or for distinction] Distinctive of the sentence. premonitory particle] Letter of regret ( . . attributive.l Complete conjugation Incomplete conjugation />b /»t t-ijj*^ i-ajj*^ /»t j^ Complete [Absolute.Complete exclusion [Attributive exception] /»U *biu. ( . . <~2j>- ) *~-» [Particle that excites attention. .°. ^j* ) Distinctive. the relation Distinctive of the 4—J iaU--xII U^ji number number] . - • 1 Non-transposed distinctive Distinctive of the isolated. Complete verb [Absolute verb. *~J_?- ) **•**» . perfect inflection.* o . complete] j»t J*i Complete variable Incomplete variable /»t t-Sj-^^ - «.j ~° - C>li i^£jl j^-*^ Transposed distinctive Active element of the distinctive Letter of premonition ( 1' Jjiu J^*J J^& ) j^> . j »-. root to have power [Complete declension. complete] % . . iJiiJI ^rr*^ [Specification of >. J>^ long] *U*' J^-w «-° - Modulation of compatibility Letter of wish [Optative particle] (• • -J' iX**-*) ( .

root to render indeterminate [Leaving undefined. nunation] Modulation of compatibility [Nunation of declension. of inflection] j-S^i Modulation of indetermination [indefinite nunation] jif^ JO* Modulation of reduction [Genitive nunation] Js>ii Modulation of regularity [indicative nunation] *i^J Modulation of necessity Modulation of compensation [idem] hjjJJri j^J*^ JO* Modulation of opposition [Nunation of correspondence] iilij ui-H Modulation of opening [Accusative nunation] \_ n'S ijtj-* . root to pronounce the letter ( II ^>J u~o N dy JO* [Tanwin. Colon [idem] Confirmative. . root to [Conflict. Za^s- ) TLyfiy oST} iJU»l juS'^J Global confirmative Self -confirmative J «i-» 4\°~r- xSji J x£°jj M .- jj t ^ j — Contestation. indetermination] j& ib>\ jSd Modulation of indetermination Modulation. tear away 9y 4^1 f jUj contest] ( . . root to confirm [Corroboration.) Indetermination. insistence] .

Oral confirmative [Verbal corroboration] ^ eJ>i •^r y y y" Synonymous confirmative Moral confirmative [Corroboration in meaning] *&}\j6 ^J"*** •*•£ . complete] These two (fem) O^ of These two (fem) This one (fem) ^ ^^ *Dy> These two (fem) These two (fem) That one (fem) ^ . stressed energetic] Light of confirmation (iLiiJI II oy ) ' i" - J^^ " i- [LigAf corroborative. followers [Appositive.£*-itt t Nineteenth j-ii £-*tt < Complete. attributive. Relative confirmative Letter of confirmation [Strengthening particle. »—•«» • -1-5 V ^y II ) *~f y Heavy N N of confirmation ( aLj&I o_jJ ) xfy [Heavy corroborative. follower] Sometimes Ninth «j" **-it t£--tt i'jZs. ^'J^ '^i" sequens. light energetic] Follower. « Those two (fem) Those two (fem) This (fem) ^^ ^V t "\0 . corroborative] ( . root to be complete f- ***** f [Absolute.

This This (fern) (fern) <G : Slowly Yj 11 .

A C. ** * j^JI >—>^ [Fixedness of Affirmative sentence £~^ ^U=r Affirmative verb C-i« J*i Affirmative £~j> [idem] To be heavy Because of heaviness Jij J^JL) ^Ljiill Heavy N of confirmation stressed energetic] -^j^ o_3-> H/?eavy corroborative. To be Arm Firmness of $aE*u" N N] it <. To be third t-iJI ~C& SJLiU t Three hundred thousand Three Three hundred Twenty-three SStf iStf oil* kl<%* Oj^r^J ^^ &%* Three thousand Thirteen a'-li- lJ^T £?%* &*}£ 4 "-ti- IV .£.

the eightieth u&\ iSUiw V^ 'Otw O^UllI iO^JUJ £>\Lt Eight hundred ..1 abl o/ exception] "\A . triliteral bare of any accessory} X ' J " Augmented ^jy$ ^_y> [Redundant Third patient [. triliteral. Eight hundred thousand Eight Eighty. thereupon) There To fold in two Ojj^s-J ^S O&I -••-». then.5i)U £Jtf t t IlJl3 ^i tf dJC -» *» - o verb "JW J*i [idem] Denuded triliteral ^^ Jj^« simple.A Thirty.jy£ [idem] Third Thirteenth Triliteral i'jtt. moreover.* Twenty-two Article of exclusion [y4r</c/e jhi^..JLJ Twenty eight Eight thousand ojj^f'j . the thirtieth Triliteral 'oy^\ LOyW ~. Triliteral measure metre] [Triliteral form. augmented} kULJ dyJu objective complement] ^!AJ ojj type. [jVwde triliteral.<iUJ ij*f\ iuilj Eighteen o^«*i e'UJ i^i &LJ C^J C^i tl> i*< Afterwards (furthermore.

Complete exclusion J» ^ I i l^-« \ Non-certified exclusion ^ rj" s j^~ *l^-J 3 Linked exclusion [joint exception] J-- ^ * ^- Emptied exclusion C^jccepfion 9jk* SLii-l void] made Detached exclusion [^Different exception] *kL» SLii-l Certified exclusion I ^ rj" s tk£—\ Exclusive noun jbi£«l -—I [Noun of exception] Duality XsiJ Twelve j-£* L^l djts. excepted term] Included {^General term] ^ J%~~* H .LJ OLjI iuI^j Two Biliteral 'JkS Second Twelfth Letter of exclusion C^Jecepf/ve particle] aIj L* t oIj S^ii 51iJ i^ii- jt thixJ <-ij*- Dual (^ _s Excluded ) ^li Cr/«'ng excepted.' c Exclusion [^Exception] A i\^.

. . J_^*i^ objective ~ tt ^ Eighth Eighteenth ijZJe- iuU tj^U iuU i j«2i j^U ..u <o ^jZz*** jt complement^ tt*.c *» A j t ~0 J Eliminated included i_SjJtf*^ <o> j_jS Mentioned included Second patient H.

indirect complement] j^JI Modulation of reduction [Genitive nunation] ^j^ "^ Reduction [Oblique case. preposition] S - J Personal of reduction [Genitive pronoun] yr j^-^ Y^ . To draw Noun with reduced ending in jjj^" p~\ indirect.p^ ^j*- Letter of denial [Particle of past negation] L of denial C..] -—"ill "_fr Reducer Reducer and reduced Letter of reduction jli- jjyr^j "j^r ^. genitive. To deny J/YMw («?"£ ^.. [jVown the genitive.t3 j*- [Particle of subordination. indirect] Reduction of the noun [Genitive of the noun.. •\p«i«-!l f^ o/ past negation] "J».. indeterminate diptote.J.

bare root] VY . primitive] J : u^ J** Denuded triliteral ~. • {y *j>y> indeterminate] . simple. nude. bare infinitive. i j> y j-*-*2-* [Noun of simple action.j Denuded quadriliteral ^Hj simple. regimen] ji*^ Ending in reduced / jJj*?^ [Genitive. indeterminate diptote. indirect indirect. complement] .- "* . bare of any accessory] VJ> \^y 1 ' i*— »£. bare of any accessory] Jl Deprived of EaL' [indefinite.•••*/>* Denuded Denuded future original J- " -*. dependent. primitive] i j><j> J** Denuded ignored past verb 6j&y ?y** i "js i y ^A u* J^ "*j>>* Denuded known past verb Denuded [Simple. operative.J Sign of reduction c J - yr i«}& J>«JI Attachment of reduction [Belonging.' Denudation [Bareness of any accessory] ij>C Denuded verb [Simple verb. j' - Nouns with reduced ending Cj\jjj>^> To denude Denuded noun [Simple noun. bare of any accessory] % ~j * s . ^j^* [Nude quadriliteral.. nude.jyZ "*j>y> [Nude triliteral.

jussive] Elision /»jsr [Apocopate. jussive of the imperfect] To sanction Letter of sanction ^..»tal [Article of apocope.c Partial substitution [Partial permutative] (..r»~" [Stationary noun. - Verb with elided ending CFerft in fjyy VJ*f the apocopate. jussive] Elided ending (*J>>* C^pocopafe. yes) JJt> To be Inert rigid *» J^> . aplastic. J'-b) j^ji- To clip (To elide) ° js? f ' t i - Article of elision py>.£«!>£• '. jussive] Sign of elision - /» j*. . %\'jr i£j> ^_r- [Particle of requital] F of sanction Cf/sed to separate the protasis s'j^' *l» and apodosis] J-**- To render Affirmative (indeed. yussi'veH Elision of the verb J* " 1 1 rj*r [Apocope of the verb] Eliding /»j«r [Apocopative] Letter of elision f j=r ^j " 5 [Particle of apocope.•» o noun incapable of growth] *••£.

plurals {j**? < . stiff. <«— [Quasi-plural noun. regular. broken] Minor J o - plural 5iS -*>. external] 5- dJLa «<J>- [Perfect feminine plural. of abundance] *» Intact feminine plural JL sound. aplastic.**> Plural of proper nouns *}U^! **> ^ - [idem] Plural of the plural Z^sS\ "IJU- [Secondary plural] Plural of the composites oCST^jl l^i- C/dem] Broken plural <. sound. [/nterna/ plural. -^j.'' J Inert verb £ Ju«U- J*i [Primitive verb. collective] Plural noun of genus ls**^" u~-^ p— J J t» o - Plural. unipersonal] To assemble Entirely m> ^U-i Noun of collectivity A^ X ° . regular. [Plural of paucity] Major plural S^*ST Itli- [Plural of multitude. Intact masculine plural 1)L *\f"'ji VU- [Perfect masculine plural. external] iJ~J-\ }j**r Other plurals Totally V*i- Vi .

Letter of plurality £**- <-* j»- [Particle of the plural} Ultimate plural fy>^' ^j£~* [idem} To group Annexation of the sentence [Phrasal prothesis} Analysis of the sentence <a»iJI Ji> iUiJI ^1 4iU?l <_. clause. ***> sentence} £j!. double sentence} Minimal sentence [Simple sentence} lSj*^> <a<^- VO .'\y-\ [Sentence syntax} Distinctive of the sentence Al»iJt j--«J Sentence [Proposition.UjI <u»i- Introductive sentence [idem} Interrogative sentence £Ulgi~»l <u»i- Nominal sentence 4f—' 4 ^" [idem} Specific sentence ^Laji-^l <u»i4 Creative sentence ^^i ^" ^J^ "^r Statutory sentence [Circumstantial clause} Predicative sentence *ij^~ ****? [Enunciative sentence} Conditional sentence **}?j~ 4 ^" [Hypothetical clause.

essential element.] To be of the same genus Noun of genus ' ..] Supplement of the sentence SlliJI iCal [Superfluous.sfrio/r] Pillar of the sentence 3jC>J>jl I'SJs- [Sentence support.. generic] jj*^- 111 [Common Plural noun of genus ^JU 111 111 Proper noun of genus j^JU J* .. ~'~~- ^JU noun.. iCijT Skiii^i- £lS^>- t J£"\i- t sentence] il^i. dispensable member. Zkje SJL*- [Local sentence] Verbal sentence Sl&i i£j>- \jdem] Maximal sentence iSj^ *^r [Complex sentence] Affirmative sentence [><fefff] iui* SJUi- Negative sentence T a> SJUi- [idem] Descriptive sentence Li*j SJUi- [Epithetic sentence] Narrative of the sentence Status. sentence Predicate.J Circumstantial sentence £ •»- - *». sentence [_Attribute. redundancy.ilt Quasi-sentence CG"asi'-propo. substantive.

.!$> Ma/ denies absolutely.j Genus [Generic.. augmented. that denies the whole genus] Effort To ignore Ignored verb (whose agent [Passive verb] ". result depending upon the condition] Letter of answer ^j>r < -*j >- [Particle of correlation] To be permitted Permissible incorporation Facultatively j G* jl«r f^^ 'j'^- YV . I- • Past.. denuded. = . substantive] Inferior z JiC <J& I— ** genus Superior genus Medium genus Isolated genus Ja-y^ .j Past. tr^^ OUI M '. J$> is. ignored verb uj&>* vje** "i J _r>* " ' ^^ V J** .-» ** Sjtv> Nationality <l~i>- LaE of generic negation C.. ignored verb " - **/* -r j^" "\ V " • J** - Ignored vj&y vj4>** fj -^ 1 [Passive] Conform ignored [Passive aoristic. passive unaccomplished] Six directions C~«< Ol4> To answer Answer to the condition V J?jiJI <~>\yr • [Apodosis of the protasis.) {vs-u) 0j4>** J*s j' - •.

aplastic.1) juotj..J Permissibly latent personal Figurative feminine £ it \j\yr "0 J _/-"-"' j~*J> £*!}* iSj^y [Tropical femininej. Figurative masculine 1$ jliJ> "^ ji [Tropical masculine^ Inert noun [stationary noun. unconjugable[\ jii ) juol> Affirmative (indeed. yes) VA . aplastic.. Inert verb [Primitive verb. (. 11.. incapable of growth^ (..

HaE*w" To applaud Pregnant In order (as far as. until. Warned Thing warned about jiiti j <tu J^ t_JJi> To eliminate Retrenched noun [Curtailed noun] Defection by elimination Elimination of the predicate Elimination of the verb Elimination of the primate Elimination of the direct patient <u <u« i_5jj^>^ •_! iJJkiJL J^i-| jr="^' *-J-i>- J**J' tJJia- Lu~Jl i_j.. so that.H. To deem To recount To warn Warning [Cautioning] Attention £>"A> jji> "ji^> jlji- Warner jjiti :.. *l> t^ Iju> Ju> up to) J+s* lis*.a>- dJ*JCJ\ i_JJ>- V^ . even.

H Elimination of C * o N Nun} SJUJ1 OjJI t_9Ji- [Fall of Elimination of the defective letter ^J^ t_9Ji- <-**>- Dots of suspension &}£ Eliminated active element Eliminated " . o . soft} Letter [Particle. -*lp" iJ]^JI v'j*! iLJI ^j*" <-^J^- 0/ Me vt>eaAr /etfer. J*l* *. infirm.* .. Letter of introduction [inchoative particle} slxit t-Jji- EaB'JaD letter fc*-^ <-*j*' {idem} Letter of exclusion [fxcepf/ve particle} jLilwl t-Sj*- Letter of restriction [Particle of rectification} dljlclil <-*j* Letter of inauguration [Particle of ^llAluil t-3j*- commencement} aI^oI^I t-3j*- Letter of interrogation [interrogative particle} A< .« - 1' { •'-' > Eliminated included Eliminated passive element t_9jJ*«^ <u* i_9jj*«^ jiz~* Jj*jh Opposite *lj> t To turn back Analysis of the letter Elimination of the defective letter [. • - t_9jJ*«^ '. conjunction.. consonant} o. OjJ*^ • . preposition.

: ' \° - £jJ <-*>> Letter of similitude [Particle of comparison. J»»\ ^y*-* j*- sibilant] t-» lj-^> I Letter of rectification [Particle of digression] Letter of the imperative j«ol *-^> [7dem] Letter of distancing [Particle of distance] ±*» ^y• Letter of feminization •j. of declension] Letter of astonishment [Particle of surprise] t_~st*J <-Zj> Letter of definition [Definite article] ^J* *-*->*" A> .' ° - u*-»U »-9>> [7dem] Letter of stimulation [Excitative particle] jA~os*j c^> '-'j*' Letter of authenticity CParfic/e o/ reality.H Letter of future C JLiL. *^**' ^J*~ of assimilation] Letter of variability i^j-oj *-9j*- QieWer o/ conjugation. J?**" of certainty] JCT"*" Letter of selection Letter of solicitation [Particle of desire] ^J*" * .il *-9j*{ [7dem] Sharp letter [Apical letter.

'j^j 'tSjs- of wish] Letter of premonition [Particle that excites attention] WJ t_9°*> ^xJ ti°*> Letter of regret Letter of confirmation [Corroborative particle} xS'tJ i£j> Letter of denial [Particle of past negation]] j jj<i. jussive} aji t_9°>> Letter of sanction [Particle of requital} sL>> -2>> t Letter of plurality [Particle of the plural} «^> ^Sjs- AY . preposition] °Vj>. of frequency} *&> >-* >> Letter of wish [Optative particle. Ij'js* Letter of elision [Particle of apocope. ci°>> Letter of reduction [Particle of subordination. „n ~ t_9^> Letter of separation [Particle of distribution]] \ t>A ~ *S*>- Letter of paucity [Particle of rarity]] J-1& »-*°>> Letter of profusion [Extensive particle.Letter of causality [Particle assigning the cause or reason] L&J ci°*> Letter of explanation [Expository particle]] .

j Slack letter [Loose letter} \Sjs- Letter of rejection [Particle of disapproval} cij ^jjs- J . jJLfi sibilant} *-3 >> Letter of circumstance [Adverbial particle} XSje *Sj> Letter of exposition a^J*" ^J^ t_3j!> [Particle of requiring with urgency or with gentleness} Letter of attraction [Conjunction. t^Uai.tv' *-3>* [Solar letter} Sound letter /etter] »-3 >> Ei'er/ecf Sibilant letter [Whistling letter. tSjs* [idem} Letter of allocution [Particle of address.i£js* allocution} "°p.Letter of answer [Particle of correlation} <—'!>> *-*>> Guttural letter jli. At . a Letter of augmentation [Letter of redundancy} Silij ^j*" Hard letter JuJi ci\i>- [>J£ta /etter] Letter of condition bJ* t_3 >> E/dem] Letter of the X group (solar) ^-^ -ll. copulative particle} L jk'e.

-i-o Letter of construction [Letter of formation] *^j> Extended letter Juo *m2j> [Letter of prolongation] Raised letter letter JjcI~o c£j» Depressed j£U~o c*j* Letter similar to the verb [/l^ecfive particle] J*^ *~~* ^j* Letter similar to LaY'Sa Letter of originality [infinitival particle] ^^--L <u^e c*j* k ^J'^^* -'j-s" Ai .Defective letter CSo/< /etfer. iU wea/c. t-*j*- infirm. glide] Neutral letter [Particle without action] J-kk '-'^P' Active letter QOpera^i've particle] Jali k-*^*- Letter of finality [Final adverb] SjU t-*j*- Letter of oath [jurative particle] «U group i-S^> Letter of the Q (lunar) IgJeS ^j> [Lunar letter] Neutralizing letter [Restrictive particle] Ji-*JI J*- ^^ ^J^" jJ [j°y> Soft letter [Weak letter] .

cS** k -J ^*' conjunction. tool-word] <fl*« t-S^p- Letter of concomitance [Particle of association] Letter of surprise [Particle of occurrence] oU>-Ulo ^j> -J ^P' Neglected letter letter.H Letter of conformity [Aoristic particle} C 4* jLao t-S^p- Foreign letter (dotted) (Js^^iu) *mu t-S^p- Letter of signification [Particle. of direct case] c. accusative.. J*$-° l [Undotted unpointed] i» JJ k Letter of lamentation -J ^*' [/dem] Letter of call [Vocative particle] jlJ" *Jj* Letter of opening [Subjunctive particle.>fl » »J^> Letter of partial opening [Conjunctive locution] [-£ jA t—ai ^j^ *J^> Letter of negation C/denf] ^yii Letter of interdiction [Prohibitive particle] (_$£» "-S^ Annulling letter jt->U k -J ^*' [/dem] Alphabetical letter [idem] ^»^** ^J> AO . preposition.

Ventilated letter [Airy letter] jli *-5^> Letter of protection [Letter o/ separation] iilij *-5^> To move Vocalization ^j* ^kj^ [Mobilization] Vowel [Diacritic mark. To decrease tSj^ \_ . %**$* ) .-/>'•* To be present Present time \jis- jj>^i\ J^j [idem] Present verb ^U- J*» AT . . numeration calculation] J*^ iL>C^J o Bracket [idem] ( .'•*- To consider Only CJLi- JuMaL [. .. ~0Z'j>- vowel] Z'j»\H> Apparent vowel *£'y- Supposed vowel [Presumptive vowel.. virtual] Sjlil* 4$"^ » — -_p •*- Modulated vowel Convenient vowel Vocalized Xi"yj> ~&~j>- i— Li ~&'j>- o^«^ movent] [Mobile.

Right of priority Truly ji- Ui- Real status Real feminine ^Xaii^c*"" Jlij^ 1 ^ [Natural feminine] Real masculine L 5 ^J ^~ j ^ [Natural masculine] Real descriptive ls^c* 5* "-^ ^Proper adjective] To narrate Narrative [Citation. l^**" £ISUquotation.»j -»^ Narrative of the sentence Narrative of the isolated - i^IJI £l&>ja *~ - Written narrative *~>y&* JJ_jil<> %&> %>\&s- Pronounced narrative To come down Occupation of the place In place It It X> J^*-" JUtiJl Ji«i ^ *3 has its place <J <u^* has no place J^> ^ . Jr*^ ^j*" of certainty] S jlXaJl [Particle of reality. imitation] iuS>JI ajISU.y> Its place in the analysis t_jf^l <&v> In consideration of the place J^*-" l\s-\j» Ornament Laudatorily <ub* Iju^> AY .H To strike true Letter of authenticity c Jp.

Intentional status Sij^al^ Jt- Preliminary status Situations of compatibility "^y . . .Jli- Causal status -o j SLU. circumstantial complement^ Real status ZjLJl>. Far be it (except) ( . . j*> Eleventh V- £ot> t'pii t£^l> lili. . of condition.* * <. Present time \jdemj Jl Jsj ) j^\j> Present verb \jdemj ( . J*i ) y&\J> To hesitate To pass from one To be impossible Statutory sentence jli.H Father-in-law C ^ g*. gerund participle^ Status. status to another Jl*. «^> <. sentence 5JUit Jt- [Complement of manner. JbJll £JU<LJ>- [Circumstantial clause^ Status Jli- C^ccMsaf/we o/ state. quasi-sentence <JUi. .4-i ** ijb** « ^ j - Constitutive status SI •» -3^ * ' j Jt** - Confirmative status [jStrengthening accusative^ Isolated status SoS"^ JU- oiju* JU**.^ Jli- iji^^l Cj^UJlSdl Lj-C*> Concerned by the status [jSubject of statej AA . j " _ ** . Jbjo' ** _ Status.

» j JliJI J^l* complement of manner^ ijij^ J** Verb of transfer \JTransmutative verftj Come! Where. wherever . i ^ U y> c-y* - Moment Come! j-> [)^> A^ .H Active element of the status [^Operative of the C .

.

r\ Predicate of OlT ^i *"£- C^ttnfcMte.KaE*w" To know by experience Predicative sentence [Attributive sentence.r K. J i» -" >j" JT~ .. t\s* i* \j^"*£>*- enunciative^ Elimination of the predicate Predicate ^>S\ u>°&""2. 2£i- t "J±. [Attribute. attribute. Predicate. jf^ [Enunciative. r\ » Isolated predicate - . r\ i-llll 'JjJ j| J^.H Predicate of LaE ^ [Attribute.ili t Predicate.... J Predicate of KaEDa KaENa ilS" Jj.. sentence^ 5I1p. sentence [Attribute. "-J- quasi-proposition^. predicate^ "~2- To inform Predicate of the annuller Predicate of Ej'Na [Attribute. quasi-sentence C<4 ttribute.

To harang Letter of allocution LJa> (_jlk>..i—Sji- [Particle of address} Spoken to Lilki [Second person] Submission and reduction [Genitive case..] -» Position of the predicate Position of primate and predicate J^*A\ XJy> Jf^^J [J£~«JI 4-J_r° To be special Specification \_P'articular-ization] "aA> ^sCa^-l Specific sentence l yl ecs~^\ i iUit^>H~ Especially Specified "^jtaki Special conjunctive u*^ ^y*y relative adjective] [Relative personal pronoun... «u^>.K Predicate of MaE .. energetic] Behind Outside of Contrarily (except) uAt> <£.J til ^r . ~J>~3 lj^**" Light N of confirmation light Jl juS^JI jjj ) ii-A> [Light corroborative.. indirect] (.» [Attribute... oblique. \^i. li^s- To be fifth ... .. tL»l«l Five nouns Five verbs Five Lli. ..

K Five hundred '. Quinqueliteral measure \JPentaliteral form. t <~J j ~ jII j -- o~-**~ " ° '. the fiftieth ^' U^^oi-JI j_^-*^ Quinqueliteral [j'entaliteral] Fifth ^^~ l~AZo^r1* £-?l»' t ^rf lacr-* 1 Fifteenth -r 1* ** Attached to the five verbs jwiJI JUs^L J^L> tx"^^ ^J J metre. Twenty-five Five thousand Fifteen ojj~*j ^* o_rl* (j-**<. \ ^r-**- _£* <LL--*»t Five hundred thousand Fifty. typej To imagine J 1*- <\r .

*» D. -a j o Forbidden incorporation Obligatory incorporation <£** <—*->* (»i*o| C I Indication il*j|i Below Take! jji tiJJji And so on As long as. viLIIji to last (. . f^i incorporation] jJlit* Permissible incorporation r^*\ t* -. To come Attain! to VaELu know Jb t ^ ^ ji d!lji ~Jzs To penetrate Incorporation [/4 ssimilation.. . U ) «b M ..

possessors of yjl tjJ Ij These two (masc) These two (masc) jli Jii '- t Those sMjt SO .0 t Z. regular. To mention Masculinity ZdELu" Jli i j£'i j~> ±> [idem} Intact masculine plural ^^sound. J> -** £*T [Perfect masculine plural. external} Masculine £ ±* "^ l£^*~ -r [idem} Real masculine [Natural masculine} Figurative masculine l£j • -r -** [Tropical masculine} Mentioned included jjS ^ <~» LJ ^-' ) Verb of blame [idem} (•••J*f V* Possessor This (masc) of.

Distinctive of the isolated.. .. concrete .) These two (masc) These two (masc) These This one (fern) (fern) (fern) dX^i ijJSJjl ItXJ iijlj These two These two There ihl.Ill) Concrete noun [^Substantive oli noun] ( . Jbi jJUi dijlj That (masc) Those two (masc) Those two (masc) Those That (fern) (fern) dkj* JJLjSj* jjk iijU Those two Those two (fem) Over there Over there This (fem) - dlL iiJbi = * : r |j This (fem) ^i : This (fem) This (fem) c (.This (fern) oj (fern) (fern) These two These two Here OU Jj Ui Ulli JiiJlj This one (masc. t ijuJ\ j~I>J ) oli M .

One evening One morning In such a jll»o oli '^ T^T^ way C-O W .

Siijl Four thousand Twenty-four . To see RaE*u" i\j tJ ^1". Many a.R.(often. the fortieth ii". 0>~j^l tOj^jl .j" ° T Connection JsCj Julj Connector To be fourth Forty..rjj \jdemT\ Fourth - ibulj t *LjIj . «Jt 5JLjJjl ~Z°j\ t ^ii. : ^^1 huj\ 'djji-f'j "*>°J Four hundred Four Quadriliteral olL 2Z°J\ *jjI t^jl f^. Four hundred thousand Fourteen S^ii. perhaps) L>j Maybe To attach Attachment Attached £jj Jjjj JsUjI *^y.

measure metre. bare of any accessory.j *_?>* [Simple quadriliteral. naked] IS .£ulj 4 jts.R Fourteenth Quadriliteral verb Ijts. of probability] . . 3*f ) ols**-j To go back To hope Letter of sollicitation *^-j £>j °ry [Particle of desire] \\ . u^j type] ojj [Quadriliteral form. To arrange EaB'JaD order *-Jj i£-^' ^'J t_~j jj [idem] Alphabetical order ^ L>^a [idem] Ordinal numeral ls^-^ jJ* gradation.~J o Augmented quadriliteral ^yj augmented] ^.j* [Redundant Quadriliteral quadriliteral. Verb of probability [Verb of preponderance. [Number of ordinal] jt**" Position of the predicate Position of the verb Position of verb and agent Position of the agent Position of the primate Position of primate and predicate J#li!lj Vj^ ^-"j^ J**" JiiM £jj^ J*li!l £j y la~*)l *~>y jt^'j [x~J\ Xjy ( .«_Jj u^VJ o*3 [idem] Denuded quadriliteral "^^.

. . cJ j- ) »j To give sustenance <jjjj To watch over In consideration of the pronunciation In consideration of the place ^*j iiiJJI a\t-\y J^J' olpl_^ To lift «ij with regular ending in Noun f&S V^JI (—' [Noun the subject case] Modulation of regularity [indicative nunation] ^^j Regularity "*ij [Subject case. iji\^> Slack letter [Loose letter] cJ j>- ) y>j Letter of rejection [Particle of disapproval] ( . Regularity of the noun indicative] *lMI ^j [Subject case of the noun] Regularity of the verb [indicative case of the verb] J*aJI '^'j Regulator «ilj ) • . . nominative. . softening] *>j f-f~y Euphony of the Euphonic Called euphonic called (^ibUl »?-_? *3-y ^~J* ( .R Verb of hope %\>-j J*i [Verb of desire] To soften the voice Euphony [Curtailment. .

- J «j j J. predicative] Annexed composite [Prothetic t5*^i *- J* compound] JSl* "LJ>"J> Rational composite \ *\ . Nouns with regular ending Cjfcjiy Annulled nouns with regular ending f^G* v^"j "^—^'j To mount Composition [Construction] Non-linguistic composition Linguistic composition Plural of the composites Is*^ " { "*-~£°j> 'jfi% j ^ ~L~£°j "kli- Cj[S'JJ\ [idem] Composite proper noun ~LS'y "Ji- [idem] Composite numeral Composite speech "LSy "LSy "s'Ss- * ^ [idem] Composite ZJ£'j> [idem] Referential composite J^ibll ZJZ'y [Attributive compound.^ [Nominative pronoun] Sign of regularity «jj £>S£ Verb with regular ending [indicative verb] \^°y J** Ending in regular u indicative] }j*j* [in the subject case.R Personal of regularity . nominative. ».

y R Irrational J J*& jf- composite ^ V^ j* Mixed composite ^Synthetic compound^ Useful composite ls^-J* >*£* ^y ^-4}j Slowly! Fourth Fourteenth OjJix.£-j'j To go away While rjj u-ij While twj ^ -r .i*jlj i*jlj t^rf'j t j~£.

augmented noun] -^J (*-"' \ *T .' -4 *JJ ^ J "° 7 Augmented noun [Redundant. To claim To last a ZaEYw" long time I^'j t J j»*j i>*j Noun Time of time 0&j 0&j p-l <-C?J [>dem] Present time j-^l^JI ^j 0"J {idem} Time of the verb C/dem] Future time [/denf] J**- 11 JJlu~*JI ^j O-O Past time Cfcfenf] ^LJI " J -- Circumstantial of time \_Adverb 0/ rime.Z. 0& j *-^ accusative of time} eJ Gorgeous To furnish To augment " .

to Julj cease (.] Not.U) Jlj W .j Augments of the triliteral J>^^ £j\\y [Redundant triliteral] Augments of the quadriliteral ls^It" d\\y jXai [Redundant quadriliteral] Augmented original infinitive] Juji [Redundant Past augmented ignored Past augmented J^fr?^ ^j#jJbw Juj^ 5 known ^^ ^U ejli Augmented HaM'Zaf [Redundant... Augment.. augments C/JedMMdanfH Ol-bj^ Juj^ * ^ .....z Measures of the augmented verb [Augmentative types] Letter of augmentation j o I JujiJI u'jji Sibj i_3j?- [Letter of redundancy] Augmented julj Augmented verb [Redundant. augmented verb] - \y jii _ t . augmented.

' *i ! i J*z Seven hundred thousand Seventy. '.'. . J£"^-_ Co<J Glory to jGilii Seven Seven hundred ^ j . SiYNu" j^ i ^ \j j_.. the seventieth ciJI AjUj»1»i OjillJI t ij jVi'- To precede Preceding future Preceding past JjL. . t . . ." .\ V '.". OliU X^> * Twenty seven Seven thousand Seventeen 3">«*i f. Pulverizing In replacement Six Six <Ci 1 i hundred Clio Twenty-six OjyLe'j \ O .. .« Ju> JjL. .. ^JV? . 1 In the future (Later) To cause Causal status Causal descriptive 2LH. jili ^li Ij&ili "y.." S..

To be low Inferior j^ JjC j^°. ) J^-IJU [Sexiliteral form. J . To be quiet Defection by quiescence - j <l'-M jS£l Meeting of two quiescents Quiescent [. Depressed To water V. Quiescent [Without motion] Quiescent Quiescent O Y intact %^C "j\j %g\^ \ 'jj To remain Intact feminine plural 1)C sound.. the sixtieth J j£j| JjL t Sexiliteral measure metre. genus letter "^ jj^. quiescence] "•££. Sixty. 'j^.£ S Six j* uiVT *i-» thousand o^ii Sixteen Six C- i ^Si sL sll ft hundred thousand ^| Oj} -. J^CS\ *l£dl ^jj| E %$s^ without motion] Quiescence Quiescence [Rest.. ( • . pause. regular. [Perfect feminine plural. \ *"\ .. type] Q«i<*ly Secretly j fc -£ r^. ">SCJ "oS^> absence of vowel.. external] J*jji V^. .

Listen Empirical [/^~" irregular] [Popular. metre.' S Intact masculine plural o* JC sound. [Forms o/ tfie types] \*W .. i^*'^ Ojj form] Zs-^L 5j*i Empirical HaM'Zaf /rom hearsay.I Five nouns f. Empirical measure [irregular type. external] Sound intact verb ?e~>w J-** [Regular normal verb} To listen expressions ^ . (<Jl— jZla «*>- [Perfect masculine plural. irregular] [Popu/ar..-. > Common Listening "ts-y^~» UlAJI UH f-lil. <~**±- £L_J *£~»l Nouns of quantity J. from hearsay. metres.. declension] o 5 Measures of nouns sL—MI jljj nouns.*^ Attached nouns 4SiJ< tL_l Nominal J^— Nominalization Declension of the noun [inflection <u»-«l «— Ml v'j*'! of the noun. regular.a„ . To be exalted Noun Uli .

"jlll. predicative] Later (in the future) \SC* i/j-> Other than w . Variability of the noun JL. oblique. [Uninflectedness of the noun. accusative. declension] Reduction of the noun [indirect case of the noun. adverbial] ~_\ To lean on Reference [Attribution. regimen.1 Referential composite " i £i\iL\ 1J>"J> [Attributive compound. predication] ..^1 Jsu^ [Conjugation of the noun.o* Sructure of the noun ^^1 invariability] ill.^l Slo-^l oli^i t Compatible of nominalization [Established in the perfect inflection] ^ jS^ Openness of the noun [Direct case of the noun.' . *Ltf\ genitive] 31»»«1 "J>- Nominal sentence *Ui- [idem] Regularity of the noun J *LS\ *ij [Subject case of the noun] Signs of nominalization ?l^. *1^T LJU. predicative] Information [Attribute] Subject [Correlative of attribute] Referential relation <u)| ZiuL\ £~J [Attributive relation.

. . J^" Not excepting N ) ^ -^ .if To worsen The rest i*»L» 5j«ti £*»£» t £ £* j»^> Seventh Seventeenth tJ-J" j-ii £"* Preceding future (••J^*-*) Ji" (••• Preceding past Sixth ^ r t ) --* <UJil«» tj*oLi» - (JH" r Sixteenth Inferior genus 5j«£i iLoLt ( • • j«£i j*oL» ) • u~^" ( .

.

<ui *Jui. quasi-sentence iUi.<u£ Jli>I»- t Quasi-sentence CGwas/-propos///on] ?]*> <Li Quasi-sound Quasi-explicit r ^swaJb ^jlaJL <uJi -u^i Similar to the verb [^Adjective] J*^ ^r" \\\ .. quasi-sentence Predicate. Quasi-sound noun \jQuasi-normal noun] Letter of similitude [j'article ^sx^aSL <d« ^1 <u~£J <~£j>- of comparison] *-s j9" J**.^ *r~* 1 Letter similar to the verb \_Adjective particle] Letter similar to La VSa t _ rA> ^^ ^» y-t Status.' X..^w?) To resemble Noun of similar quality verbal adjective] Hr^ **>* p— ^Assimilate epithet. XiYNm" Personal of consideration [_Pronoun of the fact] jl~> i J> j& <Li< (.

Condition [Protasis. <Sy- [idem] ». double sentence] Answer to the condition l>°Jzf\ L>\'j^ [Apodosis of the protasis. result depending upon the condition] Letter of condition b'Ji. To initiate UY . SJUi- [Hypothetical clause. J*° condition] e'V*.' Similar quality V-"-" **** [Assimilate epithet. - . Similar verbal adjective] ""• Similar to the annexing j_sUaJb CLa [Quasi-prefixed] Called similar to the annexing tiUuJb «lii ^jli Both are separated Jti "j& To tense Hard letter Ibji <Sy- [Rigid letter] Tension jJi [Gemination] ' Tense '/„' [Geminate] To make conditions Conditional article J» V>i J~ oOl [Hypothetic article] Conditional noun J»°Ji III « r Conditional sentence tbjt.

Solar (letter of the X " . » • J"f ) £j^> [inchoative verb] To occupy somebody Occupation Occupation of the place Occupied Replacer Titular J*^ JU~i! J^" ^ JU-Jl V'"--* J?"**"^ J_yLL« <^ J_y«^ To be split i>^~* J(>--' 1 Derived noun Derivation <j\JtJ:\ [idem] Interpreted as if it were derived J^i-JL Sjy J^-* Derived Derived radical J^' Jr-"^ <j^° i3~~° Derived attached to the radical Deriptive interpreted as if it &-2~° were derived J^lJL Jjj^ Cou J^-* >^* l Derived descriptive J [Derived epithet] Derived indeterminate uc~** oJ*j ...X Verb of initiative cr* J ( • j..) \. a ° group.0- . J^Li J -^ comprehensive substitution] \\r ...^j- ) ^^> J*^< \ [idem] To englobe Global substitution [Substitute of implication.

Global contirmative Left Jjli 'jSy 3 Li Hi .

- < ^r*' Sound verb [Perfect verb. sound] w - |**" Quasi-sound noun £^"~aJ ^ V" * p" [Quasi-normal noun] Sound letter &T*" *-*>" [Perfect letter] Quasi-sound r^^^. normal. V- Cr^"*"* v**- normal] Sound intact verb ^y» ^tf"" -9 J*f [Regular normal verb] Sound doubled verb [Geminate perfect verb] t»U« HaM'ZaT jj*** ^?? w? <-^ Sound verb having a £?y J*f j-1-^ [Hdmza verb] To thrust out the breast UO .*» «- S. Patiently SaEDw" *\+P <.jf \J~0 £ l*~« Morning and evening r^ ^fi ' To be in good health £^f Sound noun [Regular noun.

»-. bare root] Juji jJuai [[Simple infinitive.. o*a< i_i . uninflected] . Augmented original infinitive. [[Noun of action.S Noun of origin Original jP jX^*JI *-*i -JO j-^^» infinitive. masdar} Sjlju^aJI Right of priority Letter of originality [jnfinitive particle] Js- £.s- Priority SjIjlms Original jJuai infinitive.* («-«l noun [Unconjugated noun. Interpreted original Explicit original Artificial original masdar] Ojy jJu^w r^ij^ S^~&> ^^* infinitive'] jJwai ^Technical Denuded original ^j^* S-^" bare of any accessory.' noun [[Noun of action. [Redundant Original in augmented] L? M clearly »r' jJua* Sincerely liju^ To explain Tj^ wuJLaJl <u~i te-\j~e Quasi-explicit Frankly Interpreted as if it were explicit ^j^aJl Ssy j Jua» Explicit original w^ Jj4^ To turn away Invariable ^j-fi j.

s> " .J - Variability of the noun inflection] *—MI i_ij*aJ [Conjugation of the noun. inflected] Declined noun. plasticity] . Conjugation of the verb J~' ?^> <~*ij^> [idem] Complete conjugation Incomplete conjugation Letter of variability <-Hj^ c-«jj-a> ** ?v jSa -* o cJjj-a> '-5 _r . s - 'J 1 ° • Variable noun <_$j*a^> «— [Conjugated noun. aplastic] Variable verb t_Sj^ai« J*i [Conjugated verb] . prohibited from variation ±jj*a)\ .y fy-** |~D(ptote] y^w uj« «-* Declined and varied noun <_$j*a^ *— Noun prohibited from variation <_$j*aJI j^ f^-*"* i*-" Varied noun [Triptote] Variability <_$j*a^> «— i_ij*aJ [Conjugation." [Letter of conjugation.. of declension] *-5j~t> Morphology [idem] Invariable circumstantial t_Sj-^u j~z <_$j*2^» ^y> ^J° Variable circumstantial Invariable <~Jj*az* j-p [Unconjugated.

assimilate epithet] ^".« 111 [idem] Diminution j A°/?" [idem] Minimal sentence [Simple sentence] Diminutive °jL&> t£j*~e *Usr [idem] Source of the diminution o descriptive] jV. [Conjugated." [Verbal adjective. epithet. assimilate epithet] UA .. plastic] Complete variable Incomplete variable Declined and prohibited from variation [Diptote] j^ u/< }^jz* ^j*&!» uiJUJI j* \y^J> Declined and varied [Triptote] Prohibited from variation J^ Uj« OjiaJI ^ 9y->* ^J^\.<?« Qualificative. j°-Q ^if.S Variable ^fi j_^ a L. root to represent the quality [U^/ecfiVe.m " 3^ V Noun of similar quality (.. [Diptote] Varied [Triptote] To be small Diminutive noun jiLfi ^Ca. i_a*»j 4JL»I 44*0 Similar quality [Verbal adjective.

S Sibilant letter [Whistling letter. . ^j>- ) j^fi sibilant] Bond of conjunction [Antecedent of the relative sentence] Artificial original Jj-^jiJI <U«0 (••• "/-*<** ) [g^^f [Technical infinitive] Silence! <U> Concerned by the status [Subject o/ stated JliJI *-*>£* To become To give a jt^ form ft* Form j- . j* . ( .. Form of the noun p—NI [Shape of the noun} Imperative mood j"*' **?f [imperative aspect] Mood of the verb J**11 ~**?f [Verbal aspect] Conform mood _ £jU£JI <i~^» [Unaccomplished aspect] Past mood [Accomplished aspect] <gf^ i*r f ' To fashion \>* .

' Yj-0 J J Letter of conformity \_Aoristic particle} apjLa* ^ po Conform mood ^Unaccomplished aspect} * jUiiJ? ii^ Conform verb ^Unaccomplished verb} fjUai jli Conform ignored verb [[Unaccomplished passive verb} Jj4=^ fjCai J*i Conform known verb [[Unaccomplished active verb} *ty** }j&° S** Comform [[Aorist. Modulation of necessity [Exigency nunation. license} J I ^>_y3 ) Sjjj-^p To double Sound doubled verb [[Geminate perfect verb} ui'uf oi^Uai "?^r*~* e J** \r . DaEDw" SQ> Lj* 0~C"i*f In the morning To be conform . f-jUai unaccomplished. imperfect} ( . . .D.

manifest^ Returning personal [Relative pronoun. jU* t J*ai j^-J> supporf] Connected personal [Affixed pronoun. Juli"j : »J> antecedent^ Personal of separation. connected^ J-2^ jy^> \y\ . support [Distinctive pronoun.D Doubled [Geminate[ jfi cjU-La* To bring together Vowel u. regular 1^ Z*J> Vowel u". regular modulated jhLU To think Personal that y*& [Personal pronoun[ Personal noun r" OjluJI J .it -* [Personal pronoun^ Personal of the described noun jy*~*> "j~*-J> Prominent personal jjC [idemj Personal of reduction [Genitive pronounj 'J>- *j~»J> Personal of regularity [indicative pronoun^ *ij ^w» Personal of consideration c\ZS\ j~*-J> [Pronoun of the Apparent personal fact. of the storyj jaU» j^*-J> [External pronoun.

impure annexation. separate] j^a* j?y* J?4*** J^^ * 1 > Personal of opening {Accusative pronoun] Implicit Accents {Complementary signs] hj\j^ To annex Noun of annexation 3 j » \J\jf I*"" {Prothesis. 4iL»l annexation.D Latent personal jfi j * {idem} -a J at Permissibly latent personal Obligatorily latent personal \j\yr ^yrJ J?*~* j^~* Supposed personal {Presumptive pronoun] Separated personal {isolated pronoun. annexation of qualification] Moral annexation ^i^** *»l«*| [Proper. annexation of dependence] m . detached. noun of annexation] Annexing noun {Prothetic noun] JU< <J| i_sua« *-«i Annexed noun *-«l {Postflxed. governed. pure annexation. prefixion] Annexation ot the sentence {Phrasal prothesis] Oral annexation iUiJI 4»L»t Ziaii 4iL»l C/mproper. determinative complement] Annexation {Prothesis.

determinative complement] 1 i_* Uw Called similar to the annexing v»»Ua*J0 <u-~« ^iu cS i 1-* Annexing called •-> L^* >YT . J" compound] i_$La«Jb <ui-« Similar to the annexing Annexing tJU^ Annexed \^Postfixed.D Non-annexing [jVoH-protfietfcf] jfi cJ l^ »-*• Annexed composite [Prothetic ts 9 ^9 ! . <u governed.

TaE*u" i\b ib . Jib . Long EaL/F Potential i_iM ) iL^Js iSUu To be prolonged UJUs >rt .j End of the word [jdemj All without exception £«±£JI J>'^ KJe To set about ( . .I.

. f4?" - ^J" -. Limited circumstantial Circumstantial of place C^dverft of place.> £. Letter of circumstance t^J* ^-f [Adverbial particle] Circumstantial >^J* [Adverb. prepositive phrase] Circumstantial sentence Vj^ *^t local sentence] [Adverbial sentence. -r. To be fine qdE*u" tUJ t iJ *-*j^ * Circumstantial noun ^j" ° T* ° T (*"" [Adverbial noun. ij^^v <-iy> -* O^ accusative of place] . circumstantial complement. accusative of time] Invariable circumstantial ^j~a^ - jS- ^jo Vague circumstantial . - . -j Variable circumstantial (_Sj**ia » j. ._ o ! ( -s ^ ' Pro-circumstantial ^J* V^ J* [Adverbial deputy] To remain in existence UO . ^J" . prepositive phrase] Circumstantial of time O^j -^y> t [Adverb of time.'-. circumstantial complement.

To suppose To appear Apparent vowel [External voweP\ „. - »* — Apparent sign ays It Z^yi- [idemj Apparent active element Apparent passive element ysLli J^l* ysUs Jj**< U1 . explicit^ if Apparent [External. jii J^e oysUi '*£_?- Apparent personal [jtfani/i?s* y>U» j~o-^ pronoun^ y>U» manifest..

'J Astonished t» £ - J Object of astonishment *^f v^ J* ^->* j*1 To count Numeral noun DVomb of number] Distinctive of the number aJ*JI j^»J [Specification of number] *• . wonder] »_j>oCi Letter of astonishment J/ • o „ [Particle of surprise] Astonishing! L*»p . RaY'Nw" To be astonished Noun of astonishment J^s- c^ y>* j*1 [jVown o/ surprise] EaF'RaL of astonishment e-^JcJI J*il C— o/ surprise] Astonishment [Surprise.*» o^ R.- Numeral [jVu/nfter] *->* .

R Cardinal numeral t Is^9 iJ* ? -- - [idem] Ordinal numeral uzPJ' gradation. VO* Vj** p—' declined] ua .Jk *~* two patients ftvo JJyJLt J I A>cu [[Governing complements] To speak pure Arabic Declined noun [inflected noun. iJkp [Number of Knotted numeral ordinal] ij**- iJ* [Decimal number] Composite numeral <-J> ' y sSs- [idem] Attracted numeral i_$_jk*« sjs- [Coupled number] Isolated numeral J^ iJs- [Idem] Numbered [Counted object] ijJ*w To pass over Transitivity I Jut <uJL*i [idem] Save (except. outside Transitive verb of) I J* A*^» J** [idem] Transitive Jii* Transitive over three patients Transitive over Jr*^ ^^ ls^I .

y fj^° yj*< Declined and prohibited from variation [Diptote] \X\ . t» ~ o J 1 Declined noun and prohibited Oj*aJI j* f^*^ Vj* p— from variation J tf Declined and varied noun ^jj^a^ oj* .0J 40 1 j*-*' rf .. p-M' v'j*! declension] Analysis of the sentence *U*JI ^jf-\ [Sentence syntax] Analysis of the letter OjiJI ^j?\ Declension of the verb [inflection of the verb. v'j*! Grammatical analysis Titles of declension V'j*! 1 V jp )" s.' R if t -"o . Declension of the noun [inflection of the noun. J~' declension] 'Sj>u .o Declension [inflection.^' v'j*! **** I^'j*! Sign of declension Action of declension Declined verb [inflected verb] J** ^j** J*3 Rules of arabic grammar Declined word Its place in the analysis SL^JJI iiDl -xply <> j** **& *£>** t-jf^l ja Declined [inflected] u^w Oj^aJi . parsing] V'j*.

[Determinate noun. copulative particle] Attracted numeral Li jiJji "{S* [Coupled number] \r> .j^ ^j>- [Definite article] Made definite by EaV jl J^ %°^ [Determinate. Twenty.R Declined and varied [Triptote] t JsJ«a£ L/^i 'jfij* To expose Accidental structure Letter of exposition j\*j£ i_^j* - ^ <lj °J~ [Particle of requiring with urgency or with gentleness ] Dasn [idem] &> tfj* noun To be acquainted with Definite ^^ "Jj j^J^ . definition] . definite] Definition [Determination.? - v J^\ f 'o/Jl*}} 4 fa. definite] Definite [Determinate] To be near - Ten thousand ==z^. the twentieth j/Ji* ~\J*Wa ' To sympathize Letter of attraction J^ ^J [Conjunction.- J Letter of definition AJ 'r .

syndesis] Explicative attraction o\Z uOsi- [Syndetic explicative. [Not endowed with reason] Rational composite Irrational JSli ZJ>~J> J composite JSli Jj. Knotted numeral [Decimal number] . syndetic] Attracted Jsja^* [Coupled] Attracting <uli- *Js£&U [Antecedent] To be inactive Neutral letter JJai Ltli Js°J- [Particle without action] Neutral JL>£ [Without action] To be rational Jiii Rational Jili [Endowed with reason] Irrational Jili 'Ji.1J>"J> ( . syndetic serial} if Attracting cjiiali [Copulative. coupling. explanatory apposition] Coordinating attraction jlj U&ai- [Connection of sequence.R Attraction t l _ila* [Coordination. 1 jlc- ) j i4c To have a defect Defection "ji 3S£l \r\ . . apposition.

weak] J-jw infirm. weak. [Particle assigning the cause or reason] Defective letter aI* [Soft letter. hollow glide] *-*jsr' i 0?*^ J1** [Abnormal concave] Defective in F. Defective in R. deficient ^-aiL. modal JlL t s ll)l J-ji [Abnormal assimilate] Defective in L. infirm. glide] Defect Defective verb £U Ji*» j*i [infirm Defective verb. t »SuI jjj«i [Abnormal defective] It may be (perhaps) Ji Jje Above To hang upon To know Proper noun JJi lii Ji.111 Proper noun of genus j-^>{ i»J* (•—' To notify -T° 1& \rr ? .R Defection of t ' ° - HaM'ZaT o>*JI j!**j Defection by quiescence Defection by elimination Defection by conversion Elimination of the defective letter Letter of causality v^UJL i_s \}*&\ i^JL jS£l k_JLSJL J^l >J>J&- £Lll *SjJ~U. [Weak. unsound.

R To learn Plural of proper t 'Jjc nouns a^MI ***- \jdern\ Proper noun of genus ~^~*r p& Composite proper noun \jdenf\ y-S ' y Js"Js- Simple proper noun \jdern\ ijw * - - Sign &yi^l^iL-l £»}£• Question mark \jdem\ Sign of declension vG*i £°^* l/ - Quotation marks \jdenf\ ^ ^^* Exclamation mark JUaJI i»M* J -• Sign of structure %^t <*^* <*^* J - Sign of feminization ^-^ Punctuation mark \jdenT\ ^J> <*^* Colon £rfy ^°^* Mark of continuity £*^' Xa*jH- Sign of reduction Sign of elision ^=r Z»yi- ^ j=r <*!/# i_iii.<*^i- Dots of suspension [7dem] ^ rr .

. to. denuded. The one who Attracting mourned <Qp <Jji. known verb known verb "fj^° "^J*^ ^t* J** Past. . Z^i-ij Xa°$sSysllJ Apparent sign &S& Supposed sign Sign of opening Signs of nominalization o~Jjj£° Ze'yi- <J^> Xa*$s- r is. for..) . by.. over.— Raised letter J*^~* O °j>- Above Ji in. "fs^jtj* 1)^1^ [^Antecedent] Not preferred £& Xaii li About what? \ri .. incumbent upon.R Brackets \jdem~\ Sign of regularity I l^. augmented. ^l Cs&yi»_jJUi Known verb (whose agent (i-li) jii \]_Active verb] Past.. What for? risk is At your own IlLJ6 JjIIp . .. Js. upon) ''yi. at. }J** \j° o*^° J** "?y*» *?&** Known conform [^Active unaccomplished] Known \]_Active] }J^° To be high Superior genus * ^tc Jli .. during. On (according to. through. against.

essential element. personal of separation [Distinctive pronoun. J Support. regent] Active element of the distinctive [Specification operative] j^ 11 J*£ Active element of the status JlkJT J«li [Operative of the complement of manner] Apparent active element Oral active element "jnHe J^l* ^U <J*j I^i Lli Eliminated active element J^l* J-* I* Moral active element Inactive Isy^ L£ ^ lii DVon-operaf/vel] Active verb Lli [Operative verb] It has no action ij Ci ^ J «jw Passive element [Uccusafive] Apparent passive element jaU» Jj*ju> . Active element [Operative.R To support Pillar I X>i lCJ><jT S of the sentence jui [Sentence support. jl^ai ^-s 4 jI** support] To act Active letter J^ L£ t_i^*- HOperafive particle] Action of declension Syntactic action jjiG*' J-** l$j>^> *X*sLli..

away from. . for. tool-word] ~i£y** Moral active element J* I* Moral feminine [Feminine by signification] Useful meaning l$j^ *tly "jJu> ^Jw itc To return Returning personal [Relative pronoun. *»J [idem] Moral annexation *iy** 4«U>I [Proper annexation. conjunction. annexation of dependence] Moral confirmative [Corroboration in meaning] Letter of signification l$j^ "-iSy jJW k-Jj*( [Particle. pure. preposition. . ill ) ^jli i^. antecedent] juli ^~w» Returning juli ( Accidental structure . JJt on. At To mean Abstract noun ri ^*. in place of. out of) In charge Titular ii Jjjli 'iSs- Jjlii 'xs. 4 ^ili To exchange ^tc in . from. (according to.lis Dash Tenth \'J&.R Eliminated passive element I t-Sj J^» J^»jk lii About which About off. in.

J>J~) Jbli Neutral letter [Letter without action] Superior genus ( .. . ( _ ri»- ) Jt* iali Generally To spy on Concrete noun jl* ^ *^f- «—l Self-confirmative xS ' Eye Evidently ^ UCi- Fault [Deformity] \XV . .y R Compensation Modulation of compensation I u^ty" u^j*" uiJ^ [idem] Never (future) a*j* (..

jj| j* To exhort Exhortation [instigation.& . GaY'Nw" To come in the jli t i I morning ji Tomorrow Early in the morning \j±. \$ y& t\~j.\ incitation] Exhorted Exhorting Object of the exhortation <o ^'j^ °£> £jU £>'_)* To help Help [Call for help] £u£j '&•''•' Helping [Person called to aid] Helped # against ^ Li 'tf-" person whom aid is required] Absent [Third person] To depart from To be different j^li ".G.

.*.j^p io_j*aJii Non-intentional indeterminate Intentional not described indeterminate iij^ay jJ- 2~}j*aJ& l'_^j Most often Letter of finality [Final adverb] ( . Non-transposed distinctive Invariable circumstancial J_^*° jJ- J>J>a£ 'Jj- <J»Je J Other Irrational jJJ Jil* Jj- [Not endowed with reason] J Inactive J^li.-.G Non-certified exclusion Invariable * t j ji a <_>-y j^ t\£L*\ noun <J»J*iz* j± -_l [Unconjugated noun. Incompatible [Uninflected] (j^u 'J^- Non-annexing [Non-prothetic] t_3Uai "\le Compatible with reserve [Diptote.Jj- [Non-operative] Unconfirmed [Non-corroborative] oSTji 'Jj- J Invariable ^jj*e£ Jjuninflected] [Unconjugated. .o^£j Jili. short inflection] J Incomplete variable Irrational composite il. Jj- d)J^ "LS'y jJ. uninflected] Non-linguistic composition ^*^T j^ "i—Sj! j. Uli ls^ ) Sili \X\ . J>j>\ ^p ^f^* imperfectly declinable.

concrete Oli t j^aJI j~»J i'yu> {J~^r Isolated genus Narrative of the isolated Isolated status Isolated predicate Isolated numeral j^JI £&>ojjA< JU- I^ii "iyu> *jj>- 1 Jlp {idem} Simple proper noun \jdem~] "ijv> "Ji- One by one <J~^'j* U . therefore) Not. then. so that. For (and FaE*u" „. . open modulated jLicJ j\i jlyl To be alone Singularity [7de/nJ Distinctive of the isolated. U ) J JJ To open Letter of inauguration *I9 *-bL-l lJj*inceptive.F. {Particle of commencement. open Vowel a". so. i& i<J \j ( . initiaQ ii^i Vowel a. to desist ..

. separated] To prefer one Noun to another ^JaA of preference Jr*^ p-"' [Comparative noun. separated] iLsli Comma [idem] Separated [isolated.J Singular iy* {idem} Isolated Isolated Isolated called sju> ^jc* "sy* ( ..•» .. iUiJI iLai redundancy. of preeminence. support [Distinctive pronoun. **-~a> ^y ^j* J^aS To separate Letter of separation Jr "-* - ^f j~w j~»s [Particle of distribution] Personal of separation. of superiority] EaF'RaL [.. dispensable member. . J-^jLu detached. of preference J^^ 1 J** 1 of comparison.] Aside from Preferred %^i J-^" -ul* Not preferred J-^> \i\ . detached. <£*& ) Letter of partial opening [Conjunctive locution] . of preeminence of superiority] Supplement of the sentence [Superfluous. ju^ t J*ai support] yajCj> { Separated personal [isolated pronoun..

onomatopoeic exclamation] Jpli Agent-noun [Present participle. agent noun] Patient-noun Jjiai 111 [Past participle. [Apocope of the verb] *=..J til Other patients Structure of the verb [invariability of the J^* Culil 2lL verb] *.. jj| o/ comparison] Five verbs Lli. Verbal sentence Oii iL>- [idem] Letter similar to the verb J*«J^ "&*• <Sj>- [Adjective particle] . of preeminence.v_J>JdI Jiil EaF'RaL [. J*i)l Ju^ conjugation of the verb] Elision of the verb X^S\ \'y..y»-\\ Jij| o/ comparison... j Conjugation of the verb [inflection.. of astonishment o/ SMrpnse] of preference EaF'RaL L.F To do Verbal noun [interjection. patient noun] Declension of the verb [inflection J**jf L>f^l of the verb. declension] . of superiority] .. infinitive (J "V^j l^j r J °'\ noun.0 . active. J .u EaF'R/L B/Hj [. »-.

ikijT tL^> [Shape of the Exclamation mark aspect] JliiJl X^t- [idem] Verb [Action. passive [Complement of First patient C.. 4~2 [Adjective] Mood of the verb verb. [Governing two complements] Position of the verb Position of the agent Position of verb and agent Patient VV o"^ *"•- ~ i-~° - J*^b subject. complement of object] ur . J^ verb] Agent [Verbal subject. indicative case] Time of the verb [idem] Similar to the verb jLLll J^'j ikiJL.'-' ° .. Jjl JyuL> objective complement. agent] J*li Agent - function Jc*^-* ^*-^ Transitive over three patients Transitive over two patients *^ ij\ -^ OrJ*^ iJl -^ J*^' J*UJl **. patient] J*^' V-f° "i JyuU object.F Regularity of the verb <J J^iJI «ij [Subject case of the verb. adverb] aj Direct patient Jyu^ [Direct object.

<J jU complement] £JIJ J_jiii objective Third patient Circumstantial patient J^ji <us J_jiii [Adverb. subjunctive] LJUi Pro-agent CSuftyecf of the passive. circumstantial complement. Complete verb »U J*i Mi .. Jpli v_JU apparent subject] jila* Absolute pro-patient J_yui t_JC Hollow verb CCo weave verb] Imperative verb t-*^l J** y>\ J*3 Verb of transfer [Transmutative verb] SiJ9^ J*5 2 •* o . jilai J_jiii cognate accusative] am> Concomitant patient ^yJu> [Complement of accompaniment. prepositive locution] Causal patient iJjl <d^-^ J Jui CCausafive object..F Second patient [. absolute. accusative of cause or reason] Absolute patient [Unrestricted object. concomitate Patient - object) £3_yii» function Patients J^^ five Attached to the verbs SllklT Jlii^L jkli JjuLH Openness of the verb [Direct case of the verb.

inchoative] fjj* J*j Sound verb [Per/ec* verfe. stiff. Jwl> i- V V • J*5 • aplastic. sound] Sound verb having a HaM'ZaT [Normal hemza verb] *J*.» >» j^ J*5 MO .'. unipersonaQ " Present verb [idem] j-*l> J*5 >- Verb of blame [idem] Quadriliteral verb fi j*j ^ X . jj"*^ Cr*""* J*5 Sound doubled verb [Geminate perfect verb. probability] Ol**>j J*9 Verb of hope C^erft sl>j J*i o/ desire] Verb of initiative [Verb of commencement.-J ".F Triliteral verb cS -> •» 'JM - J*9 Inert verb [Primitive verb. ^"-^ J*5 normal. ui*Lm 2?^^ deaf] *H-» fcr*"? cf* 5 Sound intact verb J*5 H/Jegw/ar normal verb] Active verb Hoperafive verfe] Jok J*S Unconfirmed verb [Non-corroborative verb] .» . uj J*5 E/dem] Verb of probability [Verb of preponderance.*-*.

«J Jfa j^j verb of the hearf] 1 [Mental Permanent verb [intransitive -^ "fa verb] jjf'ji "l*i Confirmed verb [Corroborative verb] Structured verb [invariable verb] - •"'. paradigm] Denuded verb [Simple verb...F Verb of affectivity verb. Augmented verb [Redundant verb.. jussive] is. primitive. "i^ Variable verb [Conjugated verb. inflected] - - "j uSj«aLo JaS Transitive verb V :j "•' ' [idem] Affirmative verb V£ j^ j^ j^ \jdem] Modal verb [Quasi-sound verb. bare] y^ *Y^ \i5*» j^j the apocopate.) ( Verb with elided ending [Verb in Ignored verb (whose agent [Passive verb] JJUli ) dj£u> jki Verb of praise °£ j^ CWemU Verb with regular ending [Verb in t£j* J** indicative] the subject case. j^ angmented] j^j Ul .

infirm... L/jjw declined] is. unsound. verb of existence] [jAiH J*9 Verb of certitude v fi l Jj«i Paragraph Dislocation i'J^ ^ j^j 1*» So-and-so To understand UV . glide] "Oj^ "lli Declined verb [inflected verb.) Jj«i Known verb (whose agent (iUll) pj&A Jj«j [Active verb] Verb of approximation [Verb of imminence. incomplete. of appropinquation] Z'Sjlo 3*9 Neutralized verb [Restringent verb] Hijiki Jj«j Verb with open ending [Verb in L< jlala Jj«J accusative. £ jLai Jj«i aoristic] Defective verb \_Weak verb. the direct case.F Future verb [idem] <J \ J J 'X'°» » „ &i Conform verb [Unaccomplished verb. subjunctive] ~ Negative verb [idem] / n J^j i^ j^j -~ Past verb [Accomplished verb] Deficient verb [Defective verb.

in ^ upon.F Denying interrogation [jnterrogative implying a negation] Interrogative (J l$J^\ j»l*^-l noun ptjix-1 1-1 \jdein] Interrogative sentence SlalgixJ U»i- \jdem} Letter of interrogation pIjjLl. . - *» o Augmented noun iRedundant noun. (^9 t jii t ^5 i£j& Jl j^» ) *I>*N sli F of sanction C. angmented^ In which In place . concerning. - - ". for the sake of.. on behalf of. comparison.liLjsi Useful speech Useful composite Useful meaning *!^ JljL« ijfy luii ^yJw In (among. with) *» company of._l Augmented verb \jRedundant verb. during.° • <lj Juj^ J** . . ^ jli wsed to separate the protasis and apodosis^\ To profit . *tjix-l Z>"ji- Mouth Above Defective in F ( . in at. augmented^ <us Juj^ .1 i-iy- [jnterrogative particle^ Question mark \jdenT\ . into.. by.i-i JiJ> ^ UA .

F Compatible with nominalization [Established in the perfect inflection] ^ t* » „ £«_MI ^ *-» O^-*-"* Contested Circumstantial patient C^dverft. prepositive locution] \i\ . fO^ V tJ^ " circumstantial complement.

perhaps.-" '^fa i^J\ ' J£ ^Assumption. hypothesis^ yo- . To receive To bring QaEFW Lili nj 'rs jj] SiJliLJI Modulation of opposition [Nunation of correspondence] Letter of future ^. the future. sometimes) : !xs . jq£j .' Denuded Fight! future \*jj. indeed.J^ \jdern] Future time \jdetn\ dfclllT '-~J\ Future verb ^7^^*"'^ i >° i^ Cr^ J Before jj JJQ Face to face with Preceding future ^.' Q..£ JT fc'. jY-° \ jQ in Already (enough.y.X To be able Nouns of quantity Supposition J..

evidence.Q Supposed vowel [Presumptive vowel. ILi Oath [Adjuration. SjJiSi S£T * Supposed personal [Presumptive pronoun} "Jja- Supposed sign 5jJl1« m>ys- To advance In front of .—s o j?- [y«' a^'ve particle} Part .. aji i 11x5 a -- '. virtual} O .' To divide * Classification pr-*-' Letter of oath .» »» . . JL ojJL> determinate} '. sacramental complex} «U To Intend Intentional status o ~2j~ojC> Juai Jti- >0V . Near jy 0%9 To join Context [Circumstance.» - Advancing followed Advancing #Ji&u f-. J : i^^i ijUi J*i of appropinquation} L. »-. context} oy defective Mixed joined Ujji* oujLI Endowed with EaL' [Definite.^ -» -o » - To approach Verb of approximation C^erft o/ imminence..

Jj Sjli separative. Shortening "J.^i Ending in shortened E jjtaai [Abbreviated.or .oi To be short Noun with shortened ending j^tsui 111 [Abbreviated noun.Q Non-intentional indeterminate Intentional indeterminate Intentional. [Plural of paucity] Letter of paucity \1& rarity] ^-Jj>- [P article of To be rare _Cjs l_'\* To convert >. not described.. brief] At all ^J (Past) Never _ ^JJ To cut Detached exclusion [Different exception] IJaJ IkiLi i\^L'\ Semicolon Zb\j [idem] HaM'ZaT of rupture disjunctive.. indeterminate d o*" i'zjlal'* ^Ip S^SJ Sj^aai S^SJ ti^Sy ^Ip o^taJii S^SJ ~t>sy#ju> Intentional described indeterminate "i&y^y. To be few Minor plural ili 'Z^. vocalic attack] "jj [Stable. formative. . I'^Z 'J-.. briefs Shortened EaL/F brief} Z'jJ*a£> lill [Abbreviated.

.^ - j» -« "Hj*' **^' Aftlji Speech J^j !-iUi o - To measure Parentheses [>de»f] jt-y Methodical [Syllogistic. principle of analogy} "<£*£? *JJJ Methodical measure [Regular form. Reversed.. type} Methodical HaM'ZaT regular} V ^ °>^ 1 [Syllogistic._jjj&> [reversed.. transposed} £jJU& ojli Converted HaM'ZaT transposed} ( .. metre. verb of the heart} . J^-G> regular. Letter of the Q group.Q Defection by conversion J k-JULil J}UI To turn about Li£ k_JS 1 Verb of affectivity J*» [Mental Converted verb. . .. Wholly Semicolon C/dem] ajsli iiJsli To rise a li \or .. lunar Jj> - ) i£j*i C/demU Rules of Arabic grammar C/demU .~ ..

. like) 5& i£w -Jfe ( ..*ff K.. . How much How much Maximal sentence [Complex sentence] ..Extensive particle.. lOS- ) g'JS To write Written narrative {_'•'< VJ^ *0&><J&\ 'X>\£ Orthography of the EaL/F Orthography of the T *UI thS" Orthography of the words Orthography of the otJSJl X>\£ j\'ji\ O VLaWZaT thS" Orthography of the Sjl^JlthT ' To be many Major plural •£ i'Jg V^J». < Thus |j£i j'jjT \0i . like) if (as though. of abundance] Letter of profusion .. {Plural of multitude.. of frequency] Much _...) (as. You As KaEFw" J»\£ i d »jj (sing..... j~^ ^J~ I [...

. ulr t on the contrary) yS 'Ag AUKi'\ Jj\ To speak Beginning of the word [idem] End of the word [idem] * J XJSS\ ^J'J> j - Orthography of the words Sentence of 3 O&JSJl X>\£ . theme.K To press To break Broken plural J U< Vjf jr-^ /«*»• Vowel Vowel i.Zj£ >00 .. reduced reduced modulated ~*]S i". words [Term.. ot'JS Ccif To clothe To restrain oneself Neutralizing letter [Restrictive particle] t» "^Jg J^i'\ Js-lj\<> Lj°J~ jo L*i Neutralized verb [Restringent verb] J»y£* To be tired J^ jkll Substitution of a part for the whole Substitution of the whole for the whole A11 ^ jkjl ^ J£JI JjJ J^if\ Jju % *AT Every time Ills' Both Never (not at all.JUS" t> words - Word. word] oCJS" i..

discussion. Filiation filiation. sentence. prose] »^ "U^'Jo ">*& Composite speech [idem] Useful speech "xj£> *>*& Speaker Non-linguistic composite Linguistic composite li&£ "^J^ 'jf °^'y> °\-£~j> Is*^ Middle of the word Zdi>S\ Jal/> [idem] How much To perfect Pluperfect past Perfect past liT ££ JlTl L. ilS" KoEDo \0"\ jlT ofp-l . periphrasis] _ "H^ [Surname] To be about Sisters of to . l>y^ declined word] ZJ£ Speech [Discourse. dl Z^° ZJ£ indeclinable word] Declined word [inflected.K Structured word [invariable.15" ^U J>& iiir As To make allusion Allusive ^S X>\£ 11.1 noun filiation] [Noun of Allusion 4jU5" [Metonymy.

quantities j^S w .. Capacity.K Noun of »*J KaEDa KaEDa its sisters '^ p-' *j>?~ Predicate of '^ 4^j*~'-J KaEDa and & u9lS" K of allocution Q. yUaiJI 0/ address] To be Sisters of 0& KaENa O^ Ol>-l of Noun KaENa KaENa its sisters O^ olS" ji-l Predicate of ^~ O^ KaENa So that and 4^jj-b ^ way *-rr In such a How In whatever J& way UAS jtiw <..

L. LaEMw" I W of. . in view so that. that. then. t J J ) swear by. indeed. ( «J i . To (because. with) Causal patient LCausa^'ve oft/ert. Jj& <dkV accusative of cause or reason] '{£?& At your service To attach oneself to Attached nouns Derived attached to the radical "r^J |&Ji f\^J J^>% Zlj>S\ "<£*& *&& "'£»& Attached Attached to the five verbs JtJ^L jiJi jjj In the presence of In the presence of ^ jj Ijj To stay Permanent EaL/F Permanent structure Permanent verb [intransitive £ j^ " ^j* \-'^ i\i yy "fa verb] " Permanent [intransitive] -^ Maybe (perhaps) & \0A . .

J 51*1^ u~al To surname Titles of declension Titles of structure vG*^' v^' &LJI ^>\2i\ t_JL! Surname To meet Meeting of two quiescents Voluntarily 'JiJ ^3"lLll tliJI Jill. Rules of Arabic grammar \jdem~\ Jl J^-ly ) XSJtS\ 4a) To mix Mixed defective t^J <_jLaJ Mixed separated Mixed joined 3jj&* Oj^a-4 <-*j^ <_jLaJ To pronounce Oral annexation Ziajii hJU *iU>\ [improper. annexation of qualification^ 4#j*~~» J^lai! Js>LoJI Common expressions Oral confirmative [^Kerfta/ J^y •*.L By the eternal! ( . Jojtl . on the contrary) j£i . corroborative^ •* °- - Pronounced narrative Oral active element Auxiliary vocable i» * ^ •* *&& £lSo** ° - ** J^iiaJ J^l* -xpu-« Jiii Oral feminine ^a. J j ° - '. . impure annexation.iaAJJI j» „ . But (however.1 dJJ* [Feminine by form[\ In consideration of the pronunciation ° .

absolute. when) l!U Negative It (shall not. though) °J Were If it not (unless) *£A li°J were not Color jA No (not. Helped [jPerson against iuLi ) JJ whom aid is required] Causal patient <d^ j* (.j~^*-U Noun of LaE LaE 111 J -* Predicate of ^ LaE of generic negation f«a< denies absolutely. contrary to fact (supposing it that. as. . not yet. without) S ^ ^ . It is d_^H N not) Negative oV "aj*J Permanent .. £»UI ^ C— that denies the whole genus] Not excepting It It l^L. . cognate accusative] If.. will not) jj <Uiii <U ( has its place . not any.However So that (but. on the contrary) j£i \£J jJiLU Oj'H °A By impossibility Because of heaviness Negative Since (not) (after. Jjiii ) iJ ^Unrestricted object.^ *i has no action has no place not (it is Ji* ^ JiJ> j *i ^ j ^ .

. L infirm. Not to be Letter similar to LaVSa *~« ^J* ) err nv . . jT J^i ) ^Sl unsound.. }*i of past negation} Defective In \jVeak.. ( .) ( Soft letter • • • <-*> ) jj£ {_Weak letter} If only (would that) ^ ijrr ( . . J ij^II J J t . glide.L L of denial Q. »'..

. *^U- ) lJC external^ Oral feminine {Feminine by formj Mail IlJji HT . Hundred M/YMm if ii f=?'f » Plural (them.. jli ) jJTji Feminine.M. .&. regular. ( . confirmative^ (. Confirmative status {Strengthening accusative^ J&-) oJlJTJ* Unconfirmed QvoM-corro&orarive] (••j*) jS'ji Confirmed verb {Corroborative verb. . . root to delay ~J»\ SJUol 'jS'j ot£o "y>y> root to confirm *&J\ j^ji {Corroborative. root to be tender di! 'tLj\ Hjji [/denT] Real feminine {Natural femininej " S ^ «iJji I*J ji Intact feminine plural {Perfect feminine plural. . you) . Two hundred Remained behind. Confirmed. confirmative^ ( .

root to make a beginning \jnchoative. root to reach [Hyerbole.. <Jy ) of formation] Structured. .«— I) ^j> ^Invariable noun.. lJu <u-^l IJC^o nominal subject} Elimination of the primate Substituted for. Structured letter [[invariable particle] .. . ( J*f ) ^r indeclinable] ( Structured word ^Invariable word. 1-uJo 4JU9I <Co Jjua . root to substitute Letter of construction [[Letter (.-i-o . intensiveness] ( • • • ^ j* ) *£* M? *U»I ijJLi ur . .JIi3J£-) J-b ( . ™j_JLeS[> Jjj-o J^o b JjJ-o J . root to construct [[invariable.. Interpreted original jJua* ) JjJ-o Primate. indeclinable] • • • ^^p ) < Srr fl Vague circumstantial Superlative.. ^ <u-^l ^U<o indeclinable] Structured noun indeclinable] ( (. root to befall <£j-*** £*ijj> J v-*\ I <Jjjj> Interpreted as if Interpreted as if it it were explicit were derived ( . ^y • • ) "^-f Structured verb {[invariable verb. M Figurative feminine [^Tropical feminine] f 1$ j£»*i uJJ-o Moral feminine ^Feminine by signification] Interpreted.

J ~y-\ Remaining behind. root to move [Mobile] <£y- 4JL9I dJ^s>»i* Variable. superlative] ( jl 4&l)SjJCi Measures of the superlative [intensive forms.. . Examples of the superlative [intensive paradigm. .'< . followed by some word in apposition] Vocalized. »_i^ ) <Sj^£ji JJ( . . it l*j '/a"* ( J . q-** J . Followed. .Ill) SjJCi superlative] (. . ) Incomplete variable Variable verb [Conjugated verb] ( . Jl^j lu»l Jqg > affixed] [/Ittacfted. root root to delay £u»l '*Le\ ^>ui frjii to follow *_J [Antecedent.i Jq''» .. metres. .. aplastic] ( . .ii~ <?** [Unconjugated noun. Jl o' jjl )i*lCi superlative. »U . .. uninfected] Complete variable Variable circumstantial Invariable circumstantial Invariable [Unconjugated. root to turn away [Conjugated. plastic] <_*j-*» 4JL0I \jjr&~s Variable noun [Conjugated noun. inflected] (..M Superlative f (. noun [intensive noun. m . Jj. £j ) L? a> Connected. . . types. root to join conjunctive.Ill) J^Ltc* Invariable noun (•'••jj* r-O s. . ''JLe y_. inflected. <J>°Ji> ) iSj*e& •jtj.

j^*-" ) J-*- 8 Astonished. root to be astonished *—=>«* aJU^I j <CLa if 5 .. J*-*< j^ J*«*io short inflection] no . «ul* J? 1*-* Advancing.M Linked exclusion [joint exception] f (.» 'j Object of astonishment Transitive. connected pronoun] ( . root ?& .. . . . J** ) A*io Attachment of reduction * - js*i\ it MjvC* '-* The one who is mourned to advance ( .*Ui£«l) J«£i« Connected personal [Affixed pronoun. J^>< j^-^ long inflection] ( Incompatible • • • _r* ) j5v*ia [Un inflectionist] Compatible with reserve [piptote. root to speak [First person] fy** { ±&j> *\>>"j> *£> *U»I Compatible. . root to pass over u~>>Cfl t * ^ jj a 'j Iji 4JU0I 'SjCj> [idem] Transitive over three patients J?*^ **^ ^' ''^ jjjjuio ^Jl jiio Transitive over two patients [Governing two complements] Transitive verb ( . root to have power £** *^>< jS*#^a [inflectionist] Compatible without reserve [Perfectly declinable. *w»l »J£J> ) Advancing followed Speaker. .

bare. primitive} Denuded triliteral triliteral.j Modal verb [Quasi-sound verb. root to tear away s fjj <iL*>i <ui f jLio <Co Cause of pain Middle. superlative} Jlo -'-it iiJLJI a&*\ .J * s - * [Simple m . «!*> ) iiJLo Dual. . root to be firm JJ> OJ <Om?I C~1o Affirmative verb ( . Yyr &*\ i"Js>m [Simple. paradigm. assimilate} jiu J*i Same Ji« root to denude Denuded. . root [idem} to mediate *>ji» h~tjZj» Ja-«j aJL^o 1 Medium genus ( . root to fold in two ^ <*JU*I lLa [idem} To reproduce Examples of the superlative C/ntens/ve forms.. «-«l ) }Js*a [Simple noun. bare of any accessory.. . primitive} Denuded noun ( . ^^r ) leLtyj) When Affirmative. . . U^ ^>*-° bare} .-fl j£&» Contested. J*i ) C~lo Affirmative sentence ( . . . .M Compatible with nominalization [Established in the perfect inflection^ f Slo-.i'Jfl .

jussive] Ignored.° JJ Nouns with reduced ending With elided ending. . . *yy . f is^-J bare] ( . = ._/»U J*s ) *j!jw i>*-° Jl j* J>« indeterminate] i. /*>> <u~*l Pjj*** [Apocopate. subjunctive] . indeterminate diptote] -p—v JJ>>* [Noun in the indirect case. .y>& ) uv .&-<*\ Jjj*?* the genitive. .. . Denuded ignored past verb Denuded Denuded future original ^U J*s ( . . . . Denuded known past verb Deprived of EaL' [[indefinite. primitive] (. .M Denuded quadriliteral [[Simple quadriliteral. oblique. ) [[Simple infinitive. J*» fijj*** the apocopate. ^J^?*" 8 Denuded verb [[Simple verb. . ) Verb with elided ending [[Verb in ( . Ignored conform [Passive unaccomplished] . jj>.. Ending in reduced [[in root to draw indirect. f\jUi* . yj£*~» j J-»a* ) ijs** ijsx* ( . UJ&** Past denuded ignored (. root to ignore [[Passive] J$*- "U-^l uj^^> Ignored verb [[Passive ( . bare root] ( . jussive. (_/»>* ) uj^** Jj^swo Past augmented ignored ( .}* . nominal subordinated £»\jjjshjs . •*>.. root to clip \ « * c . . . . j*i ) dj&>v> verb] ( . ) Oj^sx* I Sjshjs . . bare of any accessory. . .„»=. . . J*i ) ijz** bare of any accessory.

root to be permitted [Tropical] f . .J_jl*i) ijjjtf** Retrenched noun Place. jl jUiJI ( . ." jj ? : jli.'£Le>\ Isj&ia Figurative feminine [Tropical feminine] (.. . ( . .. ) Jiti °j^> *Gti Jiti JIi*i J ) has no place ( . J»l*) . ..aJU^I (JjJcta suppressed] Eliminated active element Eliminated included Eliminated passive element (....'' c5jjtf>«i (.'.Ill) <Lo (jjjtf>«i jl>.. root to eliminate [Curtailed. i_5ji» ) }j±pu> ySsx* j j^«i Warned. . .. i_a <Lo jjiii J>.*'' ) tjjjtf>«i (. jS"ji) £$j£*i Limited circumstantial ( .i ( . root to harang LJa*- I Liliti [Second person] To extend jlo MA . root to come down (. ... .M Figurative. root to warn j 'Ss- <uLs>l Warner Thing warned about Eliminated. .tUj») t£j£»ii Figurative masculine [Tropical masculine] (.. root to be special \y^>- 'vi*\ \pJLertfi ills' Spoken to. ..ilUl ( Lpti Occupation of the place In place It . . ) has its place ij ) Its place in the analysis i^f^e^I jt> A&ut Specified. ^) ij In consideration of the place It jl ol*f.

. regular] (.m>) JL J> la jS la Figurative masculine [Tropical masculine] "iSfe^* Mentioned Attached f JJ^^ (•••«) ~*by°J* Once .M Noun with extended ending f J a „ i» o *jX*j> *-.] oijj^ ' ' - " t iT _iJI Extended letter x* ^_f ~x» [Letter of prolongation] Extension [Prolongation. root to mention J> * <tw>l ji JU Real masculine [Natural masculine] ' \JL^LS j* •** Intact masculine plural [External masculine plural. tj> [Noun of unity] Position of verb and agent A*Ullj S*J^\ ^J- .. crasis. ijx^ [Prolonged. .. Vja . . with a Verb of praise [idem] J*i ) t_ JLs '. From j the time (ago. elongation] For a while Ending in o J^ extended E* long vowel] ( . .> [Prolonged noun] "-- Extended EaLi'F [Prolonged.. *-i. °j t °. since) £j> Jw Masculine.

. predicative} L«*Cff I Annexed composite {Prothetic "\-.. . in the nominative} ( . Composite speech . root to lift »9j iJU*l "f j£>°j> {in the subject case.M Position of primate and predicate f -• -a J^*"j ''* 'V XSj* Improvised l£"J"° ~*>-j Euphonic. softened} ( . indicative. . . root to soften the voice ^Usl "»s»j) {Curtailed.. Called euphonic <_j jt£ ) "Ls-'yt Ending in regular u..S ~Jm compound} (.jji) \_S ~y Composite numeral {idem} Composite proper noun {idem} ( . nominative} ( Noun with regular ending . Ill) c ji°y> {Noun in the subject case. °**j& ) \JiS~Jb Mixed composite {Synthetic compound} ls^J^ "^S'U Useful composite "sX* \_S 'y> W< .. "J* ) XjS'J* Rational composite Irrational Jifc "\J> ~jP composite ( Jjli j-* XJ^ 'Jf . . . {idem} Referential composite {Attributive Oli ji *i root to mount *—^j ^-*\ \Js ~\fi l$itL>\ "\_S 'Jp compound. . Verb with regular ending {Verb in J*i ) c j&y the indicative case} Nouns with regular ending Composite.

. . In consideration of the pronunciation In consideration of the place JsiUi oltlj-o JiwoJ 15 li.. j^w JZ~*a } ( . Augmented ignored past . . <U9 Juj* Augmented verb [Redundant verb. ..j^& ( .M Plural of the composites (. l^-o fc*Lf* Annulled nouns with regular ending Mixed composite [Synthetic compound} {•^y) is^j* alj *w»t Augmented. Permissibly latent personal Latent personal [idem} Obligatorily latent personal j^-*"' ( ) 'j'j^ j-~~* . Jl f **> ) oCi^o [idem} Synonymous confirmative In consideration of. ( . -v y ) ^^j* outl^o ^j ^>^ . . root to augment Juj* [Redundant.«—!. augmented} (. .. ) dj^oi . . j-Ua* . .. .. . . [Redundant augmented} (.. Ju j* Ju j> Augmented original infinitive. augmented} Augmented noun [Redundant noun.. . root to watch over ( . . . j^-^ ) «>>J JZ—e w^ . Augmented known past Augments of the [Redundant triliteral triliteral} <_^W ty** -^ij* ^^Ul olJuj* Augments of the quadriliteral ^elTjM oljuj* [Redundant quadriliteral} In charge <Ut JjJ*»o (. J** ) <U9 Ju jj> augmented} ( .

'> JjcLa .^ [idem] Future time [idem] (. .yj) JiJcLj) *> ti o Preceding future Future verb C/dem] J J^k (•••3*f ) J-*-~* Jy^-""^ 1 Denuded future bare} i"^o GilLo . root to fold in two f ^ '.. root to lean on [Attribute} JC-« <uU»l ju«*o WY . . ijji- ) [idem} Helping..jf ... [Primitive future. iJji- ) JriT. root to help to ii>}p iOl t^U^lu [Person ca//ed ata] o Helped [Person against J *J ti»U whom aid is required} tl - Depressed letter C/dem] Future.° jj ? 4JU0I ^1 *0.M Excluded. . . ' a - i 9 *° 'l**i'h» Eliminated included i»ij. * JZ5 <tU»l 11. .0 Included [General terrn] ** ..i#«i <Lo Mentioned included Raised letter jjif ji Ale ( . . root to receive ( . o J [The thing excepted^ . Ju.) Jua Common expressions ( ULaJl ) Hej^-~o Information. . In replacement ( .

.*-«l. root to be J*— ^>^ j^** \jdem] " * s_'°. . • . -» #7 **s'. *a^> ) X£ m« . root to resemble . Oy*y> ) £ij~*» Occupied. quantities y_s\Ao ti>L-o ( . . -» Similar to the annexing cSLailb <lLLo Called similar to the annexing Letter similar to (. Quasi-sound noun \]Quasi-perfect yLJalb <u^o noun. »j^J ) &JJ> wr . verbal adjective] Common conjunctive root to occupy split ( . . somebody J*-i <lU*1 J*I«io Derived. ( . ) t-JI«Ajb <t-~° ) LaVSa quality verbal adjective] .M Subject \jCorrelative of attribute] f *» '0 J 4JI X> Surface. . regular] ( Letter similar to the verb ^Adjective particle] . ^J- ) JjuaJU <CLo . . JL. .-» Derived radical Interpreted as if it Jr^' J""""* were derived ( . <Sf~ .. ~^> i^llo {^Assimilate epithet. quasi-normal. Auxiliary vocable Similar. . . Jjy> ) £Jj> Derived attached to the radical Derived Indeterminate J^'Jlb Jiilo £JJ> ( . . Similar quality \jissimilate epithet. is'i&> ( . . [^ dlti *~>\ ) Noun of similar ( . . . JaiJ ) JicC-o £-£ iiUl <CLo (..

to occupy somebody J*i <a*»l <b JJLLo cs- JjjLLe jjuai jJuo ill^l masdar] Explicit original Artificial original Lj^ "^L^ •* j JiLai jJuai [Technical infinitive] Interpreted original . ^ j'xju - o J* „ o Letter of originality [infinitive particle] ( .' ^ t» - o djj* >* 0" *js** jJuao bare of any accessory. .Ill) "J'-'n* Source of the diminution Implicit.. jJuai [Redundant Original in augmented] " M J .. root to tense f tt s -° Ol&i«Lo jjJI iilol ajui ^Gemmate] Replacer. root to think that j »* .M Derived nouns Tense.(j/i Wi . root to thrust out the breast CAfown o/ action. To pass . root Titular Original. infinitive.*Lfi\ "yitu {Idem] Diminutive noun [idem] (. * ~ j <Ua ja~J> *L*\ « /?« Jt>Ju . . i-iji- ) 3jj Juai Conventional terms Diminutive. [Simple Augmented original infinitive. root to be small o IstibLio 'jifi. bare root] Ju ji Denuded original infinitive.

( .y>j \jdem] Past mood {Accomplished aspect] ^J>£J\ lw> ft Past verb ^U J*i o {Accomplished verb] Pluperfect past J^S\ Preceding past Perfect past JjC J^LS" Past denuded ignored Past denuded J^P^ "i ^rN* ^U ^U ^U ^^ * .. .. J*i ) fjLio aoristic] Conform ignored {Unaccomplished passive] Jj^^a fj\J& Conform known {Unaccomplished active] Letter of conformity {Aoristic particle] ( • • • " C ?y** fj^^M \° ~ ' " * ^J- ) <fi jLoa WO .- -^j* 9 <_r^ pas/] ^U Conform. .- J>P<^ fy** -^j* '- jy^ . aoristic] Conform mood {Unaccomplished aspect] (.M Past time f ^J>£J\ .J!iw>) fjLio Conform verb {Unaccomplished verb.. known fy** *s>" u*^ -" - Past augmented ignored Past augmented Deficient past [z>e/<?c</ve - - . root to be conform 9jJ> v~?\ fjLio {Unaccomplished.(j* known ?'.

. infirm. 'ji.:. root to double (» -fo ? ^. concomitate object} Defective. dyJC* Jik* [Unrestricted object.t£jli») <_£L&o JL 4l£J> ^ jbi ) . . JjJ ) "J Jjlko With . unsound.) t_JLio Annexing called Called similar to the annexing (. Non-annexing . hollow [Abnormal concave} <-*>H t J~*& ~feu> Defective in F. . Jjiii ( .- iii J^iii [Complement of accompaniment. . v_Jl! ) " ** JAJai Concordant substitution [Permutative of the whole} . root to annex oU <u^l ±j\Ju 4JI <_£L&o determinative complement} ( . glide} Defective in R. . t_JLio ) Absolute patient ( . root to have a defect Ji*- <a^1 Jliw [Weak. : « Letter of concomitance [Particle of association} •»-- Concomitant patient 1 » .«. deficient [Abnormal defective} "jA£\i tfSUI Jl*i W1 . cognate accusative} Absolute pro-patient ( .M Doubled.... modal [Abnormal assimilate} JLo 4 i(ii'\ Jiw Defective in L. absolute. . governed.J> <iU»l u&Loa [Geminate. (. deaf} Annexing. [Prothetic} Annexed [Posf/rxed. .

infirm. definite] A " • <Jj»* = . JjJ*a Vj* <u~sl VJ"*" declined] Declined noun [inflected noting { ( • • <•— ' J VJ"*" Declined verb [inflected verb] J*f ) VJ-** Declined and prohibited from variation ±Jjrai\ ja fj—°-° VJ"** * . root to sympathize «_ikp aL^>I ^J jlnto [Coupled] WV .. definite] Attracted. i_Sjs- ) [/dem] Numbered. J ** - o J Declined and varied [Yr(ptote] u9j-a1* VJ"*" Declined word [inflected word.j** declined] 0i> Made definite by EaL' [Determinate. definite] ^y. . root to be acquainted with [Determinate. ( • • ~^f ) ° "^.M Defective verb ( • f o j> J*f ) J^ |*s**o [Weak Foreign verb. dotted ( .' Definite. root to count ^-^ *^' ij«^*« ^Counted object] Arranged noun Declined. root to speak pure Arabic [inflected. abnormal.*w^ aSja^ Definite noun ( • • • (— ' ) **>« [Determinate noun. glided J?jilo t letter. .

annexation of dependence] Abstract noun [Substantive] (.U«« Attracting [Antecedent] 4 J> _ .. a . . . diji 1sJ£>u> Moral annexation (.. ( .. Past augmented known Passive element. Moral active element Moral feminine [Feminine by signification] J^li) l$j^iu> ) .) <_* . jli ) IjXao [Active] Known conform [Active unaccomplished] (.Ill) Jj»i Letter of signification [Particle. tool-word] WA . .Vjki ( . root to know 'At- aL*\ \y*J> [Active] Known verb ( .. . .. pure. '^Sj>- ) Jj»i conjunction.U«« Known. preposition.ijj^w JjV«« jfs- mean iLj\ l^j^na signification] Moral confirmative [Corroboration in (. root [By to (... .. root to act . f *» . .f-jCai) j»ji*i Past denuded known (. > "sSs.SiL^I) £»ii*i [Proper prothesis. ... "x>_y ^£ ^£ ) j»Jbw ) ««£w J** iL»l JjV«'« *\*U? JiV-'" Apparent passive element Eliminated passive element Moral...luS^i) j^jDw meaning] (.M Attracted numeral [Coupled number] ( . ( .

root to be alone <0 <Jj*j> jJw \^ <LW»i ijim [jdem] if - ... ( . . . root to do J*i *w»l Jjiaa object. .. . passive [Complement of subject.M Concomitant patient ( . root to exhort \j. .) ij^o Isolated called Isolated status Preferred.SLi£«l) fj^o Patient. <j~^r Pj^ ijim ijA* ijAA ) . . itw Letter of concomitance [Particle of association] ^j. Isolated predicate yf- . patient] W<\ . . i/a£ • ) ij^ oij^o ( • J£- ) J*** *L^ J-^4* Not preferred Emptied exclusion [Exception made void] <^ J-aa« (. root to prefer one to another ( .*w»l i£jka Object of the exhortation Exhorting Singular. .Jl £lSo-) ( . . . .J Isolated Distinctive of the isolated ( SjjLs . . J j^~" ) I ijii> Isolated genus Narrative of the isolated (.) <*~*>° Exhorted. concomitate object] May it not please! ( ... f . iAP ) [jdem] Simple proper noun ( . • i*i* . Jj*jL» ) 4jw [^Complement of accompaniment.

. . 5J5C ^Jj JJci ) J-clio " Useful.nA" objective complement. absolute. Jjjuii complement of object]. .lk « Jjjuii Absolute pro -patient (. . adverb] <u Direct patient [l)/recf object. cognate accusative] . patient noun] First patient C. . ..J . ( . J^tlio . . LiTy> ) .. root to profit (.. Third patient eJU Jjjuii Second patient H^4«r/ftM<e jtf Jjjuii o/ tfie verfe governing two complements] <ui Jjjuii Circumstantial patient [Adverb.. (» 1_J ) Jjjuii Jjl Jj.CJli) jiki Jjjuii . concomitate object] Patient -function Transitive over two patients HGovern/Mg fwo complements] ( • • • SlJjjuio iJ! -^ ) j°^j-*^'" Letter of surprise [Particle of occurrence] (. Concomitant patient <Uca Jjjuii [Complement of accompaniment. prepositive locution] Causal patient ijjl aL*.*^ Jjjuii LCawsaf/ve object.) M Patient -noun [Past participle.j l^S" > \ •» . jU £U>I i» .i_j^-) ot>Lu Patients Transitive over three patients ( . accusative of cause or reason] Absolute patient [Unrestricted object.. Useful speech Useful composite ( . circumstantial complement.

(•••«>*.. f LS ^ ! ) Supposed.. root to advance ojjjia ?& ^' »±te Endowed with EaL' [Determinate.cJJI) 5jj~iaio Converted.M Useful meaning ( . root to convert [iteversed. • Non-intentional indeterminate jf. .. not described... brief] Noun with shortened ending C^ftftreviated nown.&}&) < OjMa Supposed sign Advanced.) ^ji^i transposed] \A\ . virtual] (^j^) (. . (..oJ^> ) 6ij»aA6 Ending in shortened E. brief] (. . root to be able virtuaf] • j-^ 4-U^ jJA* [Presumptive.iij&) A£j»fijA Oi^aoa indeterminate Intentional indeterminate (•••'j^O ei^aa* (.. V • • • (•—' ) jj-fl&o brief] Shortened EaLiF [Abbreviated.Jt-) Oi^aoa «j& ) A£j*fija j~£ OiyOAo indeterminate Intentional described (.. . definite] jl d/jZa Intentional status Intentional..... • • jt?-* ) J-*** Supposed vowel [Presumptive vowel. root to be short j~a* 4-U*' jj-aio [Abbreviated. V^3 ^L^lt^jJiu transposed] Converted HaM'Zaf [reversed.. ( . Supposed personal [Presumptive pronoun] (..

. JS^* jr* Cr^*-* short inflection] imperfectly declinable. of appropinquation] (.. -r°\ 3'-. . Jl OiJ^ ) tyw* Nouns of quantity Verb of approximation [Verb of imminence.M 1 f -. of inflection] Situations of compatibility ^^ £J. >AV . ) i^jy£j> ( . J** ) <UjUto Written narrative Neutralized verb [Restringent verb] ( . long inflection] 4-^1 Compatibility Ci'er/ec/ declinability. J*i ) i^j/Sj) To have power Noun of place ^^-o Ol£i »_J Compatible [j'er/ecf/y J>^\ declinable. . . .. long inflection] Compatibility [Per/ec< declinability. .tuL\) jjilii ( . . Or^-*-' long inflection] ^j-Sd^Jl Modulation of compatibility [Nunation of declension. .'^--J. accusative of place] Incompatible [Uninflected] J*^* jf- Compatible without reserve [Established in the perfect declinability] ' J>*°\ Cr"*~* Compatible with reserve [Diptote.SloN1 oNli1 Circumstantial of place U^ *-^^ [Adverb of place. j Modulation of opposition [Nunation of correspondence] ( . £&>.

.) JpjaLo «/. Pronounced narrative Forbidden incorporation . with a long vowel] Noun with extended ending [Prolonged noun] (.. of. root to distinguish jli <d^l jli** Who From (amongst..M Compatible with nominalization [Established in the perfect inflection] <u«— 21 f ^ ^p^^J> Stop dJJl£i to attach oneself to Attached.iuL\) i£-*lo ( . by... . some.•—') }jXoj> Noun prohibited from variation [Diptote] (. j^ on. instead of.">»j (.*lpal) Ending in extended E*. than) <ll» Retrenched noun Substituted for »_SjJl>^ 4i» «-«l JJu« Object of astonishment <u< i_J>Jc* 4i» Cause of pain Deprived of EaL' [indeterminate. root to extend i-^ <Ustfl ijJt*^ [Prolonged.. £>l£^». at. as. indefinite] Jl ^r'j^ .. off. Distinguished..y "syy* Thing warned about Eliminated included <u< jjtiki »_SjJl>^ 4i» ^jtz~* j_?s Mentioned included J^ <c» ( _? £u~» )Ar .*- 1 ) uSjIflJI j-o fj~<*° «-»o * " -. root J^J *U*I i«*oitJI Jp*>L° Attached to the Attached nouns five verbs JU3*ilb Jpclo (. ^i between.

..> M Included f ii* ^ji^ ^General term} Source of the diminution Declined and prohibited form variation [Diptote} Prohibited from variation \_Diptote} t_Sj*aJI *i« J>Laj> ^ fy-*-* Vj*- (_3^aJI . Zjjv> 111) ±jlo& Declined and varied (... accusative.'* Relative. root to declare openly i^-vaJ <o^l [/« Me direct case."> Lamented... root to turn away {Triptote} 4J1 ^>j~~ji >~*j-0 &~?\ t_3j-alo Varied noun ^Triptote} (. L^4/'ectf/ve noun} tt J Source of the relation Varied.. u}w) ij j'jg Ending in open a.. root to relate Relative noun o/ relation. Ill) J^Lo^ Declined and varied noun {Triptote} (.. relative (. subjunctive} . root to lament ISX> <aUl t_>jjui Jlo t From the time is jua Who he L4-J \\ °Ja 4JU*I i_* in ..y "f-j^ Ultimate plural [Jdem] fy*s>&\ fl. l_l) ^j.

root to separate [isolated. f *— I ) s^jlaSjt [Noun in the direct case. . . accusative} Verb with open ending [Verb in ( .. Personal of the described noun Isolated. root to deny ^' J*? 'i^f** [Idem} Negative verb ( • • ) ^^^ ^Ao . separated} <jj Negative. ( — : j jr*-" ) J*'**** detached..' M Noun with open ending (. subjunctive} Nouns with open ending To forbid Forbidden incorporation Declined noun and prohibited i_$j*aJl f * £}Ktya±j> «^o a^u^> p\**\ j* fj^ Vj*" p— from variation [Diptote} Declined and prohibited from variation [Diptote} Prohibited from variation ^j*e}\ j* £^-«-* vO** i~$j*ajl t>° f^** -" Described. j^ ) t^>j~aJ> the direct case. separated} Separated personal [isolated pronoun... . root to be alone Jl j~«-^) £>jjCj> iji v~t>\ ijA^j) [idem} Separated. root to describe Co«J -u^l OjXLo CSu6s<an<jVe. J-Ui &~t>\ J^oa'j) detached. qualificable} (.

.. . Jju t# ..•" M->0 t «* J S Transposed. illLll) "-!*%•'« With curtailed ending. <lL?I . root to transport ( .. root to <^iLo [The person called] Euphony of the called Called euphonic Called similar to the annexing Called annexing Isolated called ( . ejlL* ) ifyU with nunation. . S5T^ ) £L»Ui Annulled nouns with open ending Cease! L—^Ui ii >A"l . JjJLi . ij'i\ij> Convenient vowel . . f . root to lack [jOJu ill* I "^rjA'. dotted ( . .M Negative sentence [idem] ( . t °f*** J»°y- ) hji> [idem] . ..* j »__ Transposed distinctive _>_->«" ) Jjiii Non - transposed distinctive root to pronounce the letter ( • • • jc* j?**-" ) t-'j-ft'" Modulated. . . with tanuin] Modulated HaM'Zaf [.... . abbreviated] ^jiio Foreign letter. N Oy <u^>l jj-o [With nunation. 1L.) T.i\-\ Detached exclusion [Different exception] (. ( .T) Noun with curtailed ending [Defective noun. J\ '^-°J ) ^illo **•">* t£i£» i»iLa«JL Xj~t> <^iuo uiLai <^iUi "}~Ju ( . Sl!J>. call with tanuin] t^Ju <o^>l Called.'" abbreviated] (.. [Defective.

(. whether. . ..? *k^l J >*»_>» Conjunctive noun [idem} Special conjunctive [Relative personal pronoun. root to represent the quality (... which) UV . that which. SiJsj-o i_i^»j <lU>I ^ypyi [idem} Intentional described indeterminate (.. whenever. indeterminate Sj& ) Conjunctive. . [Hemza verb] root to prick >-* *L*I jj-©^« Sound verb having a HaM'ZaT [Normal hemza verb} ( . whatever. how much.. ji— 1 ) Oyfij* \j0\> Jj-^j-o relative adjective} (. f *-i j~ ) l y^s t> [Undotted unpointed} Having a HaM'ZaT. root to join [idem] J-". w the fact that. . j^ Preliminary status Qualified. Bond of conjunction [Antecedent of the relative sentence} Jl iU^ ) Jj^jji Common Not conjunctive iil^i«Lo (Jj^pj* [Relative pronoun] (as far as. what..M Neglected letter letter.. f^f-" J*f ) jj-*^ Whatever Obligatory incorporation Certified exclusion (.. how.. not described.. ( ... U44 f^J) t-^j- tl^-J) c->j-» tl^-J) c->j-» J£) Non -certified exclusion (.. (. as long as.. o^^a^ Oj>j ) &3y&y> 4&j*fijj> Intentional.

to cease liC Jlj i^ji t$Jly-l_j U Not.. to desist G U MaE and its sisters Hundred Hundred thousand ilo tiulo u>}\ AjLo Two hundred thousand Past.... to last iG What Not.. J*i) JsXt Past denuded ignored Past denuded J^jsti ijsx* PJ"^*" jj>\a known 6 ^j^ lj^ "^-tj* Past augmented ignored Jj4^« j?^ Past augmented known ?y** ^ij6 u^^° jli j.M Sisters of f U £>\y-\ MaE MaE Noun of MaE U C r 1 Predicate of ^li- MaE EaF'RaLaHu Not....._.. to abate Not.. j-~«J 'a - " J Distinctive of the number number] j-^ [Specification of ^AA .<J To distinguish Distinctive [Objective complement for specification or for distinction] Distinctive of the sentence iUiJI aLuJI. to finish iliil C Sju\ U ?-jj U li As long as.. root to pass ud\ ^jjz* <a*»l iHJLa ^U [Accomplished] Past verb [Accomplished verb] (..

M Distinctive of the isolated f zjlJ\ D** Non-transposed distinctive 0j*~° jf- j^-»-> Transposed distinctive Active element of the distinctive 6j&* j^J o S - -f _rr*~" J? Distinguished jy^" (.••• Original in M jJ-^-* ) ^g** \K\ .

Syntax \jdem~\ Towards 'y>J To lament Lamented Lamentation l^JJ V-A-" XiX> To call the called <£ jLuJI i£±> Euphony of «*">> Letter of call jlju i-iji- [Vocartve particle^ Called Called euphonic t£jbi f*~j* is'i^ i_iUalJlj Slii (j'*& Called similar to the annexing Called annexing i_sl_Ui <_s jlli n . NuONu" oy tO O O Plural (fem.?*^ J-** "y^.?*^ G Gij ^G*! lS.) (you. them) Confirmative To announce To take a direction Grammatical analysis Action of declension lS.If J N.

N Isolated called Call O sju* &*& SI'jJ a ~J [Vocative. fju. calf] To tear away ijj Contestation [Conflict. apostrophe. relative noun] ~\° * r. contest] <ui Contested £jbL> Jljj i_~lJ Go down! To relate Relative noun c_j^~ji «_l [Adjective of relation. J Distinctive of the sentence. of the relation Distinctive of the relation <u~> t<Uu^JI <u*J ^~*j ^^ y <^"j»- Relative confirmative 4~~J Jto Convenient vowel Relative i—Li c_j_j~ju £/de»G Source of the relation Relation <ul c_j_^~u Z~~J Referential relation £puJ £~J [Attributive relation. predicative] To annul Noun of the annuller letter ?uJ ^_UI «-J Annulling i_~l3 lJ^s- [idem] Predicate of the annuller « «UI ^li- .

open a ^jya^f [in the direct case. subjunctive] *-*")l\ Openness of the noun [Direct case of the noun. accusative] i_~#J . annullers [Auxiliaries. . adverbial] Nouns with open ending Annulled nouns with open ending oUj^i Lw>£o iLwaJ Openness [Accusative. accusative. Udai- ) jlJ [Connection of sequence. Modulation of opening [Accusative nunation] Letter of opening CSuii/M«c<ive particle. subjunctive. of direct case] Letter of partial opening ^y t_~4iJ Jj> [Conjunctive locution] Personal of opening [Accusative pronoun] .J o <-3 ji- accusative. i Sy t i . adverbial case] i_~^JI ji_yj [Noun the direct case. syndetic serial] Text ^aJ \_ To declare openly Noun with open ending in a> ^>ya^> ^J\ accusative case.J Sign of opening iw~^> Z*yi- Verb with open ending ^yt£j> J*3 subjunctive case] [Verb Ending in in the direct case.N Annuller. . u^ o .U annullers] so Coordinating attraction ( .

Cjy^» Cju qualificative} .. . epithet.N Openness of the verb [Direct case of the verb. Negative sentence *^~* u**r [idem} Letter of negation ^ ^j>^f^ J*f [idem} Negative verb [idem} nr . '-**' [Proper adjective} Causal descriptive [Connected qualificative} a - " Yes (certainiy) **< <»*» To acclaim Person j*** To deny • ^A* article Negative ^> negative} . subjunctive} .• '^l [Prohibitive article.°- Described [Substantive. qualificable} Descriptive [Adjective. _- Real descriptive (j*c**" " °~.. . 6 ' J J**J' V*A " ' Opener [SubjunctivaQ v~^Ij To describe Descriptive sentence [Epithetic sentence} C%* V*" *^T Personal of the described noun »_j_j*uji - jrf- -9 .

Indetermination "j^> [idem] \\l . that denies the whole genus].N LaE of generic negation H.y*~*J Transposed distinctive \ijj& _}*-*> To render indeterminate Denying interrogation [interrogative j&j \gj&l\ ^Ifii-I negation] implying a Indeterminate noun [indefinite S^J indeterminate] . u^y^* abbreviated] Deficient past "a^^ ^y>^ [Defective past] To punctuate Foreign letter. " Negative t Jc^ [idem] To lack Noun with curtailed ending (jAflJ o*J*~* (*"*' [Defective noun.. dotted l*fL* i ^ Jsui jj> Ski.. o -p . incomplete. verb of existence] With curtailed ending [Defective. -_l noun.. Deficient verb [fle/ecrive abbreviated] { ya G Jo ] verb. [idem] Point To transport Non-transposed distinctive l£ oy^ t j-s. .*il <_r~?«JJ 5lili!l that denies absolutely.

of inflection} Ocr^' uiJ^ Modulation of indetermination [indefinite jS^i\ ijiy^ nunation] Modulation of reduction [Genitive nunation. indirect] j~l OiJ^ Modulation of regularity [indicative g'J\ oifi nominative. oblique.N Modulation of indetermination [indefinite O jc^~" Cf-J^ nunation] Indeterminate [indefinite. subjective] «jjj-a>I Ji'j^ nunation. letter N Oy uij^ tanuin] Modulation of compatibility [Nunation of declension.oSyAt* oj>~> Intentional described indeterminate ^y^y oiyajw aj>^> To forbid Letter of interdiction J& ^ %J* ^j** [Prohibitive particle] Ultimate plural S?^ ls&~° [idem] To pronounce the Modulation [Nunation. not described. »j^ indeterminate] indeterminate ojj-aa« Non-intentional j^ ^ oj>j Derived indeterminate :- *ait» OjSj Intentional indeterminate Intentional. Modulation of necessity Modulation of compensation o*y^ ui. indeterminate oij»#a» ej*-> l- ::-£-: &ys>y jS.J--' ^0 .

N of protection oy [Nun of separation] Modulated [.. Absolute pro-patient jiki J^iii C_JC (ULaU iU Enough! To be diversed .N Modulation of opposition [Nunation of correspondence] U .J '- Modulation of opening [Accusative nunation. j ^j Firmness of N of Oy$\ ^j? -* [Fixedness Elimination of N] ° . direct. HaM'Zaf with i^H Sjli tanuin] Us To represent Pro-circumstantial U ^U t_s\k C_JU [Adverbial deputy] Pro-agent JpU apparent subject] £_JU Cs«6jert o/ the passive.. t_~^JI jtyj adverbial] i . N Nun] o>J' t_ioi- [Fall of Modulated [with tanuin. with oy-" nunation] ilJ&l Heavy N N of confirmation aSj^\ oy [Heavy corroborative. - •» iUliJI Jiyj 8 S . stressed energetic] Light of confirmation light iLiiJl aSjA\ energetic] Zjjijij oy [Light corroborative.

[Noun of Kind Nature of manner^ %y *y \Ju> 4 Up-to nine (About) MY .N Noun of manner kind. o o - j a I 9y «_ specificative.

here is. his) t\jn t o e - Assume start moving litft spell Alphabetical order U&** '^y \jdem\ Alphabetical letter tlit* *-^_P" [jdemj.. Alphabet ...) These two (masc) These two (masc) I Aft o'ji jjji Those This (fern) s^ji oji (fern) (fern) These two These two Here There ol3li ^li hi Jbi MA . HaE*u" Him To To (attention!.r H.- *£>* [jdemj This (masc.

2Lel radical] 0' ^!-*"~' [Hemza HaM'ZaT HaM'ZaT [. augmented] Empirical «>-* HaM'ZaT hearsay.. from HaM'ZaT of rupture disjunctive. formative. \\\ . of INDEED S>a ° of conciliation J** of equalization] »~-£)'j Augmented HaM'ZaT [Redundant.H Over there dUbi IJ^a Thus Interrogative Let's J* go *» ^i j-o-* •• Isn't it~? (why not) To prick o _ .. <^S »>-* separative. vocalic attack] Methodical HaM'ZaT regular] %?& S>i [Syllogistic. Cs<a&/e. Modulated HaM'ZaT of nunation] <>>* [Of tanuin. irregular] EpUI S>i [Popular. Converted HaM'ZaT transposed] ^j^ *Jj^> »>•* [Tfe versed.J - o Defection of HaM'ZaT a <>>4JI J^[ Sound verb having HaM'ZaT jj*-S-* 7^*"«* J*f [Normal hemza verb] Orthography of the HaM'ZaT Sj^l £tf ( * ) HaM'ZaTu" Radical (*) S>a o>i HaM'ZaT root.

conjunctive.H HaM'ZaT [Of of liaison union.. J-^j> »>>-* connective.^ He They (dual) ja Cjt> They (masc) She li ^a (dual) They tJb They (fem) Attention! (ha!. take!) ^i li Ventilated letter C^/ry letter] (. t-iji- ) jli Come He here Cu-ft is far from (eh!) Cilili Vocative Let's Ci Ci go . here is. vocalic detente^ ..

" O. rarely. then. with) O. orthography of the j\ji\ Z>\z£ j To be obligatory Obligatory incorporation Non-certified exclusion Certified exclusion ^r^J ^r^y C *-r^y J^ ^^-^ t \ ~r^y '^~-' i Obligatorily latent personal Obligatorily yyrJ j^-* j^^> ^.*J» . often. by. whereas. while. at. And OdEOu" OaEOi j\j tj j t (also. Measures of verbs \jTypes of verbs^\ JliiMI O'JJ 1 Measures of the superlative [^Intensive forms. as.yrJ Ss>j To find Alone In the rear of Jl>j 'Ijj dl* \jj To the rear To weigh Measures of nouns [^For/ns Ojj sL—MI metres^} '! -» O'jj' o/ nouns. i*JL-JI O'jjl superlative^ r-\ .

quantities ji^^* iOJj JeLij To mediate Medium genus Middle ^L.- » -it jujUl jljji ojj If ~ i t» o Triliteral measure ^%* form} [s~\-**~ ^ Ojj {Trisyllable Quinqueliteral measure Ojj [Quinquesyllable form} Quadriliteral measure es^yj <->jJ [Quadrisyllable form} Sexiliteral measure tj-'J1-" Ojj [Sexisyllable form} Empirical measure [irregular type.J [Idem} Hurry up! olS^j quality To represent the Noun UUfj H~^Ji **~* of similar quality p— [Verbal adjective. from ^^ Ojj hearsay} Methodical measure "u~Q ''J-* [Regular type. assimilate epithet} r-r . popular.' O Measures of the augmented verb Measures [Form.'j^ a~^ SaL'jit [idem} Amid Middle of the word ZJ£i\ Ja-«j J2I. syllogistic} Measure. metre. type} J .

I O Similar quality J ^J^f uu# [Verbal adjective. assimilate epithet] Qualificative **~f indefinite relative clause] [Adjective. Qualified <^y*y> [idem] Intentional.* <o_^<a£« ojSvj Intentional described indeterminate Qualification t&ys>y> o$yaju> *J>^ i_i-^>j [idem] To join - J^sj Linked exclusion [Joint exception] Sf^ ^^y"^ 1 Conjunctive noun 6y*y J^o^JI *— Bond of conjunction [Antecedent of the relative sentence] 4L^> Connected personal [yt/Tixed pronoun. not described. 6^"° conjunctive] Conjunctive 6y*y° [idem] Special conjunctive u"^" relative ^y>y [Relative personal pronoun. indeterminate^^sj^ j. affixed. &f~* connected] -r?" -9 Connected [Attached. adjective] Common conjunctive £)jJi* oy*y [Relative pronoun] r-r .

i_iji-)Silij N of protection DVtt/t (. conjunctive. J oy) I SilSj o/ separation^ jif j To confirm Confirmative noun [Corroborative noun.. confirmative^ Letter of confirmation JuS" "jSy y iSj>- [Corroborative particle. strengthening^ Global confirmative Self-confirmative j Jy\j. confirmative^ ^°y (*-' Confirmative [Corroborative. jS° y <uS x£ J .J tj&'j [Fall] Letter of protection [Letter of separation^ (. J J-^J • j** vocalic detente^ 5»f>JjJI union..0 - Oral confirmative "JkH juS"" y [Verbal corroboration^ Synonymous confirmative Moral confirmative [Corroboration in meaningj Relative confirmative J <u i\'J» jSy Isy** "^°y X~~j Ju5"y Confirmative status I'jSy Jl>- [Strengthening accusative^ Unconfirmed [Non-corroborative^ jS'y 'Js- r«£ .. Pause in reading .O HaM'ZaT [Of of liaison connective..

O
Confirmed verb
[Corroborative verb, confirmative]

J

y

J*i

Unconfirmed verb
[Non-corroborative verb]

y

jf- J*a

Confirmed
[Corroborative]
Js «

J^ji

i -

J

Heavy

N N

of confirmation

iL&JI JuS

_jJI

o^

[Heavy corroborative, stressed energetic]
Light of confirmation
light energetic]
I

^A^asJI OjS'jJ! o^j

[Light corroborative,

Vocative

(ah! , oh!)

j

To concede

V*J
o.ls»lj
4

One
Twenty -one

Jls-Ij

OjjZ^j

Jls- I

j

Oh!
Ah!

^

lilj
Is j

Y-0

E, EaLiFii"
Dual
E, E,

JiS\

i

I

utl\
(
. .

t

Orthography of the EaLfF
quiescent EaL/F
C...

.

CUf )

uaJ^I
uaJI

t

i^L
SLji

t

without motion]
»»aJI
•*

E, E, E,

long Ea'LiF

1

..*
t

permanent EaL/F
shortened EaLi'F
C-.-

Sij'il t-aJl

Ojj^oaa u>i\
brief]
oijJt«-o

abbreviated,

E,

extended EaL/F
[iVo/owged...!]

uu\

t

T»"V

Y,
My
They do They do

YdE*u"

t^ii*
i\J

(plur)

Ojijuit

(dual)
(
. .

0^*ai
.

Verb of certitude
\jdenT\
It is

J*i

)

&&
Oj£*
'&+i
C

not

(

.

.

.

M

)

Right

Oh! Oh! the witch Oh! the
traitress

<lt&* £
flJk> £

Y»Y

PARTICULAR INDEX

[^\^ "j»J&

Ui uo UV
^rA

I

h £ £
£

XX
or
OA

*

*

£

b
T

R

y O
£>

G
F

IV
V>

C
J


^0*

J
J

Q

V^

H
K D
Z

\oi

k
L

d
J
f

^

^ ^ £
i i

\OA

U
^0

nr n-

m
n

o
o

^A

R
z
s

j j

^A TO
T-1

H
O
E

\»r
^

j
I

^
J,
jfi

\\\
\ \

X
S

T-V

Y

^

UT«A

D

J>

31&JI iwl

TjJI

TECHNICAL STUDY
TABLES AND LISTS

31&JI iwl/jJI

TECHNICAL STUDY

-

*-

*

.#

#

-

-

#

~

-

~

-

-

*

JLA

.LyJi Ja^l^ij oir^pjij Lsjj^Ji Jjtu;

^j^i

A STUDY
of Criteria for Selecting Declined and Structured Words in Arabic Grammar

I

-

INTRODUCTION
aim of
this

II

- The

study

is

to

familiarize

the

English-language

reader with the Arabic thought which has inspired the rules of

grammar, by putting before him a reference document covering
the major part

of the grammatical terminology.

The

criteria

and motives which have made the author adopt certain terms
and prefer certain expressions to others
will

be shown in the
:

course of the presentation. This dictionary comprises
1

-

a

new method of

transliteration putting the Arabic letters

(ijjji-), vowels (olST,i-)
Latin characters.

and accents (Jajlj^)

into

2-

a

proper
(

translation

of

the

declined

(olT^w)

and

structured

oQli ) words which make up the whole of Arabic

grammatical nomenclature.

nr

Ja^lj^Jlj

olTjsJlj tJjjsJI JL*iJ
lS"^»w<>

^

J^^Jjl
?^«aj

£J

SC-VS'

l^i

j-p

j!

JjjjJI

(_*j;«JI

ibS" i£U-«

lj£*j .*^j>&

olijli

JjLj o>jJI Jl£il

J&j

*L,\jJj £\£ j*j

'

[gijxW

i

y£l\

t( Masculine) ^STji

t(Verb) J^i t(Noun)
l-**j

Jill

:

Ji*

^jlakll

^iJ" u^J*i p^***^

...AJI

(Nominal sentence)

<u»—l £Uj>-

Jr-*

*'

IsO"" J^*^

CO*"*

ls^*

*-*'

^^

ij'-i

.L.I,aJl

TU

12 — The two proposed transliteration simultaneously takes account of factors : phonetics and orthography. every particular form of the HalVTZaT. no . — The given criteria governing the selection of English words have preference to those which best correspond to the ex- pression of the Arabic thought. . as 13 well as the most subtle nuances of orthography. to reproduce Arabic text with its vowels. nominal sentence (£*— dictionary offers *^r). it the first will be possible in reading a Latin faithfully the script whose meaning is unknown. Further.The following tables. its accents. Thence will all be its possible artifices to write in Latin characters the Arabic with either to and keep or dispense with the vowelling. on the colored pages. the use he makes of the Arabic it vowels. verb I (J etc. and accents. it method makes possible in to translate integrally the grammarian's intention letters. of the This an original interpretation grammar based on a near equivalence of the terms used and at the same time gives 14 full value to the authentic Arabic thought. Any attempted comparison : with English grammar has been avoided only those terms have been retained which have a the English terms. and for time. such as strictly identical meaning with noun (* -I). "•)» masculine (jS Ju). will serve to illustrate this study. While demanding a certain effort to this adapt oneself to new conventional symbols.

t_3jsjl l^iLa ^r ^TL.oliJI C~»-j <±~». ^jjl - g\h JU-i-MO d£L\\ -> ' '. Jl J>J ' '. •<j*. 7 * '.'. '<j"J< '(_r~i : J~* tOlSliLi^JI ^^awj ^ 2uJbs*i (JlSLiL rn .1*5 U (LAROUSSE) j (BLACHERE) t£jJ S-WlaiJlj (WRIGHT) t (DABBARA) yi '^p** .

while adopting the developed WRIGHT'S grammar fills as taken up by gaps BLACHERE which still and LAROUSSE. these are accents (Ja 1— Certain Aj such «*) have no corresponding the conventional extension (3 symbol. it not represented. The . The same is HaM'ZaT in *X* I » j»i however. written ( - The HaM'ZaT radical is in only one ) . EaL/F (<-iJI) not bar given a separate symbol is designated by a over the nv . letters are doubled when there is tension (oJ^). The W (j) If it not considered a semi-vowel in all languages.) and harm( (J-C).— : 2 . the liaison (J *oj). it is is written in harmony with the way pronounced it desirable that this nuance should be respected.The extension (»J^) and ojUn) disappear in ( Jl^l is HaM'ZaT system. In summary. even though one B liaison this is not correct in Arabic. way. These three vowelling letters letter (dLy>J) in old Arabic. order to lessen the inconvenience of this lack. 3 - The defective letters ( 5JuJI ^J/J~ ) do not have served an as is adequate correspondence. . is as tension (SjJi). as for quiescence In (oj&-») . where there the the is only (v). pronounced : differently certain word families. such as to afflict is it ((_r^)» misfortune {^y. in some of the remain. J—«). of The quiescence sidering handled by the common not usage of con- quiescent every consonant followed by a vowel 2 : which is another lack. letter it it is in French an emphatic is double V. is pronounced (j) or in English.TRANSLITERATION 21 — The method principles proposed in in this dictionary. DABBARA is written for (Jf*). This the reason is why .

.>WmIj . T.. -LUJI Jjl_ji JsLid «3_>* ^^Ua^t ojJ : iOMIpJI ^^aju ^ (s) t iUi* Ji* i_5j»JI C*s*J jj-ol! sllaJlj oil?- Sj1»j» OljLil d>^J I^UjC^iI JJj t Uai-j t (z) sllaJI Jt« (_3j>JI C*s*J ikftjj 3 s j.1 .f jljjl iiliTj iViJI OUJSII Cuil ^.U i(ARADU) l/^Ol 3' us 1 -3 * •**" >. .^JI ^ Ju M t jlS". UUJ cJap! « • • .iSjjiaJI <. «Jl .£j\Ji& oJJ> Ju.(T. *-0J iJjsJI jljSJ ^ J?ly^l (J*j JjiyJI . j jkS (jo***^ *"-~" sW*f" •Jjj** Jafc. * aIlJ^I iJ*}j>%j C o.. sui^ u*jj^ 1 s* Ol Or*" t^ "s" 1 • V-^ Ui^ AN ( > J °ji ^ujjjjl sUlj Sjj^aiJI jS^tf SlUWI Jl&ity ^au .TT j*OZi>u> ^Jj UJj ojjk J&u Jj»-l_pJI ^yiU^jj Zj yS\ 0J4J :J>JI O* }*> i}?J ^yj'J ^^yj i-*jj>- <j* tijfct Lsf-^ 1 -k^ 1 - > 1 (Small letters) o^**** olT^aJlj (Capitals) »j^-» <-*J>>^' (EaRaEDt/OE) IjaIjO i (DaBaRa) Y>A . J " Or*" t eJL?-lj ejlil JLjC-I Jsflii (H) *IpJ Ji* <_*>>JI sB Ji. T) sUlj JipI_jaJI J_j-«tfN L^hI-J J^b.

find solutions which cor- respond to the laws of Arabic grammmar and avoid obstacles in which might complicate the method. correspondent. with accents assigned a natural among them. vowels place in small letters. 6 - The 29 letters of the alphabet ( si >^\ <J. ( (jyX) in ) represented by the letter for as AN . for ( We j*\j\ ) write DaBaRa for (Ji*) and EaRaEDuOE m . : an acute accent as S (^i).vowel a to indicate that foreign it should be prolonged. •• >\ ) . transcribe The the the reader gets lost when he must as verb: three they want (Ijjljl) ARADU: Where are EaL/F and the letter is W? N after a 4 - Modulation vowel.jj 's- ) are represented by Latin letters topped in some cases with conventional signs to mark differences in pronunciation. It would be preferable to use only a differences single sign mark the and not to exaggerate the repetition of the as T. a dot under the letter. without exception. T. same letter.y> *t). such as the shortened EaL/F (ljy*A* (_iJl) and the attached T (~A>y. (_) the modulation of opening *_~aJI iy_yj But the very definition of modulation precisely states that the quiescent letter is N (££"C IS pronounced at the end of the word BUT oy) NOT WRITTEN 5 - Certain particular forms. as H (r) to . Our solutions are: 1 summary - Arabic script consists of letters •* •* ( /' • •• <-*jj . have a different English written in Consonants are capitals. have been simply ignored. as Z (J») and a line under the letter. vowels (ol S"j p-) and accents (Ja will j\'j—J>) Each of these symbols. Three kinds of distinctive sign are used over the letter. T (<i i J» i O ) 22 - It was necessary to fill the gaps.

iJ&J'(E) tjl>U (O) i-»jjpl<jl : ^yJI ^. .(E) i->j^ AL* obi «ilj <u£ ^ _/r~" ^y*** J^y lj*u^» (n) i~Jjz*j 4 l .^ .4^»UJI JISL_^I _ J . -* ».OlS"j?. lij?- W - YY . Or^^ n ( ( A ") (a") >. >_aJI :L^S£. . .^«^JI : J-. .o^J o j*^Jt Oj^- (To prick) ^^ oj^JI JIS^I Ji«£jJlk>)|l IJiS^aj . . J&£j SjJ .Jrf.slai^l i (BaE'SM") (BuO'Su ') ^jj (BrY'Sa) ^ - -* -* * -* - ^Lj jju. lit . *tj i(E) ojj-^i. (6) j »J*^J (E) : JSj ^J*—. 1 (^ 4jj t^j^ t IH 01 . S LU (Y). («") ^LvaJlj 52jl l«Ki} iU^JI SLyJI (f) ^y * . L«.M Orrr^ (Capitals) . t5>^' accent) i»5Uj (j-ij (E) I : J-rf»^JI u**ai*z~i I (Grave :»_^Sol. OyJI ^ U^j ^. (Y) J . ^"j^JIj .Jrf- w 1 J &LJ!>U! 1^%*U^> o_>j£*Jb **~^ £?W ^Jj^ 1 'fjy^'3 - *\ (B) *UI Ji« l^Jli 4ajjIiJIj iiil. ^ *. aoJ* (Acute accent) oU.j^JJ «j^» L$*j .fc .. (*) i * : (Asterisk) <w*«J I .7 1 * y> t i> ^^o. .(Ea) i :JuJJ (Tilde) .* j _j.^^ JisUJ j-s-yi^ (i") {j^iy** t ) tJj?- oJj> y.

They will be capitals to show that they it are letters and not vowels. Strange as letter may seem. for (I) . isolated acute accent will be rendered asterisk An more visible by an the for * for will ( (*). Y for \$ The grave accent will be reserved for tilde the liaison ( J-rf>_>JI S>i): E . raising in it above the is line as A" for (-). and the for the extension (~x>) Ea for (T) so one can write. u" (1). the letter HaM'Zaf be essentially an acute accent reproducing this image of the verb..) and BoE'Sh" (Irfc). E for ( I and Y for ( ^) . Certain linguists have had the less than happy idea of writing a small slightly [nj after a capitalized vowel. just . : ) 2- The HalVTZaT (oj*a) Arabic. which letter wrongly associated with the A. and the other : forms for ( I of ) . 3 - Defective letters (SLJI *J>jy-) will be represented by the vowels not used for vocalization : O for ( j ) . (<-«JI) the E will stand for the famous is EaLiF of the Arabic alphabet. 4- Modulation (jjjj) will find a grammatical solution. as in Arabic: B/Y'Sa (^). as B for ( ^ ) YY > . 6 - The 29 letters of the Arabic alphabet will be transcribed in Latin characters as follows — 17 letters are pronounced the same as Latin letters. HaM'Zaf ( then be easily written ) • E 6 j ) . lines The happy of for n . 5 - Particular forms will be written E for ( ^) and f for (0. solution raised. BhO'Sk" C^y. for ( to keep the two vertical thus i" and to transcribe a" . for (1). will enjoy the same rights as in being translated will The verb HaMaZa (>i) by the verb to prick. -) so safeguarding the spirit and the letter of that harmonious intonation of the Arabic language.

&W (jljjMI fj**^ ^^ %yi& sUJM iJjl»*« ^ ^jLiJI oj^j UjL JiJ_ Yi YYY .WO *WM (H) J (H) Oljtf-jJI . aCill Jl* (£) *UI }a (Cedilla) jLJJu ^Cj -- J*-b **"'-> »-Jj>- - .. Z}*J_ (*) ^j^ *J ? U u:^ (D * - : Ji« t JbJt>JI <dil! ^j Jaii iJtJ iT^j ils*^' *^ LS* t*'-*' .y ^"1 Gop i^a^k olil Vr'^ ^1 1 Jo^ 1 «JU t tlc**^ toopl^l oTjUJI J U\J£ \£bjai CJlS" ISIj .(D) .(C) sUJ Gj sllilJ (?) - J (MECHICO) \^aii'j (MEXICO) ^J IS jJiii (X) - IriJ 1 . (*) oj*^J1 ^j* (Asterisk) ju*«^ J***r" *" «-*j»-J "* 2 .

. such as: . as new H and H (V t o ) 23 — Let the reader. transliteration demands a greater number of alphabetic Our method. for this method has some difficulties own. — - 10 letters are pronounced differently . restrain himself from of excessive its enthusiasm.) that all the Arabic letters is must be a letter that a the phoneme ) constituted by and vowel ( IT j>- united. con- By the fact that the Latin vowel it. such as 1 letter 1 letter D for ( ^ ) takes a cedilla : £ : for ( <i< ) ( * ) takes an asterisk * for Certain correspondences may be surprising. 24 . for (f ) . in the long run. . for ( (j5 ) as in £ for (»^ ) MEXICO pronounced mechico in Portuguese. . ( «-*_r>. may appear when it comes to transcribing personal names and geographical places. . harder than any first other. rrr .But all these inconveniences have nonetheless been accepted in light an effort to bring to the concept of measures (6'jj') to permit linked to the process of derivation (JU^i^l) and no ambiguity in the reading of texts. Latin units. they will be underlined as a warning. No its letter has been used more than twice: a time in in its normal pronunciation and a second time only pronunciation. effort The reader must make here an is of adaptation which not. strange very valuable for grammatical equivalences. . however. is placed beside the sonant and not over represented. similar to .£ — X — R for ( J» ) . like the R of the Parisian street urchin.

Ik ~m _^i!l u—yf- .: fcjttJI 4 olil 0> L:>C^j ^yjl i - _y^J( -" ^ ^j dial.IrUifc zander st mj- te^ imess v-_ f . -~ ts —^ «Ji i- riifct^Wyr hL» tpoybte. aS the Mil WDttdgi b :iiw hearth. ikJI pi* J - Vj- JaJI J «l >• ^ rr fee *ctf!L he his . ( ^y yt ) YYi .

: This bit of Arabic poetry the may serve to show the usefulness of method HaEMi'Lu EL'HaOaE TaRiBu YaS'TaKjF«HM EL'TaRaBw E/rVT BaKaE YaHuQu LaHw LaVSa MaE Bi'Hi LaRi'Bu OaEL'HaBfYBM YaN'TaHiBw TaD'HaKfYNa LaEHiYaTa" TaR'JaBfYNa MiN' SaQaMiY SiHaTiY HfYa EL'RaJaBw (Ea BmO NuOaESi") rro .

or subjunctive case) (Indirect. or oblique or genitive case) '*i~j L~U. fo»Jj» TT1 . _ Y "j^ _ r (Apocopate.\ t j&J . non-flectional) jjl- Mj >ri ji j}*j ji jjj*. or accusative. _ ^ (Subject. or ending in u) Jiij _ \ (Openness. or ending in a) \JL^> ^i- _ y _ r _ £ (Reduction. ft LJLI \Jujc~. ja i^j s^jji *Lt^i t ^i^ tsu^ji ^ JUi\llj sU-^lj jJjjsJ >lj! (Regularity.H** ^1 • •liJ'j v'j*^' : i>^»-<* J 1 (Invariable.jpuj ijj* « T j^sj omuji oaa} . I^&u* ^l (Structure) J***j j^^ 1 »•** t>' 0* ^liij indeclinable. (Nominative or indicative) ejjj^aJb *U. "y jJL. (Subject) a-S"UL ^ Sjil_.j* (Declension) v'j*^ ^.iji.tuji Usui oi . or ending in /) (Elision. or nominative or indicative case) (Direct object. or jussive case) Iji- _ £ . or quiescent ending) «ji- :^l J^iJI Js.U>j»>-J ai EiJ^UI jipIjaJI ^iL. Olijj*.

or genitive case v^) (jr) ( 4 Apocopate. 32 . syntax separates them into two large categories: declension (vG*)'') and structure (2UJI). to the disavantage of ( these equivalences. word is a word constructed with two. Declension has had the unanimous consent of orientalists. It is like a house that has just been given a saddle roof and so YTY . invariable. indeclinable. or accusative. or oblique. or ending in i (y*) ^-f ( - 7 ' 4 Elision. or more letters which does not admit inner augmentation or change of ending. situations involve . or ending in a Reduction.: 3 - MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX true ( "j^6'j Sj^ ) interpret 31 . that a verb in the subject case fji y ) can be never a not indicative. or nominative or indicative case \gj) ( 2 3 Direct object. who. or quiescent ending f Jr? ) This conception is clearly different from of that adopted by orientalists.As to the endings of words. the endings (Jliil) of letters (<-Jjy-) called 1 of nouns (t£>L\) and verbs and are - Regularity. Terms ( like ) . non-flexional have been used for *Uj These terms. besides having a negative prefix not found in Arabic. referring to notions Latin grammar. but the term ^structure] remains original. or subjunctive case Indirect. are a poor translation of the grammarian's intention. The structured (j**) three. is not nominative and is certainly subject. These . or ending in u (£fj) 2 3 Openness. or jussive case It is f 'J? ) latter enough to say. translate 1 thus: - Subject.The challenge of Arabic grammar is to the situations of words in a sentence according to their syntactical function.

iL^Ji apLv«> »jJy l[£_p*Ji Jj«Ji joJj ol *JLi Jp^-y (NUNATION .^-$3 JUaiJ <J^1JI 0Jl »" ts* * ^r**1 i^ iji ^ TANUIN) .of the verb) 3jj J^w i<J£JI j*-i ^ (^JJi £jJI oji^i . 5**-jI LiiS_^1 metre) _ t ls* J^UJI l$J^J. dUi Ji AiLJ^L . ——•'—J jl (Empirical) U1pI_«_ jl o j^J' Oj-SL> ^^-i^j-Jlj . — ° - *aJ :* —^ .ol^J or j-jyJJI J_jS 01 dUi Js^i ILj Jj .— (Structure) 3J^ ul* . t (Variability) j OjZaJI (Morphology) st£^«L (Invariable) O^ai' L^JlS!5U ^^l* JiLiaJJ dUij t J*iJl ijuj*&} (Conjugation) Jt« CjUJS" t/'-'j*' I 1 « i*»jUw toj^J (Measure) v-^—j (Type.TT . - "j t. aUo^IIj jj^Jlj uijZaJI :jy»j l# ^Za-lJI (j-iji.>&*•/ (Letter of t< —^« o — t :5 *u* a —ISLa^I j£ ojjUu /—* j!— I (Structure J*iJI *lL (Structured noun) construction) .i j-fr t (Varied) (J*J J^ °J J i^JJI i t OjJ<aJJ (Variation) j-jj~ t (Variable) J^ » 'J .ji>^il ^Jj^>j.SopIS j» 5jj?o j.aS^ >• *Ij JX t ^i oJu*y .(jJL U t-—-^ (Methodical) VTA .Iw»l>- 2aLsJI . j-jI*j 4j!jC- Ti " ui—jj > o-.u> form.t. .

- Measure for ( j'j ) has been retained in preference to type.: cannot take a higher story. its effect is to accentuate the syntactical distinction between certain turns of phrase. is invariable for Jf) these (Ji"J^j>. /" • ° -\ (o^Itfi). of construction 5 r i * J/-). measure (oj>ll) . metre. varied (J)j*a^>). 34 - Three terms give matter for reflection. Constantly used. on account of Measure ( its similar use in both prosody and music. They are : variation . form. YY^ .— o . will . one marks his intention to define . (<_* —>C) a word or make it indeterminate j&£ ) NUNATION or TANUIN used just as they are by linguists. serve only to complicate a situation that sin itself is simple. these words can be a cause of confusion unless the same family is employed which can embrace signate /" • all their functions.j dj'j) depending on use is regulated by experience or by gram- matical right. variable •- which lends to: variability \uuj*4j). This word [^structure] permits moreover some interesting derivations: (_ letter . structured noun ( (_ s ~« p—l) structure of the verb 33 - Particular attention will be reserved for modulation is ( jijX ) This intonation at the end of the word a precious ornament of the Arabic language. whether its or methodical ^ . Inspired by the word (*-*^). Thanks to modulation to ( (jtjX) jj > for example. (tJjiUJI) 1 . and incorporation (^1*j)II) - There exists a large number of words that are derived from variation (t_jjl<>). To de- this \ family we have chosen itself the term variation (Jy).«> be empirical ojj) (^_*Ull. A and slight exception made to morphology (Jy) 2 conjugation (uuj^) preserve important links with English grammar. which means musical consonance.

^ 1 . jj L'U jT j^iljal JbJ .^J^. (To affirm) C-Uj (To confirm) il^jjl J^j : L* 5Ll»wl "-ol^j OMUgjjdj ^ :^|l Jij&l 'UJu»l (N of SoS j^> ^ jul^l UAjljil -x-S'jJI o_y i (Letter of confirmation) JlS"V <-»°j»» J£- t (Confirmed verb) Joji jii . l**rjJ Ji»y ^J J^U-^II tfl UL t (Assimilation) .r (Affirmative verb) C~i» Jo N) .J 6 1 jU-il ^*ii .(To incorporate) s^ ^ iLi Ji-jl ^ EJ^JI (Analysis «jl of the *Lj>JI v'j*! ->' (Declension of the word) £• t U^-j JjjiJI 11 ^ J* ^-Jdl ^ LJiiU (-r LJI j^s- ^ t sentence) ^^ i/ tj* ^'j^ "^ 1 uiiSJl V}l «iJ». t confirmation) (Confirmative status) (Firmness of OjJI O^J .(Declension) tfjjl J*iJI J-UJ ^jj. t (Affirmative sentence) i^* *^ t . (Analysis) v'j*! «*^ ^ Ji 1** inv'j*)! 1 (>• *£•>• » %°j» ~o\ .

confirmed verb IxSTji J*i).. with their derivatives. firmness of N £*y?) dyi\ . it undergoes the regular action of a verb (J**. confirmative status {Z'SZ'y J£-).). to i. The term assimilation has ---. a structured noun «—i. in Arabic with analysis of the sentence (S&iJI L>\j*\) will The distinction be made in English. who have largely preferred to ignore the 36 . even though the analysis consists in a chiefly in disclosing changes word by reason of its place (&**) in the sentence. such heavy syntactical style has rebuffed most blem.analysis j* &**) is a concept which does not have its If. affirmative verb CJU Jii ) . means to make a thing enter into it to incorporate. 2- Affirmative sentence ( («~« ( *«*»-). equivalent in English. whereas the second has not even been translated. 35 - Declension of the word (&J&JI vG*l) ls confused . and They Ji5T}) . making an is agent with ending. linguists. («u*JI belongs the family its of defective letters <^Jj^) who undergo influence. to confirm. come up often in Arabic are grammar ( to indicate positive situations and elements. ( N of confirmation (juS^JI oy) . 3- Incorporation (fl*al) and defection (J^ApI) from used have not received the attention they deserve linguists. to affirm. As for defection. for example.e. these changes being also synonyms of declension (vC^" \iJ-?> (vG*').of already been for (*Uol).Two terms.Tne place of a word in the. (c3) . The Arabic verb ((•**') another.. The distribution of positive roles in a sentence will be assured in the following way: 1 - Letter of confirmation ( JuS y Ojs. we say of this noun that it structured in the place of the agent with regular ending ( ^f) pro- Jpli «ij J^> ^J ..

...SjJ&Nl 5ilJii*^..l jjlUJI Ijia ^jj 4*-Ip- }U t5jjjuA» jl ilp jl JJ*.As-lj t_AJU<aJ ^ ^1*<JI ^-*3^~ fc**^ • •*Sl»_ ii 0^4 i C^H «-*ji. conjunction) lllij t j-jcJI J* feiUJI L* l&i .£JI (Guttural letter) : J&- <-iji- i J/- (Letter of introduction) gljol j_. ot i_i>. jl ^yiS^ JbuJI J^ ^l*j . ^i*^ ^3j~3 1 J}^ <^3y OUiS" ojl. jJ^j" jH\ 2JUJL JLJL l>/- ^>»Jjl <. Ij^Jsj Jl« ^Ul \^j> £jjl i^JJ t ^ ^ OjJ>>JJl oij *iaiUI ol* jA+jc^a jiSj preposition. UU? 4~jU ^^Jl Oj?- b>LJ (Literature) jL»l ^> i'^'j 111 . (Letter of call) (Letter of attraction) <_ila* oLiiNI _jp jj ^jj «-~aJ t .t (Letter of interrogation) /»l$i~-l t ^ t_i]^i-*j*- :l«L.CjJ&NI jlS I^UUll iiL" <UJ£J l-i£* l JSMI JU t jl*« ~<u*Xi ^jlapl (Webster) 01 t.-».. (Annulling letter) £~D Oj?. J-jJI Oli lijjjJI.. ijj?- (Coordinate conjunctions) a« <u$Jl£* jL« fj-~« jUwN YrY .?«—b i_$j*u« (j-^r' " •. (Littera) jlol j* «-lj II* ^y Jijj^l J* {fj ^yjl ^_pjjl Zj JS^jj (Sibilant j^ J/U^< t (Defective letter) 51* J/- : l^J ii*su letter) ^UJI i_i jj?- ..ir t (Letter of elision) t a j?- (Letter of opening) t «—aJ jlJu '••t-*j»- . • Cx*y J* So** 1 ls* ^y^ J*^jks-l i > (Particle.--••• • (Letter of negation) Jj».

To designate like the latter group.<J^-) will etc. preposition. or letters of the their alphabet (s&f^ iJ/J-) : according ( to Si* type. thus covering the intention of the Arabic grammarian. for this purpose.. includes two different groups: letters of construction (^ — Jl ZS\ iJ/j — »-) and letters of signification (^l**-" linguists Ojj*-). . not be 4—. — ) — ) ) 4 - THE LETTER The letter ( J^kJI in ) 41- {*Sy-) Arabic.<-3^- ) . rrr .L* ) or originality 3— j J . Annulling letter (£-. Letter of negation «Jj»- Jl. serve example. enough to know. It will necessary. SO THAT (J?) can finality ( as ( letter (J-W). that the of causality •** ) .. . ( 43 - Letters having a syntactical action ^yl J»* ) will have the denomination of the situation they create: Letter of opening ( ^inu vSj>- ) . .The advantage of grouping the letters of signification it under a single nomenclature is that focuses attention on their meanings account (jfc) of these It is . be defined by an adjective letter Defective letter ( O j. To look further would only add to the reader's confusion. 42- The letters of construction {jfcA\ <-Jj^) will. already letters' rather numerous. to go on about its resemblance to coordinate conjunctions. We have preferred here the keep the same Arabic terminology. more so since WEBSTER three gives at least six meanings for Letter QitteraH and largely meanings to Letters ^literature]. Letter of attraction ( <_ila* i_3 y ) 44 . now one and now its another according to resemblance to to English homologue. Letter of elision ( f j*. to without taking resemblance for their English holetter mologues. conits junction. Sibilant (jjw> ^°j-) . have preferred words using particle. Letter of call fjJ ( s <Jj^). Guttural letter j£. etc.U <-*j»-). while the letters of signification (^1**^ *-*Jj*0 be expressed by a substantive: Letter of introduction (g'-^l «-*j»-)> Letter of interrogation ( ( ttycij <S_f- .

j*J1 U£JI &£*l o^l?-_ or " . (Subject) hJ£ jL~»-li .!.ill '•Is* '£->' C^-NI *• 51. - ' 3 - .«. . (Subject of the verbal sentence) J*li ijc-* > .JI oyJI oL. o> ^yJI jSUJL "tfu..-..jJj^JI J j^ll Ijl* ^J ££*ty yl» tdUAJI J SjJIjJI o^U ^JT..! jtf'SlI ifi>\j» U JJ . JiS"^ aU.Jla iL»*JI _ r 01 ~}\>*A tt*-M ^£... «u!l ' t . . (Subject of the nominal sentence) ^. 3 « •J^ 11 uiJ* J* ~J~* : ^' 3 »-. w^l oU^_ j-UsU tiiUJ y ^yJI f«i laaj. iL»*JI » jla » jui tSjP-SlI <C*~MI tiJUs^JI <£>>»<• j* tiilxJI CcO^ jl'-"«-Nj jli« U JL*. j— '3 •?jf"' <J* 1&* : ^ rri ..

5 51 . 3 Incompatible with exceptional modulation Similar to: noun structured on modulation of indeter- mination 4 - Incompatible Similar to: noun structured on to will its ending. It is quite essential have a clear view of aii these de- nominations.The i.NI) defines useful is speech (^^J 1 f!d£Jt). make possible.The - situations of compatibility (<*~>^l) of the Arabic word with nominalization (£•—') are four in number: 1 Compatible without reserve Similar to : declined and varied noun 2 — - Compatible with reserve Similar to: declined noun and prohibited from variation. 53. reference (a£. The choice of the word start. up the pillar (»JU#) of this sentence. rro . further much more harmo- nious equivalences. the sentence (aLJ>JI) and composed of two elements: making the subject (<uN xli) and the information (oi~i). Syntax situations not be understood so iong as the of compatibility (Z^^ O^t) have not been assimilated. such as: 1 - (JpU) ( Tlxili j Subject of the verbal sentence.THE NOUN ( j^l ) of nominalization of compatibility . for these 2 The Arabic vocabulary used sentence will two components of the on. subject for ( <uJl xli ) from the take it out of the competition with other nouns responsible for the action. will. 52.e. subject of the nominal sentence.The marks situations (£*lNI £*£^) as well as the noun in Arabic morphology (t^^\ oN£-) distinguish the It is essential to ( Oj ^ . conserve for terms moving in this orbit the closest equivalence to the Arabic thought.

u* oLij^i .s t^liJI Slo-. objective complement or complement of object) . U JSo ".! i*«-«J UL»^I (Complement: t direct object.(Agent-noun) J*UJI «-..^- - _jikj ^j ja Uj .*l»M u*il t £Lj C. * • . ^ji (Complement) 5J6 ioiS" b>j\y\ ^ ju ^ *i>>»J olijli . j\j»\ j* u . 'j^O -*. nominal subject) Oji^J 1 jki-l i Ij~JU - ^ *frtjl~»-' Jj^" * t (Prime) ^"ib w * ^jJ* C*JbD J*»»l lo~*l Ijo-JI ^ki- <t«S'l_y> ^ji ->.*^! 3JUj>JI "• «.li« UlpI u* . SSjJS^^II tn . usr"^" 1 aij**-* ls** *r*— ^' 31**JI £jj- Oi ^ C-s-j^ ojj (The primate and the predicate) j^J'j ijc~JI lili ' (Inchoative. ^o>***U- jl iL^UJoj ^1 ^^uJ 'CJ**H (Agent) i*A£i i>* ^ UJ* Jf~~« ^ a*s£» J*l» iUS" US' action) .Y »'. ~y> ~sj. (Supplement) UL i^Lj'il j^ ^ ilj.. oU— Mj l . . (Adjective) _^»- jl (Attribute) j»-NI j^-^VJ *SI_)JI U!IS" ^p«JI ^ji (Universal predicate) J^JUJi jJJI tSj^- <dJL*j ysllaJI 4Ail_jd t (Subject) id& J*li a*K" Ij**-^ JlaJ _ ^ CiJjJI 3JU- ^J .: Uft t l$. ^* . (Subject of the verb) : f&jk J y>j oS t^jJ&^l t }a JaaJI ^j*J' 0j^LJ[t t JuaJ' J-ii UzjI lift (Subjectum) 1US* Uuj (Act and jO»- JpU Ak-I_^ «Slj . (Enunciative) it-fr-a*.

) *j - The term ( dy*J> ) has also been translated objective first by a complement. some have or called the In enunciative reality. (o. this noun ) none other than the universal pre- dicate ( yf- of all syntaxes. But here too there are nuances in Arabic syntax that deserve to be brought out. such choices poorly serve this veritable prince of syntax. 55 — From filled the verbal sentence. 2 - Hard on the heels of the primate ( 1^4* ) - the in second its element of the nominal sentence emerges also originality: full (j —f^) is which attribute.u*). to But also : the author is prefers keep the true Arabic or conception action the verb is a fact that the comes of is an that done by mediation an agent. is The complement. just as it and (Jf^) is derived from (J**). and others even adjective. If we think of the root (*j j) which recalls that of [Prime].: .The words have reasons that explained in to the choice of these been the preface. it. These are the primate and the predicate led Cjf^J -^*JI ). added to a thing to complete is whereas the supplement (*Lai) added to a thing rrv . comsight plement. 1 - For the term ( I J 4* ) » linguists have preferred inchoative and nominal subject. or complement of object. act Agent (J*!i) belongs to the same family as action. whether direct object. : 54 . we will mention only the functions by nouns 1- The term (J ^subject] for — —») el its is has been translated by the word its apparent concordance with in English homologue. there It fact the subject to of the verb. in English. later on. whereas the CsubjectunT] indicates what submitted.The nominal sentence ( 4~»—l aII*its ) is based on two essential elements which constitute pillar . to will lend ( itself better the denomination of the agent-noun 2 JeliJi «—l. which at seems quite appropriate.

. ^j U (Original noun) LjS" 0l» tjU^Ull oJia IxSj (Noun of action. * YTA .^11 £«JI jl Ujj .Uai : Ji» n£>-\ll jiUaJI uL^tfl original) in |yuJ» t *•>>»-• jXa* 1 (Explicit j~j^> "Jx^. m jJUai t (Denuded original) . (Complement) .(MASDAR) JS-JS" /^>i j.tJSLt. J**!' ^* i/LbkJI J-*LLJI 5-^-J dUJiS" lL-^ J-^ 1 i^JI jlaJlj ii*»U. f LJ J*UI 01 ^ i^jshJI & <o Jl »iy>il'j direct object) JwiJI £«J (Patient) Jj*iJI ^^- CaSlJ ^^SJ ^j t JuL« y* uJ* Jf*-^- (Direct patient) .01 t (Origin) jji_».p ju» %JS> J* ilj.(Original M) J ^a j (Artificial original) j*k*> I • ° • J . j_« . J^«i* jj-ju 0[ .iftLJl [fM~J o\ *j "jiJa^J t jJUaJI 6l.J Ul/^l ^"l i-« — =JI C*-Ul JkS} . SoL-. t iUoi (Supplement of (Agent) J* !>&JI f JlS JL^- . infinitive) {£j& Uj-p j* SJ^j ^! jjj tSjJ&^l il*u.

If we come back to the grammarian's intent. already \* i?* 1 — — complete. to designate source of Certain is. it needs only a patient (J^wi) to undergo that will action. the agent (Jfti) being the one who executes the action of the verb. it infinitive. 45 The sound noun other than * ( * ) (~~»«^aJI jU-^l) ends in a sound letter - The quasi-sound noun ( ?«-»*^aJI <ui — — *^f ! ) ends in O or Y preceded by ' (_) . English.. Since the relation of reference ill) *-} gives with its two components verb-agent (J—? —'-J-"*) a complete sense. later. the sentence cannot admit a further complement. as in the a word MASDAR place in explicit ) . .-. 23 The noun with extended ending (jjJuUI jU-'ill) ends in - The noun with curtailed ending (^»jJiijl jU-^l) ends in iY(^). .: . to diverse kinds of patients {"^s-\JC>) 56 . that more indicated such as noun of action or derivation. The term direct patient (<j dy**) lend itself too. linguists have though to find a solution by using. belonging to the family of the word origin. original artificial jJuai) original j-*" original "jjJLa^) i'jt^-f jJ-a« 57 original in M ( {mf ^> jJuai ) —-The form of the noun ( *~>*i\ *»w>) gives rise to several technical terms which are difficult to explain without adequate transliteration 1 - The noun with shortened ending (jjiaiuJI p-^l) ends in E(tf). than others. rr\ . The other originals will find natural ( a the nomenclature: (jL-jj-^ denuded . And it would moreover be very heavy to speak of a supplement of direct object. J*?) concerning the origin of derivatives The is original noun.The original noun ( jJ-aJI) deserves special attention for the it controversy that has arisen between W and the denuded verb (ol£.t«).

.^Jl conjunction.0> y» Jj t (Personal pronoun) .J t n .MIj <ij.* • « * (A) {j* 1^** V-^° <J\ f>-" 'j*J j^ sU-.. interjection) .A">JI SU-.I ^ fL-»$l v-* !* .MI : ^j-^jj Cx*y ^ > *U—Sll.HdiS" ((Personal noun) i (Coordinate J i* j—^LjcJI jAju J JL»jC-.C»li-^lj*JI *i*l£JI Uul LJ* SjLiNlj »lgii*}U L-Jb . prepositional phrase. ^-iN ^s*-~f i>* '"^ . J £i o .

in general. 58 it was impossible divided them to express these endings. prepo- Every attempt at comparison **) between different morphologies (t-»j iight must be avoided. two general classes variable «p t \ .Nouns (3 ( are into : nouns «. Yi> . Every effort to throw on the authentic meaning of the Arabic denomination should be deveiopped. From the noun of genus are ( ( _ ri>JI less «-«l) the allusive noun (£h£Jl 111). etc. in Arabic morphology \i~>j-*) full-fledged nouns. sitional phrase. ietter The EaL/F («-ijl) not having a proper symbol different from for A. The personal noun personal pronoun. .»Mt) to i'jSaCJh t\-lJLri\) and invariable nouns j *i" J^ J i \ . the (j^w) for will not give place to a (^Ifi^-l) same («jl the interrogatives and the demonstratives it). interjection. there no than . We must also avoid the confusion of using terms like coordinate conjunction. twenty species which are.— Linguists have. avoided these troubled waters.

J*AJI ^ * jjUJI i (Permanent) ptM ' J^f^4 Ji^ Ji 1 ** ts» ^ ^^** j^j ^y** J^ 1 ls^~> fJkiu Oli olSLt jr*-> J-l* j^J <>l* ^-» Ji ** J Vj" Vj~ }j^** J** ^' .^Ul .jA*li_.^ .^ .4l*li J^ *W J J*ill 'j* (Known verb) ^UJI J*aJI JLJ lj£». * ii % nr .SiiAiJi i'l^ij £1^1 2^J j>ai j^ j*iu Jut jiu^i ^j^_- -\\ ^ <£j^ jr"^ J*ill UjLi>-I 1 ^ j^j (Intransitive) SjL* Luai j blSJ .>• «JL. (Transitive) ji-<stJ oij .j-^UJI * ^.j _ ^j * .ji*i« Ijla jj. JJ ._ "U t J_#>JI (ignored verb) Jj$?wJI J*ill LLj 4l*U *-~^ : jj-rfj*" u* ^y^ ol r^ 1 IkkJI ^*J Jjjj lift t (Passive verb) L^ t^jjl JpUJI jLJ <£j^&>! c5L-JI OJ .JI . _ __ .o!^ ill-.j J*UJI ^"i l«J j_^>J V ~Cjyl\ oSl iL/ ^-J >j t 4JL. j^ljjl J*i Jti CJL I^ju^ Ja<JI Ija ..

The former has subdivisions an English homologue which has been retained intransitive the transitive verb. as opposed to structured \ Jr* j Vj** ) i if ^ _ »'* ^ .The general ( jkail ) frame its of the verb carries with its it a schema representing ( *}\j>-\ . as opposed to ignored (Jj^y'j fj^ ).We must to the not push too far the resemblances of the Arabic verb but content ourselves instead with re- English verb. 62- The known verb its (p£w is thus named to indicate that . favored by many linguists. The use of the expression passive verb for \Oj&y> J**). It is wrong to say :JIHj in A letter has been written . does not have a negative prefix J —iu j J — «i ) The its permanent verb ( j"^ /» J*i ) . This reasoning to all applied the terms in this dictionary for which one would tend to negatively prefixed use antonyms. cording the intent of the Arab grammarian. agent is is known (iUli that *»j£C») is while the ignored verb J^i) (J_#^» whose agent ignored (<dpU J^O). such as : known and 4 unknown. J*i) in its : from the deficient verb ("o**^ J*i). active and inactive.THE VERB . justifies this choice. different kinds (apI^I) and different states in its kinds a ciear division separates the complete verb (a I. as opposed to neutral J»o ) JJs>l*j J-»l* ) ( etc. Arabic: is to be rejected. by So-and-so "i) (o^* J3 case in J* iJCj cZpS This English passive form designates the agent the who wrote with a the letter. 6 61 . whereas the formula of the the «p verb has been rejected because ( Arabic term . which cannot be agent is Arabic verb whose ignored 63 . remaining permanently is by agent (Jf-li). declinable and indeclinable.) : — . The verb has times ( (j£ j ) and moods ( *-w» ) : 1 - The times are three in number - past time present time future time - YiT .

0*3 lU*Jxill 4Jlju J^LiJ j^^JI 1 jl yiiyi oj-^ Ui^ »Ju» aUI JxiJI.I ^a. *Ulj t-iJ'ill tj** Ojj . lir" 1 ^ 1 ^r^ j^'j 4i*>JI JLxlJ Yll .11 3IL<i»Sll SjLijJ! t-ijjp- Jj»-j tdip-'il ^ iiL$i j^*-*^ ^ji UUJ JjuJ t j^>JI JxiJI ojj ij* 5J!>U jl .ojLpj .jj ij*i ujj - ^ J*ai-.Y .(Pluperfect) J*S"I <Juj«aj t y>j aaL'^JI oljjSlI (_$!*• Aj-aJI ojt* jU»l ^ I'^i? rjXj JaaJ' Uuj*oj..J*U . ^Uj t (Perfect) J^IS" ^U 4J ^Ul t -• t .no *-—*yj £aK.>JI jl <-*jp. ^2j ^~-Jlj uil'ill ojLijj <ol.£jUJ -• JxiJI _ o i cXai oS £jLiJU (Conform) j~jcJI jlii-l ^ - UJjIS ^1 ^Ijfjjl ^Uj i (Preceding) JjL.

» • * ) constitutes itself t&b ( *u*- According to the use which made of this sentence and the mood situations chosen. 65 . or the speaking person (jiB£>).. the person spoken to (Li>U*i).J •( .The ("j > S . 2 - The moods are three in number — — past verb — conform verb imperative verb. as well as the variations of the verb in relation the absent person (L —— Jl e). we can note with Interest that the verb in past time has a past perfect (J-«lif ^Li). the conform verb • a mood (**~*) and (i>*j) Without wishing to make comparisons. 64 . of declension (v'j*j) or structure (*Uj) YiO .Measure FaRaLa + (E) becomes FaERaLa . The augmentation of one to three letters in the measure of the denuded verb ( 1 /J^J\ J^aII dj'j ) completely changes Its meaning 2 .The conjugation of the verb ( $*jf\ JuJ*aZ ) enters naturally will into the frame of its different moods. the verb will be submitted to diverse . a preceding past I (j— . This conjugation be better understood if we observe the intervention of the letters in of augmentation (eil_>j_ji J>/jJ>-) the radical measures (i£j\ Oljjl) to .l '- ^— >) and a pluperfect past (J*^ ^k).Measure FaRaLa + (E + S + T) becomes ES'TaF'RaLa Such care to bring out the play of conjugation and derivation has led the writer to adopt a precise transliteration. j . led to the choice of the The reasons that have (jj-jCai) term conform are developed in the preface.: — : . complete verb (*LJI JiiJI) " accompanied by its apparent »Li» j-j o^fi ) by or latent personal a verbal sentence is noun ( j " » ) . is They appear stronger not a time since *f .

IT J*^ ts 1 * J*-^" -i£ ij <.J iO J :*c~ SjjLJI ^JUwiJI _ \ tin .- c ci - -.\J <.T Jp *LJI 'j^/j .oj£-Ji J^ .r lib j^>j SlaJji t^Jll jBUi^JI y JLT ^J V**\ ^T U Jildl (/ S 1 _Js-*J' tH jl £^*J< >*« Jp SjjUl jJUiJI Jy-i 01.lih^A iyry J*AJI j>.

by ending 1 a - by elimination of b V Quiescence by elimination of 3 - In elision p summarized to all by elimination of the defective letter The equivalence functions are above shows how their the syntactic linked endings. . NaE. ending is The verb's aspects 1 its formed under different — on the vowel a the vowel u 2 3 — on — on - quiescence 4 5 by elimination of N letter by elimination of the defective The declension of the verb causes ending 1 different changes in its - In regularity [". putting of this at the disposal of linguists and 66 . 2 The conform verb can be "with regular ending - either declined with open ending with elided ending 3 or structured. J the intervention of prominent personals (SjjLJ jJl^i) in the sound its (^— ^0 or defective {"fc") verb affects the course of conjugation 1 . T.by ending in u I by firmness of in N N N 2 - In openness [~. OandY(i^ijil!iOiOil) They intervene to accomodate the verb to the conjugation: TIY .of words. N.The prominent personals are six in number: E. transposition into English orientalists.Once the rules of spelling are respected.:: : 1 - The past verb is always structured. is - The imperative verb structure in always structured.

sliJI jj**« _ Y J ~fi* y - 3 * * :v-»lj*)|l JJL.£jl J*ij .-I i jl I* ^j». Y J£*JI J* JUiSlI L*-J ^aiJ £U^I 4 tijj^JI ^Ujl 0} . »ll CJii ^-A> 4 Jii o jj - .. * • t_~A> ' Jjj* • > s . J* SjjUl jJUUJI Jy-i °y jJ>. o. .tj^s. .£jl I^Uil ^x. oo*-j frjUaJI J*iJI_ "W . ^jy>^ j*j YiA . . jj.T L » oljl .Y .. 4 J«il ojj - ^1 J*iJI <J> iy.ja. £w*J ij*i> Ojj - .Jsj.. .- ^ - - vjj^aic - jAj - .. <UJUu * .

It was not possible to treat this importante matter of the Arabic verb without going into details of its transposition in English. .''' ~\ ending when preceded by a letter /»j>- <-9j»-) or a conditional article «bl) ns . he did.. he does. : . r ~*\y) or and when it escapes the situations of structure (<l^) 2 — - It has an open ( *->y*a^i> ) ending when it is preceded by a letter 3 It of opening ( >~ -a> ) <JJ~ ) it is has an elided of elision ( ( {jj>w /.FaRaLa: .YaF'RaLtt etc.) 2 . becomes EF'RaLuOE: Do of the (pi. with the prominent personals according to whether the verb is sound (w-sCtf) or defective (J^w).Endowed .Endowed . becomes : FaRaLTa: you did : etc. Do. The positions of the radical letters can be summarized as .Mixed .The conform ( verb is the only one which admits declension V>>!) It has 1 : a regular ending (fjij») when it is not submitted (<* to the action of the elements of openness eiision (fjlj*-).EF'RaL': etc. becomes TaF'RaLu you do .Sound verb 1 - Intact 2 3 .The radical letters (3X»^1 (Jj^JI) triliteral verb create particular situations with relation to conjugation.Mixed separated joined 67 .Endowed - with HaM'Zaf HalVTZaf or modal or hollow in F with HalVTZcrf in with in R L _4 - Defective verb 1 Defective in F 2 3 Defective in Defective in R L — or deficient 4 5 .

'y JpUJI - .j\jl\ J>jf- ~y> JpUJI _ ^Jii. .j\jl\ . j~+J>3 Jpli f U^-l ^y &j&uJI ^jl' 3JLJI o Ju& -^jh^ Ijil^ ol «-*JL9- (ffcJ* (_Sjj?- J*--^ **'jj <uL*l ijy &j?j Oy aj?t k-Sj»-j 5S"j^ SIJLp ^ »J^I o Juli ^ t5jiill l*j_ji J*-*' oj i^b *^J' .J2JI ro .T J)jp.iJiJNI (_Sj9- y> JpUJI _ o56i.r d^HJ . _ * ° «• "» * Tii ' "*T t ° (.

You do .): (fern. (dual) is TaF'RaLaENi The agent 3 the letter : (pi.You do (dual) is : YaF'RaLaENi The agent 2 the letter : E E. letters- (&JI iJ/p-) Neglecting the role of these latter would deprive the transposition process of a definite advantage. the sign of this declension being a defective letter (Sip J>°^-) instead of a vowel From it results a different conjugation said to be of the five it is verbs (i~+j~ Jliil) because applied only to five personals: 1 . There exists a particular declension (v'j* the augmented letter 1 ) characterized by N (»'jilj o^) . N (oyN and firmness of N ( o>JI CjjJ ) not to mention the bringing in of the defective .) is YaF'RaLwONa The agent 4 the letter : O TaF'RaLuONa O. Y S .) is The agent 5 the letter sing. (pi.You do . elimination of ..They do . The agent the letter This particular conjugation of the conform verb has been neglected by the linguists.They do . is TaF'RaLiYNa Y. It was difficult to compose a schema uniting agent (Jfli) and personal letter (S~-*)> vowel (~&'s~) and iJ-is-) \^jf) .

Jj L>L»u-l ^x-^ *-jL5ii^ ((Exception) • (Other-patients) J^ftil ^ju ^jt*' **} (Included) iu ^Ji^j TOY . If 1 : LU i tillj^'bl I4J Zy> ((Excluded) a.j * * j " * " j j jjjIjmJI fjj lilij 1$^>JI*« j^^c^J JjL«-« r-jJaJ 5Lj«JI Olijli ^axa :l«i* ^iUJ iyi .**u> J^uLJtj t<ui J^waJI (<L>-M Jj«aJI ijikjl Jj«aJI to Ijla Jl ^1 ^U^l. ^jUJI 3*Jj .jJ' V J_j*aJU (Adverbial accusative) JU (Exclusion) l il^-^U LLoi Jij .(Patient) J^uJI jy>j IfjNU t jlkJI Jj*iJJ (Cognate) j to J^uLJU (Direct object) Ji* * * * "i" J+& J' _r* o* ...

stand by themselves in search of an entity. (i-^w) of that undergoes the action of the The patients the are five in ( number : the direct patient J^*ii ) . (CjC^oXa) indicating the nature (Vy)> the number (aj£) ( the jl_ij). Here are some examples: 71 .THE PATIENTS ( J^UJl) cause (L~Zm).. ( *j . They are nouns with open ending . absolute patient . adverbial accusative (<lJ \}yJC») not to mention first. etc. They are status (JLi-). jlk* JyJC* the causal . which cannot be satisfied with the title of patients. patient ("^ «Jj**-*) All these the circumstantial patient (<lJ Jjiii) ( and the comcomitant patient <u* J_yui ) syntactical functions will better appear linked by a common denominator which happens components of the supplement to be here the patient. than by ( having recourse to such terms as direct object 4_< J j-jui ) . The reader will appreciate more easily this coordination between the ( JLai ) of a sentence. such as: excluded (^ '£^~») and ror . Three functions of v-wij ) . ) second and third patients i jtt i J j! iJj*a* (<Ut5 for which another name must be found. . the time .. cognate (jil*« Jj*Jl»). it This last term has been preferred to that of exception because permits a better derivation. This lacuna tries to light when one nouns with open ending (Cj\ openness ( — — Jj draw an organigram of all the *ai«). — ) : 7 .PARTICULAR CASES language pose problems which are Certain nuances of the Arabic better treated in the spirit of the criteria laid down in this study than by comparison with English grammar. 72 -THE OTHER-PATIENTS **l (J comes to (J^liSlI). the seperation between patients (J-jpLJii) and other-patients — — »l) is a personal initiative of the author. Even in Arabic grammar. the all place ( jl_iC) and the concomitance verb. distinction (j-~*j) and exclusion (*L~l-I).

annexation) :< »l «iil S\ji[ (Prothetic or prefixed. annexed. Subordi- nation by prothesis) • JJJ>*) ^^ <JlS" 'it .. governed or postflxed. --* I 'j (Annexing.T YOi .— ^bAJN oJlaUI tirfcjl oLTjJI oJla ^ *»*JU i«s!5U ^Tl * j * * -* .

with the function of information ) . isolating or circumscribing ( its passive element 4J^**» ) . derivative. is convention.JZ~*) . dragging the noun *-«Mt ~j>-) towards exactitude of expression and amelioration of language. . too . components of the Arabic openness to 73 . to which they creating a propose a new meaning while new attachment (J ( LjCj>) in that sentence. governed or postfixed( prothesis 3 ol i_iUk«) and subordination by (5»L»ML ~jr) - If it is the follower (^t) of a reduced (jjj>v>) noun. annexed (<u| i3Li«). ( equivalent to (>>). and excepting it from the dispositions applicable to other nouns.e. .<-*>> ) This situation has given birth to a remarkable tandem. without themselves being patients. : ) included («-* . This submission.. presents an aspect of adopted by many linguists. the three functions of openness belong to the supplements (o%ii) of the sentence with a view to rendering explicit the agent's (J*li) action. notably noun of annexation (SiL»l *-»!) . Annexation This term. They are SJLii ) of the sentence. The noun 1 is submitted to reduction in three different situations placed after a letter of reduction ( — If it is j>. such as: annexing (i_iLi«). that of the reducer and the reduced (jjJ><^\j 2 j^-N)- - If it is in position of annexation interesting (SiL»[) syntax. This term is superior to others like prothetic or prefixed (<-il . x~~» These nouns are kept in a state its of submission ( ^ii?- with reference to the verb or according reduction to a syntactical i. lends itself to derivations in its use. &) . The term (J^-lil) has been judged the most apt for unifying these three clarity.NOUNS WITH A REDUCED ENDING part of the supplement ( (£>\j/j>CJ\).

accessories) J-* SijJU *i>ljL* y*J CULf Uib*» ^ j**^ tjlS" ^.L*la.^-ljLl_ Yi (Auxiliaries.(To be) ~o& Sjt — • rjk.Ulj (Auxiliary to be) '^j i-iJI j^J ** ^~ * * * * »U JUil _ r roi . o\ L» .j ^£iJI *>cu <Jl£ ")lj j>.i.

(^-. losing ticular own meaning. and to modify their meaning { { J^») by transposing the activity from one time to another or from a probability (j'j*-) to an obligation ( "^y/j are ) The annullers 1 - Letters of signification similar to the verb: - Ez'Na and her sisters .\'y) intervene with the primate (I'j^) ( and the predicate j J- ) to modify their pronunciation by transposing the declension (LjI^pI) of one situation to another. but the resemblance between the auxiliary to be and the annuller verbs. some points in common its with par- the case where the English auxiliary verb. serves to form the composite tense of other verbs.Ijlll).MaE .: ..KaENa and . There are certainly auxiliaries.Nouns derived from these in same verbs. y confirm the grammar and affirm their authenticity.KaEDa and her sisters her sisters.. Once we raise the question of the verb to be. the English language.LaE and her sisters of generic negation 2 — Defective verbs : . simple association of ideas orients : one's thoughts towards such familiar expressions as accessories. 3 . YOV . 74 -THE ANNULLERS KaENa. the annullers jt-ljj) working unforseen changes in the declensions (LjI^pI) » of the primate rules of Arabic 0-*v) and predicate ("Jf") on. Without ( equivalent . KaENa is limited to the deficient meaning of these two The annullers (^.

J*£r JjSlI JL» o5t»-^l o[ -iSy*^ V^r ^11 Ul JJUi .)[ t_i*»l f^~JI «^i ^ mUI UL> 1-^1 J-wj lu <jl» ajjb CkS.~ui ^ £L« lit ..H'^j ^j^i 11 ^i JJUJS' ^1 ^-Ji (Appositive) j CjJI j-j <u£JI ^a»y ^£«t fly' (Appositive) 01 ^ .ur>». il£»- .Jt (Succession) <£JJI £j«^JI f^^gi* 0' ..j>jj*UI 51JU- 4JJui*l (Apposition) f.. tCJai_-)) : US lil tiUJS' .»ji jijoj^i ji ij_j*iji ji OpUJi o^j »>«aJI lili IJla ^ .._. li^k*« tuti « *Z~£ % roA .

These examples.. the primacy (t\~J*sH\) etc..'») . which succession (4_JU~iJl). attracted (iJ^w). she is fallen.) can only come if Furthermore. mighty Babylon». The system of succession ( Z£ adopted in this dictionary is quite different from the system of apposition adopted by most there exists tive ( Cju . 75 .. the follower . ) or narrative (£l£>-). The followers. agreement in the nature of their declension vG*!) they must necessarily diverge as to the cause of this declension. If some resemblance between appositive and this descrip- does not hold true for the other forms of first succession. The divergence resides in the fact that the apposition can be placed before or after the noun. Likewise if we say: «She «she fallen. being so evident. Yet. I have written it» the second part of this sentence. while there is only one cause for the declension is (vG*!) of the follower ("^jL"). For the declension of the followed \f\yr*) may be caused by the agent-function (0*li) . linguists.THE FOLLOWERS Cgfffi) . «I have written it» Is an attracted follower (iJjiwi ~l5) is is . whereas the follower (£_jL_. . we say : (fj «I have studied the lesson and after the followed '. although be in (£j^\> ( £^) must . should close the discussion. are terms their which follow others to elucidate follower and followed meaning. being descriptive (c*Jl!). confirmative {"x-S'jJi) substitutive (cfrj). the repetition fallen» is a confirmative follower C±£°y '^) . in Arabic. YO^ . the patient-function (SJJ^Jwi).

*.Jl?»j J I 5i_j*Jt ^b c^JjJ' oj^ . 1 . £»— i^ 1 ol—SL.2u*—l iUsr if dlAj _ t -» rf .>• '*rfj*J' 0&> ^ LS (Participle) JL*i-l ^ d& ^—i . ^s- _J (Adjective) Jl «xl-I (Annexing) : : J-i» (Noun) .Ml ^jA Li o^^' I 15JI J? » If »» **. t*~iil jl <. Jiiil sUI SjJilJI 5!!UaJI 4*ij i»!5\* 'fyj* '-^r 4 j^j^IaJI . . o^i-l J Jb SjAllaJI £LiJI 4*ij i»}\* rf Lfj*S J*^ it^**^" ' * * " £l>wt -» -» ^lill ** . . 3JLj SLvaS i»Jli- J 4AJj^ i»j«a>. 4. SjJ&MI jipI^aJI oIjl.oji-l J SjAlkJI £LaJI 4*ij i»!j\* '•f^f jf~ : ty>^ • • • • • .— ^ M OJu aI'a-JI Ob-jjijl ^a»u .y> i_jbSJl J O^Js ^j (Circumstantial) Ji» (Substantive) . ^yJI j£aU <LJ}U CjJ^I ibU* .5jScj« UL»lj £J_^I UIp OJuol Jij .Lj L«»-j u ijaj Yl.

COURAGEOUS: Predicate with regular ending. THE JUDGE: Primate with regular ending. the English approach of this dictionary will often It seem original. or an adjective for a substantive. Structured on the CAME vowel a supposed with the possibility. Past verb. Certain technical explanations were indispensable in order to convey information that would clarify choices and propose solutions. . Is only fair in With the material offered by this dictionary. 1 .: : 8 - CONCLUSION for his The reader now has before him judgment an essential terminology of Arabic grammar and an overview of the reasons which have led the author to adopt an English equivalence appropriate to the Arabic thought. Y-n . the sign of its regularity its being the vowel u apparent in ending.An example of a verbal sentence: [jit] came the alumnus. complete.Example of a nominal sentence: The judge \jsj courageous. of them can be found in dictionaries. the service of a noble cause. as in annexing (t_*Uw). ***** QUOD ERAT DEMONSTRANDUM. the sign of gularity its reits being the vowel u apparent in ending. its the sign of regularity being the vowel u supposed with the letter Y because of heaviness. In this context. it will be possible to venture into the holy domain of grammatical analysis. was essential to create a particular English terminology adapted to all the nuances of Arabic grammar without forcing the reader to refer back to the definitions of English grammar. known. sometimes surprising. The only author has allowed himself has been to use a participle for a noun. all No words have been licence the invented. such as circumstantial (*-»J>) If from time to time some"libanisms"have it colored the style and revealed the author's origins. 2 . letter E by im- ALUMNUS Agent with regular ending.

£j\jil\j JjlJU*JI .

TABLES AND LISTS .

an u a" u u" i z s s s z s s s 6 u if UN i. i un i X s i IN Nil i n in p T z d t d t D T Nil Nil z z e Repeat Repeat Repeat Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Efl « R t I (J G F g f g f G Y E E K K L q k 1 k k 1 E 'u 'i 'i Ea Q K L J Qu Yi E' M N Y11 m n m n M N . i T y.COMPARATIVE TABLE (in writing <UjUto JjJk> the letters) Wright 1874 Blachere Larousse 1975 1983 Dahdnh Wright 1874 Blachere Larousse 1975 1983 Dahdnh H W. E a a" R Z S S s R Z S J j AN u. i Y 4 I _t e j C J G Nil Nil at J C c t i i Nil Nil T E H H 1 h h h x H K D Z a LA La La haE D D d d r d 6 r A. u a O E b t B T A y. u a. i y. U h H w. a E B b t w.

COMPARATIVE TABLE (of principal terminology) <UjUo UjJ^> Translation Author's cUxl.. Di-lciine letter £U IS t_iji- Tanuln.iTitrs of sipniiK-ntinn . manifest 1 the \L-rh $*fi S^aII» f> <S"j^- -\p parent \owel wittil Presumptive vowel. prolongation Indeclinabiiity of the Invariability L\[L'nsinn nf S.ir oinlinu in Direct case.nJin): ») subjunctive Subjunctive verb Indirect case. genitive Verb wiih open rnJint: Ki'dui'iiun Kiiiiiciiiui il ndint.kjloll 2l~j"j1\ by various orientalists conception Subject case.U i OJut noun inc noun llio fl'MI *lL *iL of the verb Sliiimiu 1 ill verb jLJT Irregular type. indicative Kt:i!ulMiit> (1 inline in u) S> Noun in the subject case. il'. Noun uiih it'unl.m (Ouii/Mjent ot "^ .. nunation Indicative nunation Modulation in O'. SiriK-iiire Gemination. Apocope of the verb External vowel. virtual supposed "lonsion. I fii cis ol construction i" n J ' JJ JJ conjunctions J.:il iiH-iisurc • Letters of formation Particles. accusative uptimes*.isurc metre Mclliodii.f' Modulation of reiiulumy o 5 -» •- Accusative nunation Genitive nunation Modulation of opening Modululion ol rcduitioii j^ 1 iX^" Y"\0 .i" n J • prepositions Subjunctive particle Particle I i-ucr oi ol opuninf! s_wfij ^J*" > t _ of subordination infirm 1 ui of reduction Soft letter. jussive 1 liiion lisi. Syllogistic form mpiiiciil rrK'. in i) "yr Genitive of the noun of iIk noun i-ruliiif:i fil'jr Apocopate.

passive Adverbial adjective.Translation Author's O&Jk.'• -. Subordination by prothetics SiU^MU j>- Til .'. epithet Intensive forms jjiii^lT ^i ----- -^r! * AJL^f Examples of the superlative Persona] noun iipTabi! * * < Personal pronoun Adverb.'. prefixed Annexing Postflxed. noun original Simple bare Denuded Present participle. short inflection jz£ .l. nominal subject Primate Predicate ljuli Enunciative. complement Correlative and attribute JpUC-JU Aj Oyuu> .7 - • •*• - Noun of action.aaJl 2~~>j}\ by various orientalists conception Inchoative. infinitive Infinitive. -i Inflected noun.I. active Agent-noun Patient-noun Similar qualil\ Past participle. attribute Verbal subject Agent Pro-agent Direct patient Jf«i Subject of the passive Direct object. governed Annexed Reduction by annexation 'T. preposition Circumstantial noun Allusive li> tur "•'•' Metonymy.I„«J Established In the perfect inflection Compatible of nominali/Htion t^^\£j£& Perfectly declinable Compatible without reserve Compatible with reserve '&'£& 'j&'j* Diptote.l„« Information and subject *JI . Invariable noun non-conjugated Triptote noun Declined and varied noun • • Diptote noun Prohibited from variation Original s . preriphrasis noun Prothetic.. Nunation of Inflected inflection Modulation or compatibility ' • noun Variable noun ..

** » .'lulmji If Ji* jii Unaccomplished verb Verb in the Conlorm vrrh \i-rh subject case uiih regular \irli Jo . Active verb knnun Passive verb tntransitive verb [ginned \crb PlTlllilllflH MTh itfrh f J* & Verb of existence Simple verb. i'M.ilifnts jjljjiii J\ person Spuikir Spiikcn lo "£Z i_J»Ui^ Second person Third person Operative.Translation Author's by various orientalists conception AumJjJI Accomplished verb Past wrh J& ^jUi (. epithet Auxiliaries CjO cr ^ 1 Stressed energetic N N Ilc:i\\ N of ennfirm. bare Inflected verb Difiiicni Denuded \orh riL-iliiK'ii icih l£7* J*? Invariable verb SlruiMurvd \eih Dclt'cmi. glide ^** 2 J*f ~Sj£ Governing 2 complements First p. coupling Answer to tht Liindilioii v r> Oik* Mtractinn f-ullnwrr Appositive Jt I Antecedent ollom-d \jf* JG- Gerund participle Stums DesciipliM •\niuilleis Adjective.r Infirm verb. regent MlNCM Arfhe tlfintnl j-fc Accusative I'jsmu.vi-rh Iritnsinii.clement Jj**" J»^JI Apodosis of the protasis Coordination.ii ion (il Light corroborative I mill N Ciiiifirinalioii T1V .

\^' } Vowel u q\ ~" *... VOWELS.. J> Modulated vowel u" Ba Vowel a Modulated vowel a" E Rupture E Vowel i Modulated vowel i" SPECIAL ORTHOGRAPHY Shortened !w>l> *j ott^ - EaL/F E f LaE o * \ Attached T -~\ " ui\ •y. ..J DaELu" ZaELn" D Z MiYMk" M N f . XiYNk" SaEDu" X s YaEi tt " Y DaEDu" D "jjjs C&\S~j>...J CaE*u" J/YMii" lili J C c c i i Jl's KaEFu" Q K L HaE*M" KaE*«" H K t&...o NhONk" HaE*«" Oy *li RaE*n" ZaEYu" SfYNtt" R Z S ...S Li 1ST LaEMu" ..LETTERS OF CONSTRUCTION TdE*u" ^Cifi <J/j*- T HaM'ZaTu" BaE*«" TaE*H" £aE*u" RaY'Nu" GaVNtt" FaE*u" QaEFi/" C B T it R G F -t >J . MODULATION AND ACCENTS Quiescence Tension Extension Liaison i. .s t\s L and E 1 f<J Y1A .. j j *G H O E OaEOu" EaLiFi/" w u" .'.

Ou HaM'Zaf in 6a the form of O 6' Eu HaM'Zaf in Ea the form of E Ei E' Ya -» HaM'Zaf in Y/ jUl sjj^sj oJ^Jb _ • • the form of Y Y Wjj READING OF HaM'Zaf/ l'y^f\ £«J£JI At the beginning of the word Jjl ^ EaYaTu" EB'Nu" o I EuK'Tu" EaM'Ru' E/'B'Lu" FaE/ZaE Si At the middle of the word ZJ&S\ Ji-j .j" '0 LuO'Mu" KaE'Su" Zi'Y'Bu" f}J j^ v^i J MuS'TaH'Z/Y/YNa At the end of the word XJ&1\ Jije> ^ }J)J XaY'Ya"E t*i *U1IIjJiLi LuO'LuOu" SaMaE*a" Mi/S'TaH'Z/Ya"E QaRaEa J«Z'*u" V *> Y"U ._j» XuOuONu" CaEaRa t Oj>i .

J!i. lili- Since „_ SI liil Far be it Whenever In that case Outside of *& L»j oil lit Many a Then If In the future ^ *-* .lit Later j- The It is Save It Ij* not .Jj Negative ^J TV' . ^T Ji-I • Affirmative In order J&..LETTERS OF SIGNIFICATION JteS\'S£- You (Sing. may be jj* Lest On About For In „ J& ^i (_i Except Ml Up Or to Jl ^ I ^ ai (sing.... Rather Affirmative Ji ...) if Isn't it _ lit Already As for lil You & Ofr Either 6 I As • * Than Even if ' Never ^T [£ J jjij 01 o' j\ » So that Indeed To Or That is Maybe But [f\ i^l 'jfl Affirmative However Negative Since "^i Ij Vocative Ul By _ v • .) O li Is it * Afterwards Affirmative Ah Vocative Affirmative T Jl*. tj 1.

contrary to fact it ji Yes Were If it not V°J lijJ Him interrogative Isn't it were not Ji $t> li No Negative If only N oM C~J /» Attention Vocative G> j \j Plural And Vocative From From From Not the time Ju j* the time JO> Dual I My Oh ^ I U Plural (Fern.) o yy\ .Confirmative o liJ o If.

° ««>l-*l «f -^ i o Augmentation Condition * Imperative Stimulation Authenticity Selection y' Circumstance Exposition Attraction Finality £i jj» •» o^^ o .. YVT . -° O t^ *JJU( Exclusion Restriction SbiiJ «J j JiI Inauguration Interrogation ^b»i»l fl*oi-i • „• o Confirmation Answer Rejection " i" Future Rectification JLii-l „ • eoj XjCj J»]^£ .1 1 SIGNIFICATIONS OF THE LETTERS *-*/J*M Jb* 4 Profusion _r^ Introduction xj\ Wish Premonition Regret . u<*j* oiia* SJl* Solicitation & (_Ajj«aj Similitude Variability Oath Originality 4JjJUA« »U-lii X>£> Astonishment Definition *-*ij~ Surprise Lamentation Call Causality Interpretation JJm jr-^ J?*** J *|jj « •- Negation Interdiction ^U Separation Paucity c^ JJi.

Sl^-JJI w* jj*J I X s a* T C D I Ji D Z R Z S j L J N a* LUNAR LETTERS F SjjiflJI Jj^pJI Q o B J K d f a M H O Y H K R G c c c t J tf DEFECTIVE LETTERS iUIl «Jj^> O E Y rvr . > .-»•= SOLAR LETTERS » 3 . .

^»- LETTERS OF REDUCTION In ~Jxl\ i*/j*- J & [/ J it Up By I to J\ *-> Like So that swear by £> jj»- To Were not In order ^°J Ju> 9 Far be it &£*£> 5 J From From From the time Outside of ja the time j±a "« Many Save a tji And On About J* ^ pjiJI LETTERS OF ELISION Negative Since J/pCol t o J Whenever Even if U ^ o\ No To J JiuS\ LETTERS OF ATTRACTION For But <_* J/pfl j\ 9 Or Or Rather Afterwards In order Of1 "i No And JJ p YVi .LETTERS OF EXCLUSION Far be it sLi^l Except J£> Ml jl Lit- Outside of !&- Or In order Save Q* .

.LETTERS OF CALL \xf\ <Jj^> Vocative Vocative Vocative CI Is it I Li \j Ah Vocative \S Is T I Oh C That is I LETTERS OF ANNULMENT SIMILAR TO THE VERB £~dl Jj^> jkoJt 2{~£ However If only ^i Indeed oj its' As if Maybe J*J SIMILAR TO LaVSa ^-IL 2*p£ Negative oM C> Even if oj Not No N LETTERS OF OPENING c-Lalll <-?J^> So that Negative [/" In that case O* ol jJ That LETTERS OF PARTIAL OPENING "^ jiS\ rlaii\ cij^> i For Or .J J 1 To Afterwards In order r And YVO .

) (fern.) (fern.) lilili 5jli*>|l *C-1 These iitSjl Those two (masc.) Those This (fern.) This one (masc.) JJJ^jl j^i JJL>i Sij These two (masc.) jUli jlfli That (masc.) (fern.EXCLUSIVE NOUNS - « \ sUlL-^l *U-I Other Although Other than JU tSy* Not excepting INTERROGATIVE NOUNS When jj> .) This (masc.) These two (masc.) This (fern.) (fern.) tiJLlli Those That This This (fern.) Jli TV"\ ..) Here There jl Jii This one (fern.• ? f fyi-ZJll *U->I Whence ^ t « Who Who is y> he li What a lf\ J» li Where In what time & 0«' *j «-ao That which What fili How much How DEMONSTRATIVE NOUNS These two (masc.) ^ U lilit liktt Those two (masc.) JJLo s Mji » These two Ji Ji Those two This (fern.) (fern.) 1 J>_ These two (masc.) ^Ji La ijlli ijJJlii These two (fern.) (fern.) Those two Over there Over there p &j diij Over there These two These two (fern.

J Some Between Facing uom j*) »fti AH Both *£ *fc service olio Under Voluntarily Cj*J *UUj *-**- At your dO uJ^ In the presence of In the presence of Totally Effort ^jJ J^_*»!i>£_JL»- By the Same With eternal ^jJ ^Ji« Opposite Only Behind ~ It «_*£- May not please ilii ~y*j And so on ••i^jp Towards Possessor of ji Ol»»l~ Enough Alone In the rear of (ULaU a>-j i\'Jj Glory to Other than tjj~ The rest yC <ui Amid Right Jalj 2c*i Quasi Left Jki 4*li» Potential YVV .^ I jli jJJ Face to face with In front of 5JG . t}ji First Jjl a Above Before What After .NOUNS OF ANNEXATION Above At Other „ SlCs^l *Cl *ljl J* xsJ Facing In front of tl f Jj.

Whence \J\ When £* What Where a ^ t Who Whatever That which <y jj! U$i li Wherever In what time Ui>l oy) Wherever Ui#- TVA .j^ CONDITIONAL NOUNS In whatever b°Jil\ *C>1 way c^r .CONFIRMATIVE NOUNS ^J^ *&-»' Wholly Totally £**-! All Both Both Person £*>*»Ip Generally Eye .

) they (dual) they (fern.) •.) *S"CJ Ui ji 'yt. sing.) ~S i Jj <j UiJl You (fern.) CJl *i!l you (sing. ^ (plur. You (dual) plur.01 We Us Him.PERSONAL NOUNS It is jr*-^ *C*I °t she UCI [$C\ You (masc.) CJl It is I I.) ^J U I t o t is you (masc.) ^1 . plur.) o lOiO ii) i .••• ?% •** CI (dual) t is My ^ t is u*^l rv^ .) CkC\ t is u^Q l3CI He She t is we he . plur. t is ybu (dual) you (fern. you sing.) They They (dual) (fern.) li t is you (masc. You sing.) (fern. plur. sing.) t is tfl Them Them j I t is they (masc...) JJCI lilCI t is (fern. (fern.1 You (masc.) You You (sing. her They (masc. plur.

i\'Jj In the rear of Where Period Cij Moment While »i-.j-*l |»UI Never (past) In the presence of In the presence of Since U <JJ^ i£ jJ Whence Where In what time After .CIRCUMSTANTIAL NOUNS While Sjafi iUJ &J/.^1 '$ OCI ~£j U ^i »ji x> Xj> When For a while When While £j From From Here the time the time Under There There ~*j u.j Right j^ YA- . 6t«j The duration Eternally (negative) *UI \a\ il Time Left JLi *Ci r-C^ J* Since If Morning and evening lal Above At Never (future) Facing *ljl x* cA>* 3j* jli Now Term Yesterday In front of 6^11 JUit Above Before of .

... Nine Sixty Ten Eleven (masc.) Eleven (fern.) Thirteen (fern.) i'jiJt *Cl j ..) Eighteen (fern..) <jjjZ*~j Twenty-one (fern..tf Forty Fifty dyiJ OjH>oy^.*~J 4****^- t ^j***^- Twenty Thirty Oj^i* 'oj'fi £— °— «* °- Seven Eight *.) Ojjifj 0^*1 'jti> X/uJi Twenty-three (masc.) Nineteen (fern.) Seventeen (fern. Twenty-one (masc...) .) Four Five Six .) — ** o/ji*j ~&& 3Jl« t — •«— • ** Fifteen (masc. "A * *£* A .) Ojji-*j o^l - — Fourteen (masc. 5---f --•* IjU.) "jii SJliJ Two Three t dtii d...) i'J& &yi ..) Fourteen z- * - (fern.. -' Twenty-two (masc..) 0j^»* l**Jl bj_r**j oo^-lj - Thirteen (masc.. » jip-Ij »- f t jip-I One - • (fern.) — ° — Hundred &• Fifteen (fern.) Thousand ^iJI Sixteen (masc.!AJ e^ii ~Jls- ^QJ ZLl »*} i Nineteen (masc.o£jl Eighteen (masc.-• Twenty-two (fern.) Twelve (fern.) oj^i* j >l>y$ Twenty-three (fern.. ^£i'3fei& j° j° . One (masc.) .) Sixteen (fern.' » NUMERAL NOUNS Seventeen (masc.) y\\ . Seventy Eighty Oj£~ OjJliJ JLp-I yts> tCJ&-\ — ^* Ninety oj£j "j*-\j Twelve (masc.) .) .) e^ii '*L.

~.. Stop dJjI^i *» What glory Cease Good Take Slowly >^ Go down Let's go JljJ jfc *ii li O^ *k *i Attention Not Well to speak of Come He here C~» ^^te* is far from Slowly -V Let's go Ci lit j 1 1 Come Come Attain (/ J^**" Oh Ah Oh Oh ! 1$ j ^G'a &-*iJJ •j the witch vt»&.t £l '**- Slowly ! the traitress G Gorgeous ALLUSIVE NOUNS How much Thus £l£?\ "*-•' jjii5 A few (3 to 9) US' jiJ In such a way How much In such a So-and-so way >— How much YAY •Ja <£ . Away from me Forward Alas ^g* viiJJ At your own Fight o—aj iIXJp dlitl ''J 1 Jb* -u Jai Already Go Sufficiently <ij At all J*y jj r . Amen Alas oT ftw ut-i <** risk Both are separated Silence Ouf .^ j VERBAL NOUNS Quickly Listen j^jmCI O&j*.

) ^$1 *g\ j3\ What a He who They who (masc.) JjVjJl *Cl Oi-^ 1 He who They who (masc.) They who (fem. dual) They who (masc.CONJUNCTIVE NOUNS They who (masc. dual) ^ JJI Possessor of This (masc. dual) They who (fem.) ji Ij j> JJI OWN J3$ o\Sli\ Who That which °y U THE FIVE NOUNS Possessor of ji ji £»«iJI *U-. dual) They who (fem.*tfl Father Brother Father-in-law jjI Mouth j>-\ y*- YAT .) jl Ji\jSS ^Sll j^SlI jyi\ They who (masc.) They who (fem.) She who They who (fem.

Much At your And so on *iyO^ «lO sX*a Pulverizing Secretly '-r May it not please YAi . Astonishing Evidently £>«* <c*^ l*-«j UL* Dl* t£jlj» }**ai Woe to g. i" Ju* Frankly All without exception *3»\j* \~Je '* Away Unexpectedly '•**. Most often Truly Laudatorily l«*i" * " One by one Aside from 'Ju*- Contrary ~ l»^js* Wholly tt« \'j& service Especially ***\>- i".SOME NOUNS WITH OPEN ENDING Listening Patiently Sincerely „ oCj«*UJI >y ^»l Originally \'Jf* 15 Welcome Also Unfortunately &' Uul \~y.

VERBS OF AFFECTIVITY To To To To take on To To To To To discover establish yjJUUl JUil see ij\j. jii j claim fashion ^ J^j ~JZ* To suppose To count To know To depart from J» ji '*& j^l* i_Jb leave learn &j *&> J**&«*- render To deem To consider Assume i-—> Jl»- To find o>-j To imagine To come to To concede u-i j know iSj* YAO .

to last Not. C^ >fo Jlj \jti \J> \j> To applaud To worsen To To To be prolonged be near be rare As long as. .....) oj&aj o^JuJ Cx?**' (dual) (fem. to cease Uli» Not . You do You do (dual) plur.) TRANSITIVE VERBS Jlj*& J\ z"sjc<£\ jUiSil OVER TWO PATIENTS To furnish Vjj To To lodge (j^—l *jJ»I To water To clothe „ jC» nourish give give sustenance CS To To Ja*\ J jj YA*\ . to desist £ ^stJi To acclaim il. to abate to finish s*U. u-=i To acclaim To applaud INERT VERBS OJwliJI JUftl Not Not ....) LiiJl JUftl dJ^J d%Ju You do (masc. Not to be ^-J THE FIVE VERBS They do They do (plur. sing..i £ To afflict .....VERBS OF PRAISE »jJI) £jijijUi] AND BLAME To worsen To afflict .

TRANSITIVE VERBS J-*& Z% J\ 7SjmCX\ JU^I OVER THREE PATIENTS To recount To inform To announce Ci To give information t£jl To show To To notify Js-\ advise ul KaEDa AND ITS SISTERS I^fp-lj '& To initiate V£ Jit J~s- To To begin take flattened \xj\ .t «x»-l To set about near To be To be jJ_jJU-l To hang upon To To rise jJi To approach To oppose To create - JISI r* i£j?\ LSJl press to u^T jlS" To be about To start -.< To draw near To To render liiij! moving J*>{£j>~ decrease YAV ..

.* To come To be in the morning la* JIST bring to light in the yf**\ ...-• T .l jC* in existence back To remain To return Jk ate be impossible in the To become To morning £w>> • ..°\ To become To To evening t5 —«' Not to be Not Not .KaENa AND ITS SISTERS V'^J <& ^Ij To go away To become To To To revert fall ^ JJjl Jl>«i«. ^-J viUJl turn about stay the night v_Ji..l to abate to finish ... to last To be To modified Not Not to cease U U hesitate . to desist *£* To go back «-j YAA . c* >ti Jlj t« To be changed *£& S)>u j£- As long as . U Cj\j ....

. G . Q R S . J . 127 K L w Y .. H I T ..PARTICULAR INDEX Letter ^>G> l^J** Page Letter Page A B C 29 37 M N O P ... 102 104 108 117 125 ... 132 135 76 .. 41 49 54 59 63 65 . 68 74 75 U V . 91 95 D E F . 136 . 81 85 .

) \£\ . . fern.) (sing. fem.) ^J O^jUj •.OJ -jjj J Ijj 1 (plur.) You You You You (sing.| Y Yes Yes Yes Yes °" ? J*l ^| JJi. fem.. ^ j*J £j| masc.) (plur.) (plur. lij Yes Yesterday Yet ^1 lil s>. You do You do You do (dual) (sing.) (sing. masc.) o>t*A» 135 .) masc.) (sing. fem. Yet You You You You You (dual) (plur. (plur. J^.Ci i 7 i masc.

..... Without reserve (Verb..* 1 J*i 1 With regular ending Without Without reserve.) fj*j* J * * V root to have power jj>^ *L*I J>-ol (Compatible.) qjm ?'.) (Noun..) J^»l j^i^U Woe to LJu Word.) uj. words C>U1^ i leiS" Worsen (To../j....< ^1 (•*"' With reduced ending With regular ending JJj^ fj^j* jj~oju> (Noun.w Will not J 'j*J Wish With With With With With (Letter of.) <Sj> o Jk J £> ) (Noun...) With curtailed ending With extended ending With open ending j0j&> JjJl«-o *-'l *wl (Noun.) ^1 (Verb.) }jj?>* J** With open ending (Verb.) (Noun.) Written narrative 134 ...........) *£< Would Write that cJ iJS ojl&o <ul£*- (To...) (•*"' With shortened ending With elided ending (Noun..

| Wholly iLfeUJ Why not }U 133 . root ~*^ SJUel ii*. Who Who is he to gather |j °Je Wholly.w When When to il i lil When When When Whence Whenever Whenever Whenever to Uli ZJ i 1\ jl |j| to Where 'J.] Where. wherever I *"^ t itn*- Whereas o j to il s Whereupon Wherever t^l ] Whether Whether Whether J| t to |'j| Whether Which While to il t While While While 4 Cjli ££j £jj } "j.

. . .) ^ j (To. .) Ju> We Weigh (To.w Warn (To. ^J . .) J j) « Welcome! Well! i! >jsl *i Were it not Y>J U» What What What What a.) jjt> Thing warned about <o jJl>J> Warned Warner Warning jjij> J'\js-w jiJ^»J Watch over Water (To..^1 for? glory! ^Stc What iu Whatever Whatever U^o li When 132 il ..- I'jli .

Vowel u" regular modulated Okw I Vocative Vocative Vocative Vocative Vocative Voluntarily l/\ \j\ Ci \'j i\Hs 131 .

— Unconfirmed verb Variable verb JS y j-t.Jjis <^j*ozj> J*s Verbal noun J*i *-l <uUs <uUjj- Verbal sentence Verb of affectivity uJi J*i iujliu Verb of approximation Verb of blame Verb of certitude Verb of hope Verb of initiative Verb of praise Verb of probability Verb of transfer Verb with elided ending Verb with open ending Verb with regular ending J*i Yi J*i jJL Jii jl>j Jjii tjj* jks tSa Jii obi>j J*i Ji^P" J*5 1 5 fjj? * J* tyij^lo Jjii fj^J* J*5 ~*£ js* Vowel Apparent vowel Convenient vowel o^aUs aS"j>- ~CJ\^a *£j>- is -j i'<r-- Modulated vowel Supposed vowel Vocalization _ o *jj^> & joy jJjk ^kj^ il)j>c* Vocalized Vowel a open Vowel a" open modulated Vowel Vowel i ^i jbiwi reduced /" aJ^S o\jJ*£ ~£*J> reduced modulated Vowel u regular 130 .

-4>° f^l*< Ju J_jf?«-» .U J*i Permanent verb Position of the verb Position of verb and agent »jS jii JiuLJI ijj< J*IaJ'j JjuiJI &ji J*i J** Present verb Quadriliteral verb "~?\>- f^j jia/i Regularity of the verb Similar to the verb oj liiJL Alii Sound doubled verb Sound intact verb t_i*Cai j^r*-" S** 1)C j*~=w> J*» Sound verb Sound verb having a Structure of the verb j^f-" J** HaM'Zaf j^H^ j^cf-" J** J**^ *j£i i^-> Structured verb Jo Time of the verb Transitive verb Triliteral verb J*aJ^ JO Jo jjci J*i *J.Known verb ?y^° S** Letter similar to the verb J**^ °*-^° *-*j^ Modal verb JlL J*i J**JI Mood of the verb **r" JjJ Negative verb Neutralized verb 1^ t_s_jji£i Jo Openness of the verb Past augmented ignored verb Past augmented jlajl C—I^aJ J.^*._/>£> J** known verb y ^U J*i { Past denuded ignored verb ^j*^» i s y'^ J** > Past denuded Past verb known verb fy** j y u"»" J** J.~y£ 129 .

" Variable verb Variation.J*i 128 . jii cZ^> A*i five Attached to the verbs Sllkil JliiVl JjJu juji ll. morphology i_i -Ui J*i if o <J»l& <*jJ*L» j i_^ tf Varied Varied noun o -«~« . L^i Augmented verb Complete verb Confirmed verb J^i lli jjf ji Conform ignored verb 6j£y° fjCai J*i » jJUi Conform known verb Conform verb Conjugation of the verb Declension of the verb Declined verb Defective verb Deficient verb fjCai J*i fjUai J*i jIuLlI uuj^ jlill CjI^pI Vj*-° J** ~\j£> jii "^aSU J*i "*^y* Denuded verb Elision of the verb J** jlujl » ji- Five verbs aIoj^ Jliil i*-*° j Future verb JIfcL* Jii t-^^r J** I Hollow verb Ignored verb Imperative verb Inert verb 6j#>y> J*i y\ J*i x»U.'.1—1 Ventilated letter «li t_5 *> Verb Active verb Affirmative verb jH L&.

J - Variability of the noun *—NI i^jLj^aJ t_9 j~ai« Variable Variable circumstantial Variable ^J^ar..1 noun \J»J&» ^1* ijuj^aj Letter of variability t_9 y>- Noun prohibited from variation lJJUJI jy i_9j-«aJI j?-.V Vague circumstantial Variation Complete variable Declined and prohibited from variation Declined and varied Declined and varied noun Declined noun.» <-9jI» i_9 j~ai* noun *-l 127 . prohibited from variation <_ijI«aJI I^jj u9 Je t-9 j«^ »U i_9 j~a^« ^ f-^^ Vj** <_Sj«ai« y^w p-"' i_9jl<ai« vS*-* lJJUJ! y> fy** vS** p—' Incomplete variable Invariable fijf <~*j«0Z* <*jj*az* jJ^ Invariable circumstantial Invariable j^iu ^ '-'j^' 11. conjugation ^ £>** <Ju_j*£ ' o „ .^-** p—l Prohibited from variation Variability.

u Useful composite Useful meaning Useful speech V/Ja "±Js "J& t /j* lJju> V/ja a^" 126 .

C^w .j j t ^5 y ". j*£- J*3 Under Understand (To. -* •*• Unconfirmed verb =.) £~° ^ Unexpectedly Unfortunately Uniliteral *-*< K* Aj|il>l Unless Unless Unless Until S| J ] Vp J\ J^> « Until Up to to J\ J^m*i Up Up-to-nine (About) iuu Upon J& «• £ profit jli Upon Us Useful. root to *U»I JuA» 125 .- u J J Ultimate plural £j*^' J&~* Unconfirmed & J* j^ V'c-* •-.• .. .

.

the twentieth o/j^'j C™r Ojj *VI tjjj-i* ^ ° Twenty -three Twenty -two .« Twenty -eight Twenty -five Twenty -four Twenty-nine o/j^'j ^tw CijJ^'j "-**» Ojj^'j jwjl o/j^j "^ ojjj^'j (j j".!? oW\ 123 . * Twenty-one Jtf*fj Twenty -seven r-j *— Twenty -six Twenty. • _ -°ij\ii\ ijjj^tj jtUjI Two Two Two hundred Two hundred thousand tO&l t jUlj oUjT j uiJI I Two thousand -. * - ~ Jjj-^j tlfW j.

.iliU Turn about Turn away Turn back Twelfth uJAil ^Jj*p Lf^> t^-ii ^JU <.UjI uj i.....) ^J _p«j JjjjsJ Jii J^ J*^° Jc*^ y^ <J\ -**^° Jja * two patients OrJ*** lt! J*. j~s.) (To....) Triliteral (Denuded. .* J*» Transitive verb Transitivity IjJju Transport (To.) Triliteral (Augments of the.) Triliteral JjAl* JjAia ^*j j^'Stf ^j'%* Juj^ c£-^' ^''^i" ^'%' i>*-* measure ^^ Ojj ^'%' JJ«i Triliteral verb Truly &> (To....) VjJit.) JaJ Transposed Transposed distinctive Triliteral Triliteral (Augmented.. Twelve Twelve 5>««x ul«l 5^««x j*s..) (To...u>i 122 .To the rear til* lj j Tomorrow Totally t<Xfr ft-*-^" Towards Towards Transfer (Verb Transit Transitive Transitive over three patients Transitive over of.

1 s^.) T^ 'j'SLp Thus Thus Thus |j£j» jj| i \\\ <.) (masc.(& Time (To last a long. ^* j L (masc.) ilili Those two Through tliLi °J fjfi] Thousand Through Thrust out the breast (To.) (fern..J JLDI .yj (-il^i^l of declension of structure uUUI Titles sLJI uUJl o J-*» J o Titular ije jVfu qft Jl To To J* J 121 To .) Those Those two Those two Those two ^1.) jij Circumstantial of time o& j *SJ? jj£llll ^i <j& j 111 Future time Noun of time Past time Present time ^Ul ^i j^\>S\ 'j -^'j Tim e Time of the verb Titles o^j i^J .j Those Those - ....| iifajt i*ijA (fern.

.) S ' » * ilX Augmented triliteral ^^ ±>.. .» . * » - Twenty-three 03jr*3 *^5U <f This This This This This This (fern.) (fern...4i!l5 t Three Three hundred Three hundred thousand Three thousand Triliteral t'Sc^SC .) This one (fern ..y £* '*£>• ** t» ** Augments of the Denuded Third Third patient Thirteen Thirteenth triliteral triliteral ^^Jl S s— J JpZ £jU t jj^> dJl3 kUU J^*i« o^i* *i>!>tf t ^ii ^ii SJ!& itJtf I'jii..) . -» - — - «—»*i(l &5tf ^!>U g ' * * * Triliteral Triliteral measure verb - o?^ ojj ^^ J*f j •" .. .) dJIJ 120 . li 13* *U~> .*.) (fern. This (masc. .) This (masc. - oil* *!>}tf — «-iM ^ 45LiU — «.) (fern. .) ~^i> be.. T • % Things *C£>I Think that Thh*d (To (To.) - 6 ^ •. This one (masc..) (fern.) (fern.- «i i£* oji ..

These two These two (fern.) (masc.) (fern. These two These two vj £\.) (masc.) (dual fern.) "£ li (masc.) oSUii 'jAjJu toi (dual) (fern.) (fern.viSi! «?l'«iJi «^jj AJ] J«j] (masc.) (fern.) oUUfc /JjU (masc. iiil.) (dual masc.) (fern.) (dual fern.) (masc.) (masc.) j \\ tiLli These two These two (masc.) (fern.) (fern.) Jl.) (dual masc.) (masc.) s^Vi yjJi Thing warned about 119 .) oVSa /Jift They do They do They They They (dual) (plur.'°J These two These two These two (fern.) -\\ liXji These two These two These two (masc. °'{{i] oljift .) They who They who They who They who They who They who They who They who They who They who j£Dl .) (fern.

) Oil lil 6 *j LU«j U J j *< Then There There There Therefore Therefore Therefore C»«-» AlUi oil £ til t <-3 Thereupon Thereupon These.) mourned 4-1* y>al n j»^> Them O A il s Them Then Then Then Then Then Then Then (masc. those These. those *< £**> dliijl **Jljl 118 .) iiJi *ilU li That one (fern.) That which The The fact that is jl li The one who The rest (fern.T t That is i£\ That (masc.

t^Js *" f- jVi e'j .T Take! Take! Take! jl'jJ dJUji & (To.. Gj j^Jj cjj %'jZs. j| That That (fern) J M 117 „ o ..) Ten Ten thousand Tense Tense Tension (To. . . Take . .) ^*.) Take a direction Take on (To...) j^j (To. '/j^ Si 5\i»li Tenth t*\Hi j^| Term Terminology Tex* ^it'OylU^l j^jj Than That V. .) Tear away (To.

1 lit i>L~o \_~ g\ Surname Surname (To. .) \ Surprise (Letter ob-Lu <Sj> uiJai A£}\y> 'xS°y ~i£j*v Sympathize (To.. quantities ji}\ju> t Ji..) Synonymous confirmative Syntactic action X** "J^j Syntax 116 . .) \_\ of. .Supposition ji-*2j Surely Surely Surface. .

. ^>j ^/ii^- .) U Ju Jjlk« J-b Concordant substitution Global substitution Partial substitution J^li JjJ "\j!fr «-!-^ Substitute JjJ ii« Substituted for Substitution of a part for the whole Substitution of the whole for the whole Jjui JSJI y u**^! J-^ JSJI j* J£JI J-b Succession Sufficiently Sliw Jiti Superior genus Superlative Jli **.) jlfli iUsJI aLoS llii Support.s "=.J "-.- Supposed personal Supposed sign ZjjJL» Aj>y& Supposed vowel Supposing that SjJuw *&j>"J 115 . personal of separation j_q/» t iU* jJj Suppose Supposed (To.^ iuiJLo Examples of the superlative Measures of the superlative Superlative iiJLJI iL*l SilUJI o'jjl noun HsCa 111 Supplement of the sentence Support (To.. ..s . . . . o_ »_ Structured word Titles of structure X~JJ> XJ£ sLJI L-UJI <Ul Jumo Subject Submission and reduction Substitute (To.) J"Jja» ".

...iUipjJ Stay (To...) Stay the night (To.) Structure Accidental structure u^J ^ ^ Construct (To.) of.„. quasi*. . .I Causal status *~r" <J^* Concerned by the status Confirmative status Constitutive status Intentional status JbJI ^_^-Q> *~j£ y Jli- *JLy> Jb- o_^sa< JU^--'^ oJjA* Jb** Isolated status «~ K . .) Letter of construction { J-^ <-*y Permanent structure Sign of structure Structure of the rj^ ^ *b »^ ^J~* ^ noun %°yi- *— "ill 1 Structure of the verb J**-! Structured Structured noun Structured verb .<ui 4L>St JUJU- Status._. [j~* LS^' *— J*f 114 ...Jas>u ^j> JjU&i Jp*L» Stimulation (Letter Stop! Strike true (To. =a .. .j ** - Preliminary status 4iJ»j» Jb<J^* Real status Status Status. sentence t Statutory sentence £Jb.sentence *Xa>- Jb4l»S..) ot jA..

) Spy on Start (To..:..— i l^\Sf \\„ZJ~....) Active element of the status Jt> J&JI J* I* 113 .. ..) moving Lj» Status to another (To pass from one...) ...Quasi-sound Quasi-sound noun ^s^iL p-^wsJL <u£-» ^L-i «_l Sound doubled verb Sound Sound intact verb letter i_ipL&» r*-?*** J** llC *7<^-fi J** T^r*-* *~*f f-*' Sound noun Sound verb "?-?*-* V^~* J*3 HaM'Zaf j>»+* Sound verb having a Source of the diminution Source of the relation ^r"^ J*? *)U> \ <uil Ljjlji Speak (To.:. ^A» Z*\>- Special conjunctive Specific sentence ^ U- Oj*>y il*»• ^Ua^-NI •> - Specification Specified ^Ua^-I ^pyas** liii ..v.juii Special (To Especially be..~:~....:.:.) liT i_/^ .) Speaker J&£ "1° Speech Speech Jy . ..... . Jli (To.:/..::.™ tJ»Uii»^£T .:. Speak pure Arabic (To..7.:. .~.) Spell (To... . Spoken to Useful speech -..

. * " .not Soft letter J& *i ' jJ^Jjt* (To.) %j* » ^J* J**> »>f Some Some Sometimes Sometimes - - 5jU ** Crf**^ Sound 112 .- ..Six directions Six C-« Ol$> hundred O £* will 4jUi*j Six Six hundred thousand thousand Sj-Si C~« 5j-ii <LoLj t cJ*iM ii-> i Sixteen Sixteenth Sixth Sixty.-.) g**** <^js•• Solicitation (Letter of.- ^aLi ' . the sixtieth j-«* <£«> j-ii . <LoL« t^fOLn *s Oji-JI iOj~* « \ . " - Slack letter Slowly Slowly j*-j *-*^> jUaj j?» Slowly &fouj So-and-so O^h J^> So that So that So that So that ^ ^ <J So that So that... i? '..) Soften the voice j*>j Solar (Letter of the X group...

t~ Similitude Called similar to the annexing Letter of similitude Letter similar to ciUalJl Xj£> 4~JJ <j*2&> <Jij>- LaY'Sa U-JL <*-!» i-Sj»- Letter similar to the verb J**^ "*~& ^'yi*-"' Noun of similar quality H^° **~lff Similar Similar quality Similar to the annexing Similar to the verb «<lii ^w? lJLaIJL llii J*»JL) i»Ji j? .Silence! ^ a.. Simple Simple proper noun Since Since Since Since Sincerely m1 i'yji lie il s £J ji JtU lijutf Singular Singularity Sisters of Sisters of Sisters of Sisters of i"dii "i\'j3\ E/LaE EiNa ^1 Olji-I J ol>>! I KaEDa ilS' C<l^>l KaENA MaE JIS' li oljil Ol^>l Jl"p.l Sisters of Situations Situations of compatibility SIX luSjft] C<St> 4^1 t 111 . .

) jj~aAa **»! "Jj& Show (To..-. .4^ &j ^3 >> £o}tft »»___ Sibilant letter Sign >* - Apparent sign Letters of signification l'y>\]i X»*$s- ^1^' *-*3y i-jf^l Sign of declension Sign of elision Sign of feminization Sign of opening Sign of reduction Sign of regularity Sign of structure 5i^ *ji. ..£«}\i d~Ju <u^U L_~-aJ £»}\i 'j? Z>yi *ij £«}\i jL &}\i a!«_^I Signs of nominalization Ol^M* <u^U Supposed sign 3jJlS» 110 ... the seventieth Sexiliteral Sexiliteral o^Jt £SuL <.) ^Jl OjjLaA* uul jjlaiii Shortened ending (Noun Shortening with.~ji& '*jL> iiud i t «jk j j-Vu iJI j >*-*>> *—j|jtw measure "—jljtw jjj °J Shall not Sharp letter "JJI *J>> She She O j_» She who Shortened EaLfF E Shortened E (Ending in.) .I Seventeenth Seventh Seventy.

= .^ » Interrogative sentence £Ul$i^J Vu>SISIjcjI Introductive sentence iUi- Maximal sentence Minimal sentence Narrative of the sentence *Sjf ^*V '.. sentence Jl»- Statutory sentence £JU. iUiJ! lUii ~C\*i iUi- Separate (To.» * Separated personal Separation J-^^ ^>««^ Jr^ *» o- Seven Seven hundred Seven hundred thousand ii-w « a~* .» Ote ijd\ o- /«— iiUi— i.°- Seven thousand Seventeen ?ji * f- ij'il *-*< " t *' 109 . sentence t Predicative sentence \j^~ *^r 4il».j **•*> -v * iuiJI .iUi- Supplement of the sentence Verbal sentence .) Xai JrA jCa t *-' Letter of separation ^j*" j^«-^ Personal of separation. X>JS^i'. .»..* °.ijt Quasi-sentence Sentence of 3 words "J£ Specific sentence ^Ua^-^l iUi- iUit Status.l Nominal sentence Pillar 4JU»2 of the sentence iuiJI <a*»- Jui j-i- Predicate. ..> <sj^> .« •- j Negative sentence ^jCj> <u*j>i. support jUi - Separated *• J^ai.

Jl JiL^i £ Vj^ ^*^" ^*>* Conditional sentence Creative sentence ^j^ "5 £!l£Jl £JU>- Descriptive sentence Distinctive of the sentence <uju <uU^ -ro j .. jio .j s Same Sanction (To..) I Selection (Letter j—i*J *' ~r- t -s jJ* Self-confirmative x£y I»Jsli <iUj>. . Semicolon Sentence Affirmative sentence <C& iU>iL>JI * Analysis of the sentence ^ * s-\ 5 Annexation of the sentence Circumstantial sentence iUiJI .* ji iUkJI y^ 108 . Save Save . * W£ . .) of.) I^> *¥l Iji Second Second patient Secretly £JU jl* ijl* Jj*Ab I^j t$ See (To.

) Right Right of priority j*^.. JJli j-^'p 'js\ . .) <Uo uSjJ^wo itc jJtc Returning Returning personal Revert (To..) Root (To reach the... ill Rise (To... SjlJuaJI Jp..R Restrain oneself (To..) Sl/jiJI iiJJI J^l J^lji Rules of Arabic grammar 107 .) of...) «*JIj°jc1»T u& <Sj> *»>\ Restriction (Letter Retrenched noun Return (To.

.) jis <u£> Resemble (To. regular modulated jlw Relate (To.) Ji> (To. .... regular w J*3 Vowel m".) j£J> tui <u jui J « *i m Represent (To.. ^>ui . ..) 106 .. of the relation Referential relation <CJ »7° J t il*->J £oLJ aLJ Relation Relative Relative confirmative Relative £~J sS r. cS-^l noun Relative to EaB'JaD Source of the relation <u! <_jj~ju Rejection (Letter of...... . .) pjj <-$jJ"- Remain Remain in existence (To.) Remained behind Remained behind Render (To. . .) i^U (To.. .) Represent the quality U**#~} Reproduce (To.) Distinctive of the relation Distinctive of the sentence.) Render indeterminate Replacement Replacer (In. « R Regulator Sign of regularity * «j|j *ij -:= a^Mp - Verb with regular ending f^y V Vowel u.) Ve Ju> j-^J" intact (To. ..

Regularity Annulled nouns with regular ending *3j £f^S * -jo- Ending in regular u £*~J\ f^j" Jty^ <»— Modulation of regularity Noun with regular ending regular ending t^y t-» Nouns with Ol*y^ £f j jr?-^ Personal of regularity Regularity of the noun Regularity of the verb «-«^i *3j J*^ 105 1 £*j ... 4 if Modulation of reduction j^JI Jiy> t» J o - Noun with reduced ending j-Lr?" " t <»— -*" Nouns with reduced ending Personal of reduction 4 -j|r j-Lr?" - yr j*~? j«r Reducer Reducer and reduced Reduction Reduction of the noun Sign of reduction jjy^J j^r 0***" «-«MI "a- y - i-- yr ^^ Vowel Vowel i. reduced .J i£iU-«l l-^ <loll«i <u~j Referential relation Regret (Letter of.'' R Reduction Attachment of reduction Ending in ~j> j^JI $*^* reduced i jJj*^ '_fr Letter of reduction ^>y . »j~$ <j\jj~£ i" reduced modulated Reference Referential composite lw 6 .) ajJuj >-»J> 9 if ..

R J 1* -o Radical (Derived..) of.) Rather Rational (To Irrational Irrational composite Jac Jf * 1 j-j* Jf * 1 j* ^y Jf 1 Rational Rational composite JJ»& * - V"-* J* Reach (To.. .) 0^> vG-*! ^J*" 104 Rectification (Letter . c^^" !CJLi.. . > Jl> Jji . be... .) (To.. .) to the.. .) j^ Reach the root J^l Real descriptive Real feminine ^a> is C-*J M** ^>° ^P *^ Real masculine Real status Receive (To..) J?*'*' J***"* Radical (Derived attached Radical HaM'Zafu" Jr^V Jp1^ £X"I J**" 8 *>* Raised Rarely letter J*i«*o <-*>> J J...) Recount (To.

"j\j O Y Quiescent SlS'L fC Quinqueliteral Quinqueliteral measure ^l**" ^*"k^ Ojj ° - -*.Q Quickly Quiet (To be. . .) i° -* jlij*» j£w Defection by quiescence jS^iL j!>UI Meeting of two quiescents Quiescence Quiescence Quiescent Quiescent Quiescent ^IIS'llJI tliJI o&~J Oj>— 0^"'-" E ii'C Ud\ ii'C. - Quotation marks ^Ulil ii^Gfc 103 .

....) Quasi-sentence Quasi-sentence *W> 4~-i t^~> iU^^cJls....l ^ p* ...) Similar quality ^ *rr> Quantity (Nouns Quasi-explicit 'jisXa* *U->I ^ij-^\ Quasi-sentence ***> *r? (Predicate.) Quadriliteral (Augments of Quadriliteral (Denuded.) Quadriliteral the.) ^ VJ\ |^f ^J Jjji Ol^jjrf ^f yj ^^^ measure ^f V J O j Quadriliteral verb ^ the...) (Status..j Q Quadriliteral ^f^J Quadriliteral ^Augmented..) ^ J J*f Quality (To represent uA**j ^$r~* Noun of similar quality JV (*-"' Qualification Qualificative <J+?j **-? Qualified \->y*y "^r^ of.. &*& 102 ... Quasi-sound Quasi-sound noun Question mark ^f*^^ ^rf-^V V** ^l$ii-.

.. .) £ JiJi <ul<^> J °'\ Ji f«-i> <fe *1»^ "}Ju> ISi Proper nouns Protection *S&Vl ***- (Letter of.. Prominent personal Pronounce (To.) iSj*e£\ \a f »I*i *1»I j t 'y^fi .) Jj^J Pronounce the letter N (To.) (Plural of.) of..) o-if f J-^° uyu ~\6 .. *Sjs» iiU^jl Jjj Protection (N Pulverizing fc^..) %£ ^j'J '"i^s- Punctuation mark 101 .....) J^j Pronounced narrative Proper noun Proper noun of genus Proper noun (Simple... .... . '&& Punctuate Point (To.Prohibited from variation (Declined noun and.) £|U. o j it a *-»l \SLa£\ Prohibited from variation (Noun.

p Not preferred ^ T' - *• . ...) j^" Present time Present verb Press (To.) & jr^ ^j> u$j-all Profusion (Letter of.) >** '•*«?• rf Primate j Elimination of the primate .... ^Jfl* ^}> ^jJ» Vj^ jii" Jj*** V"^ of.) u^j^aJI J* £ji«ja <-»->** 100 .~°-» Position of primate and predicate Position of the primate jf^^J \m^J\ V-r° us«*Ji *->y *-\Xj\ Primacy Priority lj\xs> ojl-iUJI Jp- Right of priority Pro -agent Pro -circumstantial Pro-patient (Absolute.....J*? <-0^ Prick (To.. J*ii» (*-"' Noun of preference drf^ Preference Preferred uzf2 *' J-^ tfT*' **~ s Pregnant .) Prohibited from variation j* ^-o^ Prohibited from variation (Declined and. ..) %~> *-*>* be..^ * - Preliminary status iibji Jl> Premonition Present (To (Letter of.) ^^J J*? .J - *" jij jf^..?- \js~J\ i_S ji^--o .. ^GJI ...) .) Probability (Verb Profit (To.

J^ j ".C ' J'«-° Preceding past JjC ^li i# Predicate -J Elimination of the predicate Isolated predicate -"T 'JJ>S\ <J» So- "iju. sentence "-5- t ^i_ Predicate sentence Predicate of the annuller £Ji- Sili- i^\S\ (To.. Praise (Verb of.) -jj...) ^Ji- Prefer one to another Cg* \~jak£\ Jiil EaF'RaL of preference 99 ..ili SJ^it Predicate of MaE Predicate.> - Position of the agent Position of the predicate Position of the primate Position of the verb I L^ LaJt xJ Jo J^S\ '>-° J 1] aJ°J> Xs'yt X*^ **?°r° Acloilj jkijl XJyt jij] t Position of verb and agent Possessor of. ^Im- position of primate and predicate Position of the predicate Predicate of Predicate of Jf^'j f-^JI <5'j* J^S\ "q\ X3°Jj E/Na Js- KaEDa KaENa LaE il5T *JS- Predicate of Predicate of JlSf '£> \ '£. £ ^iSili. . .. quasi-sentence Predicate. possessors of jj Possessors of Potential 0*^jl i Jjl SJli..) Preceding future j. Precede (To.

. has its place &** A A It has no place J^ M Occupation of the place Replacer J**-*-" <u Jl*^' J_y«^ Pluperfect past Plural J^"' ^w *«j> Broken plural Intact feminine plural Intact masculine plural jr~^ JC<1-Jy ^r m>£•*- J£. Plural noun of genus nouns p o „ ' Plural of proper f^MI oLi'^JI £*•=?" ' *»*«**- Plural of the composites Plural of the plural ^r J J »* Plurals £j**r Ultimate plural fj*^' ls*^ ikii Point Position of primate and predicate j-r^'j I. C J I i-jj-a 98 .Jf 1* Letter of plurality £**.^ - -j In consideration of the place In place of In replacement It J^ -^' oli-lj^ J^ ^ XJ> X..Pillar of the sentence iUiJI OJLai Jit* * 5 Place .t-*j*SjiS" «***±s Major Minor plural plural «**- Other plurals Plural (masc) Plural (fern) cSj*-' fj*^ a o ls**^ t/~^" -'of J.

Permissible incorporation ^•sj Permissibly latent personal Ijlji- "jz~* "j^yJ> Person Apparent personal y>U» ~j j-.. J***" j->«-^ l-» •» Supposed personal jjuii 97 .. •# ^^ju Connected personal Latent personal Obligatory latent personal Permissibly latent personal ^.<-.yrj IjfjV J-«^ "jz~* j^~* %t ~0 J Personal Personal noun Personal of consideration Personal of opening Personal of reduction Personal of regularity Personal of separation.Perhaps Perhaps Period ji Jid CJj *j*5l Permanent Permanent EaL/F Permanent structure Permanent verb Permitted (To be.) jJli- <uj*^ *j*5l uul *lL aj*^ Jxfl jUj. support Personal of the described noun j: »J> *_l ol-£J I ^a> ji*i~j j&* ' ' t Xai r*J> OjiiJl jjC Jul* V. - - - Prominent personal Returning personal Separated personal .

". - Jjl J>*i« Other-patients Patients J^ 1 <_tf^ o_^«jl« Patient-function Patient-noun Patiently JyJu* «—l ijw» Second patient Transitive over three patients Transitive over O^ dy** Jr*^ 8 *^ <J\ ^J\ JjC/ ' two patients u~J*** **** Third patient *2Jy Jj*Ju> Paucity (Letter of. ii\'yii\ ^ u*Sj jt* a Penetrate (To. .) uj^jw Jjjuto J^* i}yJu> Absolute pro-patient J^ dy** ^^ <d jl Causal patient Circumstantial patient 4^-^ JyJu> V J^*jl« "i -*°- Concomitant patient Direct patient First patient ....Pass over (To.-.) " "t ' Jj^jw ' jAUp Jj^jw (-SjJtf*a if "i •- Passive element Patient Absolute patient (Eliminated.•-- \r * • ° - Pause in reading . .) I ~±£' Passive element Passive element (Apparent. . -»".4*-* 0>»«x« *j J 5 * Jj*i« ** J °.) ..) -*- J-^ uS^> -' .. Perfect (To..) Ji^ Perfect past J^ ^k «—>j Perhaps Perhaps 96 J^ .. .

y>t° J>£> Past Past augmented ignored Past augmented J>6^<-" -^j^ > ^w o*^° ^ *# known ?y*» dj&>^> A i_>* Past denuded ignored "^j?*-* a*^ o*^ I Past denuded Past known }j^° "*j^* mood ^.) Jli- ...»Ul /^j Past time Past verb Perfect past Pluperfect past Preceding past ^U J^i J^IST ^U Jiif ^C JjC ^U I Pass from one status to another 95 (To.....»t«J ^j.^i "*' *-*j*" Uj*? J-^ <J^' cr* Substitution of a part for the whole u^*^ ^-V 1 Pass (to.p Paragraph Parentheses Part Letter of partial opening Partial substitution ls*j* ' Vjte tjZJjA .^ ^.) -ao Deficient past 1y^^ .

o * o - Letter of originality ^LJ-*-*** ^j*~ *-J Noun of origin jXaJI Original j-U^« Original in Original M t^*^ jJ-a< j^-a* *— i noun Originally ^>"' <*~l> Ornament Orthography of the EaLiF Orthography of the HaM'ZaT Orthography of the uaJ^I itS" 3>*$JI IttS jljJI fttJI O &A£ Lis Orthography of the T Orthography of the words Other Other-patients C>Ui£JI ills jl* Jr*" °. 1 ? «* -* -* Other plurals Other than Others <£j>' f>*^" iSjf ^p-l *i\ Otherwise Ouf! ^1 Out of Outside of Outside of J* ^> ft* Over Over there Over there J& «r> £**» Over there dIJUi 94 .

) Alphabetical order jvlij** iL~/p L~j"^ " EaB'JaD order ls->^>\ Ordinal numeral * IszPj' iJ jjuio Origin Artificial original i"**^ j'^V* Ibji jJiUi ^j=>* jjiUi .» Augmented Denuded original original . ..o Openness Openness of the noun Openness of the verb Personal of opening «-. j Sign of opening (_^aJ X»$s- Verb with open ending Ljjta^> J*i Vowel a.^l jkiJl . . o Explicit original 7Hj-& J-*-** Interpreted original Jjji jjJUi 93 . open modulated obkii g'jSs £|ju> Oppose (To.) Opposite Opposition (Modulation of. .) iCIiiJI ' Jtj£ 'y\ lij or Or Or Oral active element * j\ Js^] J^li 6 Oral annexation Oral confirmative Oral feminine T.. open 4»oi Vowel a". .UM iil^l " taiil "xS°y * bal ^J Lo 'J*\ Order (To.

.) t£Jo.1 i- •* oJo-lj Jo-lj *~*\ o^o One by one ij i I ji One evening One morning Only jL«o oli '^ T^r* y-> (To.o Oh! Oh! Oh! the witch Oh! the traitress li I) i lj G d>£> U fl'jil$lil t U Oh you who UjjI On On On On On On behalf of the contrary the contrary J* ji jj ^ ^£J j£J o"y» Once One One One act (Noun of.l s. S .J Letter of opening Letter of partial opening <~~aJ ^y o ^y <-—*> ^waJI t-*j>o.) Open ?ci t_«-^u<> t_j_^ai* o Annulled nouns with open ending Ending in open a ..( ( Jo. . .J Modulation of opening Oo*-' «-«l °- Noun with open ending i~>ye^» " Nouns with open ending Opener r J t^Uj-AU i_~*»b 92 .

Orthography of the OaEOz j\'ji\ iiUT "'... J lil Oh! 91 ..5 Oath Object of astonishment Object of the exhortation Obligatory (To Obligatorily Obligatorily latent personal be.o ~ J O.) Jlic-il Occupation of the place JkiJI JlidJl <u Occupied J_j*ii 'j* Of Of course Of course Off off Often Often ' 1^1 ^| > '# \J...) <Uo t_-V^"* <u t£jjw •—>J Ijj^-j ^-J "jz~j> *j~»J> Obligatory incorporation "<^ry' }&*l jii» Occupy somebody Occupation (To.

i- J °.I N Noun of place o\£* ^>\ i Noun of preference Noun of similar Noun of the quality rt J ft>. f --- Attracted numeral Cardinal numeral iJ* ^-^ iJs ~ (jr^*' Composite numeral Distinctive of the V^j" number aJ*JI j-.oJ J j*-" J -^ it Isolated numeral -^ if ^ ^ Knotted numeral $3** if i>xp Numbered Numeral noun Ordinal numeral jo.) &'JJJ?^ 10 ^ j £>\tj&j« p*^' Numeral - ^^* •i_s_}Ja** . >J J*" p-1 ^-^ lsttL^ i-XP - t Now 90 <yi .» ... ^ •'•''' a» *^' (t^i 7. fl *A*0 annuller ^>UI ~J Noun of time Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun prohibited from variation Owj uSjUl ja f^-*8 p->l (t*"1 with curtailed ending with extended ending 7 jfijA-o ~*\ v- - • ijAo* ^l *~il if with open ending with reduced ending with regular ending with shortened ending uj«4L« if J O - « "? JJj&* if -* (**"' if o . o •* Noun Noun fj^J" <**"' jj-^ao ~*il Nouns of quantity Nouns with open ending j*sM^ *U->I " - Ouj«£~» .- • - Nouns with reduced ending Nouns with regular ending Nourish (To..

T N Proper noun of genus ' . j| -_^ ''] 'I] jj] ""1J ~±\g '°'\ jfc ( \i-»i Noun of LaE Noun of MaE Noun of manner Noun of one act y u to c°J jL-^ J o VJ| r 111 ^i (^ J °'\ fj^ Noun of origin 89 j^] j^. . c£r f**^ o noun noun £)£ » • i^ llj Variability of the °Y\ LluJ^ Zi'jUZ 111 lij^Ii fll £i '"' Variable noun Varied noun Verbal noun Noun of astonishment Noun of annexation Noun of collectivity Noun of EiNa Noun of genus Noun of instrument Noun of KaEDa Noun of KaENa uJwJ SiCtfl 111 111 J °'\ -1^.-.. HI Retrenched noun Signs of nominalization iu Lijjiki 111 £UlYi O^S& Jlf ^| *ll 0„ if Sound noun Structure of the noun ^^ ° Structured noun Superlative -.| .».ih . r Ji 111 r-' i Quasi-sound noun Reduction of the noun Regularity of the noun Relative r^-*& <~* °Y\ ° ^r 'X'^ ^| noun - L> . ^_.

Jl\.I' ^-j Invariable noun •Sj^-> 'J* 111 Measures of nouns sCVi Olj}l ° Nominal Nominal sentence Nominalization u*~ T y t^J %*?. e 'jc.1^.fl * noun j»_vl Patient-noun Personal noun Personal of the described noun Plural j^ Ojiu/i ^U J* 88 jl— '°'\ noun of genus Proper noun ..I N Conjunctive noun Declension of the noun Declined noun J^^..\ Demonstrative noun Denuded noun Derived noun "}J>y> 111 "j?£ "'] "jC^> 111 : '--° "\ Diminutive noun Exclusive noun Five nouns j \ 111 XlX- *Cl 111 Indeterminate noun Inert S^J jl. Numeral noun Openness of the noun Original iJS. °Y\ "°'\ L>\'!s.\ LT^i }Ju* p "°~\ J °"\ Declined noun and prohibited from variation 1/}C> ZS\ (_iJUll ^ Definite noun %J^. noun JLT ill Interrogative noun .*J[ °y\ .

.) Not excepting Not preferred Not.I N Not Not any Not at all 1* * ^5 i&yfiy* j~t Oij-aAo 0j>*> Not described indeterminate (Intentional..) (tie "° Noun :•- 1 (*-* Abstract noun <J** "I (•—' (•—' Agent-noun Allusive Jf^ noun ^ - p"' Annexed noun Annexing noun Attached nouns <uJ|t_9L&« ^ ^. j5siu l r " p" * T l° '* " -fj" (•—' T Confirmative noun ^f y 87 j*—' .i 1 OUa* ***^ 't**i'f • Augmented noun Circumstantial noun (•—' • !• ^s -^9 aL^-MI -" T p" Compatible of nominalization Concrete noun Conditional noun ^ .. . to abate U~" * *^* jlaii *i&' & Not to be j~~ Jlj l Not.to cease " Not- to desist to finish J^ ^ £j* & <& Not~ Not to speak of Not yet Notify (To.. W .

o (-9*511 ^«£i S^«£i ajujU t^Jjt q^ju».N Negative ..«.. O J.T i ^S c^>* iai *u~i Nine Nine hundred Nine hundred thousand Nine thousand Nineteen Nineteenth Ninety.0 „ Neglected Neutral letter J*^o ±2y> JJsli JJsli 1>]^> Neutral letter Neutralized verb Neutralizing letter J^*JI ^ji>j> Jjl9 J* ciliT' «-*j*" Never Never Never (Future) (Past) a. the ninetieth 3j«£i *«-Ji i oil< f«~J \Ju\ 4jLj«1j • •"—-' ."JI «^U tOjJW a*»J t Ninety -nine Ojjwj AamiU Ninth «^U No No doubt Non-annexing Non-certified exclusion <-~>j* S J>l c£Lu _^£ j^ SUillul Non-intentional indeterminate Non-linguistic composite Non-linguistic composition 6}j~oju> j-x- o^5J ig*^^ j^ <-*$ J* i^^ j^ —~^j' l Non-transposed distinctive ujtte j~t J-~*i ^J Not Not 86 H . £j*i " .i.

Negative Negative J ji 85 .'--."- J^» J*J V ..l£>- SJUiJI £l£>JJ jjLU Pronounced narrative Written narrative olSU*i^»&.) toSky'X Oy Narrate j£i> X>\&>- Narrative Narrative of the isolated Narrative of the sentence ijjtJI £...) *—ijj* 5jjj«flll Jij£ Z * - Negation Q J ^ *i( LaE of generic negation ^-J^JJ S3UI Letter of negation ^Ju *-»y " i Negative Negative article J^ « <Ju Sbl is'.' Negative sentence Negative verb <jCa s { <u*j>- .»•.N J J N of protection (To..* V"^-^ Nationality Nature fjj Near Necessity (Modulation of..

M Morning and evening *£•«« r^y-fi Morphology cSj«^ Most often Uli .) Much \jt^ ( My <C ) <£ 84 . Mount Mouth (To.) L-S'j ji dl_/> Move (To. ...

) °JA Mixed composite "^ y "LJZ'Je ." - Moreover Moreover 83 It r .M Minimal sentence -J iSj*-fi * iU> J ° J Minor plural - iii ^j*. s ^_waJI ji_j5 JCliJI jj^ Modulation of reduction Modulation of regularity j>A\ j>_£i *i'J\ ^yJ Moment -^ J*aJI Mood Moral of the verb ^h/ « 1 r^ ._. Mix (To. . Al Mixed defective Mixed joined Mixed separated djj** <JLiJ *» ^ ° . » Ojji* <-ajD Modal verb Modulation Modulated JLo J*i w «^ /yj-* <jj^» Modulated HaM'ZaT i)^i o jIa s * J o- Modulation of compatibility ^j^SUJI j±j£ Jty^ Modulation of compensation Modulation of indetermination ^^ Sjj -^Jl 5 jS^i\ j±j£ /-» Modulation of necessity Modulation of opening Modulation of opposition aJ ~ o*. .^« Moral active element Moral annexation Moral confirmative Moral feminine J^ji*i J-°l* <Uji*i iiUtfl lsj£u *x£°y l$j£C> uJji .

) Amid Medium genus Middle Middle of the word .k-_^ a"**? "i . ^ili " Measure (To. quantities <r-' -> " - ° - ji J «-* c ojj o - t Measures of nouns Measures of the augmented verb Measures of the superlative sU— Ml u'jjl ^j-*-^ o\jj\ iULJI u'jj' Measures of verbs Methodical measure Quadriliteral JUiNI o\jj\ & lt*^ ojj measure t^VJ iJJJ Quinqueliteral measure Sexiliteral Triliteral [y^ ojj ljL-' Ly" measure ojj measure (To.) 'Jii Mentioned » jjS Jui jjS i»°-j Jui <CJj *2'° " -» Mentioned included Methodical Methodical HaM'ZaT Methodical measure Million JJ .M Mean (To...) ^ai ^li£'LJI *(iJI 4 Meeting of two quie scents Mention (To. ..) L Empirical measure ^-^>~" ojj ojj Measure -* Measure.k-jXa " - '-* iUS^JI Jt-j Meet (To.) ^s. .. . . . . U^ ojj Jaw) Ja!" j Mediate . ^ ^j*- ^ V" -^ 1 <>>*® [fT* ^jj uiil Liil 82 . . .

) *KijdJ\ Ze^e...) conditions a....- (To.) b'Ju \J^ 4l*iUi SiStfr Mark of continuity Mark (Question.|j to o'iif (To....M Made definite by EaL' jL Ij'yut li MaE EaF'RaLaHw MaE and its sisters Major plural J£j] lijfl>i.) ^tjj] 4iS& Masculinity Figurative masculine Intact masculine plural "^jj "iSj^y" "J>'& l!L ^STji «li"iTjii Masculine Real masculine Ly** j^"-^ 3A°oj»- Maximal sentence i£_>£ Maybe Maybe '^Y . Marks (Quotation..) «^> IjJ Jj<f Make a beginning Make Make Many allusion (To. JjJ May it not please! \Kiu> 81 ..

.) «*li l*il< Lodge (To. _Jw t-9^> « - Letter of similitude Letter of sollicitation Letter of stimulation Letter of surprise Letter of the Imperative Letter of the Letter of the {J <u-2j t«9 .) Light N of confirmation iijLkJI Jui jill jjj Like Like Limited circumstantial Linguistic composite Linguistic composition J jfe" ijjtf«i t«jjjp Ig*^ [$**& iJ&'ja »>— ' j> Listen Listen (To.^> t /LJw%i *~9j> ot>ULo <Sj> ii'. .S* J ^J> .^ j o . . Listening .. jb\ <-9^> Q group (Lunar) group (Solar) i£j+4 ^j> •* X ^g^t** «-*>> .t Letter of separation Letter of signification J ( .." • - ..» .ak" <^J> . . <m>j> t J*^ 'S-* -9>> «i . £ Ul> .) i£j-*9 <-*>> 80 .) jSL>\ aJUjJ? uaJI Long EaL/F Linked exclusion J-^«° t\£Li\ Lunar (Letter of the Q group. j*i -'^> ^--L 4-ijs -0 Letter similar to LaY'Sa Letter similar to the verb Lift (To. ° - Letter of variability Letter of wish U>ij-<aJi «-9^> ..

»jjt »-S ji- al^A"..^r^ -s ^> . Ml | Letter of introduction Letter of lamentation Letter of negation Letter of oath Letter of opening Letter of originality Letter of partial opening Letter of paucity Letter of plurality Letter of premonition Letter of profusion jlJCJl »-S^> AjJu t-Sji- ^i» ^jjs* (t U *-*j^" \_-r'' t-Sji£j j Juai t-Sji- is*j* >_.."..Letter of exclusion Letter of exposition Letter of feminization Letter of finality Letter of future Letter of inauguration Letter of interdiction tULluil <*£js* a^J* ti«Ju * •*- ( -s ^> * • <_9 * • >> - ». <ulc t-S^> JQl^l fljj.>l O >> t-Sji- ^j O ji(-Sji- Letter of interpretation Letter of interrogation j. Letter of protection Letter of rectification *i^J -s j*" ( t^ \j-fi I t-S ji- Letter of reduction Letter of regret Letter of rejection Letter of restriction Letter of sanction Letter of selection 'jj> >-Jjs>- «jJlJ »-Sji• . ^> dlljJu-<l »-S^> -L^?" j-?*" ^j* ^j* 79 . -» ._./}' t-S^f> Jr^ ^^> *^> »-S^> i^JJ »-S^> .'.. • - f jj -s ..

jJ <~»j~ mi * Slack letter Soft letter - «* Solar letter Lr~*J" - i ^j* Sound letter Fy*** * ~ ^y * * ° ^ Triliteral measure t>-^ ^JJ "'a . iU ^.i Uniliteral <4^ Ventilated letter jl* ui j>- Letter of allocution Letter of answer Letter of astonishment y JJai» *J>> t 5 'r''^' « .J** ^J*~ ^J*"^" Letter of denial Letter of distancing Letter of elision ^^ ^j> £*> f j*. Sharp letter "J^ Sibilant letter j^p ^j* "j^j <J*j>.- * " .*-^>> 78 ." ^ • >> ° uJjtai *-$_>* Letter of attraction Letter of augmentation uibi tJji- S^J J^1 ^^ -5 Letter of authenticity Letter of call Letter of causality Letter of circumstance Letter of concomitance ^ ^j^" l S I Ju t-5 ji- J?f*^ >> >> ^y° l -^>> <*-*« *-5 Letter of condition Letter of confirmation ?J** -^>> t £*£ y l -^>> Letter of conformity Letter of construction A* jluaa y~« t> *-$_>* ^^ t_5 Js- Letter of defection Letter of definition _<r.

y' *J\£ aIp '<J»y- Defective letter Denuded Denuded quadriliteral triliteral I^^j V/V "j^K "/J^» Depressed letter letter JkL* J»ys EaB'JaD ^joS\ <Sy- Elimination of the defective letter *UJI ^J^ li>J<i <~9J*- Extended Foreign letter x» '<J»y- letter IS^iSy- Guttural letter jiijujl£ If J** • Hard Lunar letter letter letter o j " . » _ Neglected Neutral J^> J]»&- letter J» Neutralizing letter Quadriliteral J.Lest Let's go! ^1 Ui t 4 11a Letter Active letter Alphabetical letter -9 j*" J*l* "-*j^ Jy L>«j» <-iji«JI <~9 j»- Analysis of the letter v'j*' Annulling letter * «-«U «-»j>quadriliteral triliteral Augments of the Augments of the Biliteral c^y '-'' iji -i ..' - ty^JI ^ Ji.ojj <-* °j>- Raised letter Sexiliteral measure -^- ojj 77 .JJI Js- <_slS Uj> Ojj measure ^yj J^~» tr1 Quinqueliteral measure ^-L»*.

Lament (To. .) l^'jj Lamentation ZX> j - Lamented Letter of lamentation yjJi^ -» -» <uju t_s . ..J^J jZ~*» j^d-^ '^ cijli \Xt^sfl tT-ri <u* * . .) aSUI J^w i"^ *$ L of denial ^pujJI . as long as) Latent personal Latent personal obligatorily Later Later Laudatorily JZ~j> j^-J> ^.) Jlii 76 . .) Jaj *\'i \j> (To. ...) j~^*^ AliUJt jA4i . ...L L (Defective in.) ^J> JiUo Lean on Learn Leave Left (To..*- Last a long time Last (To.) (To.. LaE of generic negation Lack (To.. LaVSa (Letter similar to..) A*j dfJS (To.. .

..) jf{•>*** Known Known augmented Known conform «?•past f ti ?y** ^.K «•*•--... .j* <y u >*** £_y-** s ..) by experience (To.) ry** \r^° (<d*li) o^ J*» Known verb (whose agent /»_jA*< 75 .- -70 - »» s Known denuded past is. K of allocution ollaiJI JlS" KaEDa KaEDa Noun of il^ and its sisters Ljjljj-lj jIS KaEDa i^" jU-i J 6" il> -» Predicate of Sisters of KaEDa '1 j^- KaEDa Ct\y-\ KaENa KaENa Noun of O^ and its sisters l^Jljj-lj o£ (•—' KaENa KaENa KaENa 0^> Predicate of Sisters of d& O^ 'Jf- Olji-I Kind Knotted numeral *£y ijA£ JJx 'Js- Know Know (To. - . . .

) oyy oyy * *...) j> Jitfj ° > -° d' Bond of conjunction J^y?j!JI iUo " Common conjunctive dijL~* r'\ J "\ Oy?y "\ ' ° ~ Conjunctive Conjunctive noun Join (To. °~ j o- -<> *-** d'j djj"> <Juaj Mixed joined defective JuMaL numeration J*^l »-»C> 74 .. J Join (To...

^Z\ £|U| It is It masc..) (plur.) (sing.) (sing.) }'JLJ\ £il&> "i'Ju> J ji "*Jlb Vj^ Isolated status It It It ViJu Jl> 4&vi ij ij ti has Its place has no action has no place J^i ^ J^ *$ It is he qZ\ It is I It is ^U| not not CiSJ H £.) may be place in the analysis ^\'J&*{\ Ji jj> ifeti Its 73 . UU "s Ukt\ J^fy lifljil It is It is It is masc. fem..s l liiljj t ^iU| li Z I It is It is It is they (masc) we you you you you you (dual) (plur. fem.«^ It is It is she they they (dual) (fern) lit & - It is It is .I J Isolated (Narrative of Isolated numeral Isolated predicate the.

. .I Interpreted. root to befall Jl 4i^»l Sjja Interpreted as if Interpreted as if it it were derived were explicit JT^oJU ^JJ-* *» .. root to be alone Vji &~#\ i'yut i'jAa Isolated Isolated called Isolated (Distinctive of Isolated genus the...sLo ^jrto 1 ! J jo : j Jm 72 .j Isolated.) jIJujI <-^Js- Introduction Introductive sentence Invariable iulXjl 3JU> .'^** ... a '^-* .^ t_3jJ? noun . .^ ^1 LjSli ^lt composite Jili ^c c~S^» I i *i\ lil not? Isn't it? Isn't it? -»•»= Si lil t it - .j jwjIaIL iJjja Interpreted original djj* jJuas }»li<ii*il Interrogation Denying interrogation Interrogative Interrogative t^J^-"! f^*1-! Ji noun fl^i^-l •— I Interrogative sentence i^l^i^-l 5JUi/»1$ai-I Letter of interrogation uiji- Into J (Letter of.^ Invariable circumstantial Invariable Irrational Irrational Is it? Is it not? Is it * a '^-» a .) iji'* t£.

) Intentional described indeterminate Intentional indeterminate Intentional.o_^aj£ o]^J o Intentional status j_^ali J£- Non-intentional indeterminate Z~ij«aj£> jj.<aa< o^xj i'ij^al* f£j *&y*y j* »sy<2ju> o^Ssj Modulation of indetermination Non-intentional indeterminate j^~^ uiJ^ aiyasm jS. indeterminate &y^y> ojj. indeterminate *JizL* oj& o]^J I'^J -_l "j^*' *&y*y* a^. .. .<aa< ojSJ o_^a£i o^J *iy*y> Jj..«jSo il^i tr e Indication Inert noun Jlo£> **») «**<* Inert verb Jus l> J*i Inferior genus JiL» [p^ Inform (To.) Intact feminine plural Intact masculine plural pC iJy llC ^5 Ju Ilk «*»- ^li- Sound intact verb . not described.) Information Initiate (To.. .. ^^ J*i Juai Intend (To. -° j **„ Derived indeterminate Indeterminate Indeterminate noun Indetermination Intentional described indeterminate Intentional indeterminate Intentional.I'^j 71 .»».) cj* fj^l ^*i /j> ~JL> Verb of initiative Instead of Intact (To remain. not described.

aj^ ..I I In that case In the future In the future In the future In the morning In the presence of In the presence of In the rear of In view of In what time? In whatever In which Inactive Ij ^ i~9j*» lii \js*-e OJJ i£ JJ *ljj J Cit\ way U...»-i Jale j~£ " Inauguration (Letter of.) * l y-l jj.U*ij*t£ Incomplete conjugation Incomplete variability Incomplete variable Incorporation.c5j~al* *i-^l »** aUjI . root to penetrate au j-£ t»A.. n c£^f> iiwl S Inclination. root to incline J^ *^' Included Aio ^JSJ*** Incompatible J^^ j^ (J**) \ ^ j^.-k Incumbent upon Indeed Indeed Indeed Indeed Indeed Indeterminate (To render.) U I t U £ Ji*- j~> JL§ J j£i 70 . .j-^ *u j-s..

« In company of i In comparison i of.\ Imperative verb Letter of the imperative j^l y>\ <-Jj>- Implicit a* Impossibility (By . "^| In order In order not to In place J^ ^ /Jt "_ In place of In replacement Wn Jui In such a In such a way way . root to In consideration watch over ^j <u-»l oli f^a In consideration of the place In consideration of the pronunciation J-iToJl elf'I ~J<s lafll'l elil"** llil In front of In front of In IQjj " fl M (Original.) j An..o I - -»- Imperative mood ja^\ w J*i ".. cJi c°'< In that case ji 69 I s .il *Ss>dJ» Itm) Improvised In In In J* ji tf» In In case In charge *'~f- j| (J « V.. .) » jjuai j-^. .

I i I 131 O swear by. Past augmented ignored verb Past denuded ignored verb Jj*^ uj&y ^ij* •\r>» J*? Imagine (To. . 6l d\ contrary to fact it ji tojJ 't\ If were not If not If only cJ .~ J I'il If If If If.) ^j&y* (*l*li) dj&y 0* o* J*» 6**.) J$> J^fr^ £jl*** Conform ignored Ignored Ignored verb (whose agent is. . Ignore (To. C> I swear by.~ <-* I I swear by~..) Jl> j*' Imperative 68 . ..

H However However However &| £ -<J "-xj 4JL0 tSlo However Hundred Hundred thousand Hurry up! ^1 4JL0 Jl££»j 67 .

...I *J Helped Helping it>U^~« «i>lAi~* Hence Hence Here Here Here is is oil lil & -" & (To.J H He is far from O^r* J' He who He who Heavy (To be. .) How How c-^" & t£^ °"*Y<- How much How much How much How much 66 iji^ (•* " ..) t^ J*f^ * L jL*J -i^^l I 1 J# o_jJ Because of heaviness Heavy N of confirmation Help Help (To.. .) &'j* 4JU1-. .) Hesitate jk* • Hey! o 5 t 1 Hey! tf Him His "->>>l o o Hollow verb J*? k- Hope (To.

... He 65 'J.. "o'yjt HaM'ZaTa HaM'Zafa HaM'ZaTa £jlj o di INDEED Jl Sjli of liaison of rupture X^J °J*-* HaM'ZaTa Methodical «kS s"ui iL.. .) *J>js- Have a defect Have power Ji '-g^ (To..) root to prick verb.... >i itUl jji^o Having a HaM'Zaf (Sound j>*£» P^*"* J** '.) Having a HaM'Zaf.. 'jjjJii (To. ..CS Sjl* HaM'Zafa" Modulated HaM'Zafa" Radical S^U Sjl* HaM'Zafa" (To.) "t£j\ tyjt Hang upon Harang Hard jJi u-Ja*.H Ha! (i HaM'Zafa" Augmented HaM'Zafa" Converted Empirical S gv^ jjlj Jjli HaM'Zaf a" HaM'Zaf u" of conciliation of %££> 5jli 'ts-K^...) letter (To.. .

.) Jii.) i>j JljJ s> Go down! Gorgeous ej Grammar (Rules of Arabic.) ZjJ»1\ &JJI Jtcl^i 1$ Grammatical analysis Js-6 L» \'Jz I Group (To. . .Go back Good! (To. Guttural letter ji> *Sy» 64 . .

) Inferior genus JiC sju .-» ** Isolated genus LaE of generic negation o~*^ V^' •» "^ - * ... -j - Medium genus Ji^j^ u***^ Noun Plural of genus o***^ (•— noun of genus ls**^ u***^ f" ° Proper noun of genus Superior genus 7~ ft-1 -"* (.. . Give information Give sustenance (To.. .y-^ * i»— 7 Jl* ^-i*^Jaitl Give (To. .) fC^ .) Global confirmative Global substitution Glory to dj*~> ^~? J*lt» Jji ol*i—« All > Go Go away (To.) ^->l Jjjj (To.. .) Give a form (To. .y ' G Generally Sili Genus Genus (To be of the same.) il j 63 ..

) . .) Vi»-I Friends * li Jus I From From ji j* a .. « Denuded future ij?«- J-a*>»>« Future time Future verb Letter of future JJ^~JI jyj J-i^~« J*3 ^ l r ^ r .j Frankly Fraternize (To.. «** £•* Function *~^ <Uj*4a ij *H Function Furnish (To. Preceding future ' c^l...j From From the time the time (Agent-. .j. ^J*" >. .) Furthermore Furthermore Future J- Cmdj yi ..) (Patient-.a « 62 . .. 4>f^ . .

<Jj Fourth Twenty-four £olj i^ulj Oj^f-j 61 °f>°j\ .i t_s *l <o«jj' S^ii V. the fortieth Oj*Jj^l 'Ojiujl 4*jjI t Four Four hundred Four hundred thousand Four thousand Fourteen Fourteenth «jj olIU Ijj i_a1I . — aJUjuj' '.) ~J$ -'". F °r For . i»-»Vi ii ililil . *liil <-*>> dotted l»jii> t *?«-»- Form Form of the noun Forward! Fourth (To be." Forbidden incorporation Foreign letter.Fold in two (To.. ..) J$ «Jf Follow Followed Follower Followers \yf* «jl..) (To.. J* ^j eji For a while For the sake of Forbid Forbid (To.o. hu\j t jts.j\ t 'jts.. %\'jj For For ^ Js..) ii j Forty. %£j IJa. ^3 iio . .

.<Jd\ t OlL 3JLUU2L..B.JUil 60 .) Find (To.) Fifth (To be.I Z~*J- t3NI 3l*i<u*i. V '" Fifteenth Fifth Fifty.) Finish (Not to.) Finality (Letter £ili <Sj> ji. root to be permitted _}liI JUJ aJU i^jG*i Figurative feminine Figurative masculine Filiation "i£j^> CSya c£jts*^ ^"jJo £j£ of. the fiftieth S^ii JL. U- ^U" ojLU>J\ idjL!<J- Five Five hundred Five hundred thousand Five nouns Five thousand Five verbs u> :.) c£ C~Zj* Affirmative Affirmative sentence Affirmative verb kL£> Slli- C^i ^ jj jli yi Firmness of N oj^\ CjjJ jT ill^l j/\ First. .U- t ^ii ^>Ut 31*... . root to befall F^st First patient JjKjjl Jji Jjjuii . Fifteen .) '~ J to Firm (To be. ...* Sign of feminization d~iU Z*yi- Fight! Figurative.

.) Fashion Father y\ j^i.) sQji JJui *'j*«JI F of sanction Face to face with '^ <UCi £|jl Facing Facing Facultatively Fall e£*J 'j'-P" ..) Jjjl Far be lit* (To. Feminine Figurative feminine Intact feminine plural „ £J y> lSJ^ <t^>y jUC dJJ^ °wr >i»jb » Letter of feminization -* <J) }>•* Moral feminine Oral feminine iSy** ^y ^-Jj-° ^"J ts*^**" Real feminine ^J^ 59 . .. Father-in-law Fault Feminization - u~JU Sj.. back it (To.F F (Defective in.

) o*~j* *Juo (To...u o> j£i~j> ( <—*ry jf- Slii^-I Exhort (To. in . .> J *"-o s Emptied exclusion Excluded Exclusive noun fjkj> ibZi* s ^jZ^a r o> ( 1 Included Letter of exclusion _J UXw» jUii-l i-9j>- Linked exclusion J~ai< £ UiiJ Mentioned included Non-certified exclusion j£ ..!'.) i^ji l£l^*l Exhortation Exhorted Exhorting Object of the exhortation <o i£jv> ju> i£jv> Explain clearly (To.. extended E * ijJw-« Extended Extended Extension EaL/F E letter eijx** ^Ji\ -u t-9j»- lu ijJt»i *—l Noun with extended ending 58 .... Explicative attraction Explicit Explicit original . „ Eliminated included i^jJou o> *...^jjA Letter of explanation Quasi-explicit jt~^ ^j" ^rr" p_r^ ^ Expose Extend Ending (To.) ~TJ* oQ i_ik* T^Lr"' T^Lr*" jJ^^* Interpreted as if it were explicit ^J^aiL.) * . ..

) ^y —£ j\^£] Exchange (To. Every time Evidently ^ ii AjJOI S1UI ^Jg E* e Examples of the superlative Except Except Except Except Excepting (Not. .„.1 V^-^° 2l'»-U Complete exclusion Detached exclusion *£ ilj££U "A^ 57 .Enough Enough Entirely °jjj iUU £-J Especially Establish (To.. . .) Exclamation mark Exclusion Article of exclusion %^ A » \-°—° % &J jfj Certified exclusion " . m| s £k ^ |ji .. .) 'j^J- Eternally (negative) |jjj Euphony Called euphonic ^ ^£ "l" - -• •: f^rV * Euphonic Euphony of the called ^'jtuJI li-^. J^ .- Even Even if cT*" j .

JuT^J Lli.) Global confirmative JjLs. J** Endowed with EaL' Englobe (To.Elimination of the primate Elimination of the verb laZlll tiii- jlilTliii- Empirical Is?**" Empirical HaM'Zaf Sl^lili <jj*i Empirical measure /e^k-" "djj Emptied exclusion A^ai t |' * -° LL ..'j End Curtailed ending ^-]. . . Global substitution JjJ 56 . Ir^j^ i»i>^ ~£J&S\ [j'Jo Elided ending End of Ending the in in in word extended E * :>>ui Ending Ending Ending open a reduced i ZjLs^ "jjj>^ in regular in u "f^f Ending shortened E jjtaSi Noun Noun Noun with curtailed ending with extended ending 1/>j^" r^- "i/xJ> 11' with open ending with reduced ending with regular ending with shortened ending L>jiU^o "j/J>^> 11 *!' Noun Noun Noun \j>°j* r~ jjlaai 11 Verb with elided ending Verb with open ending Verb with regular ending '^y^'X^i L>jia^ jii \£f j[. JjX> J^*.

the eightieth OjjU-UI tOjJUJ l$jif^>i} *i\ E/LaE and Ei'Na its sisters and its sisters l^Jljilj jl a I Either Either &| e^-ii ^Jc. .uiJi<w Elimination of the direct patient Elimination of the predicate JjiiiJI t_ijijl>JI i_i Ji- 55 ..* Article of elision #j?.Eighteen Eighteenth Eighth o'jZJt ^US ijZs- && tj^U -» e^-ii AloU t^-ii jtti iloU J S * - Eighty.otal •• * • - Elided Eliding . to clip) £ol> c ~. <J»'S>^\j j!>UI Defection by elimination Eliminated active element Eliminated included Eliminated passive element Elimination of OjJt^ i_$jJt^« J^l* <o ^jiz~* <_>jjt^ J_j*jw N ojS\ i_JJt#- Elimination of the defective letter XUJI t-jji. fjyy * .t-jji- Letter of elision Sign of elision »ji- &}& J** Verb with elided ending f Jj^ Eliminate (To. '±s»\ Eleven Eleventh Elide (To. . *'r- <^it> fjV ' * - * .1 o~J*£ <.'jZe.— *jli»"•- Elision Elision of the verb »j^- J*iJI »ji» ji..) (J Jc.. ..

) u\ •f'».{ * -.- *«j*if <J&} < i^Li j i_iJI t E. shortened EaLiF V Ojj-aA* udl i<£ . E. E.E.?-..! Oij. s --» <*2j*a o\JJt Early in the morning Effort ^*- Eh! ** & * ~ - Eight Eight hundred Eight hundred thousand Eight thousand <GUj iJUj p&s ^Uj' till <uUm>j v^*XI SJCu* 54 .. B iHi with.) ° ' 4* '"• EaL' (Endowed EaL' (Deprived EaL' (Made °M Jw Ojj&* J J** I of..'.... EaB'JaD letter S?^' ^^ f EaB'JaD order EaF'RaLw of astonishment EaF'RaLw of preference EaF'R/L' g^i ' V*?! cJstXJl J*sl - J-.Ua uul *Jb>fe» iJJI i i permanent EaLiF quiescent EaLiF .. E..«-fl&"JI J*^' =j ...) JNS i- f * J~ * *>\£ - i 'j> * ..) J> ii - = - -• J? ij*** definite by. E.. EaLiF (Orthography extended EaLiF long EaLiF of the.

. lii-Ui lii-Uii ?«~»w> "S** Sound doubled verb Draw (To. ....) During During During ^ K.) V^. Draw near Duration ^y t \^\ (The... root to fold two J3 '&J\ t£j 53 . i Dual Dua l J£ uUhl in Duality.) (To.) -jfcj.D Double Doubled (To. .

) Do (To. concrete Distinctive of the t—''•> t j^*^' J?** J^*J i_^*Ji J^-< -.> „. . indeterminate <~*j "^^r *£yj>y> jf. Transposed distinctive J>a^ J^^J j*~5 Divide (To.) o j^> 5 * J Active element of the distinctive Distinctive Distinctive of the isolated. .. relation r — • < t u ^u>oi j_<u -7° -* Distinguished j~^° Non-transposed distinctive ^>*~° tl j^ xz*J j o^ . not decribed..--"-* "o - number --" i.) ^1 tt - -^*. . Distinguish (To. . .) aJaiiia ij* Detached exclusion Diminution Diminutive »uilwl jr**^ _f*A* tt ^ - jf no'* Diminutive noun j**^ •— Aj Direct patient Jj^Ao iJi Dislocation Discover Distant (To.I D Descriptive Descriptive sentence Intentional. ... .oJI A J^*j ' '° - Distinctive of the sentence.t>syeju> nj^> Intentional described indeterminate t&y^y ayajw C^y^>\ " °~ tT * OjSo j~±~p v Personal of the described noun Real descriptive Is*cf^ -*~ to Desist (Not to..) J*S c£ Jl> io^tit Js^Alo t**t*«o t-9 Dots of suspension Dotted (Foreign letter. .) ^ 52 .

Denuded future j^i Jj**^ " i Jr^li iy>^* Denuded ignored past Denuded known past Denuded noun "J^a * _ji*i "s~jy> ^li i*-"' ° '^yy' •» Denuded original ^jy j'x^* £ — -* ** - Denuded Denuded quadriliteral triliteral ^^j "*J** j^'Stf "ij>^ Denial (L Denial of..) jili Depressed letter H" °J\ « ...-« *—i Jr^' J* were derived jllilJl Jjji * * cJu were derived JrJLjL Jjj* Describe (To..».fi-* C^J o^SJ *jc£j> -.»-• -• j7.J . .. (-?>* Vj»iJ> Deprived of EaL' Derivation Derived Derived attached to the radical Derived descriptive Derived indeterminate Derived noun Derived radical Descriptive interpreted as Interpreted as if it if it -j> Jldiil "j. . .) Denying interrogation Depart from (To.D Denuded tt . .) j^ J£ tsj&l 1 (To. Jr^^^ jkJu j^-lii J..) Deny Deny (To.) ij^jl iS ipfc> i-J\*- (Letter of.) Causal descriptive Described Ojii« 51 . .. . }fy~°-' .

) SjUil Demonstrative noun Denude (TO. .1- " • .T Mixed joined defective defective Ojj"> ^juaj --. Mixed separated Definition Definite ^jy^ ^rr ^. deficient Defective in R.- . .j*> ^j** t' - - ° ? 1 Definite noun **>*•* p- Letter of definition i-^O*" ^ j^ Made Delay definite by EaL' J^ ^y >>' j»-»l (To.) >J> ^jpy Denudation 50 . Mixed defective . .D Defect Defection Defection by conversion Defection by elimination Defection by quiescence % <-)^*j v'^ J^*j t_3Ai>JL J}Uj a~~~^i J}U| oj*^ <J^*1 1 Defection of Defective HaM'ZaT cP^ J 1 Defective in F. hollow Defective letter Defective verb Deficient Deficient past Deficient verb ^ ' ' s 1 ^ cP^ 1 o** ^ 1* f^' lP '-j^ 1 t OJ* 11 lP1* »-* j»- ^f cP^ J*» 1' u** u^f ^ cfo J*? o^> *kJI Elimination of the defective letter ^j^ <-^ «-«^ ". modal Defective in L..'.-. .'.

»# lij^Ji L/^i 111 rf ..'%. . prohibited from variation • -l'^l'L<l>l CjS\ L. -_l Declined verb Declined word Sign of declension Titles of declension ^^J j^ \'^ \jS ^\'1\ %.) a.) Defect (To have j^ £ s 49 ..) &> \J^ Lfif f^'j*' "l** Declension Action of declension Declension of the noun Declension of the verb Declined Declined and prohibited from variation Declined and varied Declined and varied noun Declined noun Declined noun.) Deem (To...- Decrease (To..D Dash Declare openly (To..o^ .o.. j o J o.\'l\ - UjM -"-* sJ'Jtfi ^ Jyui L^i s *» iSj*/t\» y ju . . tt *jU* uj*. vt*>> V&* . /v* .

.

..) (To.... .) SlSLLil fcj' Creative sentence iU*> Curtailed ending (Noun with.Converted 1^^£e Converted HaM'ZaT aj^£a Sjli i_JlHJL Defection by conversion J^l i^Jai jus Coordinating attraction Jw Count Create (To.^ ijjj Cut (To.rjrt> .) 47 ...) .

) L-~> of. .Connected Connected personal Connection J-* J-^° 3 ^ j^-^> J?Cj Jajlj Connector Consider (To. \j~* Accidental structure Letter of construction <-Jy Permanent structure Sign of structure Structure Structure of the "pji £bj J - gL> £•*>£ £lL noun -—^1 tL. Construct (To.... J-*-^' Structure of the verb *^ ^-« Structured Structured noun Structured verb Structured word Titles of structure ^-« ^—1 j^~« J*i 4~^° '•CJS' tbJI tear LjLHJI- Contestation. ...) Lii u-JS Conversion 46 . Convenient vowel Conventional terms i—»Li J&j> obt.IJg.) ^ u^jl* '^. ..) Consideration (Personal Constitutive status jfc> j?-*-^ <L-jJ^ Jl*. . root to away \y : *b>\ f jUJ <us £ jLlo Contested Context Contrarily iijji li^i..uao Convert (To.

.. root to J^'j JlUl J Lfiy\ 45 .) J j»U <JbJ*aJ \Jl>_J*oj (Incomplete. *-9 y>- Conjugation (Complete.' J J - 4PjLk« .. Vj-0 e. JCa» Conform ignored Conform known Conform mood Conform verb Letter of conformity Jj4^° fj^*** 'ty** '?&** s-jUaUl tiu^a \ &** S** .) js Conform Conform (To be.) Jj^ji join 11/i Conjunctive.Confirmative Confirmative noun Confirmative status xS y ' xS°y 5 's£y\ '*L~\ J£- Confirmed "j£y\ jjf ji Confirmed verb Global confirmative J^i J_jl^ iLaiJI 'xSy Heavy N N of confirmation Letter of confirmation xS j£\ oy xS y ^»y xSyi\ Light of confirmation 4Jui6*i\ oy Moral confirmative Oral confirmative Relative confirmative Self-confirmative l£y** fjiiJ 5llj t^s- "^°y xSy xSy xSy xSy lii Synonymous confirmative Unconfirmed verb <ti *\~J> J jjTji . . Conjugation .) it Jjt Conjugation of the verb J*aM u^lai dj!*fi°jj\ "iLp Conjunction (Bond Conjunctive noun of..

y} Composite proper noun <-£y "LS'y Jil* *Jj- Ji- Composite speech Irrational composite ">>y& "LS'y "<-~£y Linguistic composition ls°^ Mixed composite Non-linguistic composition Plural of the composites ^ J* [s°^ J^ ^—0> Olli^JI JSIp e.. ....- JjU" Jju C»IJ t JjAjl }~*j Concrete noun Concrete noun Conditions (To make... ..) ** . .) L«ij Jt>JI Lo-Ctf Concerned by the status Concerning Conciliation (HaM'Zaf of..) 44 . 1<!U- {J^j° l - Rational composite Referential composite £ ^iCl "jJu> "LS'y "LS'y Useful composite Concede (To.t— Conditional noun Conditional sentence Letter of condition I ^"j^ ^-^ J»j^ ti^ JiT Confirm (To. Cli o_ «-il j « j~£ .) SIjm aju> * - ^J> Jjjuio j» Concomitant patient Concordant substitution Concrete (Distinctive of the isolated.) i ij^Lj ojii ' J .. o Concomitance (Letter of.) *~j\ b'J*> Answer to the condition Condition Conditional article J?jiJ! <—>lji- J»^i J»jJi otal J»jJi .

« . expressions ii ..j-^ »U _* ll..>£*. root to exchange ^l* -du^l jAtyu uij^> lj Compensation Complete Complete (Modulation of. ^ „aJ ^1* Ci^ai L~S"° Composition Annexed composite Composite Composite numeral f^U^I ZJs'y Ijs'y iJs'y "z'Ss- 43 .. ^(jjjj Compatibility Compatibility Sl^ol .) . \\j Complete conjugation Complete exclusion Complete variability (verb) (J*?) }^> ^-kj"^> \~--\ ~\ 1 1.. i »L" - UuJ^si ** ? Complete variable »U ^j'^cj> »U C& Complete verb Incomplete conjugation (verb) Incomplete variability Incomplete variable (<_M) }^>j^ ^.) ^j*^ (To be.Comma Common Common iL^li conjunctive ii j*it-« l Jj-^ji .. Compatible Compatible of nominalization Compatible with reserve Compatible without reserve Incompatible 51*1^1 I /3^» ^J j£*^° *^s- ^>\ JZj^a j£»\ 0^^° j-* i$^* l Modulation of compatibility Situations of compatibility jS^sf\ j+yj <J&S\ oSli- Compensation.

Letter of circumstance ... . i-S_y9 Cease Cease (Not...) tiJ&l *« & Certainly Certified exclusion ' •** * I V^J" ^1 » >">»' J o Certitude (Verb of. ...) Colon Color Tyr^y ^^ Oji Come! Jfc*> (To. j-p <-2j*> •-... Circumstantial noun Circumstantial of place Circumstantial of time Circumstantial patient Circumstantial sentence ... to.. - _r' * - -Ji Variable circumstantial i_Sj^u -..j Circumstantial .»f.) t^» Come down Come Come here in the to J> C~* morning (To.of.) (To.of.. to elide) fJJ* £>>£ Clothe (To.. j^j^ ji ^j^ * • = - » -f.. root to divide *^' t-?-6 " -' Clip (To. ^j . ^J* ° .„ f J o - f-"' -" a - o^» ^J* jt* j <4f *^J* <J _***-* ^_r* » 'J- <u*i- ^ Invariable circumstantial t_Sj^a^ "'.Ji (ffrr Vague circumstantial . s t ^-r* V^ b '--.) J^ J*f j»* i»-J Claim (To.) Classification...) '«** Come know (Jj* 42 . Limited circumstantial Pro-circumstantial ij^>^* ^y> .

) ^ jj sfjj Called ^£ LsUai ^jLu "t^-'J' Called annexing Called euphonic tj'*& Called similar of the annexing »_sLaLJL Slii ^jti Euphony of the Isolated called Letter of call called ^ jlHil 1-*-^ V^ii t^jli jljj *-*\i- Capacity.) JxJ (j°J» Circumstance 41 . . /<*->> *_s^i- Cease (Not to. . . .) Causal descriptive Causal patient Causal status i) jl <d^-N Jjiii SlU. quantities ji&* iX£ * C/»| Cardinal numeral iji Cause (To. J£- Cause of pain Letter of causality i^ Jj£. Call .c Call (To.. .) J|j £ Change (To..

B By J? } S® By impossibility By means of jJuCJJ ^ ^jjj By the eternal 40 .

.j* g 'ja By 39 .) Broken plural Bring to light (To...) jii Bond of conjunction Both Jj-^jiJI iLff tk ^ j &> 'J~£ £^*"?* Both are separated Brackets j*a> £o}& Break (To.... By By By .B Befall (To. . .) JT^ (To.| But But But But to I j: J£J jfJ _.) J*-** "LJ> Bring together Brother ii».. .. Begin .) I JO I Beginning of the word ioi£JI Jj\ (_il> fjl Behind Behold Below Between Between Biliteral Oji j~> j^ \£^ j»j Blame (Verb of.) Jl Before jIJ (To.

) (To...) in the ^>j> Become morning (To.) (To.....) uJ iJS third (To.) Jt^-j| "**£ good health .) (To..) .. ..) (To.) yufl .I B ".> JJai jilt Be low ..) 'J^k . Be special Be (To..) ^s*—*>J Be obligatory Be of the same genus Be permitted Be present (To.... .. .) Be short Be small (To..) tired (To.) 'JS Be modified Be near (To. (To. .) in the evening (To..) tfpu (To.) j~a> UJUs Be prolonged Be quiet Be Be Be (To.) ^A> jp» split (To. (To.. "0 Be impossible Be Be in (To. .. .. rare (To... Be tender Be Be . .) Jai 'x^> .. ..) Be many (To.) <j~*^- jl> (To. inactive (To. ..) j£~> Uii ....) (To. .. .) J^ J J^~^ jUtf o s Because Because of heaviness Become Become (To.. . . . rigid (To.) *--£ 38 . rational (To.

..j B Be (To.... .) (To..) (To.) Ul< .. .) juu i\j Be diversed Be exalted Be few Be Be (To. ... .) Be acquainted with Be alone (To.) AH }*i (To. *SJ& i^j . . . (To. .. .) Jl£" . . .) (To..) j ji il£" Be about to (To. . .. (To.) different (To.) Be distant (To. .) Be astonished Be complete Be conform Be (To.) i—?«* Ij i \J> 'jijt (To.) 37 . . Be able (To. . ..) (To.. .) (To.. Be fourth Be heavy Be high .) fine (To... .) <Sje C^j 'jfij^ ij Be firm Be flattened (To.) jj ~<j-*> fifth (To.) .

y Augments of the triliteral "J^ Oljuji f&j J»j~ Jujlll o\'jj\ Jj4=r«-° Letter of augmentation Measures of the augmented verb Past augmented ignored Past augmented \j* <j^ -^j-* known "ty** . 36 . .*»£• Authenticity (Letter of.. .) J^y i»i°w> j^ C^ Jaii j»£j| i Auxiliary vocable Away! Aw »y! Away from IjuJ -Jg.) Augment.Attracting £&..1 juji jjuai juji quadriliteral Lks Augmented original Augmented verb Augments of the Ifk*^ ^•'i. jjy julj Augmented Augmented HaM'Zaf Augmented noun SjuIJ TyJ* juji 11. augments OlJuji <. ^J^ Coordinating attraction Explicative attraction jlj liL* q'C ^jLi uiiai Letter of attraction <Sy~ ^ \\ Augment (To.

iuj j>J J^«-U Attach oneself to Attached Attached nouns Attached T Attached to the five Uidi tUl«l *^_y. .) ' y& d* n ft 1 d 1 ° IV- (M° "t . Attention Attention Attraction Attracted Attracted numeral Attractingi_s _i fo ^Uai i_i »k<<i Jajw jj* i_it»li 35 .» Attachment of reduction Derived attached to the radical ^>J! jliu I-'-* Jr-9 ^ J^-° J^ dlfo . jiJu JsDjI Attachment . .At At At At At At At all j± ale £ jj ii °j| At that time At the contrary At your own risk At your service Attach (To. | Attain! Attention j^.. .y verbs ^ £~lijl JliiS/L.

. As long « to last f As long b w jli As though Aside from ^Lsi Assemble (To.* il As As As j>» *i As As ^S CJ J far as far as As As As ^J J*> w &l As As As far as for if jfr as as.) £*> Assume Astonished (To Astonished Astonishing! be.A J - -* - * Negative article ^> Artificial original ^^ tv - < J*...... At J\ 34 ..) v v 1 ^ ~"j V=*^ Astonishment «_^*j EaF'RaL of astonishment ^iJdl Jiil Letter of astonishment v_-^*J lJ'j>- Noun of astonishment u-^aj ^i Object of astonishment "^ ^-"^^ "..

.) (Verb of...) (To....u Annulling letter Jj> P""' 1 Noun of the annuller t? Predicate of the annuller t"^ Jf~ Answer Answer (To.) L»£* to the condition Js^JI Ls\j> Lajl Anteriorly Appear (To. .* juii-l ebl • i Conditional article ' * -* *>jt..) Ijui t Approach Approach J^il L»^i ijjUi J*i Approximation Arrange (To.'.. .Annul (To.) (To. . ebl 33 .U h-~^y ^-.. .) LJj JjJuw obi • Arranged noun Article - -* -* t Article of elision Article of exclusion *y>.) ^Jj ^aU» y»li» Apparent Apparent active element J^l* Apparent passive element Apparent personal Apparent sign Apparent vowel j*U» J_j*jw ^*U» ^w ify&lk X»*$s- o^*U» £T^i- Applaud (To.. .ebl ':>. .) ?uJ t_w»bi Annulled nouns with open ending Annulled nouns with regular ending Annuller Annullers ^y ^.

J^JI <vL»iJI iL>l^el ^j^\ 3 Jf «-J And And even And so And so on (To. ** J •» ° Annexing noun Called annexing Called similar to the annexing i-»Li» p-l i-»Ua» <^:>u» oLaoJU <u~» <^:>U4 ~*&\J>\ Moral annexation £>*•* ^-s Non - annexing of annexation ^ - * jt* Noun **^"*i f" Oral annexation Similar to the annexing *^ ~^^\ tiUuJU <u£» Announce (To. Although •*?» Amen Amid Jrf k-0 (^ Of (Its place in the.) \* 32 .) Among Amongst Analysis ^Ch6 ? 1 of *^** Analysis of the letter Analysis of the sentence . Y.' - 0. ...) ^0* <-^ 4*L*| Annex Annexation Annexation of the sentence *UiJt *iL?^ «JI Annexed i_sUw -4 Annexed composite Annexed noun Annexing "J^\ V^J <un i_sUi« p-i i_sLi« . .. .

.) Allusion Allusive ^J* X>\£ noun Xjjc£ *J\ Alone Alphabet Alphabetical letter Alphabetical order jl><-» jl>j i\s*A ^j*"*-~>°j> U^** Already jjj Also Liil Also j Although o' 31 .Afflict (To.) „ fcj Alas! Alas! oT o\j\ AH All without exception JT KJp Allusion (To make. Ago Ah! Ah! Ah! Aid (To.) [jjj After After jmi Cj Afterwards Ci» { i*j Against Js. Agent Agent Agent - J*li function dlLcli - noun J^UJI '. . 11)1 ". . ... s t Jtio Jus T \j [$'j ...

Affirmative sentence Affirmative verb C-io JaS 30 .) . .Active letter Active verb J*l* J^ & J*i J#li £JLpli Agent Agent-function Agent-noun Apparent active element Eliminated active element Inactive It J*UJI *-l "jtXb J^l* t3ji>^ J^l* J^l* j^*i has no action Jii N Moral active element ~i£y*-° J* - Noun of one act o^JI *~l Oral active element -. . . U^ J^l* -"° .) bl J>l t£\ £ Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative. . l-» f f 'j •» . root to be firm ^ Ji> j~> £~? *b*\ C~*lo <£~j* *!<»> " . .°i " • .d-'° - Position of verb and agent J*UJIj J*aJI aJ^ Pro-agent Syntactic action J*li k-^U <Sj^J J** i ji «* Advance Advanced (To.» Advancing Advancing followed pJiai* ~ f^~* Advise (To.

A A few • k. . . Ji vi . About -i About what? About which? li l^i Above Above Absent Absolute patient Absolute pro-patient Abstract noun jiiai J-Ua-o Ji Jj°ji LJli Jjxfli Jjiii LJU 'jdt llil Accents Accidental structure Jajljl^ ^ . li 2 |L Acclaim (To.) l^j According to According to Act (To. .) J^ LiG*' J** L«li Action of declension Active element Active element of the distinctive Active element of the status yJ£>\ J^l* JliJI Jal* 29 .

.

J^*JI . ^ jj&?l Jj-Jl .

ENGLISH -ARABIC LEXICON .

to clip) ~*j> Article of elision ?}> obi *jj->w * j&- Elided Eliding Elision 1° *y>- Elision of the verb ' J*aH •- m7 »'•* »j>.»-*.<-9_r"° - -*- Sign of elision ?j>.A* «£*^ Oli OIp_j^>wJI ^ s_^*aJI ill! I y> t lil <~~Jj^l I <_9Jl* ..Xt'j* »». Letter of elision ^_J>._».... Verb with elided ending f-Jj^ J° J-f~J ^^>* Vr"> w* ^W^ <j* Ju«a*" u^i f' ' ^ .Elide (To.. *9uwJI il_j*J (JI—JI »li« UsjI |»_jiJ Oblij^ll oJlA 25 .

have not been put in alphabetical order to facilitate looking them up of this order is . KAZIMIRSKI LECOMTE PELLAT REIG BELOT R.<^j>- Letter of elision Sign of elision ?}> %**& fi'J^ J** Verb with elided ending 6 . H. 5 . The English words used. G. J.TABLE OF CONTENTS These instructions serve also as a table of contents. to clip) /»_)>- ijio\i\ Article of elision J Elided Eliding Elision Elision of the verb fi'j-9 ^ /»j£- t'jr J~"JI f j»?y>. DE B.The reader must be warned to see in this lexicon nothing but a repetition of the Arabic lexicon. G-DEMOMBYNES A. 6 A. H. J-B. J.S. H. . P... BLACHERE CACHIA D. 24 . FLEISCH SCHMIDT DE SOUSA M. HOWELL W.J.Elide (To. the aim to throw light on the groups and families of of words adopted to respond to the grammatical functions their Arabic opposites. having no grammatical character of their own. WEHR WRIGHT GHEDIRA M.ORIENTALISTS D'ALVERNY ATOUI REFERRED TO A.. C.

..ju eJh»Uil fL««MI *~as*j _ t toil Anteriorly In the morning i~Ja~p |j This (masc... U)iU)1 jij Do (To ..) U^U^ii _ r LJl :>>J t (Infinitive) [yl>frll v-wjJI ^i Jlo^l Jib Be impossible Cease (Not .) l*.. t£Jr^^" [yW*+" Vr^J^' t r*~s^ l^j*^ a^r-JJ 4**Hj* y» Except «^| : _p«J t If ...) Jit Soften the voice (To ...j ~\_~\A '\ Turn about (To v_aJjJI {j+a* ...) J \'j-*>- LrS^j Zjs-\ja]\ ^-jUJIj *JJti\ oU£JI _ i Agent -function Circumstantial sentence ill* Li ~QJ° ****? Conform ignored verb Intentional indeterminate Letter of protection <Jj^w fjLai J*i noun 5ij*flii 5j£j Silij <-»^> uaj>... o^ii A*-** .) Twelve -».uji»-i Co*...) Have a defect (To . c«*«j»- jl* ji»-Ij jjw>- ^ **jM oUSol _ 23 . (To to) J&Jld (.

without reference to the e.) order in their infinitive form e.) JJ (To . (To to) U) dliil Do (To .. e.g..) Twelve 0j& in lliJ! i jZs.The technical words and grammatical expressions represent exclusively the orientalists author's conception.. 1 . Agent -function Circumstantial sentence ill*li *^Jr° (Jj4*«* fjLfl* **•*£? Conform ignored verb Intentional indeterminate Letter of protection J*9 noun tij~aju> OjS>j *|l9j t-*J-> 5 . 22 . as indicated in the arabic lexicon..._ Have a defect Ji *>j Soften the voice (To Turn about (To ...: : : : 4 This THE ENGLISH-ARABIC LEXICON is a recapitulation of the Arabic lexicon in English alphabetical order.) LJ&I 4 . e..g. \}K»cJ\ (. Be impossible Cease (Not .g....g. e.) ..Words belonging to the same family have been grouped with in one of them and alphabetical order..UjI 3 - Verbs are alphabetical ... Anteriorly Uil Oj*i*tf \h In the morning This (masc.) . 2 - Different nouns obey the same rule.The letters of signification are represented by one of the most under E: "ill common Except Arabic uses of each letter.g.

jjJI opI^aJI ^ oQ-Jlj oLj«JI jUs»l j^U*j iaLcu JLIjj _ > .jyl»J JUiSfl y» £\jl _ 21 .

A in study of criteria for selecting declined and structured words Arabic grammar.Comparative terminology. of particular verbs. 3 — - Lists Lists Lists of letters of construction and letters of signification. it comprises 1 . 4 5 20 . of variable and invariable nouns. tables of orthography of the letters and essential 2 .TECHNICAL STUDY Printed on colored pages separating the two lexicons.: 3 .

Called similar to the annexing Jb <u~* ij jL» uiLaa t^jJ To call t_JLa*Jb <Ll» Called similar to the annexing ^jL» 2uw To resemble Called similar to the annexing t_JUuJb Ulii ^jbi t-iLe To annex Called similar to the annexing t_JLa*Jb 4li< ^jL» 19 . tjL&oJL "CJU ij'iLe ij'^) t-JLioJb <u£« with) By (at. during.. .. I swear by.. v ^jlia ) Called similar to the annexing lJLsuJL "&& ( .HlJUuJL Z& i/^H or*12 '— ' i>* * 'J^ <J h^* ^JJi .* 1 * " ~ * Called similar to the annexing Called similar to the annexing (. by means of. for. . in.

Called similar to the annexing To resemble Called similar to the annexing *~* t_SLa-Jy <u«^ ^iu» c^Uff To annex Called similar to the annexing t_SLa-Jy <u«^ ^iu» 18 . during. by means of. Called similar to the annexing Jy <u~* ^. <^La«Ju By (at. uSUaJU a~£j> (J}\~a a**** i^w with) . J t_SLa-Jy <u~* t£ju« \'. . .Example of an expression of more that two words: This expression is found in the following order Called similar to the annexing Called similar to the annexing (.. I swear by. in. v ) uSLffljs Called similar to the annexing t_SLa-Jy <u«^ <^ju« ( . for.su* To call ' tf& J ' C '* it "'~t..: 3 .

!tf ~j3jZi~J\ ~o\ jjZ jJj^UJI L.jJii\ i^p I4JL0I ^ji ifcl Sili£j] <J»y. iLi" LjS" CULJ [ _ ^ »Jj*.U SJjUJI olf.taS.Co*J ^lijl lgjj>- JiiL liU JtS" rjXJj -° * Detached exclusion if (. <'-*--') - <«*« .. .« *k» tti£J\ 17 . [^UiU] :<>j*$JI :ijjil..°J To fold in two "* J5 \»l\» Detached exclusion t\XzL\ To cut Detached exclusion «...CjnJ \'iJsy> rj^ 1*^" To help Help [Call for help} Helping il»ji SUslT r to '"" [Person called aid] i) Helped [Person against ^Ui o J whom aid is required} :oj*$JI <Jj>- C^J JjMI Ljjj>- Detached exclusion [Z>i#eren< exception] : •JoJLu ^UlUxl jjl tjj*. <S_f- ) tjjlj °xLi\ Help.C^»j JjMI Ljjj>- Letter of restriction (. root : to help .[jderrf| '*JS ^'jS \jLa\ iS^>\ # \sj\ft\ l£+£ jjui\ jjjjdl X^j JaiL ^jJU" 4-cJLSUl ol* .. .

the line. (.: I italics. letter ^etter of restriction Jj> ) £>j* jlJIjX-il Help. When the choices are identical...Example word is of an isolated technical term: ( aJU^I-! ) . It found the final form of the first word under the letter ( * ) Detached exclusion [Different exception} It is „ ^biLo t\£L>\ also found in the final ( form of the second word under ^ ) : Detached exclusion It is ~. Thus the reader have an overview of the his different conceptions and may draw own conclusions.Example is of a two. word HidenT] will appear under the principal dicates The absence of brackets in- that the orientalists have neglected to translate the will term in question.word expression: in : (^i> tUii-l). h < i'o also found in the radical form of both words: To fold in two « Vi a ^ u *^~5^"' Detached exclusion To cut Detached exclusion _ _ 16 f *>»' • £Jai *uii— ... 1 . root to help It is &*\ SJUl«»l found again in its radical form under the letter (£) : To help Help [Call for help} Helping » *i»j* ^ l [Person called to aid} *• Helped [Person against ^^ whom aid is required} 2 . <U~1«I) * . This ( * ) found in its final form under the (.

^UJI '^ 4ky*j J*iJI aL^*JI 'lS>I «> j. . c. Or'.j To notify To warn To recount |^j] ^II*.Welcome! ^aj ls» W a* jjjJ pt'J^ (Infinitive) J*JI li* 5*-^ JUiNI ^Ji._^iJ JjJUJi lilij o^lj 4 jk- J* c^-J iJSUJj t SjjiPiyjl lift ^l*Jlj t~JLJl ro Ijijjl U>~AJ E^Ldl Or. '"\. ^ obj*^ jjK*j 1 jijjij ^.^"jjl ^>vj JaiJl. To inform To announce £j u^-j.| To show ^"] 'jfc.C>«j jj~~J1 I Jla ^ r-jJ^J ^aj To afflict ^ oU£Jl_ . t tJaiJI c^j ji\ . .CjJ&NI JUiNI SIAL- Jl 3J&JI i^U} .(italics) «Jj 15 . Jtij t £jJ£JNI 'jfiu L5 »_ Ti sUiJl CjlupI .juji juilr ju«Si . .r'' 1*- ojiy ^ Jl IajuipI Wjj'j JJU CoJ.J| ^_pjjl L> JT C)\ tLvli [^ UJ»U ij^li.^Ji.JUiNI J\** fx*s ^a ^'Jl Sj^Ij ibU. J*j ^T ^L*l JUiSlI <d WN J*i iJbJI J--.>~ U>^» UJI J» libw j» St^_^ aJjU* LgJ Ujui*l Jij (Infinitive) : sUI iJjs. i'^U Jl i>cJI To give information \^. JUi .jlj&JU QU«- 4 ^_.ljL^-NI jil" lix* .

: : 6 - Certain nouns of open ending. is On the other hand. according to author's conception. chosen for their current usage. the verb (^-i?) affliction: is used for expressing a feeling of What a it misfortune! will How sad! How awful! In this lexicon thus appear. the of transitive verbs over three patients speaks for itself. are to translate For these verbs we have adopted an equivalence inspired by their general meaning. each verb being able to have the same meaning as the others To To give Information ^->l t£jl --o I To show notify *l*l **»l To warn To recount ti». with the letter (v) ••• : To 25 afflict \jr\ - Technical along the this terms and grammatical line expressions the are translated same line. in the infinitive form. By way of example. as does Arab list grammarian. to avoid repetitions. The reader that it understand the was necessary to choose one. in evidence the word's relation the manner of English verbs.Verbs in &l are represented in English. single equivalence given for each verb.A> To inform To announce Certains verbs. as infinitives. difficult J*> V- V such as the verbs of praise and blame. 24 while Arabic the past form in is used. despite the numerous will meanings these verbs can have. are found also in the general order Welcome! . This solution has to been the a adopted to maintain verb. For example. Below the solutions chosen for the will same word by and in different orientalists be set down in brackets 14 .

) (dual) plur.i «CJ» Morning and evening r-C^ To be third . How : '_ Jg t_>jkll aLaJI o>J ^jxJ QiCJ. ^C*] 1-1 . o^.To know by experience Predicate of 'J^ 01 EfNa ^i jii To prick HaWZaTu of INDEED "o I S>i Ji L>j\\ Jbtj jb-ij JiiL i^-j.) _ ^Jj -«•« fe J£\ You (masc. iu^ji r ^i £yl_ rr :»l«JI e>^ C^J gjOi Cl'ji] SjliNI jL-l - \ This Iji You You (masc._ijl **- > 5JU*2 *» Three hundred thousand Three t AJ%* ^%* J-"' J! •*-"« 0> °J^ fi» : C^"D ^> j»UJl f-i fit y-JjJI ^ olL»-jJU Euphony of the called Nine tfitujt l-i»y &J 13 t £j . sing.

: : : To know by experience Predicate of j?> 0\ EiNa jf J*-* To prick HaM'ZaTu 23 of INDEED kinds of o\ »>* re- .g.The (fj\) ) : is found in the group (CJI) with the letter •1 You You (masc.The demonstrative noun (IJi) is found with the letter This (masc. sing. on the other hand..£SX> will The numeral noun (4*~J).The various noun have only closest one to translation this presenting the use judged to be noun. found in be it the general order.The circumstantial noun (*HJ> ^C*) is found under the letter (^): *Li T^Lp is Morning and evening 5 . Three ft-' V ~£% - i. E. its as we do not think justified to return to root Euphony of the called Nine <£iu«JI *?>>» 4jw 12 i*«J .) 2 •& personal noun ( «• . 1 .The interrogative noun (*-40 is found under the letter How 4 \jas .) (dual) plur. 3 fj\ .The numeral noun (SJ^) found ( >L> ) in the group of its denuded verb with the letter To be third «-iJI dJC SJLilJ '•*" - Three hundred thousand .) C«Jt I*^ "t 1 You (masc. The other possible meanings have been Ignored because this lexicon does not pretend to replace a language dictionary.

unless.i^p pi~ ou i^j ^uji lijj»-.& S-- a£T^- iiJ"^J£ j\ SjiiNi ^ usuj JjSii jj^ji ^ jikJ Sji^Ji lil iuUJij _ r :\*Sl L^j *Ui <J^Jll^l t*i» . . otherwise. . root to prick jii tjJU»l gj^i t « * HaM'Zaf u fraternize of INDEED o[(S>i) * To l^| Sisters of E/Na jl ol^i-l Noun of E/Na 11 J| 11. lil Iju j^jjl Jj^l tj^^jj jj^JI HaM'ZaTw".rr Except *r^i ' (if not. root to move Letter of stimulation ( .ij ° <J»°j>~ ) a V EtC J t £ll Tji ^j> y i*^ _ ^rSii j^ji . save) 1 *tfl LsO^ - iSJr^)" V-J' .Convenient vowel Vocalized o 1L.] . l^p i^JI ^I*~i tt-SjsJI ll» ^p 2uJb>«JI :£jAJI <u oU^JI CL./r — Vocalization. . ^ (Except) al^Yj (E) cjj^jl J\ Uyi\ Indeed Sisters of S f 6 E/Na "q\ 1 1 6 J of^-1 j| 111 Noun of E/Na its sisters E/Na and fclj^-G 01 J -** Predicate of E/Na of j| 5' HaM'Zaf « INDEED 2>i ^ *.

the others in parentheses. . d)js» <lu>I <iX>_j^ . unless. look for Except under 2 the letter E. of E/Na its sisters jl *—l .'. appropriate Vocalization.g.: 1 placed first. root to move Letter of stimulation ( . in general.- t To l>i ~o\ Sisters of EiNa £>\'y~\ Noun of E/Na 10 jl *->l . look under the SI a i Indeed Sisters of r j E/Na « I U t I o\ Cj\'j>-\ Noun . is The most common E.The letter letter ( * ) ( Sh ) is found in alphabetical order with the Except (if not. this letter indicate the place the lexicon where one might iook further .-#J7 1<jI_j*-I_j j! J Predicate of EiNa of o\ Jf~o\ HaM'Zaf u INDEED 2>i The various subdivisions of in *. E/Na and . several meanings. i_s y- ) " jg^Jwu «JI Etc 22 .The letters of signification have. otherwise. .The form the is found in alphabetical order by the first if letter of word. save) *i\ To find this letter in the English-Arabic lexicon. to find first - If you wish the letter (jj) letter and ( * ) see all its implications.» -. HdNPZaTu" root to prick >j> l$L»l oj*J* t * * HaRTZaft/ of INDEED fraternize OI(«>i) * . with reference to its root. ••-- Convenient vowel Vocalized 2 £L«L« ~^'y- dJ^u final .

J^ • ^ jJk >j_ &Jj Ifr^ n W^ AJJ^J To move Vocalization dl'S. s L_f.^J^l - ^ *j-* . \~j>% isT^-g-j^ Supposed vowel \-J^ 9 . ^U.} JUif. ^ LJ v °wel Apparent vowel 5^.r cJ-i*3iil J^i.

and expressions re- presenting Arabic grammatical nomenclature.A .An - preface 2 3 Arabic-English lexicon technical study on colored pages 4 5 English. radical . verbs. nouns. 2 21 .A .: INSTRUCTIONS How 1 to Use this Dictionary - PREAMBLE 1 This dictionary contains: . in Below this verb are all its derivatives grammar. E. These words are placed in alphabetical ordre according to their radical form and their 1 final form. To move Vocalization ^j* ^tj>^ ~*S~fZ~y>\]e> ~*£~j>- 1 Vowel Apparent vowel Supposed vowel 8 IJXL* ~*£'j>- .The this form is that of the denuded verb from which word was used derived.g.THE ARABIC-ENGLISH LEXICON -It comprises the letters.An .Arabic lexicon Instructions for use.

J^^l oblijl .

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE .

To my daughter CAROLE. .

LIBRAIRIE DU LIBAN RIAD SOLH SQUARE BEIRUT ALL RIGHTS RESERVED FIRST EDITION 1988 .

Ambassador ANTOINE EL-DAHDAH A DICTIONARY OF TERMS OF DECLENSION AND STRUCTURE IN UNIVERSAL ARABIC GRAMMAR (ARABIC-ENGLISH) (ENGLISH-ARABIC) Revise cT by MARTIN McDERMOTT ELIAS MATAR J. LIBRAIRIE DU LIBAN .

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A DICTIONARY OF TERMS OF DECLENSION AND STRUCTURE in Universal Arabic (Arabic-English) Grammar (English-Arabic) .

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