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III.

Pulse based fermented foods


1. Kinema 2. Tungrymbai Hawaijar, Aakhuni, Bekanthu 3. Axone (Akhone, Kheuha, Sabrocha, Sadocha) 4. Bekang 5. Aagya 6. Peron naming 7. Yanni perung 8. Chukchoro 9. Bari 10. Hawaizaar 11. Hakhu mata/akhuni 12. Peruyyan 13. Soybean (libi) Chhurpi 14. Wadi 15. Papad 16. Vadai Masala vada, Parappu vadai, Thayir vadai or Perugu Garellu or Dahi Bhalla. 17. Wari 18. Masyaura Rekauch 19. Bedvin roti (Kachoris) 20. Amriti 21. Channa dal dhokla 22. Khaman Other pulse based fermented foods Ballae, Borhe, Sepubari, Teliye mah, Aakhuni, Bekanthu, Madrah.

1. Kinema Place of origin/usage: Darjeeling and Sikkim. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Side dish for meals. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybeans. Preferred quality of raw materials: Yellow seeded soybeans in contrast to brown or black seeded ones. Method of preparation: Soybeans are washed and soaked in water over night (12-20 hours) at ambient temperature (10-25C). The beans increase about 2-3 times the original weight and the pH of soaked water become acidic (about pH 5). The beans are drained and cooked by boiling (90-95C) in fresh water until they can easily crushed between the finger tips (usually 90 min). The beans are drained and crushed lightly by a wooden pestle to make grits of mainly half cotyledons. A small amount of fire wood ash is often added. The grits are wrapped usually in fern leaves (Athyrium sp.) or Leucosceptrum canum, covered with sack cloth and kept in a bamboo basket above an earthen oven in kitchen (25-30C) to ferment for 1-3 days. In stead of fern leaves, Ficus and banana leaves are also used as a wrapping material. Symptom of maturity: The desired state of fermentation determined primarily by a typical kinema flavour (having a pungent smell of ammonia) as well as a white viscous fluid on the beans. The fluid has the property of forming long, string threads when touched with finger the longer the strings, the better the quality of kinema. Fresh kinema of good quality has a nutty flavour accompanied by a mild smell of ammonia, a greenish brown color and is semi hard like raisins. Nature of fermentation: Alkaline fermentation. Condition(s) of fermentation: 37C was the optimum temperature for natural fermentation. Microorganism(s) involved: Bacillus subtilis was the predominant microorganisms. The species are B. licheniformis, B. circulans, B. thuringiensis and B. sphaericus. In addition to Bacillus, Enterococcus faccium, Candida parasilosis and Geotrichum candidum are also involved. Whether native fermentation or inoculum is added: Native fermentation

Method of cooking: When fresh kinema is fried in oil, within first few minutes, the ammoniacal smell vanishes leaving a persistent nutty odor. After a brief frying, kinema is added with vegetables, spices and salt to prepare a thick curry. The major desirable aspects of kinema are its attractive flavour; certain nutritional qualities and about 50% reduced cooking time compared with soybeans. Period of storage/preservation: Kinema keeps for 2 to 3 days during summer and a maximum of 1 week in winter. Nutritional profile of food: Kinema contains 48% (dry weight basis) crude protein, glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid followed by aspartic acid together representing 30.8% of total residues. The total basic amino acids (ie. lysine, histidine and arginine) constituted only 15.1% of the total. Aromatic amino acids and proline accounted for 13.0% and 5.6% respectively of the total. Tryptophan, cysteine and methionine were the major limiting amino acids in kinema. Biochemical profile of raw material (s): Total dry matter 39.9%w/w, water soluble dry matter matter. Changes in physical and chemical profile: The surface to the fermenting soybean changed to a whitish colour due to growth of B. subtilis on or between the soybeans during fermentation. Stickiness is an important criterion for judging quality of kinema by consumers. Water soluble nitrogen and formal nitrogen to total nitrogen contents of kinema increased rapidly during fermentation. This was due to high proteolytic activity of B. subtilis. Reducing sugar increased at log phase and then decreased sharply during kinema fermentation. This indicates that reducing sugars of fermenting soybeans were used by B. subtilis for its metabolism. After soaking soybeans in water, thiamine (B1) content decreased, whereas riboflavin (B2) content remained unchanged. Cooking had no influence on the B1 content, but it enhanced the level of B2 and niacin (B3). Incubation of beans at 37C for 48 hours, when mixed with Bacillus subtilis, caused an increase in concentration of both B1 and B2. Vitamin B1 levels decreased when either Enterococcus faecium accompanied B subtilis or the temperature was elevated for 18 hrs fermentation. Traditionally prepared kinema contained 8 mg B1, 12 mg B2, 45 mg B3, 683 mg Ca, 4 mg Cu, 18 mg Fe, 494 mg Mg, 10 28%of total dry matter, pH 6.55, free ammonia nitrogen and 0.25mM/g of dry

mg Mn, 1257 mg P, 2077 mg K, 13 mg Zn and <05 mg of Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Na per kg dry matter. While the vitamin B1 content was significantly (P<005) higher, the contents of vitamins B2 and B3 were significantly (P<005) lower in raw soybeans than those in kinema. Mineral concentrations were 31-83 times higher in raw soybeans than in kinema. The fresh kinema contains Total dry matter 39.1%w/w, water soluble dry matter 25.6% of total dry matter, pH 6.25, free ammonia nitrogen 1.19mM/g of dry matter. Method of consumption: Vegetable oil is heated in a frying pan; chopped onion is added and fried until tender. Tomatoes and turmeric powder are added and fried for 2 min. Fresh kinema, salt and sliced greed chillies are added and fried for 3-5 min. Little water is poured to make a thick curry, and cooked for 5-7 min. Kinema curry is served with boiled rice. Sun dried kinema is sometimes mixed with leafy vegetables to make mixed curry as a side dish. Shelf life of food: Two to three days during summer and a maximum of one week in winter without refrigeration. Sun dried kinema is stored for several months at room temperature. Reference(s): Sarkar et al., 1993, Sarkar and Tamang 1994, Sarkar et al., 1996, Tamang and Nikkuni 1996, Sarkar et al., 1997, Owens et al., 1997, Tamang and Nikkuni 1998, Nout et al., 1998, Sarkar 2000, Kiers et al., 2000, Sarkar et al., 2002, Tamang, 2003; Singh et al., 2007(b).

2. Tungrymbai
Place of origin/usage: Mahalaya. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Side dish for meals. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybeans. Method of preparation: Cleaned and washed soybean seeds are soaked in double the quantity of water for about 4-6 hours. The outer skin is removed before cooking by rubbing the soaked seeds gently between the palms. The separated skins are then discarded. The soaked soy is cooked for one hour in the same water till all the water is absorbed. The product is then allowed to cool down after which, it is ready for packing and incubation. Packing and incubation converts the cooked soybean into fermented

product. This step is considered very important, as it governs the quality of the final product. To pack and ferment the product, a bamboo basket is lined with Clinogyne dichotoma leaves (lamet) and the cooked soybean is placed in it. The basket is completely covered with lamet leaves and a thick cloth is placed over it to prevent contact with air and maintain warm conditions necessary for fermentation. After proper covering, the basket is kept over the fireplace of the house to maintain warmth. The incubation is done for 3-5 days to get the desired product. Symptom of maturity: The color of the well fermented product is brown with a characteristic odor and mild pungency. Microorganism(s) involved: Bacillus subtilis, LAB and yeast. Method of cooking: The final product is cooked with oil and spices before consumption. Nutritional profile of food: Tungrymbai contains 45.9% of protein, 30.2% of fat, 12.8% of fiber, 5.5% of ash while dry matter is 28.9%. In addition to this, 830mg of Ca, 890mg of P, 6.81mg of Fe, 6.98mg of Mn, 2.24mg of Cu, 6.18mg of Zn, 0.13mg of Na, 16.35mg of K, 363.29mg of Mg and 1.4 g of Se per 100gm of product. The carotene and folic acid content are 212.7g and 200 g respectively per 100g of product. Related/Varied forms of the food: Hawaijar, Aakhuni and Bekanthu. Reference(s): Dike and Odunfa, 2003, Murughar and Subblakshmi, 2006; Tamang et al., 2009; Sohliya et al., 2009.

3. Axone
Other names, if any: Akhone, Kheuha, Sabrocha and Sadocha. Place of origin/usage: Northern east India. Nature of food: Pulse based. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybeans. Method of preparation: The beans are boiled to soften and the water is drained out. The cooked beans are then wrapped in leaves of banana or leaves of Phrynium pubinerve Blume (Marantaceae) or Macaranga indica Wight (Euphorbiaceae) and kept in the bamboo made shelf above the fireplace in kitchen to ferment for a week. When seeds started emitting flavour, they are taken out from the leaves and ground in the wooden pestle called

tathu khuo. The ground paste is packed in a banana leaf and a small packet is made. The packet is exposed to sunlight or placed near the fireplace in kitchen and left for one to two weeks. When it gives a peculiar smell, then women recognize that axone is ready to eat. Microorganism(s) involved: Bacillus subtilis. Method of consumption: Within a week, the beans are used in chutney preparation along with chilly, tomato and salt. Method of storage/preservation: For long term storage and depending on choice of taste, the fermented beans are kept in cake form above the fireplace or individual beans are separated, dried in the sun and stored in containers. Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b), Mao and Odyuo, 2007; Tamang et al., 2009.

4. Bekang
Place of origin/usage: Mizoram. Nature of food: Pulse based. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybeans. Method of preparation: The seeds of soybeans are crushed and boiled in water for about half an hour and taken out. Boiled seeds are kept in plates (made of bamboo) to drain out the water. After some times, the lukewarm seeds are wrapped in leaves of belphuar tree. Only the leaves of belphuar trees are used for maintaining the temperature during fermentation. The wrapped bundle is placed over the shelf (made of bamboo) near the fire place in kitchen and the fermentation is completed within 3 days. Alternatively, small sized soybeans are soaked for 10-12 hours, boiled and wrapped in leaves of Calliparpa aroria or leaves of Phrynium sp. and kept inside the bamboo basket. It is kept near the earthen oven and fermented for 3-4 days. Sticky beans with ammoniacal flavour are produced to get bekang. Microorganism(s) involved: Bacillus subtilis. Method of storage/preservation: For longer storage life, fermented soybean seeds are spread in the sieve and dried in the sun; dried seeds are packed in bamboo container and closed. After 10-12 days, it is taken out, made into paste and stored in belphuar tree leaves.

Method of consumption: It is served after adding desired quantity of local chilli, ginger or consumed directly. It is the integral part of all the leafy vegetable based boiled foods. Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b); Tamang et al., 2009.

5. Aagya
Place of origin/usage: Arunachal Pradesh. Nature of food: Pulse based. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybeans. Method of preparation: Desired quantities of soybean seeds are boiled in an aluminum container for about 30 minutes. Boiled seeds are kept in leaves of Phrynium pubenerve Blume, Family Maranphaceae (Oko) to drain out water. Then, the seeds are tightly packed in the Oko leaves are kept in bamboo made shelf (rapkho) above the fire place in the kitchen for 12-14 days. After this, it is taken out and stored in a basket made of bamboo (udu). Method of consumption: Mixed with a variety of local vegetables, chutney and boiled foods Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b).

6. Peron namsing
Place of origin/usage: Arunachal Pradesh. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Side dish for meals. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybeans. Method of preparation: Soybean seeds are cleaned to remove the chaff and washed. The cleaned seeds are boiled in water for about 30-40 minutes till they become very soft. They are cooled by spreading over bamboo mat (epo). The seeds are transferred into the leaves of Phrynium pubenerve, Family, Maranphaceae (ekkam) and packet is made with bamboo or cane rope and hung near the kitchen (in the bamboo made shelf called Peron) for fermentation. When the fermentation process is completed after 10-12 days (in summer) or 25-30 days (in winter), the seeds is taken out.

Method of cooking: These fermented seeds, called Peron namsing are mixed with several boiled vegetables along with local chilli, fermented bamboo shoots and salt. It is also used by making paste of fermented soybean seeds mixed with the paste of local tomato, chilli (Sibol variety), ginger (local variety) and salt. It can be further processed into paste, made into cake or ball shaped and kept in the Phrynium pubenerve leaves near the fire place in kitchen. Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b).

7. Yanni perung
Place of origin/usage: Arunachal Pradesh. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Side dish for meals. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybeans. Method of preparation: Seeds are cleaned, washed and boiled in water for about 30 min. The lukewarm seeds are placed in the kulu leaves (wild banana, Musa balbisiana Colla), packed airtight and kept over fireplace for smoking. The seeds get fermented within 3-4 days during summer while in winter it may take 10-12 days. Method of cooking: The fermented seeds are taken out and made into chutney with tomato, chilli, ginger, garlic and salt. Method of storage/preservation: It can be preserved for over several months after drying and making its paste with red chilli and dried ginger. Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b).

8. Chukchoro
Place of origin/usage: Arunachal Pradesh. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Side dish for meals. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybeans. Method of preparation: The seeds of soybean are soaked in water to remove the damaged seeds and husk. Then it is boiled in water for 1-2 hours till the seeds become very soft. The

water is drained out and lukewarm seeds are kept in the banana leaves and covered with warm cotton cloth. This packet is kept near the fireplace in the bamboo made shelf for 15-30 days during winter. During summer, the fermentation is completed within 10-12 days. When the seeds begin to emit flavour it is considered fermented and is taken out from the basket. Method of cooking: It can be consumed directly after mixing with varieties of local vegetables. Method of storage/preservation: For longer preservation, it is made into paste and stored in banana leaves. It is used in making chutney with local chilli (solu), tomato, yak cheese and salt. Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b).

9. Bari
Place of origin/usage: Sikkim. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Side dish for meals. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybean. Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: Soybean seeds are washed and boiled in water for about one hour. When it becomes soft, water is drained out; seeds are crushed and wrapped tightly in leaves of Nebera. The packets are kept above the oven (chulha) for 4-5 days for fermentation. Method of cooking: It is used for making chutney and curry. The chutney is made with coriander, tomato, garlic, chilli and salt while curry is made with potato and tomato. Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b).

10. Hawaizaar
Place of origin/usage: Manipur. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Condiment, This food is most often used in the festival Gobardhan puja, Surap (ritual ceremony after 13 days of death of a man) and Asti (ritual ceremony

after 6 days of death of a man). Rural women do not give the hawaizaar to the women after child delivery. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybean. Method of preparation: Desired quantities of soybean seeds are taken and after washing, they are properly cleaned. The seeds are then boiled in water for about 2-3 hours till become soft and excess water is drained out and is used for curing the cough. The lukewarm seeds are wrapped in the cotton cloth and tied airtight with the banana leaves. It is kept inside the bamboo basket (thumok) and again covered with rice husk and pressed with stone. The thumok is kept over the fireplace for fermentation, which takes about 4-5 days in summer and 7-10 days in winter. Some women again process it for longer preservation (3-4 days). After fermentation, hawaizaar is dried in sunlight for 10-15 min and paste is made after crushing it. The inside of earthen pot (saphu) is smeared with mustard oil and paste of hawaizaar is kept inside it. The mouth of earthen pot is closed airtight with banana leaves to preserve longer and avoid further fermentation. Method of cooking: Local dry fish (Cheigem pomba), prawn, rice, forest leafy vegetables, mustard leaves, pea leaves, local onion leaves, turmeric, ginger and few wild spicy plants are used. First, rice along with hawaizaar is boiled with water and kept separate. Chilli, onion, garlic and leafy vegetables with dry fish are fried in mustard oil. When all the materials become light maroon in colour, then boiled rice and hawaizaar are added, mixed properly and boiled with little water. Method of consumption: The hawaizaar is used in preparing varieties of chutney and consumed with salad and fermented fish (ngari). Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b).

11. Hakhu mata/akhuni


Place of origin/usage: Manipur. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Side dish for meals. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soybean.

Method of preparation: Chaff and inert matter are removed from soybean seeds by putting in water. The seeds are properly dried in partial shade and boiled in water for about half and an hour. When the seeds become soft, water is drained out using bamboo made sieve. Then seeds are spread on the cotton cloth in partial shade for cooling and drying. The dried seeds are wrapped in banana leaves and packet is made with bamboo rope and hung above the fireplace in kitchen in complete dark condition to initiate fermentation. Fermentation takes place in about 15-20 days in winter and 5-7 days in summer. When the leaf of banana becomes completely wrinkled, it indicates that fermentation of soybean seeds is complete. Method of cooking: The seeds are taken out from leaves and roasted with salt without any oil. These seeds are again packed in fresh banana leaves and stacked over the shelf near smoke in kitchen. After 3-5 days, this can be consumed. Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b).

12. Peruyyan
Place of origin/usage: Arunachal Pradesh. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Side dish for meals. Importance of the food: Low cost source of high protein flavoured food. Usual composition/ingredients: Soy bean. Method of preparation: Soybean is washed with water and cooked till the beans become soft. The excess water is drained off and is cooled for sometime. The cooked beans are kept in bamboo basket (vessel) lined with ginger leaves, locally called as taki yannii. The basket is loosely covered with ginger leaves and is kept on the wooden rack above the fire place for fermentation. Between 3-5 days, the stickiness of the product is checked, and if the product is sticky enough then the product is ready for consumption. Microorganism(s) involved: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp. and Lactic Acid Bacteria. Reference(s): Tamang et al., 2009.

13. Soybean (libi) Chhurpi

Place of origin/usage: Arunachal Pradesh. Nature of food: Pulse based. Method of preparation: Local varieties of soybean seeds are boiled and spread on bamboo mat (charang) after draining out the water. Salt is added to the seeds when still lukewarm and mixed properly. The drained water is not thrown; it is used for malicing on skin for curing cracks during winter. The drained water can be preserved only for 1-2 days. After cooling, the seeds are put in a container (Shong) and covered with leaves of Zola or banana. After putting the lid, the container (Shong) is kept near fire and is rotated regularly. When smell comes and seeds become thread like, they are taken out, crushed carefully and spread in small heaps on bamboo mat (charang) and sun dried. Again, it is crushed and dried. Crushing is done three times. The prepared chhurpi can be stored in dried bottle gourd or bamboo containers for 1-4 years. Reference(s): Singh et al., 2007(b).

14. Wadi
Place of origin/usage: Punjab and West Bengal. Nature of food: Pulse based. Importance of the food: These are dried, hollow, brittle cones or balls (3-8 cm diameter, 15-40g in weight) that are used as a spicy condiment or an adjunct for cooking vegetables, grain legumes or rice. Usual composition/ingredients: Black gram and oil. Method of preparation: Generally of black gram are soaked, drained, ground into smooth soft dough, left to ferment for 1-3 days, molded into cones or balls, deposited on bamboo or palm mats smeared with oil and sun dried for 4-8 hours. The surface of the cones or balls becomes covered with a mucilaginous coating which helps to retain the gas formed during their fermentation. The wadis look hollow, with many air pockets and yeast spherules in the interior and a characteristic surface crust. Microorganism(s) involved: L. mesenteroides, L. fermentum, S. cerevisiae and Trichosporon Cutaneum become dominant. Candida vartiovaarae and K. marxianus are also often found. Candida vartiovaarae and Kluyveromyces marxianus are also found in the wadi.

The development and prevalence of microflora are affected by the seasons, summer being more favourable for bacteria and winter for yeasts. Changes in physical and chemical profile: The production of acid and gas results in a fall of pH from 5.6 to 3.2 and two-fold raise in the volume of the dough. The lactic acid bacteria are mainly responsible for the acidification of dough, favourable conditions for the yeasts to grow and become active for leavening. The fermentation brings about a significant increase in soluble solids, non-protein nitrogen, soluble nitrogen, free amino acids, proteolytic activity and B vitamins including thiamine, riboflavin and cyanocobalamine. On the other hand, the levels of reducing sugars and soluble protein decrease. Amylase activity increases initially, but declines thereafter. Reference(s): Batra and Millner, 1974, Sandhu et al., 1986. Sandhu and Soni 1989, Aidoo et al., 2005.

15. Papad
Place of origin/usage: South India. Nature of food: Pulse based. Importance of the food: Important condiment or savoury food and wafer like product. Usual composition/ingredients: Black gram, Bengal gram, lentil (Lens culinaris) and red gram or green gram, small quantity of peanut oil and common salt. Method of preparation: Black gram flour or a blend of black gram with Bengal gram, lentil (Lens culinaris), red gram or green gram (Vigna radiata) flour is hand kneaded with a small quantity of peanut oil, common salt (about 8%, w/w) and then pounded into a stiff paste. The dough (sometimes with a backslop and spices added) is left to ferment for 1-6 hours. The fermented dough is shaped into small balls which are rolled into thin, circular flat sheets (10-24cm diameter, 0.2-1.2mm thick) and generally dried in the shade to 1217% (w/w) moisture content. Microorganism(s) involved: Candida krusei and S. cerevisiae. Method of consumption: Used to prepare curry or is eaten by itself as a crackly snack or appetizer with meals after roasting or deep frying in oil. Reference(s): Shupalekar, 1986, Aidoo et al., 2005 Roy et al., 2007.

16. Vadai
Place of origin/usage: South India. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Snack. Usual composition/ingredients: Black gram. Method of preparation: Whole black gram dhal is soaked for 5-6 hours. The water from the dhal is drained and grind to a paste sprinkling little water and salt. Grinding all the dhal at once is avoided. Small portions are used to grind batch wise as its easier to grind into a soft paste. Salt is added while grinding to a fluffy paste. Then, chopped onions, finely chopped ginger and green chilies are added to the batter and mixed well. Method of cooking: A deep frying vessel is taken and enough oil is added for deep frying and the oil should be really hot. Lemon sized slurry is taken and flattens it into a vada on a greased sheet or banana leaf. A hole is made in the centre of the vada or gare so that it cooks evenly all over. It is slowly and carefully dropped into the hot oil. It is fried on both sides to a golden brown colour employing medium heat. Related/Varied forms of the food: Medu Vada, Masala vada, Parappu vadai, Thayir vadai or Perugu Garellu or Dahi Bhalla (a North Indian style vada smothered in yogurt and tamarind sauce). Method of consumption: It is consumed with sambar or coriander chutney.

17. Wari
Place of origin/usage: Uttar Pradesh. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Snack. Usual composition/ingredients: Black bean and soybean. Method of preparation: Wari is a hollow brittle cake of 230 cm2 spread and 130 g in weight. It is prepared by steeping black grams in water at room temperature for overnight. In the morning, the water is drained out and the outer skin is removed and the gram dhal is mashed. Spices, yogurt and salt are mixed with dough and fermented for 14 22 hours. The fermented dough is moulded and sun dried for 3 -10 days. Drying causes case hardening resulting in a cavity or porous structure of the product.

Whether native fermentation or inoculum is added: Yoghurt is added as inoculum. Other organisms tested for fermentation: Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Nutritional profile of food: Soybean wari had Moisture 3.1, Protein 60. 6%, Crude fat 0.4 %, Crude fibre 2.6%, Ash 6.25 % and Carbohydrate 30.1% Method of consumption: Used as an adjunct in curries. Reference(s): Tewary and Muller, 1989, Tewary and Muller, 1992, Kulkarni et al., 1997.

18. Masyaura
Place of origin/usage: Darjeeling hills and Sikkim. Nature of food: Pulse based. Usual composition/ingredients: Blackgram or greengram, Colocosia tuber, ashgourd or radish. Method of preparation: Blackgram is split in a traditional stone grinder (Janto) used for splitting and grinding grains. Cleaned, split blackgram is soaked in water overnight (16 hours) and the husk is removed by hand washing 2 to 3 times in water. The wet, dehulled blackgram is then ground in another traditional stone grinder (Silauto), which functions similar to the Janto. A small quantity of water is often added to aid grinding to get a thick paste. The Colocosia tuber is washed, peeled and finally shredded. The shreds are then mixed with blackgram dhal paste in approximate ratio of 1:1. The dough is then made into small lumps weighing 2030 g each and distributed 1 to 2 in. apart on a bamboo (or other) tray. Usually, this operation is carried out in the evening and the trays are then left overnight to ferment at room temperature. The spongy, textured balls are then sun dried for 3 to 5 days depending on the weather conditions and stored for use. Microorganism(s) involved: The total microbial load dominated by lactic acid bacteria (more than 90%). Pediococcus pentosaceous, Pediococcus acidilactic, and Lactobacillus sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida versatilis, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger. Nutritional profile of food: Dried Masyaura contains a final moisture content of about 810%, and is a rich source of protein (1820% of sample), carbohydrate (6770% of sample) and minerals.

Changes in physical and chemical profile: Masyaura preparation has soluble protein (74.8 82.1% of total protein), amino nitrogen (1.02.02 mg/100 g), non-protein nitrogen (0.83 1.61%) and vitamin B complex (vitamin B1 from 116 to 246 mg/100 g and vitamin B2 from 88 to 141 mg/100 g), pH (6.15.4), starch (57.754.1%), free sugar (9.45 4.61%) and reducing sugar (2.00.75%) contents as compared with the raw ingredients. They are brittle and spongy textured dried balls of 25 cm in diameter. Related/Varied forms of the food: Rekauch (Vegetable shreds are replaced with whole leaf and dried) Method of consumption: It is deep fat fried and mixed with curry to make a soup and served with rice as a side dish. Reference(s): Karki, 1986, Dahal et al., 2005, Dahal et al., 2003.

19. Bedvin roti


Other names, if any: Kachoris. Place of origin/usage: Himachal Pradesh. Nature of food: Pulse based. Usual composition/ingredients: Black-gram, opium seeds or walnut. Method of cooking: Stuffed with spices mixed paste of dhal (black-gram), opium seeds or walnut. These are either simply baked or deep fried. Method of consumption: Taken as breakfast or snack food with tea. Reference(s): Thakur et al., 2004.

20. Amriti
Place of origin/usage: West Bengal. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Snacks. Usual composition/ingredients: Blackgram. Method of preparation: Blackgram is washed with water and soaked in water for 5-10 hours. Then, the blackgram is ground into paste using water and hand beaten for around 30 minutes and left at room temperature for 46 hours. Method of cooking: The dough extruded to make rings into hot vegetable fat and deep fried for ~5 min, until golden brown and then dipped into warm sugar syrup for ~5 min.

Reference(s): Steinkraus, 1996.

21. Channa dal dhokla


Place of origin/usage: South India Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Snack or breakfast. Usual composition/ingredients: Channa dal, yoghurt, sugar, oil, mustard seeds, red chillies, asafoetida, water, lemon juice, salt, green chillies, coriander leaves, ginger, turmeric and salt. Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: The lentils are soaked in water for at least 2 hours and blend with the yoghurt, to form the consistency of pancake batter. Coriander leaves, green chillies and ginger are chopped and grate the coconut. These are mixed with the slurry with sugar and kept in a warm place to ferment overnight. Method of cooking: The remaining ingredients are mixed with the fermented batter. Grease a mould or other suitable vessel and place in a steamer. Immediately pour the batter into the prepared vessel. Cover and steam for 20 minutes. The cooked material is removed, cooled and cut into cubes. Subsequently, oil is heated in a pan and mustard seeds are added. Upon heat cracking of mustard seeds, the rest of the ingredients are added. This preparation is poured over the dhokla cubes. The preparation is finally garnished by sprinkling grated coconut and coriander leaves.

22. Khaman
Place of origin/usage: South India. Nature of food: Pulse based. Time of consumption: Snack. Importance of the food: Important source of protein and calories in the diet, they are often used as a food for infants and invalids. Usual composition/ingredients: Bengal gram dhal. Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: Bengal gram dhal is washed and soaked in water. The dhal is ground in a stone mortar and pestle with the addition of salt. Method of cooking: The batter is steamed in a greased pie tin, cakes may be deliciously flavoured with fried mustard seeds and chopped coriander leaves.

Method of consumption: The unflavoured cakes are eaten with chutney and/or sambar. Reference(s): Tamang, 1998. The following fermented pulse based food products are consumed in Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal and Northern India (Tamang, 1998, Thakur et al., 2004; Roy et al, 2007). Other fermented pulse based foods consumed in Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal and Northern India S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Product Ballae Borhe Sepubari Teliye mah Aakhuni Bekanthu Madrah Raw material Black gram Black gram Black gram Black gram Soybean Soybean Kidney beans Nature of food Fried disk Sun dried solids Semi solid Curry Curry Curry State North India Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Manipur Nagaland Himachal Pradesh