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ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
Name I/C No Class Teacher‟s Name School
: Chen Yee Sian : 951228-12-6244 : 5N1 : Cik Norhayati Bt Mohd Nor : SMK Convent Klang
Acknowledgement Objectives Introduction Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Further Exploration Conclusion Reflection
support which are the most needed for this project. Not forgotten my parents for providing everything.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all. Internet. to buy anything that are related to this project work and their advise. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together. Cik Norhayati for guiding me and my friends throughout this project. but she taught us patiently until we knew what to do. we had this task done. Last but not least. . for giving me the strength to do this project work. They also supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it. such as money. She tried and tried to teach us until we understand what we supposed to do with the project work. books. I would like to say thank you. Then I would like to thank my teacher. computers and all that. my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our ideas. We had some difficulties in doing this task.
to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely. to provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning. to develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases students‟ interest and confidence. to develop positive attitude towards mathematics. to promote effective mathematical communication. to improve thinking skills.OBJECTIVES The aims of carrying out this project work are: to apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems. .
The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολύς (polús) "much". The interior of the polygon is sometimes called its body.INTRODUCTION In geometry a polygon (/pɒlɪɡɒn/) is a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a closed chain or circuit. Geometrically two edges meeting at a corner are required to form an angle that is not straight (180°). The basic geometrical notion has been adapted in various ways to suit Historical image of polygons (1699) particular purposes. In fields relating to computation. dated to . with a short o. Caere. appears on the vase of Aristophonus. a non-convex regular polygon (star polygon). and may define a polygon accordingly. Mathematicians are often concerned only with the closed polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not selfintersect. A polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path. "many" and γωνία (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". is unrelated and means "knee". These segments are called its edges or sides. the line segments will be considered parts of a single edge – however mathematically. otherwise. Some other generalizations of polygons are described below.. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks. and the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or corners. composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments (i. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. such corners may sometimes be allowed. (The word γόνυ gónu.) Today a polygon is more usually understood in terms of sides.e. History Polygons have been known since ancient times. and the pentagram. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. by a closed polygonal chain). the term polygon has taken on a slightly altered meaning derived from the way the shape is stored and manipulated in computer graphics (image generation).
the 7th century B. For example. the heptagon or other polygons. and as a secure place for the larvae to grow. particularly amongst flowers. crystals have flat faces. In the world of geology. Quasicrystals can even have regular pentagons as faces. a popular fruit in Southeast Asia frequently. such as sea urchins. a slightly tangy fruit popular in Southeast Asia. Though echinoderms do not exhibit exact radial symmetry. Other echinoderms. There also exist animals that themselves take the approximate form of regular polygons. to create complex polygons. which are polygons. the most common form of such symmetry being pentagonal. sea stars display the symmetry of a pentagon or. usually fourfold or eightfold. . Polygons in nature Numerous regular polygons may be seen in nature. or at the Devil's Postpile in California. The Giant's Causeway. or at least have the same symmetry. which may be seen at the Giant's Causeway in Ireland. Another fascinating example of regular polygons occurs when the cooling of lava forms areas of tightly packed hexagonal columns of basalt. and (to a lesser extent) seeds and fruit. jellyfish and comb jellies do. Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane. less Starfruit.C. Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine. A particularly striking example is the starfruit. sometimes display similar symmetries. The wax honeycomb made by bees is an array of hexagons used to store honey and pollen. In 1952. or facets. in Northern Ireland The most famous hexagons in nature are found in the animal kingdom. where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one. whose cross-section is shaped like a pentagonal star. Radial symmetry (and other symmetry) is also widely observed in the plant kingdom.
called Lagrangian points. The two most stable are exactly 60 degrees ahead and behind the earth in its orbit. joining the center of the sun and the earth and one of these stable Lagrangian points forms an equilateral triangle. it would have to frequently dodge the asteroids that are already present there. The sun-earth system has five Lagrangian points. where a smaller body (such as an asteroid or a space station) will remain in a stable orbit. Astronomers have already found asteroids at these points. . there exist certain points in space.Moving off the earth into space. There are already satellites and space observatories at the less stable Lagrangian points. Polygons are fun in Math Many shapes they have They are geometrical. that is. early mathematicians doing calculations using Newton's law of gravitation discovered that if two bodies (such as the sun and the earth) are orbiting one another. It is still debated whether it is practical to keep a space station at the Lagrangian point – although it would never need course corrections.
PART 1 Question (a) .
g. and the pentagram. dodecagon. Some special polygons also have their own names. from Greek πολύγωνον (polygōnon/polugōnon). √ ( | )( )( | ) ( ) .g. usually n-gon. 17-gon.Question (b) A closed shape consisting of line segments that has at least three sides. and nonagon are exceptions. Question (c) 1. rectangles. where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one. mathematicians usually write the numeral itself. and squares are all types of polygons.C. meaning "many-angled". Caere. This is useful if the number of sides is used in a formula. 2. Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine. 4. For large numbers. pentagon. quadrilateral or quadrangle. Polygons have been known since ancient times. A variable can even be used. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks. The word "polygon" comes from Late Latin polygōnum (a noun). Triangles. e. The triangle. the masculine adjective). to create complex polygons. combining a Greek-derived numerical prefix with the suffix -gon. Individual polygons are named (and sometimes classified) according to the number of sides. noun use of neuter of πολύγωνος (polygōnos/polugōnos. quadrilaterals. 3. a nonconvex regular polygon (star polygon). Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane. appears on the vase of Aristophonus. e. dated to the 7th century B. for example the regular star pentagon is also known as the pentagram. In 1952.
97 2597. q(m) 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 θ(degree) 38.97 3968.58 38.13m².99 55.53 4330.57 4242.21 Area(m²) 2597.99 60.58 55.77 49.89 CONJECTURE Regular polygon will give maximum area.57 3463.89 3463.00 58.13 4242.77 58.21 49.53 3968.PART 2 Question (a) Cost = RM 20 × 300 = RM 6000 Question (b) p(m) 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Question (c) The herb garden is an equilateral triangle of sides 100m with a maximum area of 4330. Eg: Square .
q decreases. p decreases The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side.Rectangle Question (d) i. ii. Triangle Inequality Theorem. 60 < p < 140. iii. When q increases. . 60 < q < 140 When p increases.
140 130 120 110 100 90 80 75 Area = 1400 2600 3600 4400 5000 5400 5600 5625 ii. Quadrilateral 2 m +2 + = 300 m² = 150 m² Area = m 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 75 The maximum area is 5625 m².PART 3 Question (a) i. Regular Pentagon tan ( ) .
5° tan ( ) v.iii. Regular Hexagon tan ( ) iv. Regular Octagon tan 67. Regular Decagon tan tan ( ) .
anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also claimed to have anti-allergenic. raw herbs. It comes in tablets. Common names in Southeast Asia are Misai Kucing (Malaysia). which is white and bluish with filaments resembling a cat's whiskers.Question (b)(i) LOCAL HERBS 1. heat them with water to make the water bitter. and is commonly used for kidney stones and nephritis. Kumis Kucing and Remujung (Indonesia). In the wild. water retention. capsules. when it was introduced to Europe as a popular herbal health tea. The scientific names are Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.5 meters. How To Cure In Malaysia. They take a few leaves. tea sachets. Medicinal Uses Orthosiphon is used for treating the ailments of the kidney. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus) Orthosiphon is a medicinal plant native to South East Asia and some parts of tropical Australia. . hypertension. diabetes. people eat the leaves raw. dried leaves or extracts. Research Orthosiphon began to interest researchers early in the 20th century. hypertension and rheumatism. It is reportedly effective for anti-fungal and anti-bacterial purposes. and then mix it with tea bags. Orthosiphon is sometimes used to treat gout. It is an herbaceous shrub which grows to a height of 1. and Yaa Nuat Maeo (Thailand). bottled drinks. Commercial products Orthosiphon is available in many products treating for detoxification. Orthosiphon is a popular garden plant because of its unique flower. Ocimum aristatum BI and Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume). obesity or kidney stones. since it has a mild diuretic effect. the plant can be seen growing in the forests and along roadsides.
illness or when the pill is discontinued Prevents cramping. Balances. A concoction made from boiling the plant in water is given to women in labour to hasten delivery of their babies. smooths menopausal symptoms and promote emotional well being. it may still be consumed by mothers to regain their strength. Firming and toning of abdominal muscles. Despite its long history of traditional use. and they are traditionally used as a kind of tea by women who experience a loss of libido. In other medicinal preparations. Helps to solve the problems related to constipation Tightens vaginal skin and walls. drive away and prevent the formation of gas. Traditionally. Prolong energy during Playtime. overcome tiredness and help to tone vaginal muscles for women. cleansing and avoiding painful or difficult menstruation Anti-flatulence. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila) Kacip fatimah (Labisa pumila) is the female version of Tongkat Ali. The claimed uses of Kacip Fatimah include: Helps establish a regular menstrual cycle when periods fail to appear for reasons like stress. dysentery and eliminate excessive gas in the body. the active components and mode of action have not been well studied. water retention and irritability for those with painful periods. it is not to be taken by pregnant women and periods of menstruation. Anti-dysmenorrhoea. . it can treat gonorrhoea. builds and harmonizes the female reproductive system to encourage healthy conception Supports healthy vaginal flora to prevent irritation and infections. Alleviates fatigue. it is used in Borneo for enhancing vitality. The leaves are about 20 centimetres long. As the plant contains phytoestrogen. Kacip Fatimah is a small woody and leafy plant that grows and can be found widely in the shade of forest floors. Uses Extract from these herbs is usually ground into powder substances and are made into capsules and pills. though some preliminary research has been published. After childbirth.2.
but want more clarity on whether the product they obtained is indeed Eurycoma longifolia or a fake. may cite only "penawar pahit" as the plant's common Malay name. coupled with a wide distribution of products using cheaper synthetic drugs in lieu of Eurycoma longifolia quassinoids. petala bumi (all the above Malay). evergreen tree growing to 15 m (49 ft) tall with spirally arranged. Quassinoids. Quassin is regarded the bitterest substance in nature. mostly shipped from the UK. It is therefore recommended that buyers of Eurycoma longifolia request from Internet vendors conclusive information. consumers who lack the sophisticated electronic tongue equipment invented in Malaysia for testing the presence of Eurycoma longifolia. on the facilities where a product has been manufactured. Older literature. Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma Longifolia) Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali or pasak bumi) is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae. to a lesser extent. the common use of Eurycoma longifolia as a food and drink additive. Products Fake Eurycoma longifolia products have been pulled off the shelves in several countries but are still sold over the Internet. 50 times more bitter . it was noted that "estimates place the proportion of counterfeit medications sold over the Internet from 44% to 90%" with remedies for sexual dysfunction accounting for the greatest share. In a medical journal article. Vietnam. published March 2010. bedara merah. are extremely bitter. In Malaysia. babi kurus (Javanese). and. 1– 2 cm long and 0. the biologically active components of Eurycoma longifolia root.3. Growth Eurycoma longifolia is a small. bedara putih. payong ali. with male and female flowers on different trees. can use their own tongue to taste the content of capsules for the bitterness of the material. pinnate leaves 20–40 cm (8–16 inches) long with 13–41 leaflets. such as a 1953 article in the Journal of Ecology. cay ba binh (Vietnamese) and tho nan (Laotian). The fruit is green ripening dark red. They are named after quassin. they are produced in large panicles. lempedu pahit. "Penawar pahit" translates simply as "bitter charm" or "bitter medicine". Thailand. bidara laut (Indonesian). each flower with 5–6 very small petals.5–1 cm broad. and proof. and Laos. penawar bias. native to Indonesia. Malaysia. muntah bumi. has led to the invention of an electronic tongue to determine the presence and concentration of genuine Eurycoma longifolia in products claiming to contain it. The flowers are dioecious. On the other hand. It is also known under the names penawar pahit. the long-isolated bitter principle of the quassia tree. tongkat baginda. Many of the common names refer to the plant's medicinal use and extreme bitterness.
but which instead are concoctions designed around illegal prescription drugs. In expectation of a competitive edge. such as acetildenafil. In February 2009. While eurycomanone is one of many quassinoids in Eurycoma longifolia. those who sell fake tongkat ali from Malaysia have resorted to using many different names for their wares. saponins. or even worse. the use of selling Eurycoma longifolia extract based on extraction ratio may be confusing and is not easily verifiable. analogues of prescription drugs that have not even been tested for safety in humans. Anything that isn't bitter. 1:50. A large number of Malaysian Eurycoma longifolia products (36 out of 100) have been shown to be contaminated with mercury beyond legally permitted limits. Libidus. Help to stimulate the production of testosterone that is one of the important hormones for male. is now sold as Maxidus. for example. and strongly so. known in ethnobotany primarily as fish poison played no role in the academic research on the plant. Traditionally Eurycoma longifolia is extracted with water and not ethanol. and 1:200 are sold. Products claiming various Eurycoma longifolia extract ratios of 1:20. some manufacturers are claiming standardization of their extract based on specific ingredients. In the US. cannot contain quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia . However. but the names of these products change quicker than the FDA can investigate them. the FDA has banned numerous products such as Libidus. . Alleged standards / markers are the glycosaponin content (35–45%) and eurycomanone (>2%). 1:100. still claiming Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali) as principal ingredient. Help to increase the blood rate and body metabolism. To avoid being hurt by bad publicity on one product name. The government of Malaysia has banned numerous fake products which use drugs like sildenafil citrate instead of tongkat ali in their capsules. the FDA warned against almost 30 illegal sexual enhancement supplements.than quinine. claiming to use Eurycoma longifolia as principal ingredient. Herbal Nutrition Increase strength of the body.
Question (b)(ii) .
The straight lines of the building‟s exterior separate as they move inward. administration offices. data center. All the other facilities of the LLC are housed within a single volume that also divides. cafeteria. becoming two separate ribbons that wind around each other to enclose this glazed gathering space.FURTHER EXPLORATION POLYGONAL BUILDINGS University of Economics and Business. Vienna The new Library & Learning Center rises as a polygonal block from the centre of the new University campus. becoming curvilinear and fluid to generate a free-formed interior canyon that serves as the central public plaza of the centre. copy shop. library. event area. Austria 2008 – 2012 28000 m2 Gross Area: 42000 m² Length: 136m Width: 76m Height: 30m (5 Floors) Zaha Hadid with Patrik Schumacher . Vienna. training classrooms. study services and central supporting services. lounges and cloakrooms. a language laboratory. book shop. clubroom and auditorium. The Center comprises a „Learning Center‟ with workplaces. The LLC‟s design takes the form of a cube with both inclined and straight edges.
the site encompasses 6 acres of land originally planned as a hillside subdivision of houses designed by Richard Neutra. the new residence takes the form of a heptagonal figure whose purity is confounded by a series of intersecting diagonal slices though space. to be constructed on the last level area. Five decades after the original house was constructed in this remote area. Inspired by geometric arrangements of interlocking polygons. An irregularly shaped void caught within these intersections creates an outdoor room at the center whose edges blur into the adjoining living spaces.Houses Micheal Maltzan Architecture 3200 SF . Located 15 miles north of Los Angeles at the edge of Angeles forest. living spaces unfold in a moiré of shifting perspectival frames from within and throughout the house. The new residence. Three level pads were created but only one house was built.Pittman Dowell Residence. Los Angeles. the city has grown around it and with it the visual and physical context has changed. Bounded by an introverted exterior. In this way. is circumscribed by the sole winding road which ends at the Serulnic house. movement and visual relationships expand and contract to respond to centrifugal nature of the site and context. USA Residential . Los Angeles The project is a residence for two artists. The current owners have over the years developed an extensive desert garden and outdoor pavilion on one of the unbuilt pads. the evolving contemporary needs of the artists required a new relationship between building and landscape that is more urban and contained. In a similar way. the 1952 Serulnic Residence.
A terrace carved out of the sloping roofline and huge cut-out in the concrete skin connects the building to city.Casa da Musica. The two one meter thick walls of the main auditorium act as internal diaphragms tying the shell together in the longitudinal direction. The square is no longer a mere hinge between the old and the new Porto. Porto. and recording studios for the Oporto National Orchestra. The structural heart of the building is formed by four massive walls that extend from the base to the roof and connect the tilted external walls with the core of the structure. plywood. rehearsal rooms. The principal materials are white concrete. a small 350 seat hall. travertine. but becomes a positive encounter of two different models of the city.300 seat concert hall. between the city's historic quarter and a working-class neighborhood. shaped like a simple shoebox. and aluminum. is enclosed at both ends by two layers of “corrugated” glass walls. Heavy concrete beams criss-cross the huge light well above.000 square meters 2005 Concert Hall Rem Koolhaas and Ellen van Loon . The chiseled sculptural form of the white concrete shell houses the main 1. Portugal 22. The main auditorium. brings diffused daylight into the auditorium. adjacent to the Rotunda da Boavista. Stairs lead from the ground level plaza to the foyer where a second staircase continues to the Main Hall and the different levels above. Porto The Casa da Musica is situated on a travertine plaza. corrugated glass. The glass. corrugated for optimal acoustics and sheer beauty.
CONCLUSION Polygons tend to be studied in the first few years of school. The use of the polygon shape reduces the quantity of materials needed to make a structure. The rectangle is used in a number of applications. due to the fact our field of vision broadly consists of a rectangle shape. The same can be said for photo frames and mobile phones screens. In conclusion. for instance. as an introduction to basic geometry and mathematics. we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of polygon. For instance. It is not just widely used in fashion design but also in other fields especially in building of modern structures. man‟s creativity will be limited. I found that the usage of polygons is important in our daily life. is often used in construction because its shape makes it comparatively strong. Another polygon is the rectangle. polygon is a daily life necessity. completing table and some problem solving. so essentially reduces costs and maximizes profits in a business environment. The triangle. answering questions. Therefore. . But after doing research. Without it. most televisions are rectangles to allow for easy and comfortable viewing.
This project had taught me to responsible on the works that are given to me to be completed. improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication. Not only that. Last but not least. I also enjoy doing this project I spend my time with friends to complete this project and it had tighten our friendship. .REFLECTION While I conducting this project. I also learned to be more discipline on time. Apart from that. I had learned some moral values that I practice. It is also encourage student to gather information from the internet. I proposed this project should be continue because it brings a lot of moral value to the student and also test the students understanding in Additional Mathematics. this project encourages the student to work together and share their knowledge. which I was given about a month to complete this project and pass up to my teacher just in time. This project also had made me felt more confidence to do works and not to give easily when we could not find the solution for the question. I have learnt how polygons appear in our daily life. a lot of information that I found.
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