IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 58, NO.

7, SEPTEMBER 2009

3661

A Performance Summary of the Evolved 3G (E-UTRA) for Voice Over Internet and Best Effort Traffic
Mika Rinne, Markku Kuusela, Esa Tuomaala, Pasi Kinnunen, István Kovács, Kari Pajukoski, and Jussi Ojala
Abstract—Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is a new technology that targets the long-term evolution (LTE) of third generation. The E-UTRA technology has recently been standardized by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as a set of (series_36) specifications. The standardization process is almost complete; this paper does not focus on comparing specific proposed schemes but instead aims to outline the system performance more in general. E-UTRA operates in the packet-switched domain; hence, all traffic is handled by the packet protocols. The analysis is shown for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Best Effort (BE) data, as these are common examples of real-time and non-real-time traffic, respectively. The performance is given in the VoIP study as the number of satisfied voice users per cell and in the BE study as the cumulative probability distribution of user (or cell) throughput, which was scaled to the spectral efficiency values, given both at the mean and at the cell edge. The VoIP capacity extends beyond 350 users in downlink and 230 users in uplink, which is a considerable increase compared with the high-speed packet-access (HSPA) reference. The BE spectral efficiency meets the 3GPP targets and yields impressive gains of order 2.5–3 times the well-performing HSPA reference. This clearly exceeds the mean of 1.5 b/s/Hz/cell in downlink and 0.8 b/s/Hz/cell in uplink for a baseline antenna configuration with penetration loss of 20 dB. In some scenarios, these mean gains exceed four times the reference. Index Terms—Cellular performance, discrete Fourier transform-spread-OFDMA (DFT-s-OFDMA), Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA), multiple access, orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA), single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA), third-generation long-term evolution (3G LTE).

method and the use of packet-switched protocols, which enable fast scheduling of resources. The selected multiple-access method enables bandwidth scaling, improvement of intracell orthogonality despite the increased symbol rates resulting from wider bandwidth, and a reduction of intersymbol interference. Furthermore, the opportunity of frequency-domain processing keeps the complexity reasonable and allows the exploitation of frequency-selective channel properties. In this paper, the performance evaluation of E-UTRA is shown for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Best Effort (BE) data according to the guidance and assumptions in [4]–[6]. The evaluation concentrates on the frequency-division duplex. The structure of this paper is as follows. The multiple-access technology and the transmitter–receiver structures are briefly described in Section II. The channels and resource allocation including frame structure, transport formats, and scheduling are addressed in Section III. The traffic scenario and simulation methodology are described in Section IV. The simulation results are presented and analyzed in Section V, and the summary is given in Section VI. II. M ULTIPLE A CCESS AND T RANSMITTER –R ECEIVER S TRUCTURES A. Downlink Technology The downlink technology [2] is based on orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA), which allows fast allocation of radio resources and orthogonal multiuser multiplexing in the frequency domain. The wideband signal is generated from modulated frequency-domain subcarrier signals using a scalable fast Fourier transform (FFT) transform. The resolution of resource allocation is a set of adjacent subcarriers that form a physical resource block (PRB). The PRBs are scheduled and flexibly allocated for user equipment (UE) in the frequency domain [flexible-frequency-domain multiplexing (FlexibleFDM)] so that any set of PRBs may be allocated to any UE as convenient. A special embodiment of the Flexible-FDM is a PRB level distributed transmission, which seeks to maximize frequency diversity, when frequency domain scheduling is not expected to gain. For a small payload (as a VoIP packet), it is further feasible to share the same set of distributed PRBs among multiple (two to three) users. The localized frequency allocations are preferred whenever frequency scheduling is expected to gain and whenever the needed payload is large. Distributed allocations are valuable for small limited payload sizes and if frequency diversity is appreciated by other means than

I. I NTRODUCTION VOLVED Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) technology [1], [2] aims to improve third generation (3G) by meeting a new set of significantly increased target requirements in [3]. The improvements include, e.g., a new multiple-access
Manuscript received March 2, 2008; revised October 27, 2008 and January 7, 2009. First published February 3, 2009; current version published August 14, 2009. The review of this paper was coordinated by Prof. W. Zhuang. M. Rinne, M. Kuusela, and J. Ojala are with Nokia, Itämerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki, Finland (e-mail: mika.p.rinne@nokia.com; markku.kuusela@nokia.com). E. Tuomaala is with Nokia, Economic and Technological Development Area, Beijing 100176, China. P. Kinnunen and K. Pajukoski are with Nokia Siemens Networks, FI-90630 Oulu, Finland. I. Kovács is with Nokia Siemens Networks, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark. Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2009.2014457

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Signal processing blocks are shown including the CP extension in the transmitter and CP removal in the receivers. N = 2048. a lower PAPR will increase coverage. 75. NO. (1)]. where k (−) = k + NBW /2 . VOL.g. The numerology is given in [2] and has been designed to allow signal generation by a 2kpoint FFT with a subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz and a PRB of 12 subcarriers. e. which increases the battery active time. However. or 64QAM and up to two independent symbol streams in the presence of imperfect power control. phase noise. The granularity of distributed allocations is coarser than that of the localized allocations.l · ej2πkΔf (t−NCP. 1. while still preserving a single-carrier waveform and.l Ts ) (p) (p) + k=1 ak(+) . (p) The time-continuous signal Sl (t) on antenna port p in OFDM symbol l in a downlink slot is defined in [2. The uplink signal may be created by a cascade of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and inverse FFT. The signal-processing blocks of SC-FDMA transmitters and a receiver for multiuser uplink transmission are shown in Fig. which is also known as DFT-spread-OFDMA (DFT-s-OFDMA). 2. the bandwidths of {6. eq. and ak. SEPTEMBER 2009 Fig. 58. 1. which provides excellent performance due to intracell orthogonality in the frequency domain comparable to that of OFDMA multicarrier transmission. The timecontinuous signal waveform of OFDM is given in [2.. the bandwidth adaptation allows shortterm bandwidth sharing between multiple users with resource (p) −1 ak(−) . hence. At least. l) on antenna port p.25–20 MHz are available in the specifications. in the uplink.l Ts ) (1) . [10]). eq.l is the complex value content of resource element (k. NBW = NPRB NSC . allows emitting the UE power in a very narrow bandwidth. The bandwidth efficiency is about 0. This will yield a sufficiently high SNR to modulate either by quadrature phase shift keying. Uplink Technology The uplink technology [2] is based on single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA). the benefits of a lower peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) compared with OFDMA [8]. compared with a spread-spectrum transmission of 5 MHz (wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) [9]. B. (1)] as Sl (t) = DL k=− NBW /2 DL NBW /2 DL for 0 ≤ t < (NCP. The bandwidth adaptation.l · ej2πkΔf (t−NCP. OFDMA transmitter–receiver (TX–RX) structure for E-UTRA downlink. 15. while keeping the computational complexity at a reasonable level. the power amplifier backoff can be decreased.9 with filtering. 100} PRBs in the range of 1. The time-continuous signal waveform of SC-FDMA is given in [2. and RF imperfections [7]. due to the lower PAPR. As the linear range of the UE transmission power for a practical power amplifier is constrained. 50. frequency-adaptive scheduling. Further definitions for precoding up to four symbol streams have been included in the specifications. The uplink numerology is comparable to the downlink numerology.l + N ) × Ts . The signal processing blocks of orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter and receivers for a multiuser downlink transmission are shown in Fig. The subcarrier spacing was selected to allow for Doppler tolerance over a large range of UE velocities. Further. This scheme allows scaling of the system bandwidth to the needs of an operator. 16QAM. but for each of the supported modulation alphabets and code rate sets as well. k (p) the subcarrier spacing is Δf = 15 kHz. Front-end (FE) processing includes filtering and high-power/low-noise amplifiers and RF/antenna sections. The layer mapping and the precoding stages add the possibility of multiantenna transmission. not only at the cell edge. eq. (2)]. which extends the coverage. 7. (+) DL DL DL PRB = k + NBW /2 − 1.3662 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. 25.

3. (2)] as UL NBW /2 −1 III. eq. Sl (t) = UL k=− NBW /2 ak(−) . where r1 ≥ 0. each of which contains 12 or 14 symbol blocks. and maximizing the bandwidth usage. load sharing. NBW takes values that are multiples of the PRB . The time-continuous signal Sl (t) in SC-FDMA symbol l in an uplink slot is defined in [2. The symbol blocks (control/data/pilot) are time multiplexed. r2 ≥ 0. and the resource allocations are frequency multiplexed. The signal processing blocks are shown including the CP extension in the transmitters and the CP removal in the receiver. C HANNELS AND R ESOURCE A LLOCATION A. and ak. E-UTRA frame structure. The principle of keeping the signal orthogonal in OFDMA is to let the cyclic prefix (CP) be at least as long as the maximum delay dispersion of the channel so that interference from the previous symbol block is attenuated for the following symbol block. FE processing includes filtering and high-power/low-noise amplifiers and RF/antenna sections.: PERFORMANCE OF THE EVOLVED 3G (E-UTRA) FOR VOICE OVER INTERNET AND BE TRAFFIC 3663 Fig. Fig.l Ts ) (2) UL for 0 ≤ t < (NCP. The subframe is shown with 14 symbol blocks due to the normal CP length. 3 and consists of ten subframes. Thus. SC-FDMA transmitter–receiver (TX–RX) structure for E-UTRA uplink. 2. 3. 5} so that UL NBW = 2r1 3r2 5r3 · NSC . the subcarrier spacing is Δf = 15 kHz.RINNE et al. and r3 > 0. depending on the choice of cyclic signal extension (prefix) between the symbol blocks. where N = 2048. l). Frame Structure The E-UTRA frame structure is shown in Fig.l is the complex value content of resource UL element (k. PRB size of NSC and can be expressed as radix {2. NBW = UL PRB NPRB NSC determines the ATB. adaptive transmission bandwidth (ATB) is valuable in terms of coverage extension.l + N ) × Ts . allocations ranging from the minimum bandwidth of a PRB to the maximum available bandwidth.l · ej2π(k+1/2)Δf (t−NCP.

the non-datadependent control signaling is transmitted in the physical uplink control channel (PUCCH). the UE transmit power is separately controlled for PUSCH. f (i) is the closed-loop power control adjustment based on the power control command received from PDCCH with a delay of about 3 ms. The prefix isolation of the symbol blocks maintains the cyclic convolution properties of the signal in a dispersed channel and allows frequency-domain processing in the receiver.. the resources are code multiplexed. The remaining symbols in the subframe carry the physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) for data. PDSCH contains the physical resource allocations in the resolution of PRBs with frequency multiplexing between users. and the link adaptation algorithm selects a proper transport format. encoding. In Fig. provide short-term channel-dependent gains and self-adaptation of the operation points. in addition to DMRS. Resource Allocation Similarly. Resource allocations for downlink and uplink are decided in E-UTRAN NodeB (eNB) that is the base station of the E-UTRA network. The packet scheduler allocates physical (PRB) resources at a subframe resolution. as well as Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) retransmissions. To maintain single-carrier properties. sync marks the OFDMA subcarrier resources in the central portion of the bandwidth that carry the primary and secondary synchronization sequences in the last two symbol positions of the first slot in subframes #0 and #5. The physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) is frequency multiplexed between the UE transmissions in the resolution of PRBs. However. 7. e. Each PDCCH contains scheduling and allocation information for either the downlink or the uplink. a sounding reference symbol (SRS) may be transmitted in a subframe common symbol position with a UE-specific periodicity of {2. SEPTEMBER 2009 To support a wide range of delay spreads without sacrificing the spectral efficiency. The normal prefix (on the order of 5 μs) is for channels with a short delay spread. The number of PUCCHs per cell is configured by a higher-layer protocol. encoding. VOL. or scheduling requests. scheduling. When UE has data allocation. acknowledgements of the downlink packets. α is the cell-specific parameter for fractional path loss compensation. 10. For scheduling decisions. 3. The signaling bits of UE inside one PUCCH are modulated on orthogonal sequences. and demodulation. B. The first symbols of every subframe contain a number of physical downlink control channels (PDCCHs). frequency domain equalization (FDE) is known to be much less complex than time-domain equalization when the bandwidth extends beyond 5 MHz. This allows encoding of non-data-dependent downlink acknowledgements and CQI reports to the same PUSCH as the actual uplink data. non-datadependent signaling is time multiplexed with the uplink data into the PRBs of the PUSCH to maintain the single-carrier property. . PUCCH. Every symbol block of the PUSCH subframe carries demodulation reference symbols (DMRS) for channel estimation. 5. equalization. Resource allocation in a PDCCH refers to the current downlink subframe and to the fourth uplink subframe. in subframe #0. and multiplexing). 16. System information is present. The fast HARQ process cycles are depicted in [11]. time multiplexing is applied between the control resources and the shared data resources in every subframe. The uplink power control is analyzed in [12]. For a PUSCH transmission in subframe i. This defines the number of HARQ processes to eight and leaves 3-ms processing time for eNB (decoding. The new resource allocation for the next data (new data or a retransmission) will appear in the eighth subframe. and P L is the path loss estimate. two alternatives of CP lengths have been defined. and multiplexing) and 3 ms minus timing advance time for UE processing (decoding. respectively. In the downlink. an acknowledgement bit of a downlink packet from one UE is mapped to a zero autocorrelation (ZAC) sequence in the frequency domain and is block-wise spread (Hadamard) in the time domain. .g. A PUCCH may carry timemultiplexed channel quality indication (CQI) reports. and SRS. 20. only an adjacent set of PRBs can be allocated to one UE. two transport blocks of independent transport formats are modulated to the same physical resources in that subframe. P0_PUSCH is the UE specific component set by a higherlayer protocol. Adaptive modulation and coding. each set of PRBs allocated to one UE carries a single transport block (TB) of a selected transport format. frequency multiplexing is applied between the control resources and the shared data resources in every subframe. In case UE does not have data allocation. . and it is valid for the selected transport format MCS(i) in subframe i. ΔMCS (MCS(i)) is the MCS-dependent power offset set by a higher-layer protocol for the serving cell. The transport format defines a given modulation alphabet and a channel code rate from a set of modulation and coding schemes (MCSs).. . . Inside each PUCCH. in downlink and uplink. NO. which is typical for large cells and macrocellular environments. and it may be transmitted over a given narrow band of {4. Layer 2 protocol processing. . In particular. 12. and each PUCCH reserves two PRBs. MPUSCH (i) is the number of allocated PRBs. which is typical for small urban cells and microcellular environments. 360} ms. In the uplink. The extended prefix (on the order of 17 μs) is for channels with a longer delay spread. In case of a dualcodeword multistream transmission [multiple input–multiple output (MIMO)]. the transmit power (in dBm) is set by an MCS-dependent open-loop value adjusted by a closed-loop correction [11] given as PPUSCH (i) = min {Pmax . 58.} PRBs or over the full bandwidth.. 8. Again. Layer 2 protocol processing. SRS transmission in the frequency domain is also configurable per UE. the frequency scheduling and the multiuser channel sharing are fundamental performance gain mechanisms for E-UTRA. 10 lg (MPUSCH (i)) + P0_PUSCH + α · P L + ΔMCS (MCS(i)) + f (i)} (3) where Pmax is the maximum allowed transmit power for that UE power class. which is separately encoded.3664 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. the allocated PRBs may have a frequency shift (a hop) between the slots of a subframe. For uplink transmission.

Spatial multiplexing is created as a dual-codeword transmission. [20]. Robust header compression (ROHC) [18] can actually reduce the size of networking headers to the minimum and achieve maximal efficiency. Thus. namely. BE Data Scenario With MIMO The downlink performance of E-UTRA may further be improved by MIMO transmission technology. which enables a scheduling choice of large transport block sizes. For RTP/UDP. VoIP with small transport block sizes and lengthy interarrival times does not largely gain from MIMO. The RR scheduler equally allocates resources in the time–frequency sequential order. Multiantenna Transmission and Reception E-UTRA transmission in a single cell is orthogonal in both time and frequency. the RR results are mainly presented for calibration purposes.RINNE et al. The simulation scenario and the assumptions are summarized in Tables I–III. and the diversity order has to be increased instead. or to unequally weight the throughput of logical channel flows. T RAFFIC S CENARIO AND S IMULATION M ETHODOLOGY A. the scheduler may impact efficiency. and transmission of multiple information streams from several antennas can be exploited. In case the channel rank or SINR suddenly changes. The PF scheduler allocates resources in the frequency resolution of a PRB and in the time resolution of a subframe. where SINR is higher. and header compression is recommended. For PARC and precoded MIMO. As voice frames have a fairly deterministic interarrival process. but they can be compressed to the minimum at the radio access without any complexity. as the offered capacity is large.: PERFORMANCE OF THE EVOLVED 3G (E-UTRA) FOR VOICE OVER INTERNET AND BE TRAFFIC 3665 C. two types of schedulers were chosen to be analyzed. the system performance largely depends on the packet-scheduling algorithms [22]–[24]. the multistream transmission may no longer be feasible. However. The CQI feedback per fractional bandwidth allows both rank adaptation and independent selection of MCS per codeword [13]. particularly if the network load is low. VoIP Scenario Packet transmission of voice is expected to gradually replace the circuit-switched voice connections due to the flexible and cost-efficient delivery of packets over the Internet. Such a criterion may be tuned to gain in the average cell throughput. Both for the increase of diversity order and as an enabler for multistream transmission.a. This is particularly viable for BE traffic. the transport protocol is the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) [15]. because it may decide to bundle individual VoIP packets within the delay constraints to the same transport block.k. The TCP/IP networking headers are large. Thus. where precoding applies per codeword over the layered mapping of symbols. which includes the application port numbers. which is based on CQI feedback from the UE [13]. but does not provide retransmissions [like Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)]. In a microcell scenario. linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) receivers are separately used for the independent streams. the MIMO schemes include a well-known perantenna rate control (PARC) [25] and a precoded MIMO.e.. and the communication flows of different traffic types can efficiently be multiplexed. For RTP. the resource al- location scheme may use persistent knowledge of scheduling events as an alternative of fully dynamic (FD) scheduling [19]. and it may optimize the physical resource allocations for that transport block size. For diversity transmission. B. The multiantenna transmission is provided as a precoded layered transmission. BE Data Scenario Packet transmission of BE data over the Internet includes TCP and IP. and the PF results show the expected E-UTRA performance. resulting in a large probability of high signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the receiver. D. In this paper. when the load increases. talk-spurt persistency seems to be the most appropriate choice [21]. Unlike the BE traffic. Transmit diversity is created as a single codeword transmission. to boost the cell edge throughput. rank adaptation. IV. This is achieved by channel-dependent MIMO adaptation. environments with high channel rank are more probable (several large eigenvalues may exist above the SINR floor). where the number of layers is bounded by the number of antenna ports. the large overhead is not tolerable. The assumptions for traffic and protocol . in a wideband transmission as E-UTRA. However. C. A single codeword rank 1 precoding scheme [2] provides a fallback mode whenever multistream transmission is occasionally not feasible and diversity transmission is needed. As the E-UTRA system targets at serving packet traffic. a. the Internet protocol [16]. maximal ratio combining (MRC) receiver or interference rejection combining (IRC) receiver is applied. This paper primarily studies large cell sizes. to balance the throughput experienced by the served UEs. which includes format descriptions and time stamps of the coded voice frame. Simulation Methodology This paper aims to show the performance numbers of E-UTRA for the most typical traffic profiles. In this paper. A multistream MIMO transmission has the potential of increasing the instantaneous peak data rates. where rank adaptation is an essential feature. a round robin (RR) scheduler and a proportional fair (PF) channel-dependent scheduler. [17] is applied for end-to-end routing. Furthermore. a dual-antenna receiver in the UE is essential. every packet of voice over Internet service contains large networking headers compared to the relative size of the voice payload. typically carrying a phoneme. i. this is not a major problem. The voice frames that are output from the codec are delivered by the real-time transmission protocol (RTP) [14]. In this paper. which is moderately jittered by the Internet. where precoding applies over the layered mapping of symbols. MIMO could provide even larger gains. so that each UE gets resource allocations according to a defined fairness criterion. Among such persistent allocation schemes. The RTP/UDP/IP protocol overhead decreases the efficiency and impacts the capacity and coverage of the radio access. VoIP and BE data.

These channel state changes include not only frequency-selective fast fading but changes of correlation and phase information of the complex channel as well. a simple two-state voice activity model was used. a talk-spurt is generated with a sequence of voice packets having a constant interarrival time and a constant size after header compression. and its shortterm variations are not taken into account. The frequency reuse factor is 1. this is taken into account as control channel limitations as the number of PDCCHs available in a subframe. SEPTEMBER 2009 TABLE I SUMMARY OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE S YSTEM S IMULATION S CENARIO TABLE II SUMMARY OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE D OWNLINK S IMULATIONS models are given in Table IV. In addition. and scaling for the real expected overhead is done by postprocessing. or it appears as resource reservation for PUCCH so that CQI reports. For the voice-inactive state. silence descriptor (SID) packets are generated. yet each snapshot has a continuous-time model to include a sufficient amount of channel state changes for link adaptation. 7. Link adaptation and MCS selection algorithms target the largest instantaneous throughput in the allocated resources as a function of SINR and expected block error rate (BLER). For BE traffic.3666 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. NO. scheduling. The quasi-static approach allows a large number of snapshot simulations. and scheduling requests can be transmitted for all the served UEs. The short-term variations . During the voice-active state. 58. and transport format selection. interference changes during a snapshot. For VoIP traffic. The statistics is collected from a set of center cells of the simulation area or alternatively from all cells with wraparound to ensure rich interference characteristics. which makes scheduling and resource allocation a challenging task. VOL. More detailed descriptions can be found in [4]–[6]. downlink acknowledgements. The outer loop of link adaptation may locally tune the MCS se- lection thresholds and also the expected BLER target of the first transmission of a transport block to increase the cell throughput. For BE. the worst-case overhead is assumed during the simulations. Control channel resource utilization is analyzed relative to the resource allocations by calculating the PDCCH formats [2] and their aggregation on average. For VoIP. Uplink signaling is calculated as the overhead that is present in PUSCH. The simulation methodology uses a quasi-static approach with intercell interference generated by full load packet traffic in a simulated area. infinite buffer model was applied with a log-normal truncated file-size distribution. The overhead scaling is in the resolution of OFDM symbols.

The power factor P0 is varied as a parameter. In uplink simulations. This definition lets us assume an end-to-end delay below 200 ms for seamless mobile-to-mobile communications [6]. open-loop power control is very inaccurate at discontinuity. A VoIP user is defined satisfied if 98% of the packet latency distribution of that user is at or below 50 ms. [5] was applied.2.e. 0. having fractional path-loss compensation. Further. as HARQ provides further adaptation to the channel dynamics. For power control in downlink simulations. i. whereas the link performance is fed to the system simulator either through the exponential effective SNR mapping (EESM) interface [26] or through the actual value interface (AVI). including spatial antenna correlations that were calculated beforehand to the channel covariance matrix. and it scales with the allocated bandwidth. 0. the transmit power is equally shared between the PRBs. For BE data. power control is an ideal open-loop algorithm. The fairness bound to exceed was given at points {0.. The number of served VoIP users per cell is analyzed to give comparable results to the circuit-switched voice capacity in conventional systems. respectively. shadowing. This closed-loop power correction may be an absolute or an accumulated control.RINNE et al. The power setting is accurate. 0. The VoIP capacity is a measure of the number of users per cell according to the satisfied user criterion (SUC).: PERFORMANCE OF THE EVOLVED 3G (E-UTRA) FOR VOICE OVER INTERNET AND BE TRAFFIC 3667 TABLE III SUMMARY OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE U PLINK S IMULATIONS TABLE IV SUMMARY OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE TRAFFIC MODELS AND PROTOCOLS and error performance of uplink signaling are not taken into account. The propagation characteristics of a physical link.1. which assumes path loss measurements with inaccuracy and reporting delay (both given in Tables II and III). the spatial channel model (SCM-C) [4]. when 98% (95%) of the users are satisfied.2. and frequencyselective fast fading. . For scheduling.5} of the normalized throughput for probability of {0.5}. and it is shown to have an impact on the cell edge to the cell mean efficiency ratio (see Section V). 0. and it will result in accurate-enough power setting. it controls the power spectral density. Both the mean cell throughput and the cell edge (5 percentile) throughput were calculated from the statistics and scaled to the spectral efficiency values. such as distance-dependent path loss. a fairness criterion was set.1. however. The Third-Generation Partnership Project Typical Urban channel model (3GPP TU) with 20 taps was applied for training the EESM interface in subcarrier symbol resolution. are modeled in the system simulator. In practice. and closed-loop power control correction may additionally be given at every instance of uplink allocation. the statistics are created as cumulative probability density functions (cdfs). The power setting at a transmit time is a function of the selected MCS.

E-UTRA S YSTEM P ERFORMANCE FOR VoIP AND BE T RAFFIC For VoIP. For BE. and correlation. which is critical for cell edge throughput. The consumption of control channel resources varies as a function of the scheduler. With packet bundling.3668 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. The capacity can instantaneously be limited either by the shared data channel or by the control channel resources (power or symbol resources). In these tabular results. VOL. having about four to six signaled allocations in a downlink subframe and about four to eight signaled allocations in an uplink subframe. which increases the average PDSCH utilization to 70%. This is enabled by the fast CQI-based link adaptation. and the uplink SRS overhead was moderated to practical values. whereas the uplink capacity may decrease over 10%. delay critical packets can be scheduled earlier. which contains the distribution (cdf) of the scheduled PRBs per subframe with six PDCCH channels. therefore. the control signaling need was slightly unbalanced. we see that the IRC receiver algorithms particularly gain in the lowSINR regime. V. and 120 km/h at 10% probability. depending on the scheduler. the control channel limitation can partly be avoided by packet bundling. and. Earlier studies of this kind appear in [28]–[31]. the received subcarrier-powerto-interference-power ratio is slightly lower over the full .) Looking at the throughput statistics. the control channel limitations mainly vanish. 58. the E-UTRA capacity is summarized in Table V. The modified model refers to the wideband properties of the channel providing a large number of taps. However. This is a considerable increase compared to a reference system reported in [27]. In all these schemes. where high velocity may appear in practice. The results were obtained both for an FD scheme and for a semipersistent (SP) scheme. Due to control channel limitations. after 8 ms of HARQ cycle. The packet delay distribution (cdf) using different schedulers is shown in Fig.) As the velocity of the mobile UE is expected to impact the scheduling and feedback. 30 km/h at 30%. a study was conducted to draft the performance degradation in case.e. 7. Comparing the schedulers. The control channel capacity is flexible up to the upper bound of three full symbols. This obviously saves control channel resources. For the SP scheduler. In here. which shows that the VoIP capacity with SP scheduler tends to mainly be limited by the PDSCH resources. The scenario had to further be extended to a large intersite distance (ISD). but packet retransmissions are scheduled. the baseline results are shown for a twoantenna receiver and for the selected MIMO transmission schemes. 4(a). the average PDSCH utilization for the SP scheduler gets even higher (above 90%). Bundling itself adds delays in cumulation of 20 ms. we note that the performance of the FD scheduler gets limited by the control channel resources. because larger transport blocks can be allocated to small physical resources during good channel conditions. The FD scheme relies on CQI feedback and efficient scheduling of the frequency resources. as the first packets are directly scheduled into the reserved resources. and a numerical summary is available in [32]. NO. therefore. The results indicate that the VoIP capacity with FD scheduler increases almost linearly as a function of the increasing number of PDCCH channels. the results are created with a full set of radio resource management (RRM) features. In addition to the scheduling and allocation schemes. The tolerable time constraints of scheduling are bound by the SUC (50 ms). control channel limitations are relaxed. 7 and Table VII for uplink. On the other hand. the downlink control channel overhead was taken according to the realistic expectations. where the mixed-velocity links are present during simulation. 5 and 6 and Table VI for downlink and in Fig. the VoIP capacity largely depends on E-UTRA features and properties such as the control channel overhead and signaling efficiency. retransmissions are scheduled at the earliest convenience. and the packet delay distribution is smooth. As regards the channel models. The actual scenario had a random choice of link property for each radio link so that the velocity was 3 km/h at 60%. the average PDSCH utilization with FD scheduler is only 40%. The specification and simulation models are updated since. The fairness bound is shown with the normalized throughput curves as a probability line that needs to be exceeded. For downlink. Due to severe control channel limitations. SEPTEMBER 2009 TABLE V VoIP CAPACITY AS THE NUMBER OF SATISFIED USERS PER CELL. i.. and. 4(b). and their transport format is selected to be similar to the FD allocations. and they were scaled to the spectral efficiency values. and the new results are given in Figs. The VoIP capacity of E-UTRA extends beyond 350 users in downlink and beyond 230 users in uplink for ISD up to 1000 m. The transport format of the first transmissions is set constant for the duration of a talk-spurt [19]–[21]. Control channel limitation to the VoIP capacity with FD scheduler is also visible in Fig. The SP scheme has nonscheduled blind constant allocations for every first transmission of a packet. a set of modified ITU models (PedB and VehA) [5] were used. Packet bundling was optionally applied here for the downlink. frequency selectivity. the amount of packets having delays close to the delay bound (50 ms) is clearly higher for the FD scheduler. Increasing the ISD from 500 to 1000 m shows that the downlink performance remains the same. (The cdf curves are on the right side of the fairness bound. EVALUATION WITH FD AND SP SCHEDULER (UPLINK MEAN IoT WAS ABOUT 13–14 dB. The mean cell throughput and the cell edge throughput are calculated from the full statistics.

Fig. High throughput is primarily achieved by the receiver algorithms. which converts to slightly lower reported throughput values. (c) Modulation and coding statistics. The full distributions show high-throughput observations for all users. 5.RINNE et al. schedulers. . Downlink 1 × 2 results with PF channel-dependent scheduler with MRC and IRC receivers. 4. and adaptation algorithms. link adaptation seems to provide MCS selection over a large set of transport formats. and the fairness bound is clearly exceeded. (a) User goodput with the lowest 20 percentile zoomed. (a) Number of scheduled PRBs per subframe and (b) the packet delay. (b) User goodput normalized to the geometric mean. VoIP distributions with FD and SP schedulers. According to Fig. range for the SCM model compared to the TU model. 5. The results with the fully dynamic scheduler are shown without (w/o) and with (w) packet bundling.: PERFORMANCE OF THE EVOLVED 3G (E-UTRA) FOR VOICE OVER INTERNET AND BE TRAFFIC 3669 Fig.

the cell edge performance may easily be sacrificed by inappropriate parameterization. Throughout all the cell throughput results. because the scheduling gains at that velocity are significant. in the selected large-cell scenario. gains of order 250%–300% were obtained. This is doable by allocating PRBs with large frequency spacing according to the Flexible-FDM scheme or to frequency shift (hop) PRB allocations between consequent transmission instances. 7). this is still not as dramatic as it gets for the large ISD shown later [see the mixed velocity case in Fig. TABLE VI DOWNLINK SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY AT THE MEAN AND AT THE CELL EDGE FOR VARIOUS MULTIANTENNA CONFIGURATIONS. Typically. SEPTEMBER 2009 Fig. the performance may further be improved by MIMO. The results are shown in Fig. we observed the mean IoT of about 14 dB with less than 3-dB deviation. The latter mechanism applies for the uplink as well. Performance at 3 km/h still dominates these results. and it can be seen as the upper bound of performance in Table VI. the channel coherence time is so short that it is not reasonable try to do channel-dependent scheduling at all. (b) Effective received SINR for the scheduled PRBs with the selected MCS shown for the highest SINR regime (above 80 percentile) when the dual-codeword transmission was actually applied. multistream MIMO schemes were omitted. the increased overhead (in uplink) of feedback (for downlink). For a small ISD (we had P0 close to −60 dB). MIMO only provided marginal average gains. It was observed that by tuning the algorithms and MCS selection thresholds. will partly mitigate the achievable gains. In these studies. it is better to save in feedback and blindly schedule for maximal frequency diversity. 8(c) for the large intersite . to the throughput. There. the power control setpoint clearly impacts the cell edge to cell mean ratio. Further in the uplink. as shown in Fig.05. The operation regime was selected following the guidelines of loading in [33]. the receiver diversity gains achievable by the increase of the number of antenna elements in the eNB are notably large. For BE in the mixed-velocity case. the 4 × 4 MIMO scheme had more ideal assumptions than the other schemes. where a larger proportion of users will benefit from multistream transmissions due to higher SINR distribution. For uplink. the average gains would be much higher. where the effective received SINR of the scheduled PRBs indicates the probability of the dual codeword being actually in use for the selected transport format. as well as the inaccuracy of reports. Anyway. that is. However. Downlink 2 × 2 results. 6(b). 8(c)].or four-antenna receiver (see Fig.3670 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. a subset of transmission schemes and receivers are reported to show the relative performance loss. Further. 7(c) for the applicability of adaptive modulation and coding. The statistics of MCS selected per transport block are shown in Fig. AND RR/PF SCHEDULERS When comparing the E-UTRA baseline performance with the reference. NO. not to exceed the Interference over Thermal noise (IoT) level 20 dB by a probability larger than 0. scheduling gains can only be obtained by fairly accurate and fast CQI feedback (for downlink) or accurate channel sounding measurements (for uplink). hence. it is feasible to increase the cell edge performance with a minor impact on the mean. 6. Thus. 58. For this criterion. For 120 km/h. As the target here was not to reach the highest of all mixed-velocity performance but rather to study the relative performance loss. VOL. the baseline results are shown for a singleantenna transmitter and for a two. as discussed earlier. in a microcell scenario. As stated. (a) User goodput normalized to the geometric mean with the lowest 20 percentile zoomed. Performance at about 30 km/h is critical. On the contrary. PF channel-dependent scheduling gains are significant. MRC/IRC RECEIVERS. 7. 8 for both downlink and uplink. the uplink cell edge efficiency is one of the most critical measures of system performance. where the amount of users who have any benefit from the multistream transmission was modestly around 30%. This is visible in Fig. The large intersite distance set for the mixed velocity analysis will as such imply severe limitations to the observed SINR and. as the channel-dependent scheduling may still gain over a blind diversity transmission. However. and gains are particularly favored in that regime.

decreasing the power control setpoint is well motivated to generate lower IoT (the mean IoT was about 2. VI. (b) Cell throughput normalized to the geometric mean. Setting P0 larger will cause a larger IoT (the mean IoT was about 6 dB). However. The signaling overhead remains a critical issue. [28]–[30]. These means have further potential to improve the results. 7. However. Uplink 1 × 2 and 1 × 4 results with RR and PF channel-dependent schedulers. the performance-versus-overhead tradeoff was not yet optimized for different velocities. S UMMARY In this paper. and capacity of the signaling channels and their dynamic formats can be studied in further detail. During .: PERFORMANCE OF THE EVOLVED 3G (E-UTRA) FOR VOICE OVER INTERNET AND BE TRAFFIC 3671 Fig. the loss was larger (around 30%) due to the nonoptimal sounding feedback.6% to 9%) in downlink. (a) Cell throughput. AND RR/PF SCHEDULERS these studies. particularly for the mixedvelocity scenario. FDE/MRC RECEIVERS.RINNE et al. on the contrary has been maintained or even improved. (c) Modulation and coding statistics. The results for E-UTRA were shown to exceed the targets. further algorithmic improvements are foreseen. but they need not have an impact to the standard specification. coverage. and neither was the ATB exploited to the full extent. TABLE VII UPLINK SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY AT THE MEAN AND AT THE CELL EDGE FOR VARIOUS MULTIANTENNA CONFIGURATIONS. In the uplink. The high performance is evidently shown by the extensive simulation studies reported in this paper. which allows an increase of the cell mean efficiency with the expense of the cell edge. distance. an update on the performance evaluation of E-UTRA transmission technology has been given for the VoIP and BE traffic scenarios. the dominance of 3-km/h links kept the loss of spectral efficiency small (from 2. and [32] has not been compromised along the process but. and that shall be kept minimized. which significantly increased the cell edge efficiency with only a moderate impact to the cell mean. in the case of larger cells. In the overall mixed-velocity results. it was necessary to verify that the high performance expected in [3]. Since the standard specification work for E-UTRA is near completion for the first approved version of the standard. The efficiency.2 dB). which were set in [3] relative to the highspeed packet-access (HSPA) reference in [32].

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His background is in the research of multiple-access methods. Visuri.

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