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Unive r s i d a d

Na c i o n a l

de L o j a

Instituto de Idiomas

Editor and Project Manager :

Sandra Janneth Ochoa de Maldonado.

English Workshop II The will leads you to the way

L oj a - Ec u a d o r

UNIT 3: Great inventions from the past

GREAT INVENTIONS FROM THE PAST, BRING COMFORT TO OUR PRESENT


Along the time, inventions have become great improvements that have bring us comfort, save time and in some cases short distances; these inventions have changed the way we do things. For instance in old days life was slow, people used to walk or ride carriages to get somewhere, there were no phones , among others. In the following paragraphs you will see how some inventions have changed our lives. The Chinese invented paper and printing, and afterwards the paper money, umbrellas, wheelbarrows, rockets, brandy and whiskey, and chess, gunpowder, the abacus-called suanpan.
gunpowder-fireworks a picture taken from www.inventors.about.com

Vocabulary
comfort: when you feel
physically relaxed, happy. someone or something that helps you feel happier or less worried

improvement:

when something becomes better than it was.

save time: use less time,


money, energy etc, so that you do not waste any.

a picture taken from


www.abacus.ca

The abacus is a mechanical device used for counting. Its an ancient instrument that performs addition, multiplication, and division, extract square roots and cube roots. Skilled users of the abacus are like lightningfast calculators.

change:

to become different, or to make someone or something become different.

slow:

The number and variety of inventions made by the Chinese over the centuries is a powerful testament to their practicality and ability to think logically. Josephine Cochran invented the first practical dishwasher. In 1950s, that dishwashers caught on with the general public. Josephine Cochran's machine was a hand-operated mechanical dishwasher. She founded a company to manufacture these dish washers, which eventually became Kitchen Aid. The first fax machine was invented by Scottish mechanic and inventor Alexander Bain. To fax or faxing is by definition "a method of encoding data, transmitting it over a telephone line or radio broadcast, and receiving a hard copy of the text, line drawings, or photographs at a remote location. The technology for fax machines was invented a long time, however, fax machines did not become popular with consumers until the 1980s.

not moving happening quickly. used for purpose. a

or

device: a machine or tool


particular

perform: to do something
such as a job or piece of work.

wheelbarrows: an open
container with one wheel and two handles that you use outdoors to carry things, especially in the garden.

modern fax machine A picture taken from www.inventors.about.c om

dishwasher:
machine dishes. that

a washes

Look at these pictures and see how different life was in the past.

running water / wooden tubs

1. People didnt have running water. (running water= comes from the
faucet) They took baths in wooden tubs.

wooden tubs
(a picture from www.bensonsimport.com)

electric lights / candles 2. People didnt have electric lights. They burned candles.

Candlelight (a picture from


shandadodd.theworldrace. org)

stoves / over a fire.

3. People didn't have stoves. They cooked over a fire.

cooking over fire


( pictures from www. flickr.com and beifan.com

cars / horses 4. People didnt have cars or gas power. They rode horses, and later carriages.

Carriage
(a picture from www.copyright-freepictures.org )

phones / in person

5. People didn't have phones. They had to talk in person.( face-to-face)

face-to-face

Cds / gramophones

Gramophones
Wooden Gramophone With A Handle And Golden Horn Playing Music From A Record

6. People didn't have tapes or Cds on the computer to listen to music. They listened to music on gramophones.

Abacus / calculator

7. People didnt have calculators to performs addition, multiplication, and division. They used abacus to performs addition, multiplication, and division.

Chinese abacus.

SIMPLE PAST WITH REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS


Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

Past The Simple Past Tense of regular verbs:Spelling rules THE RULES FOR REGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST ARE THE FOLLOWING.
1) Add ed to the simple form of most regular verbs. Example: work = worked want =wanted I worked overtime yesterday. 2) verbs ending in 'e' add only d. Example: love = loved
change arrive like =changed =arrived =liked

3) verbs ending in -y preceded by a consonant, change y for i and add + ed Example: study = studied try = tried carry =carried worry =worried Lorena studied Chinese two years ago. 4) With verbs of 1 syllable which end in consonant + vowel + consonant, double the last letter. Example: stop = stopped plan =planned hug =hugged Note: the letters w x and y at the end of the words are considered vowels, so do not double the last consonant row play mix bow = rowed = played = mixed = bowed

Pronunciation Rules of ed ending. The final sounds for regular verbs in the past tense are /t/ /d/, and /id/
1. -ed is pronounced /d/ after voiced sounds:(a, e, i, o, u, b, g, , r, l, z, m, n,r, , , , v, and z) Examples: played lived pulled - learned (p/ k/ f/ s/ sh/ ch, , and )

-ed is pronounced /t / after voiceless sounds: Examples: Examples: -ed is pronounced /id/ after /t / or / d/

stopped worked watched passed. wanted needed omitted -permitted

EXAMPLES :

Final sound -ed is pronounced /d/ after voiced sounds.

1. Its winter. The ground is white because it snowed yesterday. [snOd] 2. The window was open. Mr, Carson closed it because it was cold outside. [klOzd]

Final -ed is pronounced /t/ after voiceless sounds. Judged, lived, bathed, rubbed, hummed, massaged, occurred, missed, laughed, wished

1. I watched TV last night. [ wtt ] 2. Steve touched my shoulder with his hand to get my attention. [ ttt ]

Final -ed is pronounced /d/ if a verb ends in the letters d or t. instructed, rested, attended

1. The baby wanted to play with the toy

[wntd ]
1. The story ended mysteriously. [endd]
P ractice -e d ending in this web page www.5minuteenglish.com/apr8htm

IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PAST A lot of common verbs are irregular. This means that the past simple forms are different- they dont have the usual ed ending. We make questions and negatives in the same way as for regular verbs.
There is a list of irregular verbs on the last page of this document.

Practice past tense with the irregualr verbs visit www.5minuteenglish.com/jan21.htm

(+) Affirmative Statements Subject + past form of the verb + Complement.


1. I finished my project last night. 2. He arrived from the airport at 8:00.

(-) Negative Statements


Subject + did + not (didnt )+ Verb- base form + Complement.

I didnt finish my project last night.


He didnt arrive on time.

3. Edward went to Brazil for about three years. Edward didnt go to Brazil. 4. My boyfriend bought me a fantastic birthday My boyfriend didnt buy me flowers. present. 5. They took the children to the beach. 6. The students did their homework appropriately. They didnt take the children to the concert. The students didnt make any mistake.

YES/NO QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Question: Did + 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Subject + Verb base form + Complement + ?

Did you finish the project yesterday night? Did he arrive at 8:00? Did Edward go to Brazil for three years? Did your boyfriend buy you a fantastic birthday present? Did they take the children to the beach? Did the students do the homework appropriately? Negative No, we didnt. We finished it two minutes ago. No, he didnt. He arrived at 9:30. No, he didnt. He went to Alabama for three years. No, he didnt. He bought me a pair of socks. No, they didnt. They took the children to a vacation camp. No, they didnt. They forgot the instructions.

Answers: Affirmative 1. Yes, we did. 2. Yes, he did. 3. Yes, he did. 4. Yes, he did. 5. Yes, they did. 6. Yes, they did.

The negative answer must be completed with the correct information.

WH-QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WITH REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS To form Wh- questions use the appropriate wh-word plus did ,and the verb in base form. Review the uses of the wh-words in unit 3. Here you have a guide to build information questions with past tense.
Wh- word + did + Subject + ( rest of question)+?

1. Where did you go last vacation? I went to the beach last vacation 2. Who did you see there ? I saw a famous TV star 3. When did you come back? I came back two days ago

WRITING Parts of a Paragraph A paragraph is a group of sentences about one main idea. A good paragraph has different parts. When you use a title for your paragraph, choose a few key words that focus on your main ideas. Begin your paragraph with a topic sentence that tells the main idea. Then support your idea with sentences that give more information: details, facts, reasons and examples. These are called detail sentences Finally, write a concluding sentence that shares your main idea in different words.

Example: 1 Title 2 topic sentence 3 detail sentence 4 concluding sentence

Pen Pals By Vidonia Ferreira.

Writing to pen pals is an excellent way to get to know interesting new people and learn more about the world. When you communicate by e-mail or by letter with someone from a different city or country, you can find out what your new pal does every day at school and after school for fun. You can learn about your pen pal's family and friends and how they live. You can find out the kinds of food they eat, the clothes they wear, the chores they do, and the things they do in their free time. You can even learn interesting facts about your pen pal's town, cultural traditions, and country. For example, from my pen pal Alicia, I learned about two holidays in Mexico-Cinco de Mayo and Las Posadas. And from my pen pal Helmut, I learned about a German game I also learned how to make delicious cookies with cinnamon 3 called sardinen. 3 called zimtstern from Helmut`s mother! As you can see, having pen pals is not only educational but also a lot of fun. 2

3 3 3 3

S ource: Backpack Workbook N-6

Using the previous steps, you will write a paragraph that includes a title, a clear topic sentence, detail sentences that support the main idea, and a concluding sentence. To carry out the writing activity you can use a diamond shape to help you organize your paragraph. The top of the diamond represents your main point. The middle represents the details and information you give. The bottom of the diamond represent your concluding sentence that restates the main point.

Topic sentence describes the main idea

detail sentence supports the main idea detail sentence supports the main idea detail sentence supports the main idea detail sentence supports the main idea

concluding sentence restates the main idea

WRITING PROCESS
STEPS: 1. PRE-WRITING 1.1. Choosing a Topic Plan what to write Choose the topic (purpose, audience)

1.2. Explore your Topic Think about the topic Brainstorm

1.3 Organizing Organize ideas into categories (introduction, 1st paragraph, 2nd paragraph, conclusion)

2. DRAFTING First draft Think of the beginning and ending of the paragraph

Free-writing Write as much as you can (keep the purpose in mind) Topic sentence (main idea) supporting sentences (detail sentences) closing sentences (concluding paragraph)

3. REVISING Proofread (eliminate mistakes, check spelling, grammar:sentence structure, correct verb forms, subject, verb agreement, punctuation) Reread Did I make a clear point? Do I have specific details/facts? Do I have well organize according to the outline? Check sense, logical order, something missing, Check sense Peer editing (2nd draft) 4. PUBLISHING Make the information available by handing out your written work.

The following words can help you to connect the ideas in the paragraphs. CONJUNCTIONS AND CONNECTING WORDS Conjunctions Conjunctions join two parts of a sentence and help to show the connection between the two parts of the sentence. Note the use of commas before some conjunction.

Conjunction and but because so when before, after

Function tells you more makes a contrast answers why? the

Example
We got home and went right to bed They are rich, but they aren't happy.

question We went home because we were


tired. We went home early, so we missed the end of the concert.

tells you the result

answers the questions We went home when it started to rain. when or at what time? answers the question What happened first? tells you something is surprising makes a condition
We went home before the concert ended. We went home after the singer sang his first song. We went home although /though we did not really want to. We will go home if we are tired

although/ though if Connecting words

Word only even like than also / too / as well

Function

Example

says something is smaller He sleeps only three hours every night. or less than usual says something is Everyone was on time for the meeting, even Pat, who's usually late surprising or unusual. makes a comparison
She looks like her dad.

Used after a comparative Ann is older than Chris. / She works harder than he does. adjective or adverb says something is in He works in the store, and she does also/too/as well. addition

PUNCTUATION

The symbols or marks used to organize writing into clauses, phrases and sentences to make the meaning clear. e.g.

Symbol Word (common term in brackets) full stop . comma , question mark ? exclamation mark ! colon : semi-colon ; hyphen (dash) ampersand & virgule (forward slash) / reversed virgule (backward slash) \ at @ hash # pound symbol euro symbol dollar symbol $ apostrophe ' tilde ~ asterisk *

`
" () [] {} <>

acute accent grave accent quotation mark left / right parentheses left / right square bracket left / right brace left / right angle bracket

IRREGULAR VERBS Base form Past form 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

REGULAR VERBS Base form Answer Arrive Ask Call Carry Clean Cook Dance Enjoy Exercise Fill Finish Help Invite Laugh Join Like Listen Learn Live Look Love Miss Move Open Play Practice Promise Start Stay Study Talk Try Visit Wait Want Wash Watch Work Past form Answered Arrived Asked Called Carried Cleaned Cooked Danced Enjoyed Exercised Filled Finished Helped Invited Laughed Joined Liked Listened Learned Lived Looked Loved Missed Moved Opened Played Practiced Promised Started Stayed Studied Talked Tried Visited Waited Wanted Washed Watched Worked

1 Am / is / are Was, were 2 Begin Began 3 Bring Brought 4 Buy Bought 5 Catch Caught 6 Come Came 7 Cut Cut 8 Do Did 9 Draw Drew 10 Drink Drank 11 Eat Ate 12 Get Got 13 Give Gave 14 Go Went 15 Grow Grew 16 Have Had 17 Hear Heard 18 Hold Held 19 Hurt Hurt 20 Know Knew 21 Leave Left 22 Lose Lost 23 Make Made 24 Meet Met 25 Put Put 26 Read Read 27 Ride Rode 28 See Saw 29 Send Sent 30 Sing Sang 31 Sit Sat 32 Sleep Slept 33 Speak Spoke 34 Swim Swam 35 Take Took 36 Tell Told 37 Think Thought 38 Throw Threw 39 Understand Understood 40 Wear Wore 41 Win Won 42 Write Wrote